Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Combustion and Flame     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fire Safety Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fire Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wildland Fire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
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Fire Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.658
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8099 - ISSN (Online) 0015-2684
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Digital Transformation in Fire Safety Engineering over the Past Decade
           Through Building Information Modelling: A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Building information modelling (BIM) is widely considered to be leading the digital transformation of the AEC industry because of its data management capabilities among different stakeholders and across the building life-cycle. Fire safety engineering (FSE) is one of the disciplines that has been excluded for a long time from integrated approaches such as BIM, even though ensuring fire safety is a fundamental aspect of building performance. This paper presents a systematic literature review of BIM–FSE integration methodologies to highlight its potentialities for building life-cycle management and the digital transformation of the AEC domain. The findings show that the majority of BIM–FSE applications are focused on fire and evacuation simulations, followed by detection, monitoring and real-time emergency management. Technologies that are often involved in BIM-based fire safety solutions are CFD-based technologies, game- augmented and virtual reality, and the internet of things. Native formats are the most used for data sharing, while open standards still lack adequate data structures for FSE applications. The review highlights the benefits, embedded potentialities and limitations of the BIM–FSE integration in a decade of research studies. Future research directions for the digital transformation of FSE through BIM are proposed in a research agenda.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Critical Fiber Dimesions for Preventing Spalling of Ultra-high Performance
           Concrete at High Temperature

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental study that investigates the effect of fiber dimension on preventing spalling of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC). UHPCs with different dimensions of polypropylene (PP) fibers were prepared for permeability test at different temperatures and spalling test under ISO834 fire curve. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation was also conducted focusing on the fiber of a UHPC sample at the same location after it was subjected to elevated temperatures. The results of permeability tests and spalling tests showed that longer fibers of 12 mm and 18 mm and finer fibers of 28 μm and 33 μm were more beneficial for increasing the permeability of UHPC at high temperature, resulting in higher effectiveness on spalling prevention. Permeability measurements indicated a significant increase occurred at 150°C regardless of fiber dimensions; this increase plays an important role in spalling prevention. SEM results further testify that this increase can be attributed to the formation of microcracks caused by expansion of PP fibers. An aspect ratio of 300 is recommend for spalling prevention of UHPC, when 3 kg/m3 of PP fibers are used.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Simulation Investigation of Water Spray on Suppressing Lithium-Ion Battery
           Fires

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      Abstract: Abstract The fire hazard resulting from the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries constitutes an severe threat for electric vehicles, and discovering an effective and prompt method for suppressing battery fire is still challenging. In this paper, a finite volume model for simulating the process of extinguishing lithium-ion battery fire was established, and the effect of water mist on suppressing battery fire was studied. It was found that the larger the droplet size, the greater the initial spray velocity, or the higher the nozzle height, the worse the fire extinguishing effect. The larger number of nozzles, the greater the spray flow, or the earlier the spray start time, the better the fire extinguishing effect. As the spray duration increased, the suppression effect at the center module gradually increased. When the water mist nozzle faced the center point of the module, the temperature rise was much lower than at other angles, and the fire extinguishing performance was the most effective.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Bending Strength of Composite Slabs Exposed to Fire at an Early Age

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      Abstract: Abstract When fires occur during the construction of a building, concrete structural elements can be exposed to high temperatures while the concrete is still of early age (less than 28 days for normal concrete). This can compromise their resistance, due to a deterioration of mechanical properties. A review of the state of art revealed that, although numerous studies have been conducted on the residual strength of cured concrete subjected to high temperatures, there is a gap in the study of the residual strength of concrete slabs which were subjected to high temperatures from a compartment fire at an early age. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the residual capacity in bending of concrete slabs that were subjected to fire when the concrete was only 3 and 7 days old. Consequently, data from actual fire tests were used to better understand the loss of bending strength. A theoretical model was developed to validate the residual bending resistance of composite slabs after exposure to fire. The experimental and theoretical results show that slabs subjected to a compartment fire at a young age have a reduced maximum bending capacity (at maturity, 28 days) in the order of 25–30% compared to the capacity of non-heated slabs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • The Numerical Simulation and Analytical Expressions on Mechanical
           Performance of Tubular T-Joints at Elevated Temperatures

