Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Combustion and Flame     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fire Safety Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fire Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wildland Fire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
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Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2040-2317 - ISSN (Online) 2040-2325
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Structural performance of single-skin glass façade systems exposed to
           fire

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      Authors: Mohamed Badr , Maged A. Youssef , Salah El-Fitiany , Ajitanshu Vedrtnam
      Abstract: Understanding the structural performance of external glass curtain walls (façades) during fire exposure is critical for the safety of the occupants as their failure can lead to fire spread throughout the entire building. This concern is magnified by the recent increase in fire incidents and wildfires. This paper presents the first simplified technique to model single-skin façades during fire exposure and then utilizes it to examine the structural behaviour of vertical, inclined and oversized façade panels. The proposed technique is based on conducting simplified heat transfer calculations and then utilizing a widely used structural analysis software program to analyze the façade. Validation for the proposed technique with reference to available experimental and numerical studies by others is presented. A parametric study is then conducted to assess the structural performance of different glass façade systems during exposure to fire. The proposed technique was found to provide accurate predictions of the structural performance of glass façades during fire exposure. The structural performance of inclined façade systems during fire exposure was found to be superior to vertical and oversized façade systems. This research paper is the first to provide a simplified technique that can be utilized to model single-skin facades under fire. The presented technique along with the conducted parametric study will improve the understanding of the fire behaviour of single-skin glass facades, which will lead to safer applications.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2022-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The finite element method for evaluating the fire behavior of steel
           structures

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      Authors: Ilias Thanasoulas , Dan Lauridsen , Bjarne Paulsen Husted , Luisa Giuliani
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to contribute toward providing the main aspects of numerical modeling the fire behavior of steel structures with finite elements (FEs). The application of the method is presented for a characteristic case study comprising the series of large-scale fire door tests performed at the Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology. Following a general overview of current practices in structural fire engineering, the FE method is used to simulate the large-scale furnace tests on steel doors with thermal insulation exposed to standard fire. The FE model is compared with the fire test results, achieving good agreement in terms of developed temperatures and deformations. The numerical methodology and recommended practices for modeling the fire behavior of steel structures are presented, which can be used in support of performance-based fire design standards.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2022-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Residual mechanical properties of basalt fibre reinforced cement mortars
           at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Naveen Revanna , Charles K.S. Moy
      Abstract: A study on the mechanical characteristics of cementitious mortar reinforced with basalt fibres at ambient and elevated temperatures was carried out. To investigate their effect, chopped basalt fibres with varying percentages were added to the cement mortar. All the specimens were heated using a muffle furnace. Flexural strength and Compressive strength tests were performed, while monitoring the moisture loss to evaluate the performance of basalt fibre reinforced cementitious mortars at elevated temperatures. From the study, it is clear that basalt fibres can be used to reinforce mortar as the fibres remain unaffected up to 500 °C. Minimal increases in flexural strengths and compressive strengths were measured with the addition of basalt fibres at both ambient and elevated temperatures. SEM pictures revealed fibre matrix interaction/degradation at different temperatures. The current study shows the potential of basalt fibre addition in mortar as a reinforcement mechanism at elevated temperatures and provides experimental quantifiable mechanical performances of different fibre percentage addition.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2022-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • CFD simulations for evaluating the wind effects on high-rise buildings
           having varying cross-sectional shape

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      Authors: Ark Rukhaiyar , Bhagya Jayant , Kunal Dahiya , Rahul Kumar Meena , Ritu Raj
      Abstract: In this study the comparison is presented for the variation in cross-sectional shape along the height of the building model. For this purpose Model B and Model C are having the considerable variation and Model A result can be easily predicted on the basis of the result of Model B and C while Model X is considered for the validation purposes only and it is well established that the results are within the allowable limit. This paper aims to discuss these wind generated effects in the tall building model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS: CFX is used to investigate the wind effects on varying cross-sectional shape along the height of the building model. From pressure contours, it was observed that shape and size of the face is independent of the pressure distribution. It is also observed that pressure distribution for the windward face (A) was less than the magnitude of the leeward face for both models. The leeward face and lateral faces had similar pressure distribution. Also slight changes in pressure distribution were observed at the periphery of the models. This study has been performed to analyse and compare the wind effect on tall buildings having varying cross sections with variation of different cross sections along the height. Most of the studies done in the field of tall buildings are concentrated to one particular cross-sectional shape while the present study investigates wind effects for combination of two types of cross sections along the height. This analysis is performed for wind incidence angles ranging from 0° to 90° at an interval of 30°. Analysis of wind flow characteristics of two models, Models B and C will be computed using CFD. These two models are the variation of Model A which is a combination of two types of cross section that is square and plus. Square and plus cross-sectional heights for Model B are 48 m and 144 m, respectively. Similarly, square and plus cross-sectional heights for Model C are 144 m and 48 m, respectively. The results are interpreted using pressure contours and streamlines, and comparative graphs of drag and lift forces are presented.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2022-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Influence of fire-resistant coating on the physical characteristics and
           residual mechanical properties of E350 steel section exposed to elevated
           temperature

