Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Combustion and Flame     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fire Safety Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fire Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wildland Fire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
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Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.315
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1864-1245 - ISSN (Online) 1547-7029
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Metallurgical Analysis of Failed M250 Maraging Steel Piston Rod of Tension
           Reduction Device Used in Aerospace System

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      Abstract: Abstract M250 Maraging steel is widely used in satellite launch vehicle-related systems due to its excellent combination of strength and toughness. Tension reduction device (TRD) is used in horizontal separation system to reduce the band tension gradually from 100+5 to 20+5kN just before separation. During the disassembly of TRD after structural qualification test, one maraging steel piston rod was found broken. Detailed metallurgical analysis was carried out on the failed piston rod to understand the cause of failure. Fractographic observations on the piston rod revealed intergranular and cleavage features indicative of brittle mode of failure. Corrosion pits and cracks were observed on the outer surface near the fracture edge. The chemical composition analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS) at the edges of the fracture surface revealed corrosion products. Presence of chlorine in the corrosion products was also noticed. Based on the detailed metallurgical analysis, the failure of the piston rod was attributed to stress corrosion cracking.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Experimental and Numerical Study of HSLA Steel Fatigue and Pitting
           Corrosion Behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the fatigue-corrosion behavior of the high strength low alloy steel known as HSLA steel in marine environment. Based on a case study of steel removed from of hull ship after about 1300 h of service in seawater, microstructural fatigue-corrosion indicators are detected such as micro-cracks, micro-pits, and beach marks. In addition, the mechanical properties decreased dramatically. Pitting corrosion acts as the main phenomena leading to the metal deterioration. This is confirmed through electromechanical calculation and potentiodynamic curves. Since, the environment is harsh and out of our control, a numerical study of the effect of pitting and the coupling between fatigue and pitting corrosion is held. The results show that the geometry of corrosion defect is responsible for the propagation of the pit and can lead to the crack formation. von Mises stress propagation is controlled too by the corrosion potential distribution.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Fatigue Failures, With Special Reference to Fracture Characteristics

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      Abstract: Abstract Fundamentals of fatigue failure are outlined. Addressed are fatigue crack characteristics, basic crack types, unidirectional bending, alternate bending, rotary bending, torsion, direct stress, and combined stress. Stress cycle, endurance limits, under and overstressing, stress concentration, and surface condition are discussed. Sections are devoted to fatigue crack assessment, corrosion relation to fatigue failure, and the micro-mechanisms of fatigue failure. Materials considered include steels. Photographs of service failures are used to illustrate features alluded to in the text.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Rapid Pitting Failure of Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipework

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      Abstract: Abstract Several hundred leaks were reported in the type 304 stainless steel pipelines, vessels, and tanks of a chemical plant at a tropical location within a few weeks after startup. Investigation of the failure involved a site visit, metallographic examination and analysis of the material, analysis of hydrotest waters, and microbiological examination of slime that had formed in certain pipework sections. It was determined that the failure resulted from microbially induced corrosion promoted by the use of poor-quality hydrotest water and uncontrolled hydrotesting practice. Use of appropriate hydrotesting procedures was recommended to prevent similar failures.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • Failure of the Bond Between a Cobalt Alloy Prosthetic Casting and a
           Sintered Porous Coating

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      Abstract: Abstract A femoral knee implant was returned to the casting vendor for analysis after exhibiting poor bond strength between the cast substrate and a sintered porous coating. Both the coating and the substrate were manufactured from a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Metallographic analysis indicated that a decarburized layer existed on all surfaces of the casting, which prevented bonding during the sintering thermal cycle. Bead-to-bead bonding within the coating appeared sufficient, and no decarburized layer was present on the bead surfaces. It was concluded that the decarburization did not occur during the sintering thermal cycle. It was recommended that the prosthetic manufacturer investigate atmosphere controls for all thermal cycles prior to coating.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Mode III Fatigue Crack Growth Following the Curvature of the Heat-Affected
           Zone of a Type 321 Stainless Steel Spot Weld

