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CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)

Showing 1 - 19 of 19 Journals sorted alphabetically
Customer Needs and Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gesunde Pflanzen     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
International Journal of Consumer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Consumer Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Consumer Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences :Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marketing Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Major Gifts Report The     Hybrid Journal  
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Rose Sheet     Full-text available via subscription  
Similar Journals
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Journal of Marketing Behavior
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2326-568X - ISSN (Online) 2326-5698
Published by Now Publishers Inc Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Preference for the Underdog when Sampling Commercial Products: Assessment
           of the Effect and Limiting Conditions

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      Abstract: AbstractIn two conceptual replication studies participants sampled two ostensibly different products, representing either an "underdog" or "favorite" brands, while in reality sampling identical items. In Study 1, participants tasting chocolate preferred the "underdog" brand but gender effects were also observed. In Study 2, participants preferred an "underdog" paint only when they did not receive bogus feedback on their ability before making the choice. These findings illuminate the boundary conditions under which underdog brands are preferred and suggest a taxonomy of factors to consider in future research.Suggested CitationNadav Goldschmied, Caiti McDaniel and Veronica Ramirez (2017), "Preference for the Underdog when Sampling Commercial Products: Assessment of the Effect and Limiting Conditions", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 51-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000041
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Antecedents and Consequences of Children's Brand Community Participation:
           A Replication and Extension Study

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      Abstract: AbstractBrand communities are a popular tool brands use to develop relationships with customers. Bagozzi and Dholakia's (2006) seminal article provides one model to explain participation in these brand communities. This research replicates and extends this model to the demographic of children. Results show that most relationships reflected those observed in the original study, however, some distinct differences were found. Findings highlight that adult-orientated brand community models may not be suitable to explain all child-members' attitudes and behaviors in brand communities.Suggested CitationMargurite Hook, Stacey Baxter and Alicia Kulczynski (2017), "Antecedents and Consequences of Children's Brand Community Participation: A Replication and Extension Study", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 63-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000042
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Tell Me How You Treat Your Employees

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      Abstract: AbstractIn communicating their good deeds to customers, most companies focus on company-external discretionary Corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities such as philanthropy. In contrast with this prevailing managerial practice, the present paper proposes that customers react less positively to communications on how companies allocate profits to company-external good causes and more positively to communications on how companies make their profits in the first place, i.e., how they treat their employees. A preliminary study among customers of an international retailer (N = 11,587) suggests that customers perceive the domain of employee CSR to be significantly more important than other CSR domains. Based on a qualitative study using focus-group interviews, the authors propose that employee support CSR messages elicit the highest intrinsic attributions among customers and enhance customer identification with the company. A large-scale field experiment of customers of the focal retailer (N = 5,586) delivers evidence that supports these propositions for four real CSR communication messages from different CSR domains. More specifically, the study results suggest that an employee support message elicits the most positive customer responses, not only by increasing attributions of the company's intrinsic motives for engaging in CSR but also by increasing customer identification with the company.Suggested CitationLaura Marie Schons, Sabrina Scheidler and Jos Bartels (2017), "Tell Me How You Treat Your Employees", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 1-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000043
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Regret of Action or Regret of Inaction: Examining Divergent Regret
           Patterns for Experiential and Material Gifts

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      Abstract: AbstractWe replicate Rosenzweig and Gilovich's (2012) study on "differential regrets for experiential and material purchases," according to which people experience regret of action (buyer's remorse) for material purchases and regret of inaction (missed opportunity) for experiential purchases. Our results suggest that the original findings can be extended to gift giving context. Furthermore, we demonstrate that perceived subjective economic value of gifts explains the different forms of regrets (regret of inaction vs. regret of action) elicited by experiential and material gifts.Suggested CitationAminreza Shiri and Ahmet Ekici (2017), "Regret of Action or Regret of Inaction: Examining Divergent Regret Patterns for Experiential and Material Gifts", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 73-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000044
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Using Default Options to Increase Healthy Add-Ons to a Meal

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      Abstract: AbstractDefault options have a powerful effect on a broad range of decisions. We examine the degree to which default options can increase the consumption of healthy items as an add-on to a regular entrée. We run an experiment in a college cafeteria in which we vary whether hamburgers are served automatically with tomatoes or whether the tomatoes have to be added by the customer. We find that including tomatoes by default more than doubles the fraction of customers eating a tomato with their hamburger (74% vs. 30%). We also use observational data from six restaurants that serve hamburgers and find that including a tomato by default significantly increases consumption of tomatoes. These results demonstrate that default options can work to improve healthy eating decisions.Suggested CitationAnna O'Bryan, Joseph Price and Jason Riis (2017), "Using Default Options to Increase Healthy Add-Ons to a Meal", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 39-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000045
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The Licensing Effect Revisited: How Virtuous Behavior Heightens the
           Pleasure Derived from Subsequent Hedonic Consumption

