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Showing 1 - 19 of 19 Journals sorted alphabetically
Customer Needs and Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gesunde Pflanzen     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
International Journal of Consumer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Consumer Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Consumer Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences :Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marketing Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Major Gifts Report The     Hybrid Journal  
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Rose Sheet     Full-text available via subscription  
Similar Journals
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European Food Research and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.737
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1438-2377 - ISSN (Online) 1438-2385
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Distinguishing lacto-fermented and fresh carrot slice images using the
           Multilayer Perceptron neural network and other machine learning algorithms
           from the groups of Functions, Meta, Trees, Lazy, Bayes and Rules

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of spontaneous lacto-fermentation of carrot slices on flesh structure using different machine learning approaches. The textures computed from digital images of lacto-fermented and fresh carrot slices were compared using neural networks and other algorithms from different groups. In the case of Multilayer Perceptron, accuracies for training, testing and validation were considered. For some of the networks, lacto-fermented and fresh samples were completely distinguished. The accuracies for training, testing and validation were equal to 100%. For models built using other algorithms (LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), Multi Class Classifier, LMT (Logistic Model Tree), KStar, Naive Bayes, PART), the following metrics were used for the evaluation of model effectiveness: accuracies, time taken to build model, Kappa statistic, mean absolute error, root mean squared error, PRC (Precision-Recall) Area, ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) Area, MCC (Matthews Correlation Coefficient), F-Measure, Recall, Precision, FP (False Positive) Rate and TP (True Positive) Rate. The most satisfactory results were obtained for the LDA. The lacto-fermented and fresh carrot slices were distinguished with an average accuracy of 99%, low values of errors (mean absolute error: 0.0117, root mean squared error: 0.1014) and FP Rate (0.010). The weighted averages of other metrics were greater than or equal to 0.98 (Kappa statistic: 0.98, PRC Area: 0.987, ROC Area: 0.991, MCC: 0.980, F-Measure: 0.990, Recall: 0.990, Precision: 0.990, TP Rate: 0.990). The obtained results demonstrated the usefulness of different machine learning approaches to the evaluation of the effect of fermentation on changes in the carrot flesh structure.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Screening of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota for degradation of boar
           taint aroma compounds

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      Abstract: Abstract Wood-degrading fungi and enzyme preparations derived thereof were identified to degrade boar taint compounds. Fungal strains (n = 27) were analytically and sensorially screened for skatole (SK) and androstenone (AEON) degradation in head space (HS) vials and agar plates, respectively. Eight strains were able to reduce > 80% of AEON and > 80% of SK intensities. Three enzyme fractions (extracellular, intracellular, and mycelial) obtained from submerged cultures of Cerrena zonata, Irpex lacteus, Marasmius cohortalis (MCO), and Trametes hirsuta were used for SK and AEON bioconversion. Several enzyme fractions were able to reduce 90–100% of SK/AEON concentrations in the reaction mixtures based on the volatile analysis. MCO extracellular enzyme fractions (EEF) and mycelial enzyme fractions (MEF) were able to completely abolish both compounds and were therefore used for a sensory 2-alternative forced choice discrimination test in parallel to quantitative analysis. HS-SPME–GC–MS results demonstrated that active EEF and active MEF reduced > 98% SK and AEON intensities individually and > 92% in the SK/AEON mixture. Discrimination tests with trained panelists revealed that samples were perceived significantly less intense regarding SK, AEON, and SK/AEON than the control samples with d’ values (a discrimination value) of 1.19, 0.74, and 0.72 for active EEF and 2.12, 0.88, and 2.12 for active MEF respectively, which were well in line with the analytical results. This indicates that both fractions (EEF and MEF) were effective in the boar taint reduction in aqueous solutions. The study revealed that Basidiomycota or enzymes derived thereof may become interesting tools to remove boar taint compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Thermo-mechanical processing of fibre-rich blackcurrant pomace to modify
           techno-functional properties