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      Authors: G. Jaya Kumar , Tattukolla Kiran , N. Anand , Khalifa Al-Jabri
      Abstract: Most of the industrial buildings which are designed to moderate loads are constructed using light gauge cold-formed steel (CFS) sections. Residual mechanical properties of CFS sections exposed to elevated temperature need to be investigated as it is necessary to predict the deterioration of elements to avoid failure of the structure or its elements. Also, it would be helpful to decide whether the structural elements need to be replaced or reused. The use of fire-resistant coatings in steel structures significantly reduces the cost of repairing structural elements and also the probability of collapse. This study investigates the effect of fire-resistant coating on post-fire residual mechanical properties of E350 steel grade. In this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the residual mechanical properties of E350 steel. A tensile coupon test was performed for the extracted specimens from the exposed CFS section to determine the mechanical properties. Four different fire-resistant coatings were selected and the sections were coated and heated as per ISO 834 fire temperature curve in the transient state for time durations of 30 minutes (821°C), 60 minutes (925°C), 90 minutes (986°C), and 120 minutes (1,029°C). After the exposure, all the coupon specimens were cooled by either ambient conditions (natural air) or water spraying before conducting the tension test on these specimens. At 30 min exposure, the reduction in yield and ultimate strength of heated specimens was about 20 and 25% for air and water-cooled specimens compared with reference specimens. Specimens coated with vermiculite and perlite exhibited higher residual mechanical property up to 60 minutes than other coated specimens for both cooling conditions. Generally, water-cooled specimens had shown higher strength loss than air-cooled specimens. Specimens coated with vermiculite and perlite showed an excellent performance than other specimens coated with zinc and gypsum for all heating durations. As CFS structures are widely used in construction practices, it is crucial to study the mechanical properties of CFS under post-fire conditions. This investigation provides detailed information about the physical and mechanical characteristics of E350 steel coated with different types of fire protection materials after exposure to elevated temperatures. An attempt has been made to improve the residual properties of CFS using the appropriate coatings. The outcome of the present study may enable the practicing engineers to select the appropriate coating for protecting and enhancing the service life of CFS structures under extreme fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2022-0008
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Numerical study on buckling capacity of steel H-beams under non-uniform
           temperature distribution

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      Authors: Thac Quang Nguyen , Xuan Tung Nguyen , Tri N. M. Nguyen , Thanh Bui-Tien , Jong Sup Park
      Abstract: The strength and stiffness of steel deteriorate rapidly at elevated temperatures. Thus, the characteristics of steel structures exposed to fire have been concerned in recent years. Most studies on the fire response of steel structures were conducted at uniformly distributed temperatures. This study aims to evaluate the buckling capacity of steel H-beams subjected to different loading conditions under non-uniform heating. A numerical investigation was conducted employing finite element analysis software, ABAQUS. A comparison between the numerical analysis results and the experimental data from previous studies was conducted to verify the beam model. Simply supported beams were loaded with several loading conditions including one end moment, end equal moments, uniformly distributed load and concentrated load at midspan. The effects of initial imperfections were considered. The buckling capacities of steel beams under fire using the existing fire design code and the previous study were also generated and compared. The results showed that the length-to-height ratio and loading conditions have a great effect on the buckling resistance of steel beams under fire. The capacity of steel beams under non-uniform temperature distribution using the existing fire design code and the previous study can give unconservative values or too conservative values depending on loading conditions. The maximum differences of unconservative and conservative values are −44.5 and 129.2% for beams subjected to end equal moments and one end moment, respectively. This study provides the buckling characteristics of steel beams under non-uniform temperature considering the influences of initial imperfections, length-to-height ratios, and loading conditions. This study will be beneficial for structural engineers in properly evaluating structures under non-uniform heating conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2022-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • State-of-the-art review of the reliability evaluation of concrete beams
           exposed to fire