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      Abstract: AbstractEngagement in virtuous behavior can subsequently increase preference for conflicting, hedonic consumption options (Fishbach and Dhar 2005; Khan and Dhar 2006). We conceptually replicate the effect of licensing in a real-behavior context, while extending this work by introducing a novel effect of licensing on the intensity of subsequent hedonic experience. Our study reveals that, following virtuous consumption behavior (i.e., eating a functional food), the experienced intensity of subsequent hedonic consumption (i.e., pleasurable taste) may be heightened. Furthermore, this effect of licensing upon hedonic consumption is contingent upon the pre-existing visceral state (i.e., hunger) of the consumer. Specifically, as visceral hunger increases, the enhancing effect of licensing upon hedonic experience is mitigated.Suggested CitationAaron M. Garvey and Lisa E. Bolton (2017), "The Licensing Effect Revisited: How Virtuous Behavior Heightens the Pleasure Derived from Subsequent Hedonic Consumption", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 291-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000029
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Convexity Neglect in Consumer Decision Making

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      Abstract: AbstractPurchase decisions occasionally involve ratio calculations (e.g., calories per serving). When faced with decisions that involve information presented in such formats, consumers often ignore the convexity inherent in these calculations and rely on the more intuitive arithmetic mean rather than the correct harmonic mean in averaging ratios. In three studies, we show that convexity neglect systematically affects consumers' judgment and leads to suboptimal choices. In addition, we provide evidence that convexity neglect is a result of individuals' use of a wrong mental model substituting the arithmetic mean for the harmonic mean, rather than their lack of computational skills or motivation, to conduct the necessary calculations.Suggested CitationMichael Tsiros and Haipeng (Allan) Chen (2017), "Convexity Neglect in Consumer Decision Making", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 253-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000037
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Gender Effects on Loyalty: A Replication in an Emerging Market

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      Abstract: AbstractThis paper replicates the gender-effect on object of loyalty found by Melnyk et al. (2009), suggesting that females are more loyal towards individuals and males are more loyal to groups and organizations. Results from Benin (West Africa) support this but find that the results mostly pertain to informal sectors of the economy. Survey results from male respondents also confirm earlier theory, but results show that females are equally loyal to organizations and individuals, suggesting that Beninese women don't distinguish between an organization and its employees.Suggested CitationFalylath Babah Daouda, Paul T. M. Ingenbleek and Hans C. M. Van Trijp (2017), "Gender Effects on Loyalty: A Replication in an Emerging Market", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 299-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000038
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The IKEA Effect. A Conceptual Replication

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      Abstract: AbstractWe replicate and extend Norton et al.'s (2012) and Mochon et al.'s (2012) studies on the IKEA effect, according to which consumers show a higher willingness-to-pay when they assemble products themselves. Our results support the robustness of the original effect and indicate that psychological ownership acts as a psychological mechanism that underlies the IKEA effect.Suggested CitationMarko Sarstedt, Doreen Neubert and Kati Barth (2017), "The IKEA Effect. A Conceptual Replication", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 307-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000039
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Price Endings that Matter: A Conceptual Replication of Implicit Egotism
           Effects in Pricing

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      Abstract: AbstractWe conceptually replicate Coulter and Grewal's (2014) study on the birthday-number effect in pricing, according to which customers exhibit a preference for prices resembling their own birthday. We find that this effect extends beyond the self to other objects customers have associations with (e.g., sports teams) and that this effect is bi-directional — e.g., increasing or decreasing purchase intentions — depending on the valence of the customer's association.Suggested CitationMarkus Husemann-Kopetzky and Sören Köcher (2017), "Price Endings that Matter: A Conceptual Replication of Implicit Egotism Effects in Pricing", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 313-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000040
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Sales Presentation Anxiety, Cortisol Levels, Self-Reports, and Gene-Gene
           Interactions

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      Abstract: AbstractWe study sales presentation anxiety (SPA) using multilevel analysis of a quasi-natural field experiment: the final exam of an executive training course where sales professionals (n = 128) compete in teams to present an account plan to a critical audience who then ask questions and evaluate their performance. The best team is announced the winner of the competition. Compared to pre-presentation levels, overall cortisol (C) levels first increased after the question period and subsequently decreased 20 and 50 minutes after, indicating a relatively fast recovery rate. Negative significant correlations were found between self-reported experience of stress and C levels in periods 3 and 4 which might indicate affect labeling, a coping technique that focuses on the underlying physiological response. Using two candidate genes, DRD2 and DRD4, we investigated associations between C levels in the four periods. Carriers of DRD2 Taq A1+ and DRD4 7R+ alleles had lower C levels compared to non-carriers, both right after the question period and 20 minutes later which might indicate flexibility in using coping strategies involving distraction from the task. The gained insights reveal that SPA entails multilevel processes that affect one another reciprocally.Suggested CitationWillem Verbeke, Richard P. Bagozzi, Wouter van den Berg, Loek Worm and Frank D. Belschak (2016), "Sales Presentation Anxiety, Cortisol Levels, Self-Reports, and Gene-Gene Interactions", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 225-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000036
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Selecting Predictive Metrics for Marketing Dashboards - An Analytical
           Approach

