Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)     - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals) FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
 Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically Combustion and Flame       (Followers: 93) Disaster Recovery Journal       (Followers: 4) Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention       (Followers: 18) Fire and Materials       (Followers: 5) Fire Safety Journal       (Followers: 15) Fire Science Reviews       (Followers: 11) Fire Technology       (Followers: 8) FirePhysChem International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Emergency Services       (Followers: 22) International Journal of Forensic Engineering       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Wildland Fire       (Followers: 9) Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention       (Followers: 4) Journal of Structural Fire Engineering       (Followers: 4) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention       (Followers: 4) Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy       (Followers: 9)
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 Fire TechnologyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.658 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 8      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1572-8099 - ISSN (Online) 0015-2684 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2467 journals]
• A Closed-Form Solution of the Smoke Filling Time and Descent History in
Enclosure Growing Fires with Floor Leaks

Abstract: Abstract For the smoke filling time or smoke descent history in enclosure fires with floor leaks, the existing close-formed solutions are all based on the hypothesis that the expansion term is negligible. However, when the smoke interface is near to the floor level, the expansion term is more important than the plume entrainment term and the existing solutions give unrealistic predictions. For those scenarios where the expansion term cannot be neglected, there is not yet a closed-form solution for the smoke filling time or the smoke descent history. Based on asymptotic analysis, a closed-form solution is derived in this work when the smoke fills the room fully, namely, when the smoke interface reaches the floor level. In addition, a closed-form solution is derived for the smoke filling history, which describes when the smoke interface reaches any given height. In the two solutions, both the expansion term and the plume entrainment term are considered. By comparing with the results from the numerical solution for a wide range of scenarios, it is shown that the relative error of the suggested solution for smoke descent history is in the range from − 2.8% to 1.7%. To be conservative, we can reduce 1.7% from the prediction value of the suggested solution, which causes no more than 4.5% underestimation of the smoke filling time for any given height. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the calculation procedure and practical usefulness of the proposed method.
PubDate: 2023-02-03

• Flame Spread Transition to Regression of Thick Fuel in Oxygen-Limited
Concurrent Flow

Abstract: Abstract The flame behaviors in a narrow gap with low-velocity airflow are significantly different from buoyancy-controlled flames in open areas. The conditions experienced by microgravity flame may be reproduced in a narrow gap environment where the buoyancy is limited. This work studies the behaviors of near-limit concurrent flame spread over a thick solid fuel in an oxygen-limited narrow channel with 3 mm and 5 mm heights. As the concurrent airflow and oxygen concentration decrease below a critical value, the flame spread transitions to the fuel-regression mode, burning like a candle flame. Further reducing the oxygen, the flame tip tilts towards the inflow like the flame in the opposed flow. A flammability map is found to define three regimes (1) concurrent flame spread, (2) fuel regression, and (3) extinction. The fuel-regression regime is characterized by a fuel regression angle of over 30° and a global flame equivalence ratio of over 1.9. The existence of the fuel-regression mode extends the low-flow flammability limit in the concurrent flow. The ‘round-trip’ flame phenomenon is observed where the 1st-stage near-limit opposed flame spread transitions to the 2nd-stage fuel regression in the concurrent flow. This work provides new insights into the concurrent flame-spread and extinction behavior under oxygen-limited and microgravity environments.
PubDate: 2023-01-27

• Predicting and Assessing Wildfire Evacuation Decision-Making Using Machine
Learning: Findings from the 2019 Kincade Fire

Abstract: Abstract To develop effective wildfire evacuation plans, it is crucial to study evacuation decision-making and identify the factors affecting individuals’ choices. Statistic models (e.g., logistic regression) are widely used in the literature to predict household evacuation decisions, while the potential of machine learning models has not been fully explored. This study compared seven machine learning models with logistic regression to identify which approach is better for predicting a householder’s decision to evacuate. The machine learning models tested include the naïve Bayes classifier, K-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, neural network, classification and regression tree (CART), random forest, and extreme gradient boosting. These models were calibrated using the survey data collected from the 2019 Kincade Fire. The predictive performance of the machine learning models and the logistic regression was compared using F1 score, accuracy, precision, and recall. The results indicate that all the machine learning models performed better than the logistic regression. The CART model has the highest F1 score among all models, with a statistically significant difference from the logistic regression model. This CART model shows that the most important factor affecting the decision to evacuate is pre-fire safety perception. Other important factors include receiving an evacuation order, household risk perception (during the event), and education level.
PubDate: 2023-01-22