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      Authors: Tulio Coelho , Sofia Diniz , Francisco Rodrigues , Ruben Van Coile
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the state of the art for the reliability evaluation of reinforced concrete beams in a fire situation. Special emphasis is placed on addressing which parameters were considered probabilistically or deterministically, the prescribed probabilistic models for the assumed stochastic variables, the treatment of the heat transfer mechanism, the quantification of the structural fire performance and the assumed target reliability levels. Research papers were identified through a search on the Web of Science, Google Scholar and detailed searches within the journals Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Fire Technology and Fire Safety Journal, supplemented with references known by the authors. Considering the state-of-the-art review, gaps in the literature are identified related to (1) the probabilistic evaluation of shear capacity for standard fires and parametric fires, and bending capacity for parametric fires, (2) the absence of reference fragility curves for immediate design application/code calibration and (3) the specification of target safety levels for reliability-based design. The lack of research papers gathering studies on the reliability of reinforced concrete beams in fire situation makes it difficult to further develop research in the area. The value of this work lies precisely in the collection of the basic information, making it possible to identify gaps to be addressed in future research and the suggestion of a research framework.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2022-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bending-strength evaluation of wide-flange steel beams subjected to local
           buckling at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Xiaomin Zhao , Fuminobu Ozaki , Takeo Hirashima , Kei Kimura , Yukio Murakami , Jun-ichi Suzuki , Naoya Yotsumoto
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to propose theoretical calculation models to evaluate the theoretical bending strengths of welded wide-flange section steel beams with local buckling at elevated temperatures. Steady-state tests using various test parameters, including width-thickness ratios (Class 2–4) and specimen temperatures (ambient temperature, 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800°C), were performed on 18 steel beam specimens using roller supports to examine the maximum bending moment and bending strength after local buckling. A detailed calculation model (DCM) based on the equilibrium of the axial force in the cross-section and a simple calculation model (SCM) for a practical fire-resistant design were proposed. The validity of the calculation models was verified using the bending test results. The strain concentration at the local buckling cross-section was mitigated in the elevated-temperature region, resulting in a small bending moment degradation after local buckling. The theoretical bending strengths after local buckling, evaluated from the calculation models, were in good agreement with the test results at elevated temperatures. The effect of local buckling on the bending behaviour after the maximum bending strength in high-temperature regions was quantified. Two types of calculation models were proposed to evaluate the theoretical bending strength after local buckling.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2022-0006
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bolt stripping failure and ductility of end plate beam-column connections
           at ambient and elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Mohamed A. Shaheen , Lee S. Cunningham , Andrew S.J. Foster
      Abstract: The effect of bolt stripping failure on the ductility of steel end plate beam-column connections has received relatively little investigation to date. The objective with the present work is to establish a validated numerical model of end plate connections at elevated temperatures, which predicts the mechanical behaviour and failure modes observed in the experimental tests including the bolt stripping failure. Furthermore, the validated FE model was used to investigate the effect of stripping failure on both the rotational and load-bearing capacity of end plate connection. The analysis was conducted on a validated numerical model of end plate connections at elevated temperatures, which predicts the mechanical behaviour and failure modes observed in the experimental tests including the bolt stripping failure. The material was modelled considering ductile damage initiation and evolution featured in ABAQUS/Standard. This study demonstrates that thick end plates can prevent stripping failure which significantly improves the rotational capacity of the connection. This failure mode can develop readily with thin end plates; however the effect is often unrealistically mitigated through idealised experimental tests. The rotational capacity of a connection can be 5.0 times higher if stripping failure is avoided, particularly at elevated temperatures. Eurocode 3 part 1.8 does not consider the possibility of stripping failure when discussing the requirements for plastic analysis. It is concluded in the present study that by allowing for the possibility of bolt stripping, the mode of failure can often shift from end plate failure to bolt stripping, this in turn significantly reduces the connection rotational capacity. The effect of bolt stripping failure on the ductility of steel end plate beam-column connections has received relatively little investigation to date.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2022-0009
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Travelling fire in full scale experimental building subjected to open
           ventilation conditions

