Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Combustion and Flame     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fire Safety Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fire Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wildland Fire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Similar Journals
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International Journal of Emergency Services
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.201
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 3 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 2047-0894 - ISSN (Online) 2047-0908
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Extinguishing injustice: growing equity, diversity and inclusion in
           Canadian fire departments

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      Authors: Keith A. Fredin
      Abstract: This paper evaluates the value and necessity of greater equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI) in Canadian fire departments. Rather than focussing on changing hiring practices, the paper seeks to highlight how leadership can implement a culture of EDI that will encourage all people to participate. From a leadership perspective, this paper aims to show how EDI can improve firefighter teamwork and job performance whilst satisfying moral obligations to better represent Canadian communities. Strategies and their limitations for communication and culture change are discussed. Leaders of Canadian fire departments can utilise organisational change models focussing on improved communication techniques and models to implement cultural changes needed to allow for more EDI. Specific recommendations based on business research into culture change, communication and EDI are outlined. Recommendations to fire department leadership for cultural changes and communication are provided. Further, strategies and reasoning for why inclusive departments are more effective are given. Creating a more inclusive culture in fire departments will lead to an increase in applications from people who have not typically applied in the past. There has been little research or recommendations on increasing EDI in Canadian fire departments through cultural changes. Most existing literature is vague and tends to focus on hiring practices over an analysis of internal culture. This article provides analysis of best business practices and applies those to the cultural context of fire departments to promote culture change.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2022-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Rapid intervention vehicles' impact on fire departments' response time

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      Authors: Maria Køber Guldvik , Anders Helseth , Gjermund Grimsby
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to estimate the effect of rapid intervention vehicles (RIVs)’ impact on fire department (FDs)' response time. The study employed multivariate regression analysis of changes in response times before and after introducing RIVs into the FD task force, controlling for expected travel time. Response time analysis based on the database of all emergency fire responses in Norway from 2016 to 2021 was carried out. Introducing RIVs into the FDs' task force reduced response times by 53 s on average for every call where an RIV is being deployed, given an average driving length of an emergency call of 6.4 kilometers. The response time is reduced to approximately 37 s independently of driving length, and this effect increases with 2.5 s per km. Precise estimation of the expected reduced response time was calculated by introducing the first RIV into the FD's task force based on advanced statistical analysis on complete emergency register data. The analysis shows that RIVs have a positive impact on response time in both urban and rural areas, while particularly strong for urban areas.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2022-0022
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Emergency medical services on the frontlines of the opioid overdose
           crisis: the role of mental health, substance use, and burnout

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      Authors: Corinne A. Beaugard , Valerie Hruschak , Christina S. Lee , Jenifer Swab , Sheila Roth , Daniel Rosen
      Abstract: Emergency medical service (EMS) workers are at risk for burnout related to the opioid overdose crisis because they are frequently present during overdose events. The study’s aims were twofold: 1) to determine whether variables related to the opioid crisis were associated with burnout and 2) to explore the relationship between mental health, sleep, substance use, social support, and attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis with burnout. In a cross-sectional web-based study, surveys were distributed by supervisors to EMS workers in Pennsylvania (winter 2018). Participants (n = 214) completed measures on burnout, social support, mental health, substance use, and sleep quality and reported their frequency of naloxone administration and their attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were run to determine correlates of burnout. The sample was 65.4% male, 91.5% white, and 43% were between 36–55 years old. In the regression model (n = 177), depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep, attitudes about working during the opioid crisis, cannabis use, social support, age, hours worked each week, and frequency of naloxone administration were significantly correlated with burnout. This study contributes to the emergent literature on burnout and EMS professionals during the opioid overdose crisis by finding that attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis are correlated with burnout. While the relationship should be explored in future research, the authors believe that interventions to prevent EMS burnout could incorporate training to improve attitudes about supporting individuals during overdose events.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-11-2021-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Motivational regulation and physical activity in future emergency
           responders – staying fit, healthy and safe in a demanding occupational
           context