• Influence of Wind Speeds and Heating Exposures on the Thermal Insulation
of Intumescent Fire-Retardant Coatings

Abstract: Abstract The standard fire resistance test failed to consider the effect of environmental wind on intumescent fire-retardant coatings. This study investigated the thermal insulation of intumescent fire-retardant coatings under various heating exposures (25 kW/m2, 35 kW/m2, 50 kW/m2 and 75 kW/m2) and wind speeds (0 m/s, 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s). Fire-retardant coating presented a non-uniform intumescent process with wind influence. Environmental wind slowed the initial swelling rate, decreased the maximum coating thickness, and promoted the coating thickness decline. The coating at the front end was shorter than the rear end, which caused a higher steel temperature at the front end. The time of the steel temperature to reach the critical temperature was advanced indicating a decreased thermal insulation. Environmental wind caused a higher coating temperature and accelerated the coating depletion at the front end. The influence is stronger with higher heating exposure and faster wind speed. Wind affects the coating temperature and coating thickness via convective cooling and char oxidation, and char oxidation is a more dominant factor. Empirical correlations were applied to represent the influence of environmental wind on the maximum swelled thicknesses and average swelling rates of fire-retardant coatings at the front end. The predicting equation indicated the synergistic effects of wind speed and incident heat flux on the thermal insulation of fire-retardant coating.
PubDate: 2023-01-22

• Special Issue on Facade Flammability and Fire Engineering

PubDate: 2023-01-20

• The Efficiency of Perfluorohexanone on Suppressing Lithium-Ion Battery
Fire and Its Device Development

Abstract: Abstract At present, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with excellent performance have attracted the attention of the industry, but there are still many fire and explosion risks, threatening the safety of human life and property. Therefore, as the last barrier, fire extinguishing is important and the performance of fire extinguishing device determines the ultimate fire extinguishing effect. In this study, a plunger type perfluorohexanone (C6F12O) fire extinguishing device was developed, and key components such as gas generating device and puncture valve were improved. The 271 Ah lithium iron phosphate battery was used to verify the fire extinguishing efficiency and environmental adaptability of this device in extreme environments. The results show that in the three groups of fire extinguishing experiments at normal temperature NT, − 40°C and 85°C, the time from the start of spraying to extinguishing the open fire is 11 s, 14 s and 9 s respectively, indicating that the fire extinguishing efficiency is good in extreme environments. Additionally, no re-ignition occurred and the safety valves of the other batteries did not open. The environment temperature didn’t exceed 90°C within 30 min after the fire was extinguished. The device can be started normally in extreme environments, which indicates the good environmental adaptability of the fire extinguishing device.
PubDate: 2023-01-13

• Post-Fire Performance of Butt-Welded Connections in ST-37 Steel

Abstract: Abstract In light of the weakness of steel structures against fire and the welding process in steel structures connections, realizing the post-fire behavior of the welding after experiencing different temperature levels is vital in modeling and analyzing a structure. In this study, the behavior of butt-welded connections after experiencing different temperature levels has been investigated. The number of 168 specimens and different St-37 steel plate thicknesses (6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm) are heated under seven temperature levels of 25, 100, 250, 400, 500, 700, and 900°C, and after the cooling phase, tensile tests are implemented to determine the stress–strain diagram. By examining the resulting stress–strain diagrams, the samples mechanical properties, including yield stress, ultimate stress, and elasticity modulus, are evaluated after different temperatures. The experimental results reveal that the ultimate strength, yield strength, and elasticity modulus of samples are restored to an average of about 82, 79, and 82%, respectively, after being exposed to 900°C and the subsequent cooling phase. Additionally, penetration welds have shown acceptable performance in post-fire conditions, and the failure mode of the majority of samples is the rupture of steel plates.
PubDate: 2023-01-12

• Fire Fragility Curves for Industrial Steel Pipe-Racks Integrating Demand
and Capacity Uncertainties

