Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)

Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted alphabetically
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Artifact : Journal of Design Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Design Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Sustainable Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Survey, Appraisal & Valuation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Design, Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Interior Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Res Mobilis : Revista internacional de investigación en mobiliario y objetos decorativos     Open Access  
Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Indoor and Built Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.525
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-326X - ISSN (Online) 1423-0070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Effect of ceiling fan in mitigating exposure to airborne pathogens and
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Brijesh Pandey, Sandip K Saha, Rangan Banerjee
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Ceiling fans are the ubiquitously used electrical appliance in indoor spaces that affect the local airflow pattern and, consequently, transmission of airborne pathogens and respiratory droplets. This study numerically investigated the effect of airflow induced by the ceiling fan and ventilation rate on aerosol distribution to mitigate exposure to airborne pathogens and COVID-19. A full-scale room with a ceiling fan, natural ventilation and an occupant was modelled through transient computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD). To analyze the relationship between the ceiling fan rotation speed and the aerosol distribution, a ceiling fan was operated with 160, 265 and 365 revolutions per minute (RPM). The effect of the ceiling fan on particles was analyzed for particles of different sizes. The increasing ceiling fan rotation speed, the percentage deposition of the aerosol particles with diameters>40 μm was increased. The effect of different ventilation rates on aerosol distribution was evaluated. The increased ventilation rate, the percentage of the total aerosol particles flushed out was increased. The effectiveness of the mask in mitigating the exposure risk of airborne pathogens was also investigated. In combination with the natural ventilation and mask, the ceiling fan was demonstrated to have the potential to reduce airborne pathogen transmission in indoor spaces.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T03:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231154011
       
  • Environmental exposure and infants health

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      Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Chen Huang, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T02:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231154985
       
  • Comparative analysis of light environment perception, eye movement and
           physiology in university professional classroom based on virtual reality
           experiment

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      Authors: Xiaohui Du, Sijia Zhao, Dazhao Zhang, Yue Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, virtual reality technology was used to simulate the virtual scene of three common light environment forms of professional classrooms in universities. The experimental results show that people’s environmental perception is related to the average pupil diameter, saccade frequency, high frequency/low frequency (LF/HF) and skin conductance change rate in a combined light environment; moreover, when the colour temperature is 4500 K, the space is brighter, more spacious, more relaxed and the willingness to learn is stronger. In the range of 22.4°C–25°C, temperature does not affect people’s perception of the warm feeling of the light environment, while the light colour temperature has a greater impact on people’s perception of the warm feeling. The lower the light colour temperature is, the warmer people feel subjectively. However, people’s eye movement behaviour and physiological system data have no obvious perception of colour temperature changes. Indoor noise affects the indoor brightness perception to some extent. In the range of 43–46.9 dB, with the increase of noise value, the evaluation score of people’s brightness perception basically increases. In terms of learning psychological state, the more comfortable the light environment is, the stronger the willingness to learn and the higher the learning enthusiasm.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T01:51:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231153922
       
  • Faecal indicator bacteria on indoor floors linked to exterior sidewalk
           contamination in New York City

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      Authors: Alessandra C Leri, Marjan Khan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although sources of faecal pathogens abound in urban environments, faecal bacteria on city streets remain largely unquantified. The extent to which faecal pathogens transfer between outdoor and indoor environments is also poorly understood. We use defined substrate analysis to quantify enterococci and coliform faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) on interior floor surfaces in a New York City institutional building, on shoe soles of building occupants and on exterior sidewalks. Enterococci and faecal coliforms are ubiquitous on interior floors, varying with foot traffic and floor surface type. Mean enterococci counts are highest in the heavily trafficked building entryway compared with less trafficked interior locations, and counts are significantly higher on carpets than on adjacent uncarpeted flooring. Enterococci and faecal coliforms appear on shoe soles of building occupants as well. Susceptibility of shoe sole bacteria to antimicrobial agents is commensurate with that of cultivated E. coli, E. faecalis and S. aureus strains. In pooled rainwater on city sidewalks, enterococci average 31,000 per 100 mL. Overall, our evidence indicates ubiquity of FIB on sidewalks, a translocation pathway via shoe soles and accumulation on indoor floor surfaces, particularly carpeted areas. These findings present ample opportunity for human exposure to faecal pathogens in the indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T09:03:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231153566
       
  • Investigation on the indoor environment during a whole cooking process
           under constant make-up air organization in a Chinese-style residential
           kitchen

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      Authors: Yu Liu, Chong Li, Hongqiang Ma, Jiankai Dong
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A large amount of heat and particles generated from cooking have a negative impact on occupants’ thermal comfort as well as the indoor environment in the kitchen and adjacent rooms. Although heat generation rate and emission strength of particles are largely affected by oil temperature and cooking duration, there is a lack of quantification on the impact of the indoor environment during the whole cooking process. This study applies a computational fluid dynamics method to simulate air temperature, velocity and particle distribution in a kitchen and indoor environment during a 10-min and after 2-min cooking process with constant make-up air organization from window opening in a Chinese-style residential kitchen. User-defined function was defined for dynamic oil temperature and emission rate based on experimental results from previous studies and was interpreted in FLUENT for transient simulation within 12 min. Results indicate that heat spread remarkably after 30 s of oil heating. Air temperature experienced an increase of about 10.0°C around the occupant during the whole cooking process. For particle distribution, a large variation in the kitchen was observed after 4 min. Particle concentration in an indoor environment was increased dramatically after 6 min. Further studies on the transmission mechanism of heat and particles from the kitchen space to an adjacent room under different cooking scenarios are needed for the design and control of kitchen ventilation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T01:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231152554
       