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      Authors: Ole Ragnar Norheim Jenssen , Thomas Dillern
      Abstract: To meet physically demanding occupational tasks, reduce occupational stress and work-related injuries and to uphold general health, emergency responders need to maintain a certain level of physical fitness. However, among emergency responders a career-long decreasing physical fitness constitutes a challenge. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to explore if there is any relationship between motivational regulation and physical activity patterns among future emergency responders. The study used a survey design including two questionnaires: Sport Motivation Scale-2 (SMS-2) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ–SF), and 258 students at the Norwegian Police University College (NPUC) participated. The authors’ findings revealed a significant relationship between motivational regulation and physical activity patterns amongst police students. The study reveals the value of the SDT in understanding exercise behaviour and physical activity adherence amongst emergency responders, and moreover, the importance of fostering intrinsic motivation, in the educational institutions, to increase physical activity and physical activity adherence throughout their career. To the authors’ knowledge, there is limited research which uses the motivation theory to explain the development of physical fitness and health amongst emergency responders. With this approach, this study is something new to this discussion and should be of interest for both educational institutions and authorities managing emergency responders.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-09-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Serving the community while balancing multiple responsibilities –
           experiences of working as a paid part-time firefighter

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Emelie Lantz , Bengt Nilsson , Carina Elmqvist , Bengt Fridlund , Anders Svensson
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe experiences of working as a paid part-time firefighter (PTF) in Swedish rural areas. An inductive explorative design was used, based on interviews with 18 paid PTFs in Sweden. Data were analyzed using qualitative latent content analysis. Three themes emerged from the interviews and describe paid PTFs’ experiences. The findings provide insights into how firefighters share a strong commitment, how support plays a crucial role, and how training and call-outs contribute to their experiences. Paid PTFs’ experiences are nuanced, ranging from personal limitations and challenges to satisfaction and the contrast with ordinary life. The implications for fire and rescue service organizations are that they can encourage firefighters’ commitment and pride, as well as the commitment and support of their families and main employers. Further, highlighting the importance of support and facilitating flexibility when on call is crucial. Finally, acknowledging and promoting personal development and facilitating an inclusive culture are important factors for both motivation and satisfaction. Paid PTFs are under-represented in the literature, despite the reliance on them in Sweden, and this study begins to address the knowledge gap. To improve retention, it is vital to understand paid PTFs work situation: what motivates them, what barriers they face, and how those challenges influence their experiences.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2022-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Sustainability disclosure and its impact on telecommunication and
           information technology sectors' performance: worldwide evidence

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      Authors: Amina Buallay , Meera Al Marri
      Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the level of sustainability disclosure and telecommunication and information technology (IT) sectors' performance (operational, financial and market). Using data culled from 4,458 observations from 60 different countries for 10 years (2008–2017), an independent variable derived from environmental, social and governance (ESG) score are regressed against dependent manufacture performance indicator variables [return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and Tobin's Q (TQ)]. Two types of control variables complete the regression analysis in this study: firm-specific and macroeconomic. The findings elicited from the empirical results demonstrate that there is a significant negative relationship between ESG and market performance (TQ). However, there is no significant effect of ESG on both operational (ROA) and financial performance (ROE). Moreover, the findings elicited from the partial least square structural equation modeling the relationship between ESG and ROA is stronger in emerging than in developed economies. The authors' opinion for policy makers is that it is essential to promote and implement the appropriate legislative framework for sustainability reporting, which should enhance both the sustainability practices as well the profitability of IT firms. The model in this study presents a valuable analytical framework for exploring sustainability disclosure as a driver of performance in telecommunication and IT sectors' economies. In addition, this study highlights telecommunication and IT sectors' management lacunae manifesting in terms of the weak nexus between each component of ESG and IT sectors' performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2021-0054
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Is trade, energy consumption and economic growth threat to environmental
           quality in Bahrain–evidence from VECM and ARDL bound test approach

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      Authors: Md Shabbir Alam
      Abstract: The Kingdom of Bahrain has had tremendous development in various areas in the last decade. As a result of this, increasing energy consumption in Bahrain puts a strain on the country's energy supplies and increased CO2 emissions. This study investigates the determinants of carbon emissions in Bahrain. This study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test and vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality cointegration methods for empirical analysis during 1980-2020. The unit root test and residual diagnosis have been applied to see the stationarity and normality of the model. The analysis suggests no short run causality amid carbon emission, international trade, capital formation, economic development and energy consumption, but a long-run association jointly exist from the exogenous variables toward endogenous variables. The results of the study also revealed that trade and economic growth in Bahrain react negatively to environmental deterioration. This research study’s outcome will help the policymakers to build sound external and environmental policies to sustain economic growth and suggested policymakers to emphasize on sustainable usage of energy, alternatives of energy supply, and creation of renewable energy to mitigate the impact of CO2 emission. The alternatives of energy supply and creation of renewable energy can positively influence the socio-economic state of the nation, like new job opportunities, revenue generation. This study is unique as no other study till now has covered this period. The findings are also different as the past studies found short-run causality with the control variables, but the study found a long-run causality jointly.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2021-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How did fire and rescue services (and HMICFRS) in England respond to the
           COVID-19 pandemic'