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      Abstract: Abstract Exploring the use of seedless blackcurrant pomace, a fibre-rich by-product of juice pressing, in foods is favourable due to its nutritional profile but also for economic and sustainability aspects. Current applications are limited to products in which rapid fibre swelling, high water solubility or low sedimentation is not essential. In this study, functional properties of seedless blackcurrant pomace were modified by thermo-mechanical treatments using extrusion cooking or micronization in a planetary ball mill. A full factorial design showed that low pomace moisture (11 g/100 g) had the highest impact on swelling capacity (+ 20.6%) and water solubility index (+ 23.2%), whereas variation in extrusion temperature exhibited only minor effects. After milling for 4 h, the median particle size was reduced by 98% to 4 µm and the specific surface area increased from 0.1 to 2.5 m2/mL. Swelling capacity was highest after this time with 7.6 mL/g pomace and, although the amount of extractable sugars was reduced, water solubility increased to 7.6 g/100 g. In contrast to extruded samples, the red colour of the pomace was intensified after milling. Both treatments appear as promising to extend the applicability of fruit by-products in foods, as micronized pomace may counteract sedimentation in liquids, whereas increased swelling capacity after extrusion may have stabilizing effects on yoghurt-like systems.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Differentiation of juice of mandarin-like hybrids based on physicochemical
           characteristics, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, samples of mandarin-like hybrids (Clemenvilla, Nadorcott and Ortanique) from two harvesting seasons (2017−2018 and 2018−2019) were analyzed, to evaluate its differences in physicochemical characteristics and nutritional properties and establish the parameters that allow classify these citrus cultivars. Results showed that Clemenvilla juice had the highest concentration of total phenolic and ascorbic acid and are strongly correlated to its higher antioxidant capacity. Flavonoids were higher in Nadorcott samples. Large differences of total carotenoids were observed in juice analyzed. Varieties and harvesting seasons significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds content and antioxidant capacity of samples. The pH, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, DPPH and TEAC values were determined as predictor parameters to classify the groups according to the varieties, concluding that Nadorcott samples were clearly different. The data presented in this research will currently provide information about the physicochemical evaluation of mandarin-like hybrid varieties and their potential as source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Determination of aroma compounds in grape mash under conditions of tasting
           by on-line near-infrared spectroscopy

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      Abstract: Abstract The production of high-quality wines requires the use of high-quality grapes. Tasting represents a widespread method for the determination of grape maturity and quality aspects such as the corresponding aroma profile. However, sensory analysis always remains subjective and it is not possible to judge only aroma compounds because the overall impression is also influenced by main components (e.g. sugars and acids). In contrast, the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy allows the simultaneous determination of various compounds without being affected by personal preferences. In this study, grape mash samples were examined under comparable conditions to those in the mouth. Differences between grape mashes with varying phytosanitary status of the corresponding grapes as well as for different grape varieties were detected. The quantified concentrations of the detected aroma compounds were used to develop calibration models for determination by NIR spectroscopy. Using global calibration models, the single aroma compounds could be determined by NIR spectroscopy with accuracies reaching from R2C = 0.365 to R2C = 0.976. Separate calibration models for cultivation region and grape colour improved the prediction accuracy. Instrumental analysis cannot totally replace sensory evaluation, however, NIR spectroscopy has the potential to be used as an objective, additional method for the evaluation of grape aroma quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Comparative assessment of quality parameters and bioactive compounds of
           white and black garlic

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      Abstract: Abstract Quality parameters and bioactive compounds of two white garlic samples from two regions of Turkey (Gaziantep and Kastamonu) and five commercial black garlic samples were investigated. It was found that the black garlic samples had greater total sugar content. Black garlic samples had also higher total amino acids (112.9–684.8 mg/100 g) as compared to the white garlics (250.8–411.9 mg/100 g). Arginine and glutamic acid were the dominant amino acids in both product types. Cysteine, the key amino acid responsible for the principal health-promoting properties of garlics, was found to be much higher in black garlic samples (112.0 µg/100 g in BG4) when compared to white garlic samples (21.4 µg/100 g in KWG). Black garlic samples had 4–7 times more antioxidant potential as compared to the white garlics. It was also found that the predominant sugar compound was sucrose (702.3–884.7 mg/100 g) in white garlic and fructose (3277.0–27,232.2 mg/100 g) in black garlic samples and the total amount of sugar was 4- to 17-fold higher in black garlic compared to the white garlic. 13 and 14 phenolic compounds were quantified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in the white and black garlic samples, respectively. Black garlic was found to have a higher phenolic content (26.3–37.9 mg/100 g) than white garlic (18.0–23.3 mg/100 g) while caffeic acid was the dominant phenolic in both product types. In general, black garlic could be recommended to consumers due to its higher potential of bioactive compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Variations in fatty acid composition of Mediterranean anchovies (Engraulis
           encrasicolus) after different cooking methods