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      Abstract: Abstract Several AISI type 321 stainless steel welded oil tank assemblies used on helicopter engine systems began to leak in service. One failure, a fracture on the aft side of a spot weld, was submitted for analysis. SEM fractography examination revealed fatigue failure. The failure initiated at an overload fracture near the root of the weld and was followed by mode III fatigue crack propagation (tearing) around the periphery of the weld. The initial overload fracture was caused by a high external load, which produced a concentrated stress and fracture at the weld root. The subsequent fatigue fracture was caused by engine vibrations during operation of the aircraft. Fracture characteristics indicated that the fatigue would not have occurred if the initial damage had not taken place.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Biologically Induced Corrosion and Consequent Fracture of a Pump Shaft
           Coupling

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      Abstract: Abstract During a routine start-up exercise of a standby service water pump, a threaded coupling that joined sections of a 41.5 ft (12.7 m) long pump shaft experienced fracture. The pump was taken out of service and examined to determine the cause of fracture. It was apparent early in the examination that the fracture involved hydrogen stress cracking. However, the nature of the corrosive attack suggested an interaction between the threaded coupling and biological organisms living in the freshwater environment of the pump shaft. The organisms had colonized on the coupling, changing the local environment and creating conditions favorable to hydrogen stress cracking. This paper describes the analysis of the fracture of the coupling and provides an example of how biologically induced corrosion can result in unexpected fracture of a relatively basic machine part.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Corrosion Failure of the Rocky Point Viaduct

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      Abstract: Abstract The Rocky Point Viaduct, located near Port Orford, OR, was replaced after only 40 years of service. A beam from the original viaduct was studied in detail to determine the mechanisms contributing to severe corrosion damage to the structure. Results are presented from the delamination survey, potential and corrosion mapping, concrete chemistry, and concrete physical properties. The major cause of corrosion damage appears to have been the presence of both pre-existing and environmentally-delivered chlorides in the concrete.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Exfoliation Corrosion of HE.15 Aluminium Alloy

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      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum alloy BS.1476-HE.15 by virtue of its high strength and low density finds application in the form of bars or sections for cranes, bridges, and other such structures where a reduction in dead weight load and inertia stresses is advantageous. Bars and sections in H.15 alloy are mostly produced by extrusion. Some material processed this way has been prone to exfoliation corrosion. Extended aging for 24 h at a temperature of 185 °C (365 °F) virtually suppresses the tendency for exfoliation corrosion to develop. Also, the use of a sprayed coating, either of aluminum or Al-1Zn alloy, was effective in halting and preventing this form of attack. While alarming, the appearance of exfoliation corrosion provides a valuable warning to the engineer or inspector before a severe weakening of the particular sections has occurred.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Cracking of a Pressure Vessel due to Penetration by Solder

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      Abstract: Abstract A portable propane container with a name-plate soldered onto it exploded in service. When the vessel was inspected afterwards, it was found to have developed a crack in the top end plate. A portion of the end plate cut out to include the midlength and one termination of the crack was examined microscopically. This revealed that the crack was associated with intergranular penetration by molten metal. The microstructure in general was indicative of a good-quality mild steel. It was evident from that solder that was responsible for the penetration and that fused brass from the hand wheel had not played any part. Tensile stress was present at the time of the failure sufficiently high to enable solder penetration to take place. The use of soft solder as a medium for attaching name-plates directly on to stressed steel parts is not recommended. It would be preferable to use a welded-on patch plate or to employ one of the high-strength, non-metallic adhesives.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Processing-Induced Fatigue Fracture of a Helicopter Tail Rotor Blade