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      Abstract: Abstract The numerical study on the ultimate bearing capacity of the tubular T-joints are presented at elevated temperatures when the brace is compressed. A numerical method is given for analyzing the load bearing capacities of the tubular T-joints at elevated temperatures, which is realized by using the finite element software ABAQUS. The shell element is adopted to enable a realistic modeling of tubular T-joints subjected to fire. During the analysis, the influence of geometric parameters on the joints strength in fire is studied, including β (diameter ratio) and γ (chord radius/thickness ratio). Based on the analysis of the geometric parameters, a predictive analytical expressions of the ultimate bearing capacity of the tubular T-joints in fire are proposed on the basis of the observed trends of the ultimate bearing capacity reduction with the temperatures rising.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of a Novel Droplet Volume
           Fraction-Based Drag Reduction Correlation in a Numerical Study on Water
           Sprays with Different Levels of Density

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      Abstract: Abstract Multiple sets of CFD simulations of water sprays have been carried out with FDS 6.7.6 with a novel expression for the drag reduction model (representing the influence of the surrounding droplets on the drag when compared to the situation for isolated droplets). The sprays are representative for use in fire suppression, but have been characterized in the absence of a fire-driven flow, which is key for a step-wise approach. Previous simulations have shown the importance of the drag reduction model, indicating that for a dense spray, a much stronger significant drag reduction seemed necessary than what is commonly applied, in order to reproduce the measured width of the spray envelope and the subsequent water flux distribution at floor level in the CFD simulations. In the present study, the drag reduction is calculated locally, depending solely on the local droplet volume fraction. It is thus only invoked in the dense region of the spray, typically near the injection. The results reveal very good agreement of the water flux distribution on the ground for the dense spray, with deviations from the experimental results that are less than 4% in the center of spray for the initial mesh. However, the simulation results are sensitive to the mesh size. The novel expression for the drag reduction model has also been tested against two other sprays to evaluate its impact in less dense sprays. The initial set of parameters leads to acceptable simulation results for less dense sprays.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
       
  • A Framework for Determining the Ignition Signatures in a Fuel Bed
           due to Firebrand Deposition

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      Abstract: Abstract In firebrand deposition scenarios, there are a few possible outcomes: no ignition, smoldering, and flaming ignition. The criteria for determining smoldering or flaming ignition is generally qualitative in nature. Experiments were conducted to determine a quantitative ignition criterion. Firebrands were deposited on cellulose insulation fuel beds under an impinging air jet at two different velocities while thermocouple measurements were taken in the fuel bed and cameras recorded the tests in the visible and IR spectrum. The firebrand temperature and the temperatures within the fuel bed were insufficient to predict the ignition of the fuel bed. However, using the IR camera to monitor the growth of the reacting area in the fuel bed, a quantitative definition of ignition was found. Over the course of a test, different growth rates, representing different phases in the ignition process, were apparent in the non-dimensional reacting area. The initial phase, right after deposition, increased as 0.003 1/s, and the final phase average growth rate was 0.18 1/s. The time to the final growth rate matched well with the flaming ignition times recorded in the visible videos. The average error between the observed and predicted time to flaming ignition was 12%. This non-dimensional reacting area analysis provides a framework for determining ignition in a quantitative way.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • A LiFePO4 Based Semi-solid Lithium Slurry Battery for Energy Storage and a
           Preliminary Assessment of Its Fire Safety

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      Abstract: Abstract Semi-solid lithium slurry battery is an important development direction of lithium battery. It combines the advantages of traditional lithium-ion battery with high energy density and the flexibility and expandability of liquid flow battery, and has unique application advantages in the field of energy storage. In this study, the thermal stability of semi-solid lithium slurry battery material system was investigated for the first time employing C80 micro-calorimeter. In this new electrode material system, the heat generation of the electrolyte is the decisive factor for its thermal stability. Then, the measurement of in-situ dynamic cycle heat generation of semi-solid lithium slurry battery indicated a lower heat generation than traditional lithium-ion battery. What’s more commendable is that its electrochemical performance is basically the same as traditional lithium-ion battery. In addition, through the HPPC test, the mechanism of semi-solid lithium slurry battery cycle heat generation was explained. So, in this work, a preliminary evaluation on the safety and cycling stability of semi-solid lithium slurry battery is carried out. The electrochemical performance test affirms the application prospects of semi-solid lithium slurry battery, and the evaluation on the fire safety provides a reference for the future industrial applications of semi-solid lithium slurry battery.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • A Novel Method for Smart Fire Detection Using Acoustic Measurements and
           Machine Learning: Proof of Concept