  • Domestic overheating risks and mitigation strategies: The state-of-the-art
           and directions for future research

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      Authors: Mousa Alrasheed, Monjur Mourshed
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Anthropogenic climate change will likely put dwellings at risk of overheating and potentially increase cooling demand in the decades ahead, leading to higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the energy consumed for mechanical cooling. Contemporary constructions with highly insulated fabric have been found to suffer from periodic overheating in today’s climate, the occurrence of which is projected to increase in frequency as the temperature rises. This critical review investigates the factors affecting overheating risks in dwellings and passive cooling strategies to mitigate overheating impacts on occupant thermal comfort and wellbeing. The cooling efficiency of passive strategies is affected by the design, construction and operation of buildings, as well as climate and occupancy. A framework has been developed to illustrate the effect of overheating factors on the cooling efficacy of passive strategies. Findings suggest that a combination of passive strategies is required to minimise overheating risks by the 2080s. External solar shading is the most effective method for retrofitting insulated dwellings. On the other hand, cool paint is ideal for uninsulated dwellings. In addition, thermal mass and natural ventilation require occupant interaction for optimal air circulation and cooling performance.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T11:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231153856
       
  • Evaluating the objective and subjective physical environments of
           residential care facilities

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      Authors: Jingyi Mu, Jian Kang, Sui Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this research was to explore the objective and subjective physical environments of residential care facilities (RCFs) by studying 34 facilities in Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang and Dalian. A study that combines questionnaires and instrumental testing. Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were used to analyse the correlation between the measured value and the evaluation result and the impact on the results of the participants’ personal background evaluations. The results showed that the brightness intensity ranged from 100 to 450 cd/m2, illuminance 200–550 lx and sound pressure level (SPL) 40–58 dBA. In reconstructed RCFs (RCFs converted from other buildings), the odour and other factors were significantly positively correlated with the satisfaction of participants. Seasonal changes had a significant impact on the level of different physical environments, particularly in the assessment of the thermal environment. Temperatures were highest in bedrooms, reaching 27°C. The correlation between the measured value and the evaluated satisfaction was high. The education level of participants was related to their satisfaction with the overall Indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Participants in the study were satisfied with the overall IEQ of the RCFs. These results can provide data-based support and act as a reference for IEQ research on RCFs.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T03:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231152561
       
  • Factors to consider in the performance evaluation of an air purifier using
           an airborne virus (Phi-X174) in a large chamber

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      Authors: Jung Hoon Lee, Hwan Kim, Hyoung-il Kim, Kook Hyun Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Devices for the filtration and sterilization of indoor spaces have been widely used owing to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a need for a standard method to test the effectiveness of such devices. In this study, we aimed to identify important factors that must be considered while evaluating the efficiency of air purifiers in a large chamber. Investigation of the distribution characteristics of airborne viruses in the large chamber show that they were evenly distributed. Natural (gravitational) reduction of airborne viruses in the large chamber was also investigated. We found that the airborne-virus removal efficiency of an air purifier in a large chamber should be evaluated after 40 min for better accuracy because the concentration of airborne viruses rapidly decreased within the first 40 min and the settling velocity reduced after 40 min. In addition, the minimum standard deviation of airborne-virus removal efficiency of air purifier was 1.9% with a natural reduction time of 40 min. Moreover, the sampling efficiencies of three types of samplers were compared. The impactor showed the highest sampling efficiency (4.8 × 104–5.1 × 104 PFU/m3-min) and a small standard deviation (0.9 × 104 PFU/m3-min).
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-14T12:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231151863
       
  • Influence of the climate change on natural ventilation use in residential
           buildings in the tropical island of Mauritius

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      Authors: Bibi Najiah Kaudeer, Santaram Venkannah
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal performance of buildings highly depends on the climate conditions, which have given rise to several traditional and modern climate-conscious strategies. However, these strategies might need to be modified to cater for global warming. This research considers the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) to predict the effectiveness of one such strategy, that is, natural ventilation for the year 2100 for the tropical island of Mauritius. A total of 3 regions (Port Louis, Vacoas and St Pierre), each with distinctive micro-climates, were selected to assess the thermal discomfort levels under future climate scenarios (RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). The results show that, in 2100, discomfort levels during occupancy periods will increase by a maximum of 15% in Port Louis, while the other 2 regions will have an increase of 11%, under the worst scenario, while using natural ventilation. Results, thus, establish that natural ventilation will not be efficient under the impact of climate change, although varying for different climate conditions. This research indicates that there is a need to shift from natural ventilation as traditional cooling method to other energy driven method such as Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC system) and hybrid mixed-mode systems for future climate change adaptation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T01:29:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231151857
       
  • Dehumidification performance improvement by using liquid desiccant blends
           – An experimental study

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      Authors: Shiva Kumar, Subhransu S Parida, Nitesh Kumar
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To minimize global warming and consumption of electricity, a desiccant-based air conditioning system has been proposed as a better alternative to control air humidity, compared to the conventional air conditioning system. In the present study, the performance of the hybrid desiccant was compared with the pure LiBr and KCOOH solution. Blends of LiBr and KCOOH at different weight ratios were used as desiccants. The performance of the system was compared based on its moisture removal rate and dehumidification effectiveness. The performance of the system increased with increasing desiccant flow rate, the concentration of the solute and the airflow rate. From the tested concentrations, the blend of 40% LiBr and 10% KCOOH concentration showed the highest MRR and dehumidification effectiveness among all blends of LiBr and KCOOH. From the study, it can be concluded that by using an optimized blend of LiBr and KCOOH as a desiccant in place of neat LiBr, the limitations of pure LiBr can be partly resolved without sacrificing much on the dehumidification performance.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T08:52:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X231151435
       