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      Abstract: AbstractManagers often track metrics they believe can potentially predict performance outcomes and help them improve decisions. However, it is unclear how to best select such predictive metrics out of a wide range of candidate metrics. This study develops and demonstrates an analytical approach to metric selection. First, delete metrics that show too little or too much variation in univariate tests. Second, reveal leading performance indicators with pairwise tests. Third, quantify how much each leading indicator explains performance with econometric models, preferably from different research traditions. Fourth, select the best set of key leading performance indicators by assessing their predictive validity in a holdout sample. Finally, use the selected set of metrics and estimation model to perform what-if analyses for proposed courses of action. The authors demonstrate this analytical approach for the leading national brand and the composite of store-brands in a fast-moving consumer good category.Suggested CitationKoen Pauwels and Amit Joshi (2016), "Selecting Predictive Metrics for Marketing Dashboards - An Analytical Approach", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 195-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000035
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Marketers' Intuitions about the Sales Effectiveness of Advertisements

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      Abstract: AbstractAdvertisements vary enormously in their sales effectiveness, so choosing the more effective advertisements to air is an important marketing task. Such decisions are often made intuitively. This study assesses the intuitive predictions made by a global sample of marketers regarding which television ads are more or less sales effective. The findings show that marketers’ predictions were correct no more often than random chance. Multivariate analysis suggests that those with category experience and those in marketing or consumer insights roles make slightly better predictions. Aside from who makes better predictions, further research is needed on how to improve advertising decisions, including use of evidence-based decision support systems and team decision-making.Suggested CitationNicole Hartnett, Rachel Kennedy, Byron Sharp and Luke Greenacre (2016), "Marketers' Intuitions about the Sales Effectiveness of Advertisements", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 177-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000034
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • The Marketing Manager as an Intuitive Statistician

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      Abstract: AbstractBusiness decisions are increasingly based on data and statistical analyses. Managerial intuition plays an important role at various stages of the analytics process. It is thus important to understand how managers intuitively think about data and statistics. This article reviews a wide range of empirical results from almost a century of research on intuitive statistics. The results support four key insights: (1) Variance is not intuitive; (2) Perfect correlation is the intuitive reference point; (3) People conflate correlation with slope; and (4) Nonlinear functions and interaction effects are not intuitive. These insights have implications for the development, implementation, and evaluation of statistical models in marketing and beyond. I provide several such examples and offer suggestions for future research.Suggested CitationBart de Langhe (2016), "The Marketing Manager as an Intuitive Statistician", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 101-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000032
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Kind and Wicked Experience in Marketing Management

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      Abstract: AbstractOur society venerates experience. It feels right to trust our own experience and that of others. But experience also has adverse effects. Much learning is tacit in nature and, because people are typically unaware and uncritical of the conditions in which this takes place, experience can lead to false beliefs and subsequent actions can reinforce biases. We adopt a two-settings framework in which experience is conceptualized as being acquired in one setting (learning) and then applied in another (target). When information in the two-settings match, the learning environment is kind. Wicked environments are characterized by mismatches and we specify several different types. We note that many inferential errors occur because people implicitly assume informational matches between the two settings. In addition to its explanatory value, the two-settings framework has normative implications. We illustrate these by considering some of the decision-making challenges faced by marketing managers.Suggested CitationRobin M. Hogarth and Emre Soyer (2016), "Kind and Wicked Experience in Marketing Management", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 81-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000031
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Managerial Decision Making in Marketing: Introduction to the Special Issue

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationBerend Wierenga (2016), "Managerial Decision Making in Marketing: Introduction to the Special Issue", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 77-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000030
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Managerial Decision-Making in Marketing: Matching the Demand and Supply
           Side of Creativity

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      Abstract: AbstractThis article provides an overview of creativity research in marketing and offers a novel framework for matching the demand and supply side of creativity. The demand side comprises the marketing problem domain and the specifics of the task, which will influence how much emphasis management places on the originality versus usefulness of the generated ideas or solutions. The supply side includes individual and organizational resources that management can put to use for boosting creativity. Based on contemporary creative cognition research, this article distinguishes the following pathways to creativity: fluency, persistence, and flexibility. Examples of common marketing decisions, including their need for creativity, the emphasis placed on originality versus usefulness, and the pathway(s) that may lead to the desired level of creativity, are used to illustrate how the presented framework for matching the demand and supply side of creativity can guide managerial decision-making. This article concludes with a discussion of creativity research priorities in marketing.Suggested CitationNiek Althuizen, Berend Wierenga and Bo Chen (2016), "Managerial Decision-Making in Marketing: Matching the Demand and Supply Side of Creativity", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 2–3, pp 129-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000033
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • "Is This Food Healthy'": The Contextual Influence of Prior Foods on
           Healthiness Perceptions