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      Abstract: Abstract Fires are a major hazard resulting in high monetary costs, personal suffering, and irreplaceable losses. The consequences of a fire can be mitigated by early detection systems which increase the potential for successful intervention. The number of false alarms in current systems can for some applications be very high, but could be reduced by increasing the reliability of the detection system by using complementary signals from multiple sensors. The current study investigates the novel use of machine learning for fire event detection based on acoustic sensor measurements. Many materials exposed to heat give rise to acoustic emissions during heating, pyrolysis and burning phases. Further, sound is generated by the heat flow associated with the flame itself. The acoustic data collected in this study is used to define an acoustic sound event detection task, and the proposed machine learning method is trained to detect the presence of a fire event based on the emitted acoustic signal. The method is able to detect the presence of fire events from the examined material types with an overall F-score of 98.4%. The method has been developed using laboratory scale tests as a proof of concept and needs further development using realistic scenarios in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • Review of the NRC Canada Studies on Fire Resistance of Walls: Results,
           Research Gaps and Design Guidelines

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      Abstract: Abstract The National research council Canada conducted three major fire resistance studies on the interior party walls, interior fire separation walls and exterior walls. The fire resistance results of these studies were published over the past three decades and the publications were short in suggesting design guidelines for practioners’ use and gaps for future research. This paper summaries the fire resistance results of 35 full-scale wall tests, suggests design guidelines and identifies future research gaps for interior party walls, interior fire separation walls and exterior walls. The result summary includes the effect of different design parameters on the fire resistance performance of wall assemblies such as the stud type and spacing, number of stud rows, number of gypsum board layers and thickness, mid-height blocking, resilient channels installation and spacing, screws spacing for attaching gypsum board to either wall faming or resilient channels, insulation type and exterior wall sheathing type on the fire resistance of loadbearing and non-loadbearing wall assemblies. The summary results was used as the basis for suggesting design guidelines for practioners’ use and identifying gaps for future research to improve the fire resistance performance of wall assemblies. For example, the use of a reduced screw spacing from 406 mm o.c. to 203 mm o.c. in the gypsum board field and from 406 mm o.c. to 150 mm o.c. at the board joints was suggested for future research to keep the protective gypsum board layer attached to studs or resilient channels longer for a better fire resistance performance of wall assemblies. Also, fire resistance design guidelines are suggested, for examples, the use of rock fibre insulation for non-load bearing interior party walls to achieve 1.5-h fire resistance, the use of cellulose fibre insulation for loadbearing fire separation walls to achieve 2-h fire resistance rating and the use of reduced screw spacing in attaching the gypsum board to wall framing from 406 mm o.c. to 203 mm o.c. for loadbearing exterior wall assembly with gypsum board glass mat sheathing to expand the fire resistance rating from non-useful 30-min to a useful code compliance 45-min fire resistance rating assembly. Additional suggested examples for future research gaps and design guidelines are also provided.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • A Theoretical Model to Understand Some Aspects of Firebrand Pile Burning

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      Abstract: Abstract Firebrand piles are known to ignite combustible infrastructure resulting in significant damage; however, the parameters that impact the heat transfer from firebrand piles to a combustible surface are not well understood. Heat transfer from a firebrand pile is directly related to the local firebrand temperatures which can vary significantly due to changes in the burning behavior. A two-phase flow analytical model was developed that includes time varying firebrand diameter, reradiation effects between firebrands, gas temperature and species evolution, and pile porosity effects. The analytical model was used to quantify the temperature of cylindrical firebrands and explore the effects of changing firebrand diameter, firebrand aspect ratio (pile porosity), gas velocity, and local oxygen mass fraction. All of these parameters were found to impact firebrand temperatures. Firebrand pile porosity has a significant impact on the velocity within the pile, with a decrease in pile porosity resulting in lower velocities and lower firebrand temperatures. The modeling results were used to explain the trends in heat transfer measured for firebrand piles on a horizontal plate.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Correction to: Burning Behavior Analysis in Meso and Large-Scale Oil Slick
           Fires With and Without Waves Using Outdoor Gas Emission Sampling (OGES)
           System