  • Monitoring summertime indoor overheating and pollutant risks and natural
           ventilation patterns of seniors in public housing

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      Authors: Ioanna Tsoulou, Ruikang He, Jennifer Senick, Gediminas Mainelis, Clinton J Andrews
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor heat and air pollution pose concurrent threats to human health and wellbeing, and their effects are more pronounced for vulnerable individuals. This study investigates exposures to summertime indoor overheating and airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) experienced by low-income seniors and explores the potential of natural ventilation on maintaining good indoor thermal conditions and air quality (IAQ). Environmental and behavioural monitoring and a series of interviews were conducted during summer 2017 in 24 senior apartments on three public housing sites in NJ, USA (1930s’ low-rise, 1960s’ high-rise and LEED-certified 2010s’ mid-rise). All sites had high exposures to overheating and PM2.5 concentrations during heat waves and on regular summer days, but with substantial between-site and between-apartment variability. Overheating was higher in the 30s’ low-rise site, while pollutant levels were higher in the 60s’ high-rise. Mixed linear models indicated a thermal and air quality trade-off with window opening (WO), especially in some ‘smoking’ units from the older sites, but also improved both thermal and PM2.5 concentration conditions in 20% of the apartments. Findings suggest that with warmer future summers, greater focus is needed on the interdependencies among (1) thermal and IAQ outcomes and (2) technological and behavioural dimensions of efforts to improve comfort for vulnerable occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T08:03:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221148728
       
  • Factors affecting indoor environmental air quality of non-smoking
           residences in Perth, Western Australia

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      Authors: Suzanne E Gilbey, Christopher M Reid, Yun Zhao, Mario J Soares, Krassi B Rumchev
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated associations between a range of indoor air pollutants with household characteristics in 111 non-smoking residences located in Perth, Western Australia. Overall, the mean 24-hour indoor concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5 were below and above the World Health Organisation (WHO) (ambient) guideline values (GV) of 45 µg/m3 and 15 µg/m3, respectively. Concentrations of measured gases were low, other than nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which recorded a mean 24-hour concentration above the WHO GV (0.013ppm). Higher concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were observed as the number of household occupants increased. The type of heating and/or cooling appliances used was associated with higher concentrations of TVOC, CO2, carbon monoxide (CO), NO2 and all size fractions of particulate matter (PM). Households that were opened daily for fresh air recorded higher concentrations of all PM size fractions and NO2 when compared to those that were infrequently aired. These findings contribute to a better understanding of household characteristics that influence indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes where cigarette smoke, a significant contributor to residential air pollution, has been eliminated. These results are useful for modifying some behavioural choices by home occupants and can also inform meaningful risk mitigation strategies aimed at improving IAQ in residential settings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T08:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221149288
       
  • Airborne migration behaviour of SARS-CoV-2 coupled with varied air
           distribution systems in a ventilated space

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      Authors: Seongju Chang, Prapavee Karunyasopon, Minh Le, Dong Yoon Park, Hojong Chang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Air distribution system could critically affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission in indoor space; therefore, this study aims at demonstrating numerical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 migration with varied air distribution system configurations. Seven cases were investigated regarding three major aspects: how fast suspended particles can be removed from the ventilated space or changed into deposited particles; how much particles are attached to various object surfaces which leads to an infection by touching fomite. All cases were analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Both different shapes (round or linear diffusers) and installation locations (ceiling or floor) of inlet and outlet diffusers were investigated. Results showed that different air distribution system would lead to different dispersion profiles of infectious particles and different deposition pattern of particles on interior surfaces. With the same air flow rate, linear-diffuser would perform better for CO2 extraction while requiring less time to remove or collide the same magnitude of suspended droplets compared to round-diffuser. However, how quickly removed or suspended droplets collide is not proportional to how less the number of total particles are remained. Two additional cases with double sized space possessing best ventilation configuration were also examined to explore potential application of the best-ventilated configuration to various spatial expansion cases.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T10:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221148084
       
  • Driving factors and models of window opening behaviour in Xi’an
           residential buildings

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      Authors: Jiali Liu, Ying’an Wei, Qinglong Meng, Yu Lei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Window opening behaviour is an important factor which affects the consumption of building energy. Finding out the driving factors and establishing an accurate model for window opening behaviour can improve the accuracy of the simulation of building energy consumption. However, the window opening behaviour is affected by various driving factors and has strong uncertainty, which brings difficulties for the dynamic simulation of building energy consumption. Residential buildings that were chosen had a similar number of residents, and indoor and outdoor environmental parameters and states of the windows were monitored for one year in Xi’an. The multi-factor variance method was used to analyse the influence of environmental factors, and logistic regression and back propagation neural network models were established for different seasons. The study found that the window opening frequency in the bedroom is higher than in the living room. The driving factors which affect window opening behaviour vary with seasons, and indoor and outdoor temperatures and humidity are the dominant factors. The accuracy of the proposed BP neural network models is above 70%, and the area under curve value is all above 0.7. These models can provide theoretical support for the modelling of the residential building in Xi’an.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T04:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221148730
       