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      Abstract: Abstract A helicopter tail rotor blade spar failed in fatigue, allowing the outer section of the blade to separate in flight. The 7075-T7351 aluminum alloy blade had fiberglass pockets. The blade spar was a hollow “D” shape, and corrosion pits were present on the inner surface of the hollow spar A single corrosion pit, 0.38 mm (0.015 in.) deep, led to a fatigue failure of the spar The failure initiated on the pylon side of the blade. Dimensional analysis of the spar near the failure revealed measurements within engineering drawing tolerances. Though corrosion pitting was present, there was an absence of significant amounts of corrosion product and all of the pits were filled with corrosion-preventative primer. This indicated that the pitting occurred during spar manufacture, prior to the application of the primer The pitting resulted from multiple nickel plating and defective plating removal by acid etching. Post-plating baking operations subsequently reduced the fatigue strength of the spar.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Failure of Aluminum Alloy Spacers by Galvanic Attack

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      Abstract: Abstract Immediately after installation, leakage was observed at the mounting surface of several rebuilt hydraulic actuators that had been in storage for up to three years. At each joint, there was an aluminum alloy spacer and a vellum gasket. The mounting flanges of the steel actuators had been nickel plated. During assembly of the actuators a lubricant containing molybdenum disulfide had been applied to the gaskets as a sealant. The vellum gasket was found to be electrically conductive, and analysis (visual inspection, 500× unetched micrographs, galvanic action testing, and x-ray diffraction) supported the conclusions that leakage was the result of galvanic corrosion of the aluminum alloy spacers while in storage. The molybdenum disulfide was apparently suspended in a volatile water-containing vehicle that acted as an electrolyte between the aluminum alloy spacer and the nickel-plated steel actuator housing. Initially, the vellum gasket acted as an insulator, but the water-containing lubricant gradually impregnated the vellum gasket, establishing a galvanic couple. Recommendations included discontinuing use of molybdenum disulfide lubricant as a gasket sealer, and assembling the actuators using dry vellum gaskets.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Localized Corrosion of Inclusions in a Type 303 Stainless Steel
           Vending-Machine Valve

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      Abstract: Abstract After about two years in service, a 303 stainless steel valve in contact with a carbonated soft drink in a vending machine occasionally dispensed a discolored drink with a sulfide odor. According to the laboratory at the bottling plant, the soft drink in question was strongly acidic, containing citric and phosphoric acids and having a pH of 2.4 to 2.5. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, immersion testing in the soft drink, and 100× unetched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by the size and distribution of sulfide stringers in the alloy used in the valve. Manganese sulfide stringers in the valve were exposed at end-grain surfaces in contact with the beverage. The stringers, which were anodic to the surrounding metal, were subject to corrosion, producing a hydrogen sulfide concentration in the immediately adjacent liquid. Recommendations included changing the valve material to type 304 stainless steel.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Effects of Prior Processing on the Service Life of an 18% Nickel Maraging
           Steel Helicopter Landing Mount

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      Abstract: Abstract The U.S. Army Research Laboratory performed a failure investigation on a broken main landing gear mount from an AH-64 Apache attack helicopter. A component had failed in flight, and initially prevented the helicopter from safely landing. In order to avoid a catastrophe, the pilot had to perform a low hover maneuver to the maintenance facility, where ground crews assembled concrete blocks at the appropriate height to allow the aircraft to safely touch down. The failed part was fabricated from maraging 300 grade steel (2,068 MPa [300 ksi] ultimate tensile strength), and was subjected to visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion to occur. The failure was hydrogen-assisted and was attributed to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and/or corrosion fatigue (CF). Contributing to the failure was the fact that the material grain size was approximately double the required size, most likely caused from higher than nominal temperatures during thermal treatment. These large grains offered less resistance to fatigue and SCC. In addition, evidence of titanium-carbo-nitrides was detected at the grain boundaries of this material that was prohibited according to the governing specification. This phase is formed at higher thermal treatment temperatures (consistent with the large grains) and tends to embrittle the alloy. It is possible that this phase may have contributed to the intergranular attack. Recommendations were offered with respect to the use of a dry film lubricant over the cadmium coated region, and the possibility of choosing an alternative material with a lower notch sensitivity. In addition, the temperature at which this alloy is treated must be monitored to prevent coarse grain growth. As a result of this investigation and in an effort to eliminate future failures, ARL assisted in developing a cadmium brush plating procedure, and qualified two Army maintenance facilities for field repair of these components.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Fatigue Fracture of Titanium Alloy Knee Prostheses