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • CFD Simulations of Fire Propagation in Horizontal Cable Trays Using a
           Pyrolysis Model with Stochastically Determined Geometry

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a pyrolysis model for a PVC cable is constructed using results from thermogravimetric analysis, microscale combustion calorimeter and cone calorimeter experiments. The pyrolysis model is used to simulate fire propagation in horizontal cable trays. The simulated arrangement corresponds to a cable tray fire experiment from OECD PRISME 2 project. As laying the cables loosely along the horizontal trays is a random process, a novel stochastic method is developed for making the simplified cable tray geometries for the computational fluid dynamics model. In addition, as the simplified cable tray geometry has significantly smaller surface area than a real tray full of cables, the surface area was parametrically adjusted. In contrast to most of the earlier published numerical approaches for simulating cable tray fires, the presented approach does not use empirical correlations for predicting fire propagation and does not require any results from full-scale experiments for calibrating the model. The simulation results are compared to experimental results in terms of heat release rate, mass loss, tray ignition times and lateral flame spread rates. The maximum heat release rate was overpredicted by 8% on average.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Understanding the Economic Efficiency of Spending on Fire and Rescue
           Services: A Literature Review on the Causal Impacts of Fire Suppression
           Activities

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      Abstract: Abstract Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) have generally been analysed in terms of their technical efficiency. This approach does not allow one to determine the gain or the loss for society associated to public spending in these services. There is therefore a clear need to transition from an output-based approach to an outcome-based approach in order to identify the societal benefits associated to FRS activities. The outcomes and societal benefits associated to the actions performed by FRS are complex and constitute a real obstacle to understanding the expected return on investment in these services. This article presents a systematic literature review to establish and regroup the knowledge regarding the causal impact of FRS fire suppression activities on societal outcomes with a view to using such measures for the appraisal of investments in these services.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Coupling Characteristics of a Co-flow Water Mist System and Normal
           Temperature Counter Air Jets

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      Abstract: Abstract A co-flow water mist system is considered a clean and efficient emergency handling measure for preventing and controlling the leakage of hazardous gas. To reveal the coupling characteristics of a co-flow water mist system and normal temperature counter air jets, a series of 3D numerical simulations were conducted to visualize the gas-phase flow field as well as the instantaneous trajectories, concentration distribution, and penetration of droplets. The results show that the two-phase flow field can be divided into the co-flow jet or counter jet dominant flow for different initial momentum ratios of the counter jets and the co-flow jet Φ′. Φ′ ≤ 1 is necessary to effectively control the leakage flow. A natural exponential function could be used to fit the dimensionless interaction boundary height zb* and the characteristic axial momentum ratio Φ for the scenarios of a co-flow water mist system interacting with counter jets. Moreover, a general design method for the co-flow water mist system which could be utilized to prevent and control the leakage of hazardous gas was proposed. The method was tested by a specific case, which shows that it can be used to guide engineering development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Automatic Estimation of Post-fire Compressive Strength Reduction of
           Masonry Structures Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

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      Abstract: Abstract A deep learning-based image processing study was carried out to predict the post-fire safety of historical masonry structures. For this purpose, andesite stone and lime-based mortar, which are frequently used in historical structures, were selected as test samples and the samples were exposed to high temperatures (200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C) at a heating rate of 2.5°C/min. The compressive strength values of andesite stone and lime mortar at different temperatures were determined by both pulse velocity tests and uniaxial compressive strength tests. Naturally, after the heating processes, chemical and physical changes occurred on the surfaces of stone and mortar samples at every temperature. Thus, the compressive strength values obtained as a result of different temperatures were associated with surface image changes. An image classification method based on deep learning, convolutional neural network, was used to predict the temperature to which materials are exposed and the resulting strength reduction due to fire exposure. Pre-trained models of Resnet-50, VGG-16, VGG-19, Inception-V3 and Xception, which are well-known deep learning approaches, are used to classify objects automatically. The Score-CAM visualization technique was also considered, depending on the deep learning method used to accurately predict the location of the common texture of the material to fire. A portable electronic microscope was utilized to take a large number of images of samples exposed to different temperatures. At the end of the study, the Xception model created by deep learning on the arch model built to scale with andesite stone and lime-based mortar was tested, and the strength loss of the arch model exposed to high temperature was tried to be estimated.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Automatic Data Generation Method for Precise Ceiling Temperature
           Prediction of Cables Fire in the Utility Tunnel and Full-Scale
           Experimental Verification