  • Experimental study on the thermal performance of radiant floor heating
           system with the influence of solar radiation on the local floor surface

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      Authors: Jiacheng Zheng, Tao Yu, Bo Lei, Chen Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In some buildings with radiant floor systems for heating, solar radiation can irradiate the local floor surface, causing overheating and affecting the heating performance of the radiant floor. In this paper, an experiment was carried out to study the thermal performance of radiant floor partially irradiated by solar radiation. Results show that the solar radiation can promote the heat transfer from the irradiated floor to the room and reduce the heat transfer from the hot water to the floor. Compared with the cases without the solar radiation, the heat transfer from the hot water to the floor was reduced from 131.8 W/m2 to 79.7 W/m2 and the heating capacity of radiant floor surface was increased from 128.0 W/m2 to 402.8 W/m2 with the solar radiation on one third of the floor surface and the absorbed intensity of 456.2 W/m2. With the same irradiation area, if the solar radiation irradiated at the centre of the floor, the reduction effect on the heat transfer from the hot water was more obvious. Based on this experiment, these results can be used to evaluate the thermal performance of irradiated radiant floor, and are beneficial to the design of heating systems.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T04:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221148729
       
  • Studying occupant’s heat exposure and thermal comfort in the kitchen
           through full-scale experiments and CFD simulations

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      Authors: Maohui Luo, Junjie Guo, Xiwen Feng, Wenhua Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated kitchen heat exposure and thermal comfort through full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Experiments were conducted in a kitchen-style climate chamber with three stove conditions, three exhaust flowrates of range hood, three external conditions and three makeup air sources. CFD simulations were conducted accordingly to explore more nuances aspects of kitchen thermal environment. The experimental results showed that as the existence of a high-temperature stove, the air temperatures around the cooking staff, the net thermal radiations and local skin temperatures at exposed body parts increased significantly during the cooking period. External conditions and the makeup air source can significantly affect thermal distributions across the kitchen space and the heat exposures around the cooking staff. By adding partitions, using induction cooktops, and turning on the kitchen air conditioner can help to reduce cooking staff’s heat exposure from the gas-burning stove. The CFD simulations were consistent with the measured experimental results. The heat exposure in the cooking zone is shown to be dominated by horizontal thermal asymmetry. The occupants’ thermal comfort in the kitchen can be improved if the makeup air source came from the cooler side with a higher flowrate of range hood.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-12-22T09:59:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221147161
       
  • A review on indoor environmental quality in sports facilities: Indoor air
           quality and ventilation during a pandemic

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      Authors: Dadi Zhang, Marco A Ortiz, Philomena M Bluyssen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Because of COVID-19, the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in sports facilities has been a concern to environmental health practitioners. To develop an overall understanding of the available guidelines and standards and studies performed on IEQ in sports facilities, an extensive literature study was conducted, with the aim of identifying: (1) indicators that are being used to assess IEQ in different sports facilities; (2) indicators that are potentially interesting to be used to assess indoor air, in particular; (3) gaps in knowledge to determine whether sports facilities are safe, healthy and comfortable for people to stay and perform their activities. The outcome indicates that most current standards and previous investigations on IEQ in sports facilities mainly focused on dose-related indicators (such as ventilation rate), while building-related indicators (such as ventilation regime) and occupant-related indicators (such as IEQ preferences) were rarely considered. Little attention is given to the fact that ventilation systems may play an important role in the air quality of the location, and few investigations have been performed on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This study recommends more research into both occupant and building-related indicators as well as cross-modal effects between various IEQ factors for developing future standards on sports facilities.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-12-21T02:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221145862
       
  • The study of pleat geometry on the air filtration performance

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      Authors: Jing Ee Yit, Bee Teng Chew, Yat Huang Yau
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fibrous filter media is typically pleated to increase effective filtration area, but the pleat geometry could influence the filtration performance. The previous work focused on the pleat geometry numerically and mainly limited to the cartridge filters with small pleats while the study on the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) filters is limited. In this study, a full-size pleated fibrous air filter was used to investigate the effect of pleat geometry on the filtration performance experimentally with reference to the air filter test standard, ISO 16890. The pleat geometry was found to have an insignificant effect on the filtration efficiency. The optimum pleat ratios are 13.08–14.57 for minimum initial pressure differential and 9.96–11.75 for optimal specific resistance coefficient of dust cake, [math]. The overall optimum pleat ratio range is 13.08–14.57 to obtain an optimal filtration performance at low initial pressure differential and low [math] while attaining a high dust holding capacity. The findings of current work were obtained by a comprehensive study on the filtration performance including the clean and dust-loaded states of the HVAC filters, at the actual operating velocity and could be directly applied in the actual filter depth selection based on the AHU’s space limitation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T03:43:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221145413
       
  • Effect of a novel personal comfort device on occupants’ perceptual
           responses in three warm indoor environments