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      Authors: Ali Nadjai , Naveed Alam , Marion Charlier , Olivier Vassart , Xu Dai , Jean-Marc Franssen , Johan Sjostrom
      Abstract: In the frame of the European RFCS TRAFIR project, three large compartment fire tests involving steel structure were conducted by Ulster University, aiming at understanding in which conditions a travelling fire develops, as well as how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. Influence of the travelling fire on the structural elements was also monitored during the travelling fire tests. This paper provides details related to the influence of travelling fires on a central structural steel column. The experimental data are presented in terms of the gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment near the column, as well as the temperatures recorded in the steel column at different levels. Because of the large data, only fire test one results are discussed in this paper.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Modelling concrete slabs subjected to localised fire action with OpenSees

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      Authors: Mhd Anwar Orabi , Jin Qiu , Liming Jiang , Asif Usmani
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete slabs in fire have been heavily studied over the last three decades. However, most experimental and numerical work focuses on long-duration uniform exposure to standard fire. Considerably less effort has been put into investigating the response to localised fires that result in planarly non-uniform temperature distribution in the exposed elements. In this paper, the OpenSees for Fire framework for modelling slabs under non-uniform fire exposure is presented, verified against numerical predictions by Abaqus and then validated against experimental tests. The thermal wrapper developed within OpenSees for Fire is then utilised to apply localised fire exposure to the validated slab models using the parameters of an experimentally observed localised fire. The effect of the smoke layer is also considered in this model and shown to significantly contribute to the thermal and thus thermo-mechanical response of slabs. Finally, the effect of localised fire heat release rate (HRR) and boundary conditions are studied. The analysis showed that boundary conditions are very important for the response of slabs subject to localised fire, and expansive strains may be accommodated as deflections without severely damaging the slab by considering the lateral restraint. This work demonstrates the capabilities of OpenSees for Fire in modelling structural behaviours subjected to non-uniform fire conditions and investigates the damage pattens of flat slabs exposed to localised fires. It is an advancing step towards understanding structural responses to realistic fires.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behavior of hot-dip zinc-aluminum coated steel under elevated temperature
           in case of fire

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      Authors: Thomas Pinger , Martin Mensinger , Maria-Mirabela Firan
      Abstract: Based on the advantages of conventional hot-dip galvanizing made from quasi-pure zinc melts in the event of fire, this article aims to perform a series of tests to verify whether a similar effect can be achieved with zinc-aluminum coatings. The emissivity of galvanized surfaces, which were applied to steel specimens by the batch hot-dip galvanizing process, was experimentally determined under continuously increasing temperature load. In addition to a quasi-pure zinc melt serving as a reference, a zinc melt alloyed with 500 ppm aluminum and thin-film galvanized with a melt of zinc and 5% aluminum were used. For the latter, variants of post-treatment measures in terms of a passivation and sealing of the galvanizing were also investigated. The results show that lower emissivity can be achieved at higher temperatures by adding aluminum to the zinc melt and thereby into the zinc coating. The design values required for the structural fire design were proposed, and an exemplary calculation of the temperature development in the case of fire was carried out based on the values. The result of this calculation indicates that the savings potential becomes apparent, when using zinc-aluminum coatings. The presented novel tests describe the behavior of zinc-aluminum coatings under the influence of elevated temperatures and their positive effect on the emissivity of steel components galvanized by this method. The results provide valuable insights and information on the performance in the event of fire and the associated potential savings for steel construction.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2022-0005
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Proposal of steel stress-strain relationships and simple analytical models
           of beams considering strain-rate effects at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Fuminobu Ozaki , Takumi Umemura
      Abstract: In this study, engineering stress-strain relationships considering an effect of strain rate on steel materials at elevated temperatures were formulated and a simplified analytical model using a two-dimensional beam element to analytically examine the effect of strain rate on the load-bearing capacity and collapse temperature was proposed. The stress-strain relationships taking into account temperature, strain, and strain rate were established based on the past coupon test results with strain rate as the test parameter. Furthermore, an elasto-plastic analysis using a two-dimensional beam element, which considered the effect on strain rate, was conducted for both transient- and steady-state conditions. The analytical results agreed relatively well with the test results, which used small steel beam specimens with a rectangular cross-section under various heating rates (transient-state condition) and deformation rates (steady-state condition). It was found that the bending strength and collapse temperature obtained from the parametric analyses agreed relatively well with those evaluated using the effective strength obtained from the coupon tests with strain equal to 0.01 or 0.02 under the fast strain rates. The effect of stress degradation, including the stress-strain relationships at elevated temperature, was mitigated by considering the effect of strain rate on the analytical model. This is an important point to consider when considering the effect of strain rate on steel structural analysis at elevated temperatures to maintain analytical stability unaccompanied by the stress degradation.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2022-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Some recent developments and testing strategies relating to the passive
           fire protection of concrete using intumescent coatings: a review