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      Abstract: Abstract Being impossible to carry out ceiling temperature prediction in tunnel fires, the specific fire scene (fire type, fire location, number of fire sources, etc.) are unknown in the commonly used physical model-based methods. To address the difficulty, this study proposes a novel automatic data generation method to perceive the ceiling temperature distribution in tunnel fires based on BP neural network by using some limited real-time sensor data. The method belongs to one new kind physical model-free data-driven-updated methods, which can be universally applicable and not limited to the specific fire scene. In addition, a full-scale burning test in China’s largest tunnel fire experimental platform was conducted to support the ability and effectiveness of the method. Compared to the measurement results, the method is an effective way to study the ceiling temperature character in tunnel fires and its prediction precision is better than the traditional BP neural network algorithm. Meanwhile, model parameters are further analyzed, and the recommended parameters are given. The method can be used as a good numerical tool, addressing the precise ceiling temperature prediction in tunnel fires.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • How to Use Metallurgical Analysis for Fire Investigation: The Case of AISI
           316 Stainless Steel

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, fire simulations were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel sheets (similar to EN X5CrNiMo17-12-2), usually employed for the production of flue pipes. The thermal alteration induced by the fire was simulated by heating samples at different temperatures (from 20°C to 1050°C) and for different exposure times (1 h and 6 h) in a laboratory furnace. The metallurgical investigation concerned the surface coloring by photographic analysis; the morphology and chemical composition of the surface oxides by SEM and EDS; the microstructure as a function of temperature by LOM. The influence of the different parameters was discussed by a statistical ANOVA approach. The obtained results allowed to associate each temperature to one or more alterations in color, to the morphology and the chemical composition assumed by the surface oxides, as well as to the microstructure of the steel.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • On the¬†Effect of Exposed Timber on the Severity of Structural Fires in a
           Compartment and Required Firefighting Resources

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimation of design fires and thermal exposure conditions is an important step in structural fire engineering procedures. Mass timber, as a combustible material, may contribute to the fire intensity, yet there lacks methods to estimate design fires in compartments with exposed timber. This paper summarizes available experimental data on the contribution of exposed timber to heat release rate, describes a simple analytical method to evaluate this contribution, and discusses the effects on time–temperature curves and required firefighting resources based on a case study. Results show that the total heat release rate in compartments increases with the surface of exposed timber. This total heat release rate can be conservatively estimated using empirical relationships for ventilation-controlled burning rate and charring depth. In estimating gas temperature–time curves, both external flaming and extended fire duration combustion models can be applied to obtain an envelope of fire severity inside the compartment and for external spread. The proposed assessment approach provides a method to evaluate realistic design fires in timber buildings and to estimate the water supply required to put out these fires. Accurate modeling of the contribution of timber to fire severity is important for the design of mass timber construction as well as for the safety of firefighters.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • A Novel Efficient Video Smoke Detection Algorithm Using Co-occurrence of
           Local Binary Pattern Variants

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      Abstract: Abstract Smoke detection is an advance caution to the unforeseen great damage events. Therefore, it is required to identify the smoke in the course of initial stages for preventing fire events. A new technique is proposed to lessen the rate of incorrect alarm by identify the smoke and examine its distinctive texture attributes. Initially, the smoke-colored regions are segmented based on color at the YUV color locality. Then the tentative frame differencing is used to segment the candidate smoke region from the smoke-colored region. In the next phase, the candidate distinctive texture attributes in the smoke region are extracted using Co-occurrence of Hamming Distance based Local Binary pattern (CoHDLBP) and Co-occurrence of Local Binary pattern (CoLBP); these features include homogeneity, energy, correlation and contrast. Finally, the ELM classifier is proficient for the take-out features from the candidate smoke region, and then the decision has been taken with the assistance of a smoke alarm. Investigational outcomes proved that the suggested smoke recognition process executes better compared with all the usual smoke recognition methods by achieving better detection accuracy and processing time.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
 
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