Abstract: Abstract This paper aims at deriving fire fragility curves for a prototype steel pipe-rack in an industrial plant subjected to localised fires. In particular, starting from a reference case study, uncertainties related to the structural capacity and the size of the localised fires caused by a hole in a tank or a hole in a pipe are included in the analyses. Thus, the influence of uncertainties in the derivation of the fragility functions was highlighted by comparing four sets of analyses in which both demand and capacity uncertainties were progressively introduced. Moreover, alongside the cloud analysis (CA), the suitability of the multiple stripe analysis (MSA) to build relevant probabilistic fire demand models was assessed. Fire fragility curves were derived by considering the interstorey drift ratio (ISDR) as engineering demand parameter (EDP) and by assessing different relevant intensity measures (IMs) that represent the severity of localised fires. It was found that by introducing uncertainties in the steel yield strength, lower probabilities to exceed the life safety and the near collapse limit states with respect to the reference case study were observed. Moreover, the inclusion of further uncertainties, described with continuous physically-based probability functions of the size of the fire diameter, affected the probabilistic models by lowering the probability of exceedance. These functions provide a more realistic description of the fire scenario, enabling a better representation of the structural vulnerability. For this case study, the CA exhibited better suitability for the derivation of fire fragility curves than the MSA. All the analysis results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
PubDate: 2023-01-12

• Brine Water Experiments on Transient Flow and Evolution to Multiple States
in Inclined Tunnel Fire with Forced Longitudinal Flow

Abstract: Abstract The transient flow characteristics in inclined tunnel fire considerably influence occupant evacuation. We conducted brine water experiments to investigate transient smoke movement characteristics and their evolution into multiple final flow states in an inclined tunnel fire. The flow pattern exhibited a downward trend was the expected flow pattern. The experiment results indicated that before longitudinal mechanical force was activated in the inclined tunnel, the thickness of the current was nearly uniform. When longitudinal mechanical force was activated, the propagation velocity of the upstream longitudinal current declined, and then the back-layering reached its maximum length. During the naturally ventilated stage, the propagation velocity of the downstream and upstream current were approximately proportional to the cubic root of the source buoyancy flux, respectively. In the longitudinally ventilated stage, the modified Richardson number $$Ri^{\prime}$$ defined as Eq. (16) were used to analyze the head propagation velocity of both the downstream and upstream currents, and then the empirical models were proposed based on the experimental data. Multiple final flow states existed even under identical longitudinal force and source buoyancy flux; distinct steady flow states were resulted from different initial conditions, that is, distinct longitudinal force activation times. If the buoyant fluid eventually evolved into the expected pattern and flowed out from the downstream end of the tunnel, the initial condition did not considerably influence the reduced gravity distribution in the final steady state.Please confirm the affiliationsI have confirmed.Please check and confirm the short title.Yes, I have checked and confirmed.
PubDate: 2023-01-12

• An Experimental Study on Fire Suppression Devices for Power Batteries of
Hybrid Electric Multiple Units

Abstract: Abstract The hybrid type electric multiple units (EMUs) are generally equipped with LiCoO2/Li4Ti5O12 lithium-titanate (LTO) batteries. LTO batteries are often in a state of high-rate charging and discharging since they are mainly used for emergency traction and braking recycling of EMUs. Under such operating conditions, LTO batteries have a higher risk of thermal runaway, which would induce battery fires in the operation and lead to grave consequences. In this paper, a fire suppression device containing a fire detection tube was proposed for the power battery system of hybrid EMUs. Meanwhile, experiments were conducted to detect thermal runaway of the single battery and thermal expansion of the battery module installed with the fire suppression device. The fire detection tube was filled with clean agent Dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one. During the experiment, when triggering the process of thermal runaway, the fire suppression device prevented the battery from catching on fire successfully. Moreover, the fire suppression device had good cooling performance. The thermal runaway temperature of the battery with the fire suppression device installed was lowered to 130°C or so, compared with 550°C of the single battery alone. The fire suppression device was then installed in the battery system of a hybrid EMU, which performed well in operation.
PubDate: 2023-01-07

• A Fire Source Localization Algorithm Based on Temperature and Smoke Sensor
Data Fusion