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      Abstract: AbstractPerceptions of a food's healthiness are a critical input to consumers' decision making about what to eat, and therefore understanding factors that influence these healthiness perceptions are important. We examine the role of prior exposure to other foods in impacting healthiness perceptions. We propose and find that the healthiness of foods previously encountered can influence healthiness perceptions and consumption intentions for ambiguously healthy snacks, and importantly, this influence differs based on one's self-control. Consumers who encounter a healthy food first tend to assimilate healthiness judgments and indicate increased consumption for subsequent, ambiguous foods when their personal self-control is low. This influence of prior healthy foods has implications for consumers and public policymakers since foods are often presented alongside other healthy foods (e.g., in the same grocery store aisle or on the same restaurant menu). Our work establishes the relationship between previously encountered foods and trait self-control as a driver of subsequent healthiness perceptions, and we expect that future work can further explore these patterns.Suggested CitationScott W. Davis, Kelly L. Haws and Joseph P. Redden (2016), ""Is This Food Healthy'": The Contextual Influence of Prior Foods on Healthiness Perceptions", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000025
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic,
           Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

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      Abstract: AbstractUsing actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension comprising the purchase of organic and fair-trade products. Using latent class analysis, we find four segments that differ in their purchase behavior of the studied labels. While one segment comprising the majority of consumers mainly purchases conventional products, a somewhat smaller segment purchases products with health labels. A third segment containing approximately 10% of consumers purchases products with both health and sustainable labels; these consumers tend to consider the future consequences of their behavior and have higher biospheric values. The fourth segment is also small, purchases sustainable labels, has strong biospheric values, and largely considers the future consequences of current behavior; it is also less price conscious.Suggested CitationPeter C. Verhoef and Jenny van Doorn (2016), "Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 19-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000026
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • When Does Humorous Marketing Hurt Brands'

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      Abstract: AbstractHumorous advertisements attract attention and entertain consumers. Nonetheless, attempting humor is risky because consumers may be offended by failed humor attempts. We propose another reason that attempting humor is risky: humorous advertisements can hurt brand attitudes by eliciting negative feelings — even when consumers find the ad funny. Three experiments and one correlational study demonstrate that humorous marketing is more likely to hurt the advertised brand when it (1) features a highly threatening humorous ad rather than mildly threatening ad, (2) makes fun of a subset of the population rather than people in general, and (3) motivates avoidance rather than approach. We conclude by offering five guiding questions for marketers who want to use humor to attract attention and entertain consumers without inadvertently hurting brand attitudes.Suggested CitationCaleb Warren and A. Peter McGraw (2016), "When Does Humorous Marketing Hurt Brands'", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 39-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000027
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Openness and Innovation Performance Revisited

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      Abstract: AbstractFirms increasingly source new ideas and knowledge from alliances with external partners. Laursen and Salter's (2006) seminal research shows that while such openness in innovation benefits firms, too much openness can have a negative effect on innovation performance. We provide a conceptual replication of this finding, relying on a unique longitudinal panel data set comprising three different innovation performance metrics: product and service innovations, process innovations, and marketing innovations.Suggested CitationErik A. Mooi, Kenneth H. Wathne and Ujwal Kayande (2016), "Openness and Innovation Performance Revisited", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 69-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000028
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Partitioning the Choice Task Makes Starbucks Coffee Taste Better.
           Corrigendum

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationMichael Dorn, Claude Messner and Michaela Wänke (2016), "Partitioning the Choice Task Makes Starbucks Coffee Taste Better. Corrigendum", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 363-384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000023-corr
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Fifty Shades of Manipulation

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      Abstract: AbstractBoth marketers and politicians are often accused of “manipulation”,but the term is far from self-defining. A statement or action can besaid to be manipulative if it does not sufficiently engage or appeal topeople’s capacity for reflective and deliberative choice. One problemwith manipulation, thus understood, is that it fails to respect people’sautonomy and is an affront to their dignity. Another problem is thatif they are products of manipulation, people’s choices might fail topromote their own welfare, and might instead promote the welfare ofthe manipulator. To that extent, the central objection to manipulationis rooted in a version of John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle: Peopleknow what is in their best interests and should have a (manipulationfree)opportunity to make that decision. On welfarist grounds, thenorm against manipulation can be seen as a kind of heuristic, one thatgenerally works well, but that can also lead to serious errors, at leastwhen the manipulator is both informed and genuinely interested inthe welfare of the chooser. For politics and law, a pervasive puzzleis why manipulation is rarely policed. The simplest answer is thatmanipulation has so many shades, and in a social order that values-freemarkets and consumer sovereignty, it is exceptionally difficult to regulatemanipulation as such. Those who sell products are often engaged in atleast arguable forms of manipulation. But as the manipulator’s motivesbecome more self-interested or venal, and as efforts to bypass people’sdeliberative capacities become more successful, the ethical objectionsto manipulation may be very forceful, and the argument for a legalresponse is fortified. The analysis of manipulation bears on emergingfree speech issues raised by compelled disclosure, especially in the contextof graphic health warnings. It can also help orient the regulation offinancial products, where manipulation of consumer choices is an evidentbut rarely explicit concern.Suggested CitationCass R. Sunstein (2016), "Fifty Shades of Manipulation", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 213-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000014
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Manipulated as a Way of Life