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      Authors: Peter Murphy , Katarzyna Lakoma
      Abstract: This paper explores how fire and rescue services in England responded to the challenges and opportunities presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines the form and nature of fire and rescue services’ collaborations with the ambulance, police and other services and how effective their emergency planning arrangements prepared them for the pandemic. The authors briefly set out the background to the emergency services response to recent events of national significance in the UK and North America, focussing on the collaborative aspects of the emergency services response. The authors then examine three sets of secondary sources, namely documents specifically related to Fire and Rescue Services’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. All three investigations found that the pandemic had provided an opportunity for issues relating to planning and collaboration to be re-examined and for the emergence of new innovations (both technological and organisational) to provide new responses and solutions. Although the Inspectorate found that the services had generally responded well, it controversially criticised the role of the Fire Brigades Union in the national and local response to the pandemic. The research is situationally bound to England although there may be transferable lessons to other services and jurisdictions. Potential future improvements are identified at national and local levels for policy and for the operational response to widespread and long-term emergencies. England has had very few contemporary public health emergencies on the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic; this research presents an important opportunity for seeking to understand what is working well and where improvements are required to improve both the local and national response in relation to such a complex and dynamic environment.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-10-2021-0070
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Emergency responders’ moral sensemaking: the influence of
           compartmentalization

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      Authors: Jori Pascal Kalkman , Eric-Hans Kramer
      Abstract: Emergency organizations allocate specific tasks to responders in an attempt to resolve increasingly complex incidents. Many studies take a pragmatic perspective by studying how emergency organizations can more effectively compartmentalize response tasks. Yet, the effects of compartmentalization on responders' sensemaking of moral issues (i.e. moral sensemaking) has received almost no attention. Based on existing research, the authors bring together different insights on the relation between compartmentalization and emergency responders’ sensemaking of moral issues. The authors demonstrate that emergency organizations may undermine the moral sensemaking of responders through introducing moral blind spots and moral dissociation or, instead, enable moral sensemaking through enhancing moral agency and awareness. The authors argue that emergency organizations need to induce moral sense-discrediting among responders to enhance their moral sensemaking. Finally, the authors conclude with discussing two types of compartmentalizing tasks, functional concentration and the holographic metaphor, to show that the latter is most likely to enhance moral sensemaking among emergency responders. This study introduces moral sensemaking to the emergency management literature and investigates how organizational design influences it.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-10-2021-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Voices from the frontline: a review of EMS first responders' experience of
           COVID-19 in Ireland

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Gavin David Brown , Ann Largey , Caroline McMullan , Gráinne O'Shea , Niamh Reilly
      Abstract: This study explored the experiences of Irish emergency medical services (EMS) first responders during the first nationwide restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19. A systematic literature review (SLR) of research into healthcare workers' and first responders' experiences during the COVID-19 and 2003 SARS pandemics was performed. The SLR informed the content of an online questionnaire distributed via the Irish Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Council to 2,092 first responders on its live register. Data analysis used both descriptive and content analysis. EMS first responders faced many challenges including PPE quality, training on its use, issues with decontamination facilities, and organisational effectiveness. Emotional challenges included the anxiety experienced, the impact on families, and ethical dilemmas confronted related to patient care. Positive findings also emerged, such as first responders' dedication to working through the pandemic, collegiality, and the community goodwill displayed. While investigations of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers have been undertaken globally, studies focussing exclusively on the experiences of EMS first responders have been rare. This study addressed this knowledge gap, providing an insight into the challenges and successes experienced by first responders and identifying opportunities for learning that can be applied to future public health emergencies.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-11-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Use of social media for information seeking and sharing during floods in
           rural Sarawak