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      Abstract: Abstract Fish is healthy part of the human diet due to the high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). Different cooking techniques have a significant influence on the fatty acid profile of bluefish. In this work, the fatty acid profile in Mediterranean anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) was evaluated in cooked and uncooked fish. From the fatty acid profile, the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices were calculated. The results showed that roasting and frying had significant differences on fatty acid composition. Marinating showed only little effect on fatty acid content, while steaming and boiling are the cooking methods that most preserved the overall fatty acid content. The frying method, in specific, appears not to be recommended to preserve the omega-3 fatty acid composition of anchovies: EPA and DHA of 85% and 66% of the initial value, respectively. Verily, considering the lipid content of samples, the amount of EPA + DHA it is not subject to a substantial decrease. Frying has certainly increased the content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, as result of the cooking oil used (olive). Therefore, in all cooking methods, the omega-3 fatty acids were well preserved. Consequently, the nutritional quality related to fatty acids profile of fried anchovies is equivalent than that of anchovies prepared following other cooking methods. The olive oil, however, leads in good quality fried product in relation to the values of the atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Characterization of the key aroma compounds in three world-famous black
           teas

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      Abstract: Abstract The volatile compounds of three world-famous black teas (Darjeeling, DJL, Keemun, KM, and Ceylon, CL) were extracted by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and analyzed by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results indicated that 78, 76, and 69 volatile compounds were detected in the three tea infusions. And 9 sulfur compounds in black teas were identified by gas chromatography–flame photometric detection (GC–FPD). In addition, a total of 42 aroma compounds were perceived and 38 compounds were identified as important aroma compounds due to their high odor activity values (OAVs), such as 3-methylbutanal (OAV: 24–82), linalool (OAV: 24–64), geraniol (OAV: 2–97), β-ionone (OAV: 54–122), and cis-jasmone (OAV: 2–119). According to the results of aroma recombination and omission experiments, 2-methylbutanal, linalool, methyl salicylate and β-cyclocitral were confirmed to be the key aroma compounds in Darjeeling black tea, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, β-myrcene, and methyl salicylate were the key aroma compounds in Keemun, while β-ionone, linalool, 2-methylbutanal, and salicylaldehyde were the key aroma compounds in Ceylon black tea.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The influence of heat and mechanical stress on encapsulation efficiency
           and droplet size of w/o/w multiple emulsions

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      Abstract: Abstract Heat treatment and mechanical movement are the most common stressors that affect food material processing. A w/o/w emulsion is a promising system for delivering sensitive materials in food products and in reducing dietary fat content, but for wider uses, it is necessary to evaluate emulsion behaviour during food manufacturing. In the present study, we simulate heat (5 to 85 °C) and mechanical processes (shear rate 0.1 to 1000 s−1) using rotational rheometry and describe changes in glucose encapsulation efficiency and droplet size of model w/o/w 20% emulsions prepared with 2.5 wt % PGPR (polyglycerol polyricinoleate) as lipophilic emulsifier in canola oil (oil phase) and distilled water or 10 wt % skim milk as an internal water phase stabilized or not by 3 types of carrageenan (0.5 wt %) and milk proteins as emulsifier. The comparison of w/o/w emulsions prepared with three specific types of carrageenan provides the important information on the suitability of the combination of specific carrageenan and internal water phase. It was found that model manufacturing did not influence the result encapsulation efficiency of all w/o/w emulsions significantly. We demonstrated that model w/o/w 20% emulsions were sufficiently stable for manufacturing, especially when skim milk was used with 0.5 wt % kappa carrageenan as the internal water phase. These samples subjected to manufacturing showed an encapsulation efficiency 53.97 ± 0.00% even after 4 weeks storage at 4 °C and droplet size (D[4, 3]) 39.04 ± 1.56 µm. So prepared w/o/w emulsions provided the demanded stability and could be part of functional food.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Effect of applying elicitors to Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell at
           different ripening times on the complex carbohydrates of the resulting
           wines