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      Abstract: AbstractBeing manipulated is an integral part of the human condition. It isunavoidable and happening all around us; yet, it has not penetratedour naive view of the autonomy in our decisions. We resist governmentinvolvement even in domains where interventions can do a lot of good.Yet, a misplaced respect for people’s autonomy among well-intentionedplayers leaves us at the mercy of those less well-intentioned. Beyond regulatingegregious and harmful manipulations, we need to be more willingto manipulate for the good. A skepticism about people’s deliberative,autonomous, dignified decision-making is actually the more respectfuland considerate approach. It takes people’s limitations seriously, andproposes ways to help them do the best they can. Aided by standardchecks and balances, we need to devise ways for manipulation to proceedin constructive ways.Suggested CitationEldar Shafir (2016), "Manipulated as a Way of Life", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 245-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000015
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Manipulating System 2 and the Illusion of Caveat Emptor

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      Abstract: AbstractIn response to Sunstein’s “Fifty Shades of Manipulation (2015), I reinforceand expand on two of Sunstein’s points. First, I argue thatalmost any action by a marketeer, such as the order or context in whichinformation is given, affects the salience of choice options or consumptionbenefits. These effects on salience in turn impact choice in subtle andoften subconscious ways. Thus, if manipulation is defined in terms oflack of reflection and deliberation (Sunstein 2015), one might argue that“you can’t not manipulate.” Second, I argue that some non-deliberativemanipulative processes may increase consumer welfare by increasingthe pleasure of consuming the product. Thus, I agree with Sunsteinthat some effects of manipulation that rely on more automatic, lessdeliberativeprocesses are not all that harmful. In addition to these twopoints, my main argument is that defining manipulation mostly in termsof less-deliberative processes misses out on several ways to influenceconsumers that are particularly harmful and that most consumers wouldconsider manipulative. I argue that, for example in financial decisionmaking, consumers often try to think hard and carefully, but are overwhelmedby the amount and complexity of information. This leads, forexample, to confusopolies, and should undermine our confidence in theprinciple of caveat emptor. Consumers try to perform due diligence butstill cannot avoid making suboptimal decisions.Suggested CitationStijn M. J. van Osselaer (2016), "Manipulating System 2 and the Illusion of Caveat Emptor", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 261-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000016
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • The Law, Economics, and Psychology of Manipulation

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      Abstract: AbstractThis comment on Cass Sunstein’s paper, ”Fifty Shades of Manipulation",argues that “manipulation” — “controlling or playing upon someone byartful, unfair, or insidious means especially to one’s own advantage” —has always been regarded as wrongful, an indirect form of fraud, bycommon law courts and government regulators. The manipulator perceivesthat the victim brings incorrect assumptions to a transactionand does not correct them, or else anticipates and takes advantage ofpeople’s propensity to make incorrect inferences. Thus, the manipulatoris able to effect a transfer from the victim to himself without resorting toexplicit fraudulent statements or coercion. Within the various standardconstraints like problems of proof, the government should and does tryto restrict manipulation for standard efficiency and welfarist reasons.The law does not provide a remedy to fraud when it causes no harm, andsimilarly it should not for manipulation. Analogously, I argue that whengovernment uses manipulation to advance the public good, it should beevaluated on welfarist grounds.Suggested CitationEric A. Posner (2016), "The Law, Economics, and Psychology of Manipulation", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 267-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000017
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • A Welfarist Approach to Manipulation

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      Abstract: AbstractI argue for two modifications in Sunstein’s definition of manipulation, designedto make the definition more compatible with a welfarist/utilitarianview of what manipulation is and why we should care about it. I thinkwe need a clearer distinction between good and bad manipulation, and adistinction between good and bad reflection. Good reflection is activelyopen-minded and serves to achieve the decision maker’s goals. Manipulationis designed to prevent such reflection, or prevent the choice thatwould be made if such reflection occurred, and this is why it is bad, evenif it is consistent with reflection that merely bolsters a favored option.Suggested CitationJonathan Baron (2016), "A Welfarist Approach to Manipulation", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 283-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000018
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Manipulating Consumers is not Marketing: A Commentary on Cass R.
           Sunstein’s “Fifty Shades of Manipulation”

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      Abstract: AbstractSunstein’s essay is particularly welcome because marketing as a scienceand as a field of management practice is facing an increased level ofcriticism at the same time as the general population becomes aware of therole it plays in business, beyond the traditional sales and distributionfunctions. We feel it is critical for the field of marketing to clarifyits position with regard to some practices. However, Sunstein arguesthat manipulation is rather generalized in society (and in particularin marketing), although with many “shades.” Instead, we take theposition that it is imperative to define more clearly the concept ofmanipulation so that it cannot be confounded with the more neutralconcept of social influence. Therefore, we propose to use a differentdefinition that eliminates a number of shades of manipulation. We alsopropose to amend somewhat the definition of the marketing concept andof marketing management to prevent practices that society would notconsider appropriate.Suggested CitationHubert Gatignon and Emmanuelle Le Nagard (2016), "Manipulating Consumers is not Marketing: A Commentary on Cass R. Sunstein’s “Fifty Shades of Manipulation”", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 293-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000019
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • I’d Like to Teach the World to Think: Commercial Advertising and
           Manipulation