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      Authors: Matt Ghiji , Paul Joseph , Maurice Guerrieri
      Abstract: In the present article, the authors have conducted a review on some of the recent developments given in the literature pertaining to the passive protection of concrete structures using intumescent coatings. Here, the main thrust is placed on the spalling phenomenon of concrete elements when exposed to elevated temperatures and fires. In this context, it has been long established that prolonged thermal insult on concrete members will lead to egress of water, both physically bound as well as those present as water of hydration within the concrete matrix, in the form of steam through microchannels and associated pathways of least resistance, often resulting in the flaking of the surface of the structure. The latter process can ultimately lead to the exposure of the ferrous-based reenforcement elements, for instance, to higher temperatures, thus inducing melting. This, in turn, can result in substantial loss of strength and load-bearing capacity of the structural element that is already undergoing disintegration of its base matrix owing to heat/fire. Even though spalling of concrete structures has long been recognized as a serious problem that can often lead to catastrophic failure of infrastructures, such as buildings, bridges and tunnels, the utility of intumescent coating as a mitigation strategy is relatively new and has not been explored to its fullest possible extent. Therefore, in the latter parts of the review, the authors have endeavored to discuss the different types of intumescent coatings, their modes of actions and, in particular, their wider applicability in terms of protecting concrete elements from detrimental effects of severe or explosive spalling. Given that spalling of concrete components is still a very serious issue that can result in loss of lives and destruction of critical infrastructures, there is an urgent need to formulate better mitigating strategies, through novel means and methods. The use of the intumescent coating in this context appears to be a promising way forward but is one that seems to be little explored so far. Therefore, a more systematic investigation is highly warranted in this area, especially, as the authors envisage a greater activity in the building and commissioning of more infrastructures worldwide incommensurate with augmented economic activities during the post-COVID recovery period. The authors have conducted a review on some of the recent developments given in the literature pertaining to the passive protection of concrete structures using intumescent coatings. The authors have also included the results from some recent tests carried out at the facilities using a newly commissioned state-of-the-art furnace.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2021-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behaviour of thin flush end-plate connections in a 3D bare steel frame
           under fire loading: experimental study

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      Authors: Seyed Vahid Khonsari , Shahin Nejati , Mohammadreza Rahdan , Mahdi Ahmadi
      Abstract: The paper aims to report a fire test conducted on a three-dimensional frame in order to investigate the behaviour of bare steel flush end-plate connections with relatively low thickness at elevated temperatures. A half-scale model was fabricated and exposed to modified (scaled) ISO 834 heating curve using a semi-open furnace. The maximum temperature inside the furnace reached 1,026 °C. The rotations of connections are reported and compared with those of a previous study on an exactly the same model with thick end-plates. Various modes of failure such as local buckling of the beams flanges and lateral-torsional buckling of beams were observed during the test. Finally, the structure collapsed after 29 min of heating due to the fracture of weld between one of the beams and one of its attached end-plates whilst the other beam had undergone a maximum deflection of 35 cm (≈ 1/6 span length). Other observed failure modes included bolt fracture, bolt thread stripping and large inelastic deformation of the end-plates. Although the adoption of thin end-plates increased the rotational capacity of the connections, it did not improve the robustness of the structure under fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Tension stiffening model for the finite element analysis of composite
           floor systems exposed to fire

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      Authors: Jason Martinez , Ann Jeffers
      Abstract: A methodology for producing an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model is presented. The energy-based stress–strain model of plain concrete developed by Bažant and Oh (1983) was extended to the elevated-temperature domain by developing an analytical formulation for the temperature-dependence of the fracture energy Gf. Then, an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model was developed based on the modification of the proposed elevated-temperature tension softening model. The proposed tension stiffening model can be used to predict the response of composite floor slabs exposed to fire with great accuracy, provided that the global parameters TS and Kres are adequately calibrated against global structural response data. In a finite element analysis of reinforced concrete, a tension stiffening model is required as input for concrete to account for actions such as bond slip and tension stiffening. However, an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model does not exist in the research literature. An approach for developing an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model is presented.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Residual properties of alkali-activated slag concrete exposed to elevated
           temperatures