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      Authors: Ching Seng Yap , William Keling , Shamsul Kamariah Abdullah
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the information acquired and shared by floods victims in Sarawak, Malaysia, and the individuals’ perception of social media information quality and awareness of social media emergency services. The research data were gathered from 118 victims in two flood-ravaged villages with a researcher-administered questionnaire survey. Meanwhile, the research instrument was adopted from Reuter and Spielhofer (2017). Resultantly, 93% of the respondents employed social media for information-seeking and sharing during floods. For example, Facebook was the most extensively employed digital platform. The most highly sought and exchanged information involved eyewitness pictures or videos, road or traffic conditions and weather conditions or warnings. Although social media information quality reflected faster obtainability, higher accessibility and enriched content, respondents’ viewpoints of social media information quality regarding accuracy and reliability proved negative. Notably, over half of the respondents were unaware of the two social media emergency services: Twitter Alerts and Facebook Safety Check. This study denoted one of the rare empirical works that explored social media usage for information-seeking and sharing by the flood victims in Sarawak based on the boundary object perspective.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2020-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Visions of improvement: a thematic analysis of executive leadership

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      Authors: Bryan Rodgers , Jiju Anthony
      Abstract: This article explores the themes and gaps around the embedding of continuous improvement (CI) methodologies within public sector organisations and in particular the emergency services. The article is structured around three case studies of national emergency service organisations in Scotland, UK, and is based on 23 interviews with executive members of these organisations as well as of their oversight and inspection bodies and staff associations or unions. The findings narrow the gaps in the existing literature around the more holistic and organisation wide approaches to CI and evidence internal challenges around shared understanding, explicit commitment to CI through executive leaders and corporate documents as well as a need for a broader organisational culture of trust and empowerment in order to sustain CI. The research identifies clear priorities for sustaining CI within the emergency services as well as the opportunities and challenges to doing so. These inform internal CI activities as well as intra-agency development and external influences such as the role of government. While leadership is long established as a critical success factor in the success of CI initiatives, this is the first research to explore and analyse the existing understanding and commitment of executive leaders in emergency services.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-01-2022-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Android-based Mobile Panic Button UI application design development in
           responding to emergency situations in Universitas Indonesia (UI)

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      Authors: Nida Hanifah Nasir , Fatma Lestari , Abdul Kadir
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop and redesign the Mobile Panic Button UI (PB1) application as an emergency notification service, as well as conduct a simulation on the use of the new version of the application. This study used the operational research design with a theoretical research framework that followed input, process and output. Primary data were collected through observation, measurement and interview while the secondary data were obtained from literature review. The first step of the analysis was input analysis that included problem identification on the existing Panic Button as input, or PB 1 in this study. This was followed by the analysis of the planned second version of the Panic Button (PB2) development, starting from problem identification to trial and error testing and evaluation of the results of the simulation of seven types of emergency events that involved users, emergency response officers and experts. The study shows that the first version of PB1, developed in and used since 2017 at Universitas Indonesia, still had several weaknesses, particularly in its inability to provide adequate information. Only 30% of the standards for a mobile emergency application were met by PB1, which affected the performance of emergency responses. This was one of the reasons why the new version of Panic Button UI (PB2) was developed. The new features in PB2 comprise the inclusion of features for collecting information on user's name and mobile phone number, emergency category options, victim information, photo/voice information, description on the nature of the emergency (text), location selection, emergency notification delivery, notification delivery popup and emergency notification delivery to the emergency response team (ERT) officer. The time needed for using the second version of the Panic Button UI mobile application is 20 s faster than the previous one. PB2 can accelerate response time and response action time; improve response accuracy; facilitate the emergency notification process; and facilitate emergency communication. Various notification alert systems have been developed in many countries. However, there is a lack of information in Indonesia, especially in educational setting. This study is the first study on a notification alert system application applied in the university. Emergency response is critical due to the big impact of disasters. This study will inform the stakeholders or users, particularly those in educational institution on how to implement mobile app–based emergency response notification systems.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2020-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Green supply chain management and SMEs environmental performance: green
           HRM practices as antecedent from service sector of emerging economy