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      Abstract: Abstract The application of elicitors, such as methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and benzothiadiazole (BTH), has provided satisfactory results by increasing the polyphenol content of grapevines. However, in the case of some treated grape varieties, it is difficult to extract their phenolic compounds into the wine, because of variations in the components of the skin cell wall (SCW) and the potential effects on some complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides and oligosaccharides). This paper attempts to ascertain whether the individual application of MeJ and BTH at two points of the maturation cycle (veraison and mid-ripening) of Monastrell grapes, influences the content of complex carbohydrates released into wines. The application of elicitors in the vineyard did not affect the concentration of mannoproteins (MPs) (from yeast) in the resulting wine. However, MeJ, BTH and MeJ + BTH treatments (at veraison or mid-ripening) reduced the concentrations of ramnogalacturonans type II (RG-II) and total polysaccharides (TPs) (both from grapes) released into the wine. Results suggest that a reduction of pectic derivatives and/or a reinforcement of SCW occurred as a result of the action of these elicitors, decreasing the release of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides into the wine during maceration. However, sensory analysis found that tasters were not able to distinguish between wines from control and treated grapes. Further years of study are needed, in this and other varieties and locations, to determine the extent of possible cell wall modifications associated with elicitor treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Identification of the hazelnut cultivar in raw kernels and in
           semi-processed and processed products

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      Abstract: Abstract The request for an efficient traceability system able to identify hazelnut cultivars along the entire processing chain is becoming a critical point for avoiding fraudulent practices and safeguarding the interests of growers, food processors and consumers. In this study, DNA was extracted from different hazelnut matrices, including plant material (leaf, kernel and kernel episperm), and processed foods (paste, grain, flour and different types of snacks containing hazelnuts). The efficiency of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers was tested to identify the hazelnut cultivar ‘Tonda Gentile’ in all the supply chain. The analysis at 10 SSR loci was able to verify the presence/absence of the alleles of a declared cultivar contained in these matrices. The SSR analysis of DNA from raw episperm offers the possibility of identifying the mother cultivar and is suggested as an effective way to discover frauds since DNA analysis can be performed on individual kernels. For food matrices containing hazelnuts, the presence of the mother cultivar’s DNA can be assessed based on the identification of its alleles in the sample, although the presence of multiple alleles from the pollenizers makes the interpretation of results more difficult.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Free and conjugated phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activities
           of honeybee products of polish origin

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the profile of free and conjugated phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of bee bread, bee pollen, honey and beeswax samples from the same beehive was analyzed. The contents of free phenolic compounds and those released from the esters and glycosides bounds were analyzed by HPLC–TOF–MS/MS method. In the obtained extracts, the total of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents was measured using spectrophotometric methods, while antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS in vitro assays. Therefore, in the tested honeybee products 23 phenolic compounds were identified, constituting of 14 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. Among the phenolic acids, ferulic (bee bread), protocatechuic (bee pollen) and m-coumaric acids (honey and beeswax) were predominant. In case of flavonoids, the major compounds were vitexin in bee bread, orientin in bee pollen, and apigenin in honey. The highest TP and TF contents were detected in the bee pollen, and was 4.11 mg GAE/g and 0.41 mg Q/g, respectively. Moreover, these compounds were mostly present in bound form. Honeybee product extracts had high scavenging ability against radicals, and their antioxidant activity differed significantly across samples (p < 0.05). Overall, this study demonstrates that selected honeybee products are an abundant source of the bioactive compounds with the characteristic profile of phenolic compound as well as antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Analytical evaluation of carotenoids, apocarotenoids, capsaicinoids, and
           phenolics to assess the effect of a protective treatment on chili peppers
           dried at different temperatures