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      Abstract: AbstractThis commentary on Cass Sunstein’s “Fifty Shades of Manipulation”queries Sunstein’s account of manipulation as influence that does notsufficiently engage or appeal to someone’s capacity for reflection anddeliberation. Manipulation sometimes undermines the target’s reflectionand deliberation; but it is also possible to manipulate someone by providing“bad inputs” to a properly nondeliberative response. This kind ofmanipulation does not consist of a failure to sufficiently engage reflectionand deliberation. While good practical reasoning and good practicalengagement with the world requires some reflection and deliberation, itdoes not require reflection and deliberation at every turn. Sometimeswe just like something without reflecting on its virtues. For example, wejust like a beverage because it tastes good and feels good, and it comesin a pretty bottle. Building on Sunstein’s discussion of commercialadvertising, I consider some ways in which commercial advertising mightmanipulate these “likings,” as well as other ways in which commercialadvertising and marketing potentially manipulate consumers, focusingin particular of food advertising and marketing.Suggested CitationAnne Barnhill (2016), "I’d Like to Teach the World to Think: Commercial Advertising and Manipulation", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 307-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000020
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • > 50 Shades

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      Abstract: AbstractSunstein (2015) provides a thought-provoking perspective on manipulation,a topic that should be of central interest to the field of marketing.In trying to circumscribe the question, however, we feel his pain. Theproblem lends itself to spirited intellectual debate, but we labor toprovide actionable policy recommendations due to difficulties arisingfrom complications of the philosophical and definitional kind. We encourageothers to try, armed with the considerations that emerge fromthe present discussion.Suggested CitationJoseph W. Alba and Yanmei Zheng (2016), "> 50 Shades", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 329-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000021
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Manipulation, Welfare, and Dignity: A Reply

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      Abstract: AbstractThis essay responds to seven commentaries on my forthcoming essay,Fifty Shades of Manipulation. It offers two general points. The firstinvolves the importance of separating three questions: (1) What ismanipulation' (2) What is wrong with manipulation' (3) When mightmanipulation be justified, notwithstanding the answer to (2)' Thesecond involves the relevance of dignity. We might see dignity as acomponent of welfare, or we might see it as a wholly independent value.But we will not understand manipulation, or what is wrong with it, ifwe do not see it at all.Suggested CitationCass R. Sunstein (2016), "Manipulation, Welfare, and Dignity: A Reply", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 351-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000022
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Partitioning the Choice Task Makes Starbucks Coffee Taste Better

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      Abstract: AbstractConsumers are often less satisfied with a product chosen from a largeassortment than a limited one. Experienced choice difficulty presumablycauses this as consumers have to engage in a great number of individualcomparisons. In two studies we tested whether partitioning the choicetask so that consumers decided sequentially on each individual attributemay provide a solution. In a Starbucks coffee house, consumers whochose from the menu rated the coffee as less tasty when chosen froma large rather than a small assortment. However, when the consumerschose it by sequentially deciding about one attribute at a time, theeffect reversed. In a tailored-suit customization, consumers who chosemultiple attributes at a time were less satisfied with their suit, comparedto those who chose one attribute at a time. Sequential attribute-basedprocessing proves to be an effective strategy to reap the benefits of alarge assortment.Suggested CitationMichael Dorn, Claude Messner and Michaela Wänke (2016), "Partitioning the Choice Task Makes Starbucks Coffee Taste Better", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 363-384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000023
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • From the Editor: Manipulation and Marketing: The Elephant in the Room'

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationKlaus Wertenbroch (2016), "From the Editor: Manipulation and Marketing: The Elephant in the Room'", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 3-4, pp 209-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000024
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • What does it mean to be a Rational Decision Maker'

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      Abstract: AbstractResearch on the psychology of decision making has historically relied onthe principles of rational choice theory to provide a normative standard.For the most part, empirical research has documented deviations fromthis normative standard, with debate often centered on just how costly toindividuals these deviations are. This paper challenges several normativefeatures of the rational choice model. It suggests that “maximizing”(of utility, expected value, satisfaction) is often not the appropriatenormative goal. It suggests that the value of decision outcomes cannotbe assessed independent of the decision contexts that give rise to them(i.e., that the value of outcomes is not “path independent.”). And itsuggests that the relation between the magnitude of an outcome (or apsychological characteristic) and its value is often non-monotonic. I arguethat the honorific “rational” should be based on the substantive and notthe formal properties of decisions — that an adequate theory of rationaldecision making should consider the way in which decisions enable peopleto live good, meaningful, and satisfying lives. And understood in thisway, the hallmark of rationality is wise judgment.Suggested CitationBarry Schwartz (2015), "What does it mean to be a RationalDecision Maker'", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 113-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000007
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • In Defense of (Traditional) Normative Standards