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      Authors: Virendra Kumar , Rajesh Kumar Paswan
      Abstract: This paper attempted to study the alkali-activated (AA) binder consisting of 94% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and 6% of blended powder of alkali metal hydroxide and metal sulfate, which acted as an activator. Several concrete specimens (cubes, cylinders and prisms), which were casted using AA binders, were further tested for mechanical properties after exposure to elevated temperatures of 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Additionally, to understand the structural behavior in uniaxial compressive load, reinforced concrete short columns were cast, cured and tested at ambient temperature as well as after exposure to 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C, to know the residual strength after exposure to elevated temperature. The findings for the residual strength of alkali-activated slag binder concrete (AASBC) indicated a substantial agreement with the results obtained for the residual strength of Portland slag cement (PSC) concrete, thereby showing the effectiveness of binder when used as a replacement of cement. The study clearly indicates that the binder developed is an effective approach for the 100% replacement of cement in the concrete.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behavior of RC flat plate structure subjected to compartment fires

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      Authors: Khadejah Alameen Abouleiwun , Hazem M.F. Elbakry , Muhammad Ahmed Diab , S.F. El-Fitiany
      Abstract: In this study, the behavior of a multi-story flat plate structure during fire exposure is investigated using numerical simulations conducted with using ABAQUS software. A three-dimensional finite element model is then carried out on the RC flat slab structure exposed to standard ISO-834 fire at different location arrangements. The model examines mid-span deflection, shear demand on the columns, bending moment and the membrane action of the floor slab. The latter plays a main role to increase the capability and ductility of the slab at longer fire exposure to compensate the reduction in the flexural capacity. Also, shear demand in columns becomes bigger in cases of more than one surrounding slab exposed to fire at the same time. This work focuses on the influence of the horizontal force on columns due to thermal expansion of slab which should be taken into account in the design of multistory multi-bay building considering it the same as the resulted horizontal force from the wind and seismic effect, the traveling fire and the restraint effect.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2021-0012
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the fire performance of unprotected composite beams with
           fin-plate joints

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      Authors: Naoya Yotsumoto , Takeo Hirashima , Koji Toyoda
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the fire performance of composite beams when considering the hogging moment resistance of the fin-plate beam-to-girder joints including the effect of continuity of reinforcements. Experiments on composite beams with fin-plate joints protected only at the beam ends are conducted. The test parameter is the specification of reinforcement, which affects the rotational restraint of the beam ends. In addition, a simple method for predicting the failure time of the beam using an evaluation model based on the bending moment resistance of the beam considering the hogging moment resistance of the fin-plate joint and the reinforcement is also presented. The test results indicate that the failure time of the beam is extended by the hogging moment resistance of the joints. This is particularly noticeable when using a reinforcing bar with a large plastic deformation capability. The predicted failure times based on the evaluation method corresponded well with the test results. Recent studies have proposed large deformation analysis methods using FEM that can be used for fire-resistant design of beams including joints, but these cannot always be applicable in practice due to the cost and its complexity. Our method can consider the hogging moment resistance of the joint and the temperature distribution in the axial direction using a simple method without requirement of FEM.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Emissivity of hot-dip galvanized surfaces in future development of EN
           1993-1-2

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      Authors: Batuhan Der , Sylvie Raszková , František Wald , Gisèle Bihina , Christian Gaigl , Vasile Rus , Mikko Malaska
      Abstract: This study aims to propose a new design value, based on experimental and numerical studies, for surface emissivity of zinc hot-dip galvanized members exposed to fire. The paper sums up experiments, used specimens and also shows results. Four experiments were performed in a horizontal furnace and one test in a fire compartment of the experimental building. Several tests were carried out for determination of the surface emissivity of galvanized steel structures in fire. The experimental and numerical studies were used for preparation of new generation of the structural steel fire standard Eurocode EN 1993-1-2:2025. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most widely used processes for corrosion protection of steel products. The new design value for surface emissivity of zinc hot-dip galvanized members exposed to fire is determined using experimental results as 0.35. The value is proposed for next generation of EN 1993-1-2:2025. If hot-dip galvanization additionally can contribute beneficially to the fire resistance of unprotected steel members, it would be a huge economic advantage. Experimental studies in the past years have indicated the influence of hot-dip galvanizing on the heating of steel members. This study suggests 50% reduction of the surface emissivity of a carbon steel member. This amendment will be incorporated in future versions of Eurocodes 3 and 4 and has already been implemented in some fire design tools for steel members in order to consider the beneficial contribution of hot-dip galvanized for fire-resistance requirements of less than 60 min.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2021-0070
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of mechanical properties and post-fire cured strength recovery
           of recycled aggregate concrete