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      Abstract: Abstract Total knee prostheses were retrieved from patients after radiographs revealed fracture of the Ti–6Al–4V ELI metal backing of the polyethylene tibial component. The components were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Porous coated and uncoated tibial trays were found to have failed by fatigue. Implants with porous coatings showed significant loss of the bead coating and subsequent migration of the beads to the articulating surface between the polyethylene tibial component and the femoral component, resulting in significant third-body wear and degradation of the polyethylene. The sintered porous coating exhibited multiple regions where fatigue fracture of the neck region occurred, as well as indications that the sintering process did not fully incorporate the beads onto the substrate. Better process control during sintering and use of subsequent heat treatments to ensure a bimodal microstructure were recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Bolt Failure Caused by Penetration of Molten Copper

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      Abstract: Abstract A steel bolt had been used to join the copper connecting strips between the poles of a 10-pole, series-connected, rotating field rotor of a synchronous motor. The exciting current was 155 amps. Failure of the bolt resulted in severe damage to the stator windings by the loosened ends of the strips. The bolt had fractured near the head, a location which probably coincided with the junction of the strips. A portion of the fracture surface was covered with copper that had been deposited in the molten state, while some was also present along the shank of the bolt, having apparently run in between the bolt and the hole in the strip. The bolt end adjacent to the fracture had been subjected to intense local heating. The extent of the grain-growth indicating that the temperature had been in the region of 1200 deg C (2192 deg F). When the temperature reached the melting-point of copper, 1083 deg C (1981 deg F), molten metal came into contact with the bolt, into which it penetrated along the grain boundaries, culminating in rupture.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Fatigue Fracture of Aluminum Wires in High-Voltage Electrical Cables in
           Alaska

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      Abstract: Abstract Several wires in aluminum conductor cables fractured within 5–8 years of, service in Alaskan tundra. The cables were comprised of 19-wire strands; the wires were aluminum alloy 6201-T81. Visual and metallographic examinations of the cold-upset pressure weld joints in the wires established that the fractures were caused by fatigue loading attributable to wind/thermal factors at the joints. The grain flow at the joints was transverse to the wire axis, rendering the notches of the joints sensitive to fatigue loading. An additional contributory factor was intergranular corrosion, which assisted fatigue crack initiation/propagation. The failure was attributed to the departure of conductor quality from the requirements of ASTM B 398 and B 399, which specify that “no joints shall be made during final drawing or in the finished wire” and that the joints should not be closer than 15 m (50 ft). The failed cable did not meet either criterion. It was recommended that the replacement cable be inspected for strict compliance to ASTM requirements.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Training

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      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Failure Analysis of Alloy Boron Steel Bolts in Steel Structure Assembly

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work investigates the failure of three alloy boron steel A325M-8S type-1 grade bolts in steel structure racks. The bolts failure occurred almost 3 years after erection in three different locations within the period of approximately 4 months. The steel structure is subjected to mostly static loads with insignificant vibrations. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the failed bolts conform to the standard reference values. The bolts microstructure consists of tempered martensite, which is typically observed for heat-treated bolts. Visual inspection revealed the formation of a necking zone near the fracture area, with almost 30% area reduction at the fracture point. The fracture surface consisted of radial ridges forming a 45° angle with the bolt axis. SEM examination revealed quasi-cleavage fracture mode which is often observed for high strength steels. Similar fracture surface morphology was observed after the tensile test of a new unused bolt from the same grade. It is accordingly suggested that the fracture happened due to tensile overloading during installation. The usage of lubricants during installation can facilitate such tensile overloading especially with insufficient quality measures to ensure the application of proper tightening torques. It is recommended to replace the failed bolts and ensure proper monitoring of the tightening torques during the installation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Classical Failure Analysis Case Studies to Close-Out 2022

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      PubDate: 2022-11-27
       
 
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