Abstract: Abstract Traditional video surveillance, temperature-based or smoke-based fire source location methods are difficult to timely and accurately locate the fire source in warehouses with the characteristics of burning intensely, smoke spreading quickly, and being sheltered by shelves and goods. To overcome the drawbacks, a deep-learning-based fire source localization algorithm with temperature and smoke sensor data fusion according to the different stages of the combustion process is proposed in this paper. The temperature and smoke concentration information are collected from sensors distributed in different spatial locations of a warehouse. A convolutional neural network is used to exact the fusion data feature. The deep learning algorithm is adopted to construct the fire source localization model where the fusion data feature of temperature and smoke concentrations are the inputs and the fire source coordinates are the outputs. By using Fire Dynamics Simulator, a warehouse that meets the practical application is constructed and kinds of fire scenes are simulated. The experimental results show that the RMSE of the model localization reaches 0.63, 0.08, and 0.17 in three stages respectively, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed fire source localization algorithm.
PubDate: 2023-01-04

• Electrothermal Characterization and Modeling of Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells in
Thermal Runaway

Abstract: Abstract Electronic applications using lithium-ion batteries are increasingly operated under adverse conditions such as high operating currents and elevated environmental temperatures. Prolonged operation in these adverse conditions induces thermal stresses which can initiate thermal runaway (battery fires). Understanding thermal and performance envelopes for cells is crucial for battery systems’ safe operation. To explore the performance and thermal envelope for safe operation, there is a need for computational tools to predict a cell’s thermal and electrical behavior in any given environment. This paper introduces a model which predicts temperature and voltage profiles of a cell based on operating conditions (current, environmental temperature, etc.). The technique is developed by (1) establishing a 2-resistor-capacitor (2-RC) equivalent circuit model (ECM), (2) parameterizing the ECM in terms of circuit, degradation, and Arrhenius parameters, (3) calibrating parameters through high-pulse-power-characterization (HPPC) and time-constraint insulated-high-pulse-power (TC-IHPP) tests, (4) validating the ECM through discharging tests, and (5) exploring simulated scenarios and examining the ECM’s predictions. Validation results show that with calibrated parameters, the ECM predicts a cell’s electrical and temperature behavior reasonably accurately in a thermal environment and thermal runaway under extreme operating conditions. A degradation model predicts that a cell undergoing thermal runaway loses full capacity before failure initiation. Results show that irreversible and reactive heat are driving factors for a cell’s heating during cycling at low and high temperatures, respectively. Thus, the ECM was simplified by removing additional parameters, which minimized the computational and experimental work required to set up the model. The simplified ECM (SECM) is suitable for scenarios where only average temperature is desired and can predict average temperature and voltage profiles as the original ECM. Finally, a theoretical model is provided to organize effects of electrical activity, thermal runaway kinetics, and environmental temperature on the likelihood for a cell to fail in thermal runaway.
PubDate: 2022-12-29

• A Review of Tunnel Fire Evacuation Strategies and State-of-the-Art
Research in China

Abstract: Abstract After over 30 years of fast economic development and massive construction of infrastructures, China now owns the largest total length of tunnels in the world. However, many tunnels are overloaded with a large traffic volume and vulnerable to fire accidents in operation. Once a fire occurs in the tunnel, the occupants face a dangerous and confined environment and need to evacuate before reaching untenable conditions. Failure in fire evacuation will cause severe injuries and casualties under high-temperature and toxic fire smoke, and many past fire accidents have taught us lessons. Driven by the need for tunnel fire safety in China, many new researches are conducted related to fire evacuation in tunnel environments including full-scale experiments, and new evacuation strategies are carried out with sophisticated tunnel designs and regulations. Hence, this work aims to review these latest developments and studies in China towards better and safer evacuation in tunnel fires. In specific, the paper summarized the evacuation issues in tunnel fires generally and pointed out the unique issues in China. Aiming these issues, the paper then introduced recent evacuation strategies and evacuation research in China respectively. Typical tunnel fire accidents and full-scale tunnel fire evacuation tests in China were discussed in detail as case studies. Detailed evacuation strategies and the exposed issues were analyzed in those tunnel fire accidents emphatically, while evacuation findings of human behavior such as evacuation choices and trajectories were presented according to several field tunnel fire evacuations conducted by the authors. Finally, we highlight the research advances and challenges of fire evacuation in tunnels, as well as the need and directions for future research.
PubDate: 2022-12-27