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      Authors: Raghad Aldaas , Rosmah Mohamed , Mass Hareeza Ali , Noor Azlin Ismail
      Abstract: The research aimed to study the influence of green human resources management practices (GHRMPs) on green supply chain management (GSCM) and environmental performance while examining how those green practices affect environmental performance. The study investigated 314 cases (responses) from the small and medium-sized enterprises belonging to the service sector from an emergent economy (i.e. Oman). The study model was developed based on the theory of resource-based view and the theory of ability, motivation and opportunity. The structural equation modeling was used for hypotheses testing using SmartPLS 3 software. Based on the findings, green hiring and green training and innovation have a positive and significant effect on GSCM, while both of them have no effect on environmental performance. Further, green performance management and compensation positively influenced the environmental performance but not GSCM. Furthermore, GSCM significantly and positively influenced environmental performance. GHRMPs and GSCM can enhance environmental performance. Organizations should consider this interesting finding if they aim to reduce their negative environmental effect, conserve energy, prevent pollution and recycle garbage. Despite the fact that the present environment-friendly culture is still in its infancy, it adds uniqueness to this research by investigating the phenomenon's importance.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on renewable
           and non-renewable energy in Bangladesh: does the global climate change
           emergencies required'

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      Authors: Mohamed Elheddad , Abdelrahman J.K. Alfar , Radi Haloub , Neetu Sharma , Patrick Gomes
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of MNCs measured by the foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on the promotion of renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy in Bangladesh. It is an emergency issue these days and makes some policy suggestions. Based on the literature review, the study sets a time series models to empirically test FDI degrades the environmental quality in Bangladesh, using the parametric (GMM, IV estimations) and non-parametric approaches (quantile regression). The main findings drawn from the empirical analysis are as follows. First, the FDI inflows lead to more CO2 emissions in the Bangladeshi economy. In other words, the MNCs promote the usages of non-renewable energy which causes an increase in pollution. Second, the FDI inwards discourage renewable energy consumption and in terms of magnitude, the negative impacts of FDI on renewable energy are higher than the positive effect of FDI on CO2 emissions. This makes the situation worse. This study is limited to Bangladesh and explores the total impact of FDI on the environment. For further investigation, it would be better to do a detailed investigation on the FDI-renewable and nonrenewable energy relationship. For instance, one could test which type of FDI promotes green energy consumption and which one is dirtier. So, the sectorial FDI effects on pollution. Most past studies parametric techniques and did not compare the effects of FDI on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, Unlike the previous empirical studies, this paper uses GMM and IV estimations for the parametric approach and quantile regression (QR) as a robustness check. Also, it is the first study that approves the crowding-out effect of non-renewable using the FDI channel.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2021-0083
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Paresh Wankhade , Attila Hertelendy
      Abstract: Editorial
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2022-086
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • How ambulance commanders manage a mass casualty incident

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      Authors: Alan Slater
      Abstract: Mass casualty incidents are characterised by an immediate, unforeseen and unquantifiable surge in demand for ambulance services which soon becomes apparent and will exceed any “local” resources available. Casualties require the correct treatment, promptly, at an appropriate resource without incurring any further harm. In the absence of firm operational guidelines, this paper provides templates for ambulance commanders both at call centre and on-site to approach the management of mass casualty incidents. Desk research indicated that there were both guidelines on how various elements of the emergency services should work together plus academic papers on techniques to adopt in mass casualty situations. Standing orders or written protocols for ambulance commanders, however, provide little or no specific guidance or an outline plan upon how they should command in a mass casualty situation. Following analysis of relevant public enquiry reports and discussions with ambulance commanders and using the materials from desk research, a four-stage approach was devised for testing using retrospective analysis from field and desktop exercises. To have confidence, each commander needs simple digital real-time templates from which they understand their role and how the overall plan defines priorities with the greatest need. A plan should cover call-centre and on-site operations including a basic operational checklist from start to finish; resource structure and inter-relationships; sources and availability of resources plus information and control procedures to impose limited quality control procedures. The design and implementation of digital templates to provide minute-by-minute visibility to all commanders which have not been recorded before. Such templates give commanders confidence to determine, locate and call forward relevant resources to attend casualties in order of priority of need. Time-lapsed records are useful not just in the minute-by-minute decision processes but also for critical organisational learning and in any post-event review by either a coroner or lawyers at a public enquiry.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2021-0012
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • “The problem hasn't changed, but you're no longer left to deal with it
           on your own” – the role of informal peer support in helping
           firefighters cope with critical incidents