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      Abstract: AbstractI argue that adherence to normative principles fosters substantive rationalityand that departures from these principles represent defects in thedecision maker, rather than defects in the principles.Suggested CitationShane Frederick (2015), "In Defense of (Traditional) NormativeStandards", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 167-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000008
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Meta-Rationality in Cognitive Science

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      Abstract: AbstractThe great rationality debate in cognitive science (Tetlock and Mellers2002) has largely been conducted with a narrow view of human rationalityin mind. A minority voice in the debate has been theorists who take abroader view of rationality — one that does not accept current desiresand goals is given and that takes a longer view of decisions throughout aperson’s life. Schwartz’s target article is clearly in the tradition of thoseadvocating a broader view of how we conceive rationality. It has manyaffinities with the meta-rationality that I have previously advocated fordecision science.Suggested CitationKeith E. Stanovich (2015), "Meta-Rationality in Cognitive Science", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 147-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000009
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Robust Satisficing via Regret Minimization

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      Abstract: AbstractSchwartz (2015) argues that a rational decision-maker should not alwaysstrive for maximization. In cases where it is not possible to assign probabilitiesand/or weights to the possible outcomes of choice alternatives,Schwartz argues it is better to engage in robust satisficing, ensuring agood enough outcome when things go awry. Schwartz thus argues thatrobust satisficing is normatively valid. I focused in my comment onwhether it may also be descriptively valid. I propose that in everydaydecision making, robust satisficing may occur via regret minimization.Hence, counterfactual thinking and anticipated emotions may be theproximal psychological processes for robust satisficing.Suggested CitationMarcel Zeelenberg (2015), "Robust Satisficing via RegretMinimization", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 157-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000010
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • What is Rationality'

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      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of my paper “What does It Mean to be a Rational DecisionMaker” was to suggest that the lens of rational choice theory, powerfulthough it is, is too limited to tell us what it means to be rational.Frederick, Stanovich, and Zeelenberg have written three thoughtfulcommentaries on my paper. Stanovich and Zeelenberg provide perceptiveextensions of my arguments. Frederick is critical. In this reply I tryto make clear that I am not suggesting that rational choice theory iswrong, but that it is incomplete. Frederick successfully defends thetheory against an accusation that I was not making, but in my viewfails to address the limitations of rational choice theory that I wasfocused on.Suggested CitationBarry Schwartz (2015), "What is Rationality'", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 175-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000011
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Not a Problem: A Downside of Humorous Appeals

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      Abstract: AbstractPublic service announcements (PSAs) are traditionally designed to elicitnegative emotions that spur problem-solving behavior. However, in orderto improve their reach, some social marketers are forgoing traditionalstrategy by creating PSAs that are humorous. Because of humor’spositivity and association with non-serious situations, we hypothesizedthat humorous appeals can decrease problem perception and problemsolvingbehavior. Study 1 examined problem perceptions using matchedpairs of humorous and non-humorous PSAs. Respondents judged asocial issue as less important to solve after viewing the humorous versionof the pair. Study 2 examined problem-solving behavior through apartnership with a non-profit organization seeking to improve youngadults’ sexual health knowledge. Humorous PSAs were less effectivethan a non-humorous version at spurring people to search for healthinformation. The inquiry revealed a previously unaddressed tradeoff:using humor to benefit a message’s reach creates a potential cost tosolving a personal or societal problem.Suggested CitationA. Peter McGraw, Julie L. Schiro and Philip M. Fernbach (2015), "Not a Problem: A Downside ofHumorous Appeals", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 187-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000012
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • From the Editor: Rational Choice as the Foundation of Behavioral
           Research in Marketing

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationKlaus Wertenbroch (2015), "From the Editor: Rational Choice asthe Foundation of Behavioral Researchin Marketing", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 2, pp 109-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000013
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Mission (Largely) Accomplished: What's Next for Consumer BDT-JDM
           Researchers'

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      Abstract: AbstractA main objective of Behavioral Decision Theory (BDT)research — demonstrating that economic theory often fails asa description of decision making as well as gaining insightsinto systematic influences on judgment and choice — hasbeen largely accomplished. This influential research program,published in psychology, decision making, marketing, andother fields, has had unique characteristics that combinedcriteria employed in economics and psychology. Now thatthe prominent portion of the BDT agenda has been largelycompleted, it is time to consider whether the BDT and greaterjudgment and decision making (JDM) community in marketingwill pursue a new direction or just follow the topicsof the day (e.g., current topics in social psychology, publicpolicy applications of previous JDM findings). I propose abroad research area — the interaction between the evolvinginformation environment and consumer JDM — that raisesa wide range of important questions and may fit the skillsand interests of BDT researchers. In addition to raising newJDM concepts and problems, the proposed area can lead tomajor revisions of long established frameworks of consumerbehavior and marketing. It is far from obvious, however, thatBDT researchers/marketing professors, who are accustomedto studying general purpose JDM topics and are aligned with the broader JDM and social psychology community, will bereceptive to a consumer-centric research program.Suggested CitationItamar Simonson (2015), "Mission (Largely) Accomplished: What's Next for Consumer BDT-JDM Researchers'", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 9-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000001
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Mission Creep, Mission Impossible, or Mission of Honor' Consumer
           Behavior BDT Research in an Internet Age