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      Authors: Bin Yang, Wei Su, Zhengtao Ai, Faming Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Personal comfort devices (PCDs) are widely used in air conditioning rooms to improve occupants’ thermal comfort and save energy. However, when used in practical applications, the current PCD has many flaws; for example, it is often based on a single heat transfer mode and covers a small stimulation area, as well as can only be used in a single season. To solve the aforementioned issues, a novel personal comfort device was proposed. Sixteen college students were recruited to investigate the effect of the novel PCD on occupants' perceptual responses at three different room temperatures (26°C, 28°C and 30°C), as well as the temperatures and velocities around the face and abdomen areas. Results showed that using the novel device could provide airflow to the face and abdomen areas at a temperature 2°C cooler than room temperature. At 26°C, 28°C and 30°C, subjects’ overall thermal sensation was reduced by 0.5, 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. Meanwhile, subjects’ overall thermal comfort was significantly improved while allowing them to freely adjust the device’s airflow rate. Eighty-eight percent of subjects accepted a room temperature of 28°C, and almost no dry eye discomfort was reported. At 28°C, the novel device could provide energy-efficient thermal comfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T03:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221145860
       
  • Effects of injection styles on heating performance of a heat pump with
           

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      Authors: Lina Zhang, Qiu Tu, Xiaoyuan Yuan, Xiaogang Wu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The performance improvement of heat pump depends on the appropriate injection style such as liquid injection, vapour injection and two-phase injection. In this work, experimental and theoretical investigation on the heat pump with R410A refrigerant reveals three kinds of injection styles can be selectively achieved in the same injection device by suitable control of the sub-cooling electronic expansion valve. Liquid injection and vapour injection improve the heating capacity (Qh), mainly due to the increase of heat exchange in the sub-cooler and compressor compression work, respectively. Two-phase injection lifts the Qh owing to these two effects. Subsequently, the effect of two-phase injection on improving the heat pump performance is superior to the other two injection styles. For instance, the maximum Qh were 14.4 kW at 60 rps with the liquid injection, 12.5 kW and 13.4 kW at 85 rps with vapour injection and two-phase injection, and 8.1%, 7.0% and 18.3% higher than those without injection, respectively. The corresponding coefficient of performance was improved by 10.4%, 4.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the model based on the pressure-enthalpy diagram has been developed to analyze the experimental results and expound the main factors affecting the heat pump performance under different ambient temperatures.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T03:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221137509
       
  • The urgency and challenge of improving indoor environment quality in rural
           regions of China

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      Authors: Li Bai, Xinru Liu, Chunhui Li, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T01:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221143193
       
  • Heat storage technologies for driving clean heating in China

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      Authors: Xiao Liu, Tong Wei, Chuck Yu, Xi-Lian Luo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T08:27:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221140977
       
  • The effect of moisture transfer on heat transfer of roof-wall corner
           hygrothermal bridge structure

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      Authors: Yingying Wang, Kang Liu, Yu Tian, Ying Fan, Yanfeng Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to effects of moisture transfer, the hygrothermal bridge could be developed at building corners, and increase the thermal conductivity of building materials. Three different types of roof-wall corners (ring beam, double beam column and shear wall structure) were studied. When considering moisture transfer, effects of different air states, structural types and wall materials on the thermal performance of the hygrothermal bridge were evaluated and heat losses of the structure were compared. Given the periodic boundary conditions, the dynamic thermal response of the hygrothermal bridge after moisture transfer was analysed. Among three types of corners, the increase of heat flow through the most detrimental point of the ring beam structure corner was the largest (34.7%) after considering moisture transfer. The heat flow loss rate of the shear wall structure was the lowest (15.2%). When clay brick was used at the corner rather than aerated concrete for walls, a lower proportion of latent heat flow and higher (8.6%) heat flow loss rate were shown after considering moisture effects. Furthermore, the dynamic thermal response was influenced by multi-dimensional and moisture effects. The time lag was reduced with increasing humidity, while the thermal bridge effects increased the deterioration of the time lag.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221140994
       
  • Application of CPMV* for improving the indoor thermal environment under
           global solar radiation

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      Authors: Huan Zhang, Deyi Duan, Xueqing Yang, Wandong Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The impacts of solar radiation on indoor thermal comfort are growing with the popularity of curtain walls in modern constructions. In order to accurately assess indoor thermal comfort under global solar radiation, a previous study proposed a corrected predicted mean vote with global solar radiation (CPMV*) and validated the model in summer. To further investigate the year-round applicability of the model, field experiments were conducted in transparent envelope buildings in winter, and 1098 valid thermal responses were obtained. The results indicate that CPMV* fits well with the thermal sensation vote, and it has important applications in guiding the design of indoor thermal environments and the operation of ventilation and air conditioning systems throughout the year. Besides, the predicted percentage dissatisfied with global solar radiation and the percentage unacceptable are proven to be feasible in evaluating the thermal acceptability of buildings with solar radiation. Based on CPMV*, we can calculate the indoor thermal comfort zone matching various solar radiation intensities and reasonably regulate the actual operation of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The indoor thermal environment exposed to solar radiation would be significantly improved by these findings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T04:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221140299
       
  • Opportunities for improved space heating energy efficiency from fluid
           property modifications

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      Authors: Andy M Williams, Daniel T Innerdale
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Unsteady behaviour of hydronic heating systems causes higher mean room temperatures than are required for comfort. Peak room temperatures depend on interactions between thermostats, heat emitters and the room. The importance of fluid properties on such unsteady heating is often misunderstood meaning potential energy savings are overlooked. This paper demonstrates the influence of fluid modifications and indicates a plausible magnitude of the energy saving opportunity. The results showed that fluid side heat transfer coefficient in isolation had negligible effect. Specific heat capacity of the fluid and flow rates were important, as they altered the amount of embedded energy in the heat emitter when thermostat conditions were met. Reductions in mean heating power for steady demand conditions were between 0 and 7% for plausible changes to fluid properties, depending on heat emitter size, room insulation and external temperature. Reductions in individual cycle energy were between 5 and 25%. When considered in the context of intermittent finite duration heating events, those that contained a small number of thermostat cycles demonstrated energy savings that tended towards the reductions in individual cycle energy. Heating events with larger numbers of cycles showed energy savings tending towards the reduction in mean heating power.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T02:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221139094
       