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      Authors: N. Suresh , Vadiraj Rao , B.S. Akshay
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the suitability of post-fire curing for normal and Recycled Aggregate Concretes (RAC) with and without fibres. The study includes the testing of RAC specimens, i.e. 150 mm cubes and cylinders with 300 mm length and 150 mm diameter with hybrid fibres (0.15% polypropylene fibres + 0.35% steel fibres) along with fly ash. The specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures between 400 to 700°C with 100°C intervals for 2 h of duration and the post-fire exposed samples were further subjected to water curing for a period of 7 days. The compressive strength, split tensile strength and Rebound Hammer Number (RHN) were measured at room temperature, after exposure to elevated temperatures and post-fire curing. The result shows that the compressive strength reduces by a maximum of 61.25% for 700°C and maximum retain in strength, i.e. 71.2% (in comparison to specimens kept at room temperature) is observed for 600°C post-fire cured specimens. The split tensile strength reduces by more than half for 500°C and above temperatures, whereas 400°C specimens exhibits a significant regain in strength after post-fire curing. To validate the results of compressive strength, the Rebound Hammer test has been conducted. The RHN value decreases by 41.3% for 700°C specimens and the effectiveness of post-fire curing is observed to be considerable up to 500°C. The conclusions from the study can be used in assessing the extent of damage and to check the suitability of post-fire curing in further continuing the utilisation of a fire damaged structure. Utilisation of secondary materials like recycled aggregates and fly ash can be made in the production of concrete. Specimens with fibres performed better when compared to specimens without fibres and post-fire curing is found to be effective up to 500°C.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0064
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Finite element analysis of lightweight concrete-filled LSF walls exposed
           to realistic design fire

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      Authors: Irindu Upasiri , Chaminda Konthesingha , Anura Nanayakkara , Keerthan Poologanathan , Gatheeshgar Perampalam , Dilini Perera
      Abstract: Light-Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilized in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The applicability of lightweight concrete filling as cavity insulation in LSF and its effect on the fire performance of LSF are investigated under realistic design fire exposure, and results are compared with standard fire exposure. A Finite Element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the fire performance of Light Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) walls exposed to realistic design fires. The model was developed utilising Abaqus subroutine to incorporate temperature-dependent properties of the material based on the heating and cooling phases of the realistic design fire temperature. The developed model was validated with the available experimental results and incorporated into a parametric study to evaluate the fire performance of conventional LSF walls compared to LSF walls with lightweight concrete filling under standard and realistic fire exposures. Novel FEM was developed incorporating temperature and phase (heating and cooling) dependent material properties in simulating the fire performance of structures exposed to realistic design fires. The validated FEM was utilised in the parametric study, and results exhibited that the LSF walls with lightweight concrete have shown better fire performance under insulation and load-bearing criteria in Eurocode parametric fire exposure. Foamed Concrete (FC) of 1,000 kg/m3 density showed best fire performance among lightweight concrete filling, followed by FC of 650 kg/m3 and Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) 600 kg/m3. The developed FEM is capable of investigating the insulation and load-bearing fire ratings of LSF walls. However, with the availability of the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the LSF wall, materials developed model could be further extended to simulate the complete fire behaviour. LSF structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel-lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilised in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel idea that could be practically implemented in the construction, which would enhance both fire performance and the mechanical performance of LSF walls. Limited studies have investigated the fire performance of structural elements exposed to realistic design fires. Numerical models developed in those studies have considered a similar approach as models developed to simulate standard fire exposure. However, due to the heating phase and the cooling phase of the realistic design fires, the numerical model should incorporate both temperature and phase (heating and cooling phase) dependent properties, which was incorporated in this study and validated with the experimental results. Further lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel technique in which fire performance was investigated in this study.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0066
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Fire resistance of partially encased composite columns subjected to
           eccentric loading