• Experimental Study of the Effect of Opening Factor on Self-Extinguishing
and Blue Ghosting Flame in Under-Ventilated Compartment Fire

Abstract: Abstract Blue ghosting flame and self-extinguishing are two typical flame behaviors in ventilation-controlled compartment fires. However, the study of the evolution of these two behaviors with opening factor and heat release rate (HRR) is incomplete. In this study, the experiments were performed in a 1/2-scale compartment model with openings of six different sizes. The temperature, oxygen concentration and carbon monoxide concentration in the compartment under different propane supply rates were recorded and analyzed. The results showed that the flame transformed from the stable stage to blue ghosting flame or extinguishment with the increase of the total HRR. When there is a blue ghosting flame and self-extinguishing, the combustion spontaneously regulates the oxygen concentration in the compartment and changes the trend of the oxygen concentration decreasing with the total HRR. The blue flame not only reflects that the real HRR is in an unstable state, but also changes the evolutionary trend of the ceiling temperature. The critical HRR for the appearance of blue ghosting flame and self-extinguishing behavior increases linearly with the opening factor. The value of the Global Equivalence Ratio stabilized around 0.73 only after the opening factor was greater than 0.0145. The blue ghosting flame cannot return to stability and is extinguished when the difference between the entrainment rate and the air consumption rate exceeds the limit of spontaneous regulation of combustion.
PubDate: 2022-12-22

• Fire and Smoke Detection Using Capsule Network

Abstract: Abstract Video surveillance and image processing approaches are widely used nowadays for security and safety purposes. Such systems are also effective for smoke and fire detection and are one of the safety techniques to eliminate the drastic situation in their early stage. Detection of fire and smoke incidents in their early stages is of utmost importance. The conventional detectors having several limitations are now being replaced with intelligent video-based sensors. Training an efficient fire and smoke detection system using smart video-based detectors required a massive amount of annotated data describing unique fire patterns. This work presents a real-time video-based fire and smoke detection in its early stages while suppressing false alarms due to varying illumination (i.e., weather conditions), burning patterns, fog, cloud, and distinctive characteristics of fire and smoke, etc. The model is trained using Capsule Network-based architecture on different fire and smoke patterns obtained from publicly available datasets. Experimental results showed that the proposed architecture improved significantly in terms of accuracy, final model size, and false-positive rate on both binary and multiclass classification of fire and smoke compared with various state-of-the-art studies. These results validate the proposed architecture's generalizability and suitability for intelligent video-based fire and smoke detection using CCTV cameras.
PubDate: 2022-12-22

• Experimental Investigation on the Vertical Temperature Profile of Spilled
Plume from a Compartment-Facade Fire with a Horizontal Projection

Abstract: This paper is focused on the evolution of the vertical temperature profile of spilled plume originated from a compartment-facade fire under the conditions of different horizontal projection lengths. A series of reduced scale experiments were carried out in a 1:8 cubic fire compartment model with a single window at the center of the compartment’s side wall. A vertical facade wall was attached to the compartment window, and a horizontal projection was installed at the level of window’s top as the representative of a fire protection cornice in a real building. In the experiments, by varying the length of horizontal projection, the total heat release rate as well as the window sizes, the vertical temperature recorded by a series of thermocouples along the centerline of facade wall was analyzed. Results showed that, with the presence of horizontal projection, especially for a longer projection, the temperature of the spilled plume was reduced significantly, which is beneficial to fire protection in high-rise buildings. Meanwhile, two different regions were observed due to the flame retrieving effect to the facade wall, and therefore, the temperature would first increase and then decrease in the vertical direction, which is completely different from the results obtained without the horizontal projections. A critical vertical height with the highest temperature was discovered, and regarded as the new reference point. On this basis, a new normalized vertical height based upon the reference point and a new virtual origin were brought up. Finally, new correlations of vertical temperature with the updated normalized vertical height were proposed within the buoyancy plume region. This is a novel investigation for the spilled flow dynamics from a compartment-facade fire with horizontal projection conditions, and has great significance for improving the fire-fighting capabilities for a building in practice. Graphical For a compartment-facade fire, two new regions with a low temperature zone are newly discovered at the presence of horizontal projection, and new correlations of vertical temperature decay are discussed.
PubDate: 2022-12-21