  • Occupant’s thermal comfort in a radiant ceiling cooling room with
           hot wall surface

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      Authors: Xiaozhou Wu, Genglin Liu, Zhen Tian, Jie Gao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A radiant ceiling cooling (CC) system integrated with a mechanical ventilation system was extensively applied in a modern office in a glass curtain wall building. Thermal comfort in a radiant ceiling cooling room with mixing ventilation (MV) or underfloor air distribution (UFAD) was investigated by objective measurements and subjective questionnaires. The external wall surface temperature and mean radiant temperature were 33.9–34.6°C and 27.2–27.4°C, respectively, with a heat transfer of 41.5 W/m2 from the external wall and 37.8–38.6°C and 27.4–28.2°C with a heat transfer of 69.5 W/m2 from the external wall. The indoor air velocity in the occupied zone was 0.17–0.23 m/s in the room with CC+MV and 0.09–0.16 m/s in the room with CC + UFAD. There was a considerable difference between occupants’ thermal perceptions with different distances away from the external wall. Both the ventilation system type and hot wall surface temperature did not influence occupants’ overall thermal perceptions, but their local thermal sensation and skin temperature. The results suggest that the impacts of ventilation system type and hot wall surface temperature on occupants’ local thermal response should be considered during the design of a radiant ceiling cooling system combined with a mechanical ventilation system.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T07:50:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135315
       
  • Program for propriety analysis of global warming potential caused by the
           operational energy consumption of buildings in Korea

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      Authors: Hyunsik Kim, Hyeongjae Jang, Sungho Tae, Jeonghwan Kim
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Various studies have reported that energy consumption in the operation stage in the life cycle of a building has the largest impact on global warming. However, suggesting appropriate practical directions for reducing global warming potential (GWP) is challenging owing to the absence of appropriate standards for GWP according to building energy consumption. In South Korea, environmental data of various buildings have been accumulated based on building life cycle assessment, conducted by adhering to the G-SEED standard for many years. This study aimed to develop a program that can support sustainable design by evaluating the appropriateness of GWP in the building operation stage in a simple manner and consequently suggest directions for efficiently reducing GWP passively or actively. To develop the program, first, GWP standard models were derived for each building’s energy use and source. Subsequently, a program, E2C, was built to assess the appropriateness of GWP emissions according to the energy effective area ratio from the building to be assessed, for each energy use and source, by employing the derived standard models. Finally, the applicability of the proposed program was examined through a case study and it was confirmed that design directions for securing the appropriateness of GWP could be suggested through E2C. Consequently, E2C has the potential to be used in the design stages of sustainable buildings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T11:03:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221137699
       
  • In-train particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations: Level,
           source, composition, mitigation measures and health risk effect – A
           systematic literature review

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      Authors: Muhsin K Otuyo, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Talib Latif, Lip Huat Saw
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Exposure of commuters to pollutants on trains has been an essential topic of discussion in recent years due to its health implications. This review summarizes literature that measures particulate matter (PM) in trains to understand the concentration levels and health effects caused due to exposure. The databases searched were Scopus, Web of Science (WOS) and Google Scholar. Articles, conference papers and textbooks written in English, measuring PM in train carriages and published between 1998 and 2022 were selected for this review. Out of the 3247 articles identified, only 73 were included in this study. 15/20 articles agreed that concentration is significant at the underground segment by a factor of 7 than the counterpart above/ground levels. The review observed that 80% of the publication of in-train concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the WHO standard. In-train PM2.5 concentration ranges from 2 μgm−3 to 563 μgm−3, and in-train PM10 concentration ranges from 6 μgm−3 to 997 μgm−3. People’s activities, mechanical movement of train parts, train operation conditions and local emissions were the primary source of PM. Future research should focus on health damage due to PM exposure and the effect of the filtration system on PM levels in trains.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T09:48:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221131947
       
  • Indoor radon concentration measurements in workplaces and their impact on
           health risk assessment

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      Authors: Filomena Loffredo, Maria Quarto
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Radon is the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. In Italy, very little has been investigated to determine occupational radon exposure in workers. In this study, radon concentrations of various workplaces type were measured for 1 year using SSNTD CR-39. Q–Q plot and Shapiro–Wilks statistical test showed that radon concentrations are not log-normally distributed. The geometric mean of radon concentration was found to be 97 Bq/m3 with a geometric standard deviation of 3. The mean effective dose to workers has been calculated and found to be 1.4 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per year per million have been calculated.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T03:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135840
       
  • Modelling of hazardous chemical gas building ingress and consequence
           analysis during a leak accident