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      Authors: Abdelkadir Fellouh , Abdelkader Bougara , Paulo Piloto , Nourredine Benlakehal
      Abstract: Investigate the fire performance of eccentrically loaded concrete partially encased column (PEC), using the advanced calculation method (ANSYS 18.2, 2017) and the simple calculation method in Annex G of Eurocode 4 (EN 1994-1-2, 2005). This work examines the influence of a range of parameters on fire behaviour of the composite column including: eccentricity loading, slenderness, reinforcement, fire rating and fire scenario. In this study, ISO-834 (ISO834-1, 1999) was used as fire source. Currently, different methods of analysis used to assess the thermal behaviour of composite column exposed to fire. Analytical method named simplified calculation methods defined in European standard and numerical simulations named advanced calculation models are treated in this paper. The load-bearing capacity of the composite column becomes very weak in the presence of the fire accident and eccentric loading, this recommends to avoid as much as possible eccentric loading during the design of construction building. The reinforcement has a slight influence on the temperature evolution; moreover, the reinforcement has a great contribution on the load capacity, especially in combined compression and bending. When only the two concrete sides are exposed to fire, the partially encased composite column presents a high load-bearing capacity value. The use of a three-dimensional numerical model (ANSYS) allowed to describe easily the thermal behaviour of PEC columns under eccentric loading with the regard to the analytical method, which is based on three complex steps. In this study, the presence of the load eccentricity has found to have more effect on the load-bearing capacity than the slenderness of the composite column. Introducing a load eccentricity on the top of the column may have the same a reducing effect on the load-bearing capacity as the fire.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-09-2021-0057
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Behavior of thermo-mechanically treated rebar exposed to elevated
           temperatures

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      Authors: Bishwajeet Choubey , Virendra Kumar , Sekhar Chandra Dutta , Saurav Kumar Saikia
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to mathematically model and predict the characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) rebar when subjected to elevated temperatures. Data were collected from a few selected studies for developing the constitutive relations. Using the exposed temperature and the duration of heating as independent variables, the empirical relations were developed for determining the changes in mechanical properties of TMT rebars at elevated temperatures. Recrystallization of TMT rebar crystals took place around 500 °C, which led to a decrease in the dislocation density along with the increase of large-sized grains, resulting in the degradation of strength. Up to a temperature range of 500 °C, the normalized fracture strength was higher, while the normalized fracture strain is not so high. This indicated a failure of brittle nature. This is an original work done by others as a study to theoretically predict the mechanical behavior of TMT rebars when exposed to elevated temperature. The TMT bars showed brittleness characteristics up to 500 °C and showed ductility characteristics after that on account of its recrystallization and extensive tempering of the outer martensitic rim around that temperature.The comparison between the super ductile (SD) TMT and the regular TMT exhibit shows that the SD-TMT bars were about 1.5 times more ductile than the normal ones.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Fire performance of hybrid mass timber beam-end connections with
           perpendicular-to-wood grain reinforcement

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      Authors: Oluwamuyiwa Okunrounmu , Osama (Sam) Salem , George Hadjisophocleous
      Abstract: The fire resistance of timber structures is heavily dependent on the fire behaviour of the connections between its structural elements. The experimental study presented in this paper aimed to investigate the fire performance of glued-laminated timber beam connections reinforced perpendicular-to-wood grain with self-tapping screws (STS). Two full-size fire experiments were conducted on glulam beam-end connections loaded in flexure bending. Two connection configurations, each utilizing four steel bolts arranged in two different patterns, were reinforced perpendicular to wood grain using STS. The bolt heads and nuts and the steel plate top and bottom edges were fire protected using wood plugs and strips, respectively. Each connection configuration was loaded to 100% of the ultimate design load of the weakest unreinforced configuration. The test assemblies were exposed to elevated temperatures that followed the CAN/ULC-S101 standard fire time–temperature curve. The experimental results show that the influence of the STS was significant as it prevented the occurrence of wood splitting and row shear-out and as a result, increased the fire resistance time of the connections. The time to failure of both connection configurations exceeded the minimum fire resistance rating specified as 45 min for combustible construction in applicable building codes. The experimental data show the effectiveness of a simple fire protection system (i.e. wood plugs and strips) along with the utilization of STS on the rotational behaviour, charring rate, fire resistance time and failure mode of the proposed hybrid mass timber beam-end connection configurations.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Journal of Structural Fire Engineering

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