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      Abstract: Abstract The most common preservation process for chili peppers is drying, which inevitably causes oxidative degradation of thermolabile molecules. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential protective effect exerted by an active ingredient based on grape seed oil, on pepper fruits. Grapeseed oil is rich in antioxidant compounds and was applied to pepper’s surface in form of a sol–gel product, before fruit thermal treatment. In this work, chili peppers samples were preventively treated with an active solution, and controls (untreated peppers), were submitted to a drying process performed at two different temperatures: 45 and 65 °C. Analysis of capsaicinoids, carotenoids, apocarotenoids, and phenolic content was performed to evaluate possible differences between the sets of samples. Oxidative stability of oil enriched with chili pepper powder aliquots was also measured to evaluate the antioxidant power of the samples. Obtained data showed that treated samples retained a higher amount of capsaicinoids and carotenoids. Oxidative stability of pepper powder was also higher for treated samples than for controls. Furthermore, the thermal treatment performed at 45 °C caused milder modifications than the 65 °C treatment. The applied pre-drying treatment can be proposed to prevent bioactive compounds loss and to enhance product stability and shelf-life.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Chemical comparison of Astragali Radix by UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS with different
           growing patterns

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      Abstract: Abstract Astragali Radix (AR) is commonly used as the herbal drug in the traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, cultivated AR (AR-C) and wild/semi-wild AR (AR-W) were compared by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS). With the help of multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) and the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS), chemical investigation of the AR led to the tentative annotation of 196 compounds, including 76 isoflavones and flavones, 50 isoflavanes and pterostanes, 44 saponins, and 26 other compounds. Further analysis showed that 55 compounds (17 isoflavones and flavones, 25 isoflavanes and pterostanes, 8 saponins, and 5 others) showed higher contents in the AR-W. There were 13 compounds showed FC values higher than 3, and further ROC analysis showed 1 of them could be used as the marker for discrimination of AR-C and AR-W. We also found that isoflavanes, pterostanes, and isoflavones were more likely to be substituted by malonyl groups than the flavones and astragalosides, and the sum of malonyl-substituted flavonoid glycosides and corresponding precursor were also higher in AR-W than AR-C. However, the correlation between the chemical difference and the pharmacological difference is needed in the future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • A survey on computational taste predictors

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      Abstract: Abstract Taste is a sensory modality crucial for nutrition and survival, since it allows the discrimination between healthy foods and toxic substances thanks to five tastes, i.e., sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour, associated with distinct nutritional or physiological needs. Today, taste prediction plays a key role in several fields, e.g., medical, industrial, or pharmaceutical, but the complexity of the taste perception process, its multidisciplinary nature, and the high number of potentially relevant players and features at the basis of the taste sensation make taste prediction a very complex task. In this context, the emerging capabilities of machine learning have provided fruitful insights in this field of research, allowing to consider and integrate a very large number of variables and identifying hidden correlations underlying the perception of a particular taste. This review aims at summarizing the latest advances in taste prediction, analyzing available food-related databases and taste prediction tools developed in recent years.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Valorization of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) by-product: polyphenolic
           characterization and potential food application

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      Abstract: Abstract A new process for enzyme-assisted extraction of polyphenols from de-aromatized rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals, primary by-product of essential oil production, was developed. Among the 19 major compounds analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, 5 hydrolyzable tannins and 14 flavonols were detected in the rose petal extract. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of galloylquinic acid and ellagitannins has not been described before in Rosa damascena. The enzymatic processing led to 1.5–1.8 times higher contents of individual flavonols as compared to the control (without enzymatic treatment) sample. The co-pigmentation efficiency of enzymatically extracted rose petal polyphenols was evaluated regarding color stabilization in strawberry processing. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition (0.5%, w/w) of rose petal extract enhances the color intensity of strawberry spread, thus meeting the growing consumer demand for substitution of synthetic food additives by natural alternatives.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Heterologous expression and characterization of Anaeromyces robustus
           xylanase and its use in bread making