• Analysis of Visual Characteristics of Short-circuited Arc Sites

Abstract: Abstract Identifying the cause of fire at a fire site is an important fire prevention measure to prevent recurrence. In particular, information about molten marks of the copper wire is essential to check whether electric power is being supplied at the fire site. This study aims to analyse the visual characteristics of arc sites formed by a short circuit to identify the molten marks at the fire site. When a short circuit occurs, electromagnetic force is generated by the short circuit current, and the arc repulsion force is generated by the contact arc. In this study, the effects of the forces, which act on the short-circuited melted area, on the formation of copper molten marks were investigated. Copper molten marks formed by a short circuit were experimentally fabricated, and the visual characteristics based on the force that was applied to the melted area were identified and classified based on features. The results showed that the melted area was affected by both the arc repulsion and electromagnetic forces, resulting in the visual differences between the short-circuited arc sites and flame-melted ones, which are affected by gravity and molecular force. These results provide a theoretical basis for discriminating between arc sites formed by a short circuit and flame-melted marks at the fire site. The validity of this study was verified via a comparative analysis using shape and cross-sectional microstructure of molten marks collected at the fire site.
PubDate: 2022-12-13

• Impact of Mass Timber Compartment Fires on Façade Fire Exposure

PubDate: 2022-12-13

• Investigation of 2D Soot Distribution and Characteristic Soot Volume
Fraction of Flames in the Confined Compartment with a Horizontal Opening

Abstract: Abstract To comprehensively understand the effect of horizontal opening size on the soot evolution and transportation of flames in the confined compartment, 2D soot distribution and characteristic soot volume fraction of non-premixed propane flames were theoretically and experimentally investigated in the confined compartment (0.2 m × 0.2 m × 0.2 m) with different horizontal openings (0.03 m to 0.10 m) in this work. The oxygen concentration supplied by the horizontal opening was determined by the ratio of dimensionless opening size and dimensionless flame volume within a range of 14.5% to 20.7%. Results showed that the soot distribution of non-premixed propane flames in the confined compartment with a horizontal opening complied with the classical three-zone assumption. The maximum soot volume fraction, the characteristic length of the soot formation zone and the characteristic length of the soot oxidation zone were all positively related to the dimensionless flame volume and negatively correlated with the dimensionless opening size. There was a positive correlation between the ratio of two characteristic lengths and dimensionless flame volume, and the correlation was independent of the dimensionless opening size. Moreover, a linear correlation of characteristic soot volume fraction was proposed to predict the maximum soot volume fraction of non-premixed flames in the confined compartment with a horizontal opening.
PubDate: 2022-12-12

• Visual Fire Power: An Algorithm for Measuring Heat Release Rate of Visible
Flames in Camera Footage, with Applications in Facade Fire Experiments

Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a novel algorithm, called Visual Fire Power, for measuring the heat release rate of a turbulent flame using video footage taken from two cameras, located at an approximate right angle to each other and at a known distance from the fire. By measuring the time-averaged volume of the fire, Visual Fire Power can measure heat release rate in situations where traditional calorimetry may be impractical (such as experiments outdoors), as well as uniquely providing a method for comparing the heat release rates of different flames in the same experiment, e.g. externally venting flames from different windows of the same compartment. The algorithm was benchmarked against synthetic data and calculated the volume of common solids with approximately 30% uncertainty. The relationship between volume and heat release rate was then calibrated from videos of burners at known heat release rates. These experiments were used to calculate the Orloff-DeRis constant $$\gamma$$ , which linearly relates flame volume and heat release rate. The value for $$\gamma$$ was found to be $$1505\pm 183$$ kW/m3. The algorithm was demonstrated on recordings of a standard Polish facade fire test. Improving the range of data measured in both fire testing and fire experiments could help to increase our knowledge of fire dynamics and provide better data for researchers and engineers in the future.
PubDate: 2022-12-09

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