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      Authors: Mei Wu, Guang-Wei Zhang, Zi-Ying An, Xiao-Ping Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Leakage of hazardous chemical gases during storage or transport via roadways is a common type of accident that threatens human life. This study built a typical residential building model in rural areas of southern China based on Building Information Model technology. The model was then simplified and employed as a target building to simulate the hazardous gas dispersion around it after a leak accident by means of Computational Fluid Dynamic methods. A dose-response model was combined with a probit function analysis to quantitatively identify the exposure risks for different scenarios. The impacts of source location and ventilation path on the dispersion characteristics were analyzed through comparisons of indoor concentration distributions. In addition, the study also quantified the relationship between individual mortality risk and the source intensity by employing H2S as a source of toxic substances. If the source strength was increased by 2.5 times for the same ventilation path, the corresponding mortality rates can improve from 0.1 to 99%. The findings provide effective information about rapid consequence evaluation after accidental leakage of hazardous chemical gas and could be helpful in proposing effective emergency measures to minimize the exposure risk in roadside buildings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T04:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221137244
       
  • Optimal design of residential balcony based on environmental benefit: A
           case study in hot summer and cold winter area of China

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      Authors: Qing Yang, Nianping Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The aggravation of the greenhouse gas emission-resulted climate change poses a significant challenge to the world. In response to the urgent need for significantly more sustainable societies, this paper develops a protocol for the optimal design of residential balcony based on environmental benefits in the case study of China’s hot summer and cold winter area. The study utilized ROI and AY as environmental performance indicators for decision-making scheme investment and EnergyPlus to simulate the A/C energy-saving potential of considered balcony design schemes. The literature and experiment validation results show that EnergyPlus with Shadow Algorithm is reliable for studying the energy consumption of residence with balcony. The added embodied environmental impact of the different design schemes was estimated, and the idea of life cycle assessment was used for quantitative evaluation of the carbon emissions of the balcony. The results show the depth of 1.2 m suits the south/north-facing balcony, and a big window-wall ratio of 0.6 was the most beneficial in the environmental performance of the balcony investment. When the balcony is attached to different rooms, the environmental profitability is influenced by the factors such as occupancy behaviour and balcony environmental investment. The attached room type of residence on a case-by-case basis should be analyzed.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T09:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221136212
       
  • Ventilation Efficiency According to Tilt Angle to Reduce the Transmission
           of Infectious Disease in Classroom

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      Authors: Ji Hong Chung, Sunuk Kim, Dong Kee Sohn, Han Seo Ko
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding of the droplet transmission of respiratory diseases is necessary to control the outbreak of COVID-19. HVAC systems considering droplet transmission are commonly used to prevent numerous respiratory diseases by reducing indoor virus concentrations. The transmission of the virus was directly related to indoor flow patterns generated by HVAC systems. Thus, a study on operating conditions such as direction or the tilt angle was required. In this study, the effective ventilation rate and probability of droplet transmission according to the tilt angle of supply air and the number of people were studied. A CO2 tracer gas method was used to validate the results of simulations. The breathing plane and personal respiratory zone were introduced for the probability of droplet transmission. The result showed that ventilation performance showed 17% of the maximum difference among tilt angles. Various turbulent kinetic energies were obtained according to the seated positions, resulting in non-uniform CO2 concentration. Numerous conditions were examined with locational analysis of individuals. As a result, the flow rates for ventilation were recommended to be higher than 250 m3/h and 350 m3/h with a tilt angle of 60° for an occupancy of 8 and 16 people, respectively.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T05:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135829
       
  • The building plan automatic design optimization based on CFD numerical
           intelligent simulation

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      Authors: Yangluxi Li, Lei Chen, Guangyao Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To apply the thermal comfort to the optimization of building layout, a variable design method based on Kmeans clustering is proposed. The evaluation was based on numerical simulation, genetic algorithm and universal thermal climate index (UTCI) to implement the building layout optimization on Matlab. Finally, the building layouts with centralized type, decentralized type and edge flow type water configuration were optimized, respectively. The results show that after the optimization, a reduction of 0.1∼0.6°C of UTCI was observed. We concluded that under moderate heat stress, the increase in wind velocity is the key to thermal comfort improvement.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T12:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221134981
       
  • Physical activity environment inside and outside school and youth fitness:
           A spatial analysis at the level of elementary school attendance zone in
           Georgia

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      Authors: Jue Yang, Janani Rajbhandari-Thapa, Lan Mu, Donglan Zhang, Kiran Thapa
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigates the spatial correlation between built and natural environments that promote physical activity (PA) and children’s fitness. Previous work has been conducted on various geographic scales such as from a county level. However, evaluations from a school attendance zone level, which are the policy and program administration units for schools, have yet to be investigated. Using a factor analysis, 24 PA-related environmental variables were reduced to six environmental factors and then run factors with geographically weighted regression (GWR) at the level of the elementary school attendance zones (ESAZ) in Georgia. The outside-school environmental factors (park, recreation, terrain, nature and camping) and inside school environmental factor (school PA time) were constructed by ESAZ. We found that of all the PA environment factors, the most highly associated with promoting PA and children’s fitness were inside-school PA environment. The outside factors of the park and terrain environment indicated strong local geographic variation in youth health. The result showed local variation in the association between PA environment and fitness among elementary school children in Georgia and highlighted the geographically customized efforts for different regions’ policy changes to improve child health.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T01:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135337
       
  • A comprehensive effectiveness study of passive design parameters for
           traditional dwellings in Qinba mountainous area