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      Abstract: Abstract The rumen of ruminants contains a variety of fungi with function of producing xylanases to break down plant cell walls. In this study, a new glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) xylanase gene ArXyn10c20 from anaerobic rumen microorganism Anaeromyces robustus was successfully synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, with a protein molecular weight of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for ArXyn10c20 were 5.5 and 40 ℃. ArXyn10c20 was stable in the pH range 5.0–9.0, retaining over 75.0% relative activity for 1 h. The activity of recombinant xylanase was significantly enhanced by 1 mM Cu2+. The products of ArXyn10c20 hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose by thin-layer chromatography analysis. In food applications, ArXyn10c20 can significantly improve the quality of dough and bread. With the addition of 420 U of ArXyn10c20 per 100 g flour, the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the bread decreased by 42.2%, 45.3%, and 55.4%, respectively, and the reducing sugar increased by 18.7%. The new discovered xylanase ArXyn10c20 has great potential in food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Influence of convection and microwave roasting on roasting degree,
           microstructure and aroma profile of cocoa beans

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      Abstract: Abstract Microwave roasting of cocoa beans was studied as an alternative toward convection roasting. The impact of each roasting treatment was assessed based on roasting degree indicators (moisture content, color, tetramethylpyrazine/trimethylpyrazine ratio), microstructural changes as visualized by cryogenic scanning electronic microscopy (cryo-SEM) and the aroma development as determined by head space-solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC–MS). Time (10–50 min) and temperature (110–160 °C) were varied for convection roasting, whereas time (7–17 min) and power input (180–450 W) were altered for microwave roasting of cocoa beans. Results revealed that by selecting appropriate microwave-roasting parameters (time and power input), cocoa beans with a more pronounced brown color and lower tetramethylpyrazine/trimethylpyrazine ratio could be obtained, while having a similar moisture content compared to convection roasting. At microstructural level, differences in number and size of macropores were not directly related to the roasting technique, but were principally determined by the applied temperature or power input. Based on the aroma profile, microwave roasting resulted in a more intense cocoa aroma, compared to convection roasting. Therefore, microwave roasting could be a promising alternative technique to roast cocoa beans in a shorter processing time while creating a more intense aroma.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Influence of selected parameters on DSC characterization of high-protein
           materials: the case of raw and roasted peanuts

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper discusses the signal quality of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements performed on high-protein materials, and takes grinded peanuts as an example. Four different samples were used, including three grades of roasted peanuts along with their raw counterpart. DSC signals with complex shapes were obtained, containing not only the contributions due to the denaturation of the arachin and non-arachin (conarachin) protein fractions, but also the endothermic responses for the fatty and/or starchy fractions. This study investigates how the recorded DSC signals are affected by selected experimental factors, such as the type of DSC pans used, the choice of the reference, and the sample preparation. The results show that high-volume stainless-steel (HVSS) pans should be preferred to standard aluminum pans, for they allow adding a large amount of water to the sample, which appears to improve the resolution of the measurements and makes it possible to measure the denaturation temperature (ϴd) of peanut proteins. The use of HVSS pans does not require to choose a specific reference. The measurements can be performed as soon as the water is added to the sample. Waiting for water homogenization has no influence on the quality of the DSC signals in the case of peanut samples. Finally, it may be interesting to add NaCl to the hydrated samples, for it increases the intensity of the enthalpy measurement for arachin’s denaturation. With this set of parameters, DSC measurements can be successfully used to evaluate the integrity of peanut proteins before and after heat treatments, such as dry-roasting.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Usage of color measurements obtained by modified Seliwanoff test to
           determine hydroxymethylfurfural

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, colorimetric parameters of the red color emerging as a result of the novel modified Seliwanoff test were used for the quantitative determination of HMF in some syrup samples. Three different evaluation method (color space-based method, absorbance method and artificial neural network (ANN)) were used to determine HMF amounts of samples. While “da*” and absorbance value of red color were used to obtain a linear relationship with HMF concentration, L*, a*, b*, dL*, da*, db*, dE* were used as input variables in artificial neural network evaluation. Also HPLC method was carried out as a reference method. In addition to the absorbance value, ‘da*’ value also showed a linear relationship with the HMF concentration (da* = 0.0425 + 0.0612 × HMF concentration, ppm); correlation coefficient: 0.9980; p value of lack of fit: 0.579). When HMF amounts obtained by each method were compared with that by reference method HPLC, a strong correlation was found (color space-based method-HPLC, r: 0.996; absorbance method-HPLC, r: 0.997 and ANN-HPLC; r: 0.997). Among the methods, ANN evaluation method was more prominent in detecting low HMF concentrations (< 4 mg HMF/kg sample).
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
       
 
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