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      Authors: Karin Dangermond , Ricardo Weewer , Joachim Duyndam , Anja Machielse
      Abstract: How firefighters cope with critical incidents is partly influenced by the culture of the fire brigade. The purpose of this study is to better understand how informal peer support helps firefighters cope with critical incidents. An ethnographic field study of explorative nature was conducted. Data were collected by means of 20 participating observations and 72 interviews with Dutch firefighters from 37 different fire brigades. The analysis was an iterative process alternating data collection, analysis and theory formation processes. Firefighters will turn to informal peer support to cope with critical incidents provided that facilitating circumstances are present and there is adherence to certain implicit rules. The collective sharing of memories, whether immediately post-incident or after the passage of time, helps firefighters process critical incidents and serves to promote unit cohesion. Most firefighters reported these informal debriefings to be preferable to the formal sessions. By comparison, a minority of firefighters reported that they did not benefit at all from the informal interactions. This study only focused on the informal peer support given by colleagues. Future research should focus on: (1) The possible differences between men and women as to what extent informal peer support is experienced after critical incidents, (2) Commanding officers: how do they, given their hierarchical position, experience coming to terms with critical incidents, (3) Premeditated critical incidents and the role of informal peer support, (4) Similarities and differences between career and non-career firefighters in experiencing and coping critical incidents. Firefighters are an under-researched group in academic literature, that would benefit from mental health counsellors having a better understanding of their unique work culture and the complexity of the firefighting profession. More knowledge about the role of informal peer support is necessary to tailor help and aftercare more effectively to their needs. Most studies confirm the importance of informal peer support when coping with critical incidents. This study provides initial, in-depth evidence of the role of informal peer support in helping firefighters cope with critical incidents.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-02-2021-0007
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Coping strategies and social support are associated with post-traumatic
           stress disorder symptoms in Saudi paramedics

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      Authors: Khalid Alshahrani , Judith Johnson , Daryl B. O’Connor
      Abstract: Three main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To estimate the prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disordered (PTSD) symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (2) To investigate which types of coping strategies were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (3) To explore which sources of social support were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics. Data were collected from 217 paramedics working in the Saudi Red Crescent Authority from September to December 2019. Participants completed questionnaires measuring PTSD symptoms (the Screen of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders; SPTSD), passive and active coping strategies (Brief COPE Scale; BC), and three forms of social support: support from friends, family and organizational support. Associations between coping strategies, social support and PTSD symptoms were investigated using correlational analyses, hierarchical linear regression and binary logistic regression. 46% of participants experienced one or more PTSD symptom, 28.6% scored above the cut-off for partial PTSD and 17.5% scored above the cut-off for full PTSD. PTSD symptoms were significantly positively correlated with passive coping and negatively associated with both family and friends support. Passive coping was positively associated with a greater risk of meeting criteria for PTSD. The current findings suggest that interventions to help reduce PTSD in Saudi paramedics should include strategies to reduce passive coping. Future research is urgently required to help understand the psychological, social and work-related factors that contribute to these high levels of PTSD.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2021-0056
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The effects of empowerment at multiple leadership levels in the fire
           service: a moderated mediation model

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      Authors: David Huntsman , Alex Greer , Haley Murphy , Xiangyu (Dale) Li
      Abstract: While uncertainty during emergency response operations necessitates adaptive performance, emergency response organizations, such as the fire service, tend to constrain adaptive behaviors due to their highly formalized bureaucratic structures. Structural theories suggest that leaders can empower employees to bypass these constraints. Using survey data from four US fire departments, this research tests whether mid-level supervisors can empower firefighters by increasing their ability to improvise during complex emergency response operations, and whether this enhances department adaptive performance. Moderated mediation is also performed to assess whether senior leaders must also be effective, empowering leaders in order to achieve heightened levels of empowerment and subsequent adaptive performance, as many senior leaders in the fire service are criticized for being overly bureaucratic, risk averse, and resistant to change. The findings support compensatory effects and show how immediate supervisors are key to overcoming senior leader deficiencies and producing adaptive performance during conditions of high uncertainty and complexity. The lack of response organizations’ success during complex incidents is often attributed to senior leaders who are risk averse, overly bureaucratic, and resistant to change (Wankhade and Patnaik, 2020). This study is the first to show how empowering leadership can help overcome these constraints to enhance adaptive performance under complex conditions in the fire service.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0042
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An exploration of alcohol and drug related fire injuries