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      Abstract: AbstractSimonson (2015) addresses marketing scholars trained in psychologywho focus on behavioral decision theory. He encouragesthose scholars to shift some attention from traditionalBDT topics to analyze substantive issues such as how theInternet changes consumer decision making. I agree with andI expand upon his call to action. I analyze sociology of scienceforces that I expect to cause those young BDT researchers tobe resistant to wise Uncle Itamar’s generally excellent advice.Suggested CitationJohn G. Lynch (2015), "Mission Creep, Mission Impossible, orMission of Honor' Consumer Behavior BDTResearch in an Internet Age", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 37-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000002
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Which Mission' Thoughts About the Past and Future of BDT

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      Abstract: AbstractThe behavioral decision theory (BDT) research of the last fewdecades addressed a big and important question, the limitsof human rationality, but did so in an effect-focused way thatmany observers considered a serious limitation. Simonson’s(this issue) retrospective suggests that this limitation reflectsa narrowly defined mission that privileged the falsificationof economists’ rationality assumptions over an understandingof the processes underlying the observed phenomena. FutureBDT research has the opportunity to overcome this limitationby conceptualizing BDT findings, and the marketing-centricquestions Simonson poses, within the context of what else weknow about the human mind.Suggested CitationNorbert Schwarz (2015), "Which Mission' Thoughts About the Pastand Future of BDT", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 53-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000003
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The BDT Effect and Future: A Reply to John Lynch and Norbert Schwarz

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      Abstract: AbstractLynch and Schwarz offer different assessments and perspectivesregarding the ("(nearly) accomplished") mission and characteristicsof BDT research and its contribution to our field. Whereas Lynchand I are largely in agreement, Schwarz questions the value of the“mission,” refers to the challenged economics assumptions as a mere“strawman,” and is critical of the BDT focus on effects instead ofoffering a coherent process theory of decision making. In the firstsection of this reply, I argue that (a) establishing robust effectsfollowed by a study of moderators, processes, and rivals, was themost effective approach given the field’s mission and audience, and(b) no single framework or theory can account for the many differentways in which the value maximization assumption is violated anddecisions are made. Regarding the proposed next research program tostudy the interactions between the evolving information environmentand consumer judgment and choice, both Lynch and Schwarz offeralternative hypotheses. Thus, for example, they both disagree withthe suggestion that the ability to easily access more and betterinformation tends to produce better decisions. I discuss the importantissues raised by Lynch and Schwarz and the factors that moderatethe decision making impact of the information environment. As ourexchange demonstrates, this is a rich and important area that offers awide range of topics and competing predictions that can be addressedin future research.Suggested CitationItamar Simonson (2015), "The BDT Effect and Future: A Reply to JohnLynch and Norbert Schwarz", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 59-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000004
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Percentage Cost Discounts Always Beat Percentage Benefit
           Bonuses: Helping Consumers Evaluate Nominally Equivalent
           Percentage Changes

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      Abstract: AbstractMarketing offers that are framed as a “percentage change” in consumercost vs. benefit can have highly non-linear impacts in termsof actual value for consumers. Even though two offers might appearidentical, we show that consumers are better off choosing the offerframed as a percentage cost change over one framed as the oppositepercentage benefit change, regardless of whether the net result is again (e.g., 50% less cost is better than 50% more benefit) or a loss(e.g., 50% less benefit is worse than 50% more cost) and regardlessof whether costs or benefits are in the nominator or denominator ofthe standard rate (cost/benefit or benefit/cost). Three lab studiesand one field experiment show that a majority of consumers (andparticularly those with low numeracy) fail to accurately recognizethe superiority of percentage cost changes over percentage benefitchanges across various tasks and contexts. Even highly numerateconsumers are prone to error. However, the provision of salientstandard rates can reduce consumer error.Suggested CitationBhavya Mohan, Pierre Chandon and Jason Riis (2015), "Percentage Cost Discounts AlwaysBeat Percentage Benefit Bonuses:Helping Consumers EvaluateNominally Equivalent PercentageChanges", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 75-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000005
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • From the Editor: An Opportunity for More Relevance from
           Broadening Behavioral Research in Marketing

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationKlaus Wertenbroch (2015), "From the Editor: An Opportunity forMore Relevance from BroadeningBehavioral Research in Marketing", Journal of Marketing Behavior: Vol. 1: No. 1, pp 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/107.00000006
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
 
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