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      Authors: Mark Taylor , Deb Appleton , John Fielding , Gary Oakford
      Abstract: The study examines alcohol and drug related accidental dwelling fire injuries during 2006–2016 in Merseyside in England. The study carries out an examination of alcohol and drug related fire injuries from 2006 to 2016 in Merseyside, including analysis of injuries by age group, gender, level of deprivation and housing type. Deprivation was a significant factor in alcohol and drug related fire injuries over the period studied, with 70% of such injuries occurring in areas with the highest level of deprivation. Males appeared roughly twice as likely to be injured in an alcohol and drug related fire incident than females. The majority of those injured were in the age range 35–59. There were limitations on the generalizability of the research findings to other fire and rescue services, as Merseyside has some of the highest levels of alcohol consumption and deprivation in UK. An understanding of those vulnerable to alcohol and drug related fire risks can support more targeted fire prevention strategies and aid referrals to partner health agencies to help to reduce underlying alcohol and drug misuse issues. The study provides a detailed analysis of the circumstances associated with alcohol and drug related fire injuries over a ten-year period covered by a UK fire and rescue service, in particular, in terms alcohol and drug related fire injury risk differences between different groups.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Dispatch information affects diagnosis in paramedics: an experimental
           study of applied dual-process theory

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      Authors: Toby Keene , Kristen Pammer , Bill Lord , Carol Shipp
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that paramedics form intuitive impressions based on limited “pre-arrival” dispatch information and this subsequently affects their diagnosis. However, this observation has never been experimentally studied. This was an experimental study of 83 Australian undergraduate paramedics and 65 Australian paramedics with median 14 years' experience (Range: 1–32 years). Participants responded to written vignettes in two parts that aimed to induce an intuitive impression by placing participants under time pressure and with a secondary task, followed by a diagnosis made without distraction or time pressure. The vignettes varied the likelihood of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and measured self-reports of typicality and confidence. Answer fluency, which is the ease with which the answer comes to mind, was also measured. More participants exposed to the likely pre-arrival vignette recorded a final diagnosis of ACS, than those exposed to unlikely pre-arrival information (0.85 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.90] vs 0.74 [95%CI: 0.66, 0.81]; p = 0.03). This effect was greater in paramedics with more than 14 years' experience (0.94 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.99] vs 0.67 [95%CI: 0.48, 0.81]; p = 0.01). Answer fluency and confidence were associated with the impression, while the impression and confidence were associated with final diagnosis. The authors have experimentally shown that pre-arrival information can affect subsequent diagnosis. The most experienced paramedics were more likely to be affected. This is the first experimental study of diagnostic decision-making in paramedics and paramedic students.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-06-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Time-efficiency factors in road tunnel rescue as perceived by Swedish
           operative personnel – an interview study

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Johan Hylander , Britt-Inger Saveman , Ulf Björnstig , Lina Gyllencreutz , Anton Westman
      Abstract: Major incidents in road tunnels remain a collaborative challenge for the emergency services (fire and rescue service, police and ambulance), emergency dispatch centres (EDCs) and infrastructure owners. The aim of this paper is to investigate how collaborative partners to the ambulance services perceive the rescue effort and to identify factors that may influence its efficiency. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with 19 participants who were infrastructure owners or had operational or tactical responsibilities with the emergency services or EDCs in two regions in Sweden with multiple road tunnels. The collected data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main categories described efficiency factors during and after an incident: (1) coordinating the initial information (using a shared terminology), (2) achieving situational awareness (identifying those persons in need) and (3) lessons (not) learnt (lack of joint tactical plans and exercises). The emerging theme was access, assess and evaluate. The findings suggest that establishing national policies and collaborative forums might yield more efficiently managed rescue efforts in road tunnel incidents in Sweden and other countries with similar organisational structures. This study offers new insights on interoperability during responses to complex underground incidents.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2021-0011
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • At the front of the front-line: Ontario paramedics' experiences of
           occupational safety, risk and communication during the 2020 COVID-19
           pandemic

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      Authors: Allyson Oliphant , Cathy Faulds , Samara Bengall , Elysée Nouvet
      Abstract: The study aimed to (1) determine on what bases paramedics in this context have defined themselves as feeling safe or at risk while serving on the front lines and (2) develop recommendations to support paramedics in their critical public health emergency response role. This qualitative study consisted of 21 semi-structured interviews with primary care paramedics (PCPs), advanced care paramedics (ACPs) and critical care paramedics (CCPs) with first-hand experience responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario. Qualitative research is best suited to the research objectives of gaining detailed and nuanced understandings of paramedics' experiences during this public health emergency, and identifying in paramedics' accounts what changes to policy and practice might strengthen their sense of safety in future infectious disease outbreaks (Bowling, 2002; Chafe, 2017). Data collection occurred over the course of 3.5 months, from June 2020 until September 2020. Participants described several factors that heightened their feeling exposed to risk particular to working on the front lines of the COVID-19 public health response. These factors include stress connected to personal protective equipment (PPE) and equipment access, risks of infection to self and family, communications and feelings of being systematically under-considered. Recommendations from this research include, but are not limited to, ensuring a more equitable distribution of protective equipment to paramedics across unevenly funded services, and recognizing paramedics face unique and additional stressors in public health emergencies. A key limitation of this study was the relatively small sample, with 50% of potential participants deciding not to engage in an interview. The authors suspect this is likely a result of timing, as this was conducting during significant periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario. The study identifies and begins to shed light on the way in which feelings of compromised safety and specific stressors in a public health emergency context connect to one another and potentially increase risks of burnout for this healthcare provider group. This study's documentation of paramedics feeling uncertainty about their own and their family's safety, combined with feeling occupational pressure, decisional pressure within constrained frameworks of care delivery, a lack of autonomy and a lack of consideration within their healthcare system in general and within its pandemic response in particular, is important in and of itself. These stressors can have serious implications for the ability of paramedics to sustain their integral role in public health emergency response. A series of pandemic-specific and generalizable recommendations emerged from this research and in collaboration with community-based medical leadership. (1) Consult paramedics on effectiveness of screening questions and equipment. Be sure to illicit and respond to paramedic feedback in a timely manner. (2) Implement operational changes during pandemics in the form of donning and doffing stations, disposable gowns, decontamination teams at hospitals, infectious disease paramedic (IDP) truck, anti-fog sprays for goggles, and safe and controlled areas for eating and taking breaks. (3) Develop an emergency pandemic plan that is resourced and maintained as part of EMS strategic planning. Involve EMS in decisions related to health system emergency planning and sustainability of EMS practice. (4) Establish equitable distribution of resources, such as ensuring PPE is distributed equitably and applying pandemic pay equally to all essential workers. (5) Validate and respect EMS, as they are essential workers. Recognize the expertise of paramedics and community healthcare providers. Finally, an overarching recommendation at the core of this research is the consideration for paramedic knowledge as expertise given their role as critical front line healthcare specialists and the protection of this crucial human resource as it relates to their resilience and mental wellbeing. Evidence-based awareness and improved understanding of paramedic stress during the pandemic is a first step to developing strategies to reduce that stress. This is essential in ensuring access to this essential service during emergencies and the safety of the communities they serve. Findings from this study can inform development of supports to sustain paramedic wellbeing during public health emergencies, during the ongoing pandemic, in Ontario and beyond.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Development and validation of moral distress scale in pre-hospital
           emergency service providers

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      Authors: Mojtaba Jafari , Abbas Ebadi , Hamid Reza Khankeh , Sadat Seyed Bagher Maddah , MohammadAli Hosseini
      Abstract: The uniqueness of the pre-hospital setting and the need for quick decision-making confronts pre-hospital emergency personnel with various moral conflicts that can lead to moral distress (MD) in them. This study aimed to design a valid scale for the assessment of MD in emergency medical service (EMS) staff. This exploratory mixed-method study was conducted among the EMS provider's community. In the qualitative section, data were gathered and analyzed with semi-structured interviews and conventional content analysis, respectively. The initial pool of items was formed and the primary scale was designed. In the quantitative section, a methodological study was carried out to determine the psychometric properties of the scale including qualitative-quantitative face validity, qualitative-quantitative content validity with content validity ratio and index (CVR/CVI), construct validity by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and convergent validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha/ Omega McDonald's/ floor and ceiling effect) and stability with intra-class correlation (ICC). After interviews with 14 emergency technicians, the initial scale was designed with 60 items. Of the total items, 17 poor items were dropped during face and qualitative content validity. In the content validity phase, the items with CVR > 0.62, modified Kappa > 0.74 were retained, which eliminated 23 items. EFA was conducted with 20 items and lead to the 5 factors. The floor and ceiling effect for the whole scale was zero. Finally, the reliability of the scale was confirmed (a = 0.83, O = 0.86, ICC = 0.95). The developed 20-item scale is a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of the MD in EMS providers.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0028
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • International Journal of Emergency Services

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