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      Authors: Ziliang Lu, Juan Xu, Weijun Gao, Chaoping Hou, Yulin Hao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional dwelling has achieved harmony between building and climatic environment, which is one of the most significant prerequisites for sustainability. In this study, Liyuanba traditional dwellings were selected as the representative traditional dwellings in southwestern part of Qinba mountainous area, and passive design strategies extracted from traditional dwellings were utilized to improve its indoor thermal comfort. This research presents an approach in which the energy simulation, orthogonal arrays and range analysis were integrated to analyze the sensitivity of each passive parameter to overall energy-saving performance and to determine how energy consumption can be minimized by the optimal combination of them. The optimized passive strategy could reduce the annual energy consumption of the simulated dwelling by 65.1% compared with that of the original one and increase the indoor air temperature and mean radiation temperature by 4.31°C and 4.35°C in winter, respectively, meeting the requirements of the design standard for energy efficiency for rural residential buildings (GB/T50824-2013). Through the systematic study of passive parameters in the southwestern part of Qinba mountainous area, the optimal combination of passive design strategies could be utilized for the renovation of traditional dwellings to improve the building energy performance under the premise of satisfying the indoor thermal comfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T06:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135069
       
  • Planning for sustainable and ecological urban environment: Current trends
           and future developments

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      Authors: Junqi Wang, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-21T08:49:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221135758
       
  • Predicting airtightness using differential pressure in actual climate
           conditions: Theory and implementation

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      Authors: Seunghwan Park, Sowoo Park, Sungmin Yoon, Doosam Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a new method for predicting the airtightness of a building envelope by using pressure differences that naturally occur in high-rise buildings. The background and principle of the proposed method, which uses the relationship between pressure difference and airflow, are described. The proposed method was validated by applying it to a 42-storey residential building. The differential pressure generated in the building under actual climatic conditions was measured twice during the winter season. Based on the measured pressure difference data, the airtightness of the building envelope was predicted, and those predicted values were compared with detailed measurements taken using the blower door test method. The results show that the difference between the predicted and directly measured airtightness of the building envelope for the upper floors (36th and 42nd floors), where the differential pressure was relatively large, did not differ significantly. Where the differential pressure across a building component formed by the indoor/outdoor temperature difference, the building height, and the distance from the neutral plane of the analyzed building was more than 50 Pa, the results predicted using the method proposed in this study were valid.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T11:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221131949
       
  • Predicted mean vote model for thermal comfort evaluation of pregnant women
           considering the effects of metabolic rate

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      Authors: Weilan Wu, Zhaosong Fang, Xiangfei Ji, Zhimin Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, on-site measurements of the summer air-conditioning environment in obstetric clinics of six hospitals in Guangzhou, China, and subjective questionnaire surveys of pregnant women regarding hot and humid environments were carried out. A total of 723 valid questionnaires were obtained. In order to determine the appropriate metabolic rate, three methods were used in this study to obtain three different metabolic rate values, including ASHRAE 55-2020 for healthy adults in a sedentary state 1.0 met, pregnant women after 5 months of pregnancy 1.2 met based on medical tests and the resting metabolic rate of pregnant women 0.66 met. Linear fitting was performed with three predicted mean votes (PMVs) and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The mean TSV (MTSV) and PMV models were established to estimate the actual thermal neutral value (25.3°C) and the predicted thermal neutral value (26.1°C) for pregnant women. The PMV model for pregnant women was linearly corrected, and the corrected PMV model coincided with the actual thermal sensory MTSV model. The corrected PMV estimate was 0.60 PMV + 0.17, and the corrected thermal neutral estimate was 25.3°C. Finally, a simplified model of the relationship between the PMV for pregnant women and the relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, wind speed and air temperature was obtained.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T03:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221130473
       
  • Air pollution characteristics and human health risk assessment of
           underground parking garages in Xi’an, China

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      Authors: Jianyue Wang, Yuyan Huang, Yanan Bo, Yue Zhang, Liyuan Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the rapid increase of population density and automobile vehicle numbers in mega-cities, large underground garages have become universal supporting facilities to meet the demand for parking spaces in the recently-built commercial complexes and high-rise residential communities. Natural ventilation was insufficient to discharge vehicle-induced pollutants out of the enclosed underground spaces, which could pose a potential threat to people’s health. This study aims to determine the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of pollutants concentration and the health risk of underground parking garages (UPGs)’ staff and users. Field measurements were conducted on the air pollutants concentrations and the users’ exposure characteristics in 11 commercial UPGs and three high-rise residential UPGs with natural ventilation in Xi’an. The pollutants concentrations were higher in the afternoon and morning of commercial and high-rise residential UPGs. In general, the particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10), HCHO, TVOC and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) concentrations in commercial and residential UPGs were 0.069/0.067 mg/m³, 0.12/0.097 mg/m³, 0.014/0.017 mg/m³, 1.8/1.8 mg/m³, 0.056/0.10 mg/m³, 0.19/0.29 mg/m³ and 0.41/0.49 mg/m³, respectively. TVOC and BTEX concentrations in UPGs significantly correlated with traffic volume (p < 0.01). In different groups, the entropy values of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were: staffs> children travelling with adults> adults. In particular, occupational long-term (employee) exposure could lead to both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T11:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221131951
       
  • Airtightness evaluation of Canadian dwellings and influencing factors
           based on measured data and predictive models

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      Authors: Maysoun Ismaiel, Maged Gouda, Yong Li, Yuxiang Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The airtightness of buildings has a significant impact on buildings’ energy efficiency, maintenance and occupant comfort. The main goal of this study is to provide an evaluation of the air leakage characteristics of dwellings in different regions in Canada. This study evaluated the key influencing factors on airtightness performance based on a large set of measured data (73,450 dwellings located in Canada with 11 measurement parameters for each). Machine learning models based on multivariate regression (MVR) and Random Forest Ensemble (RFE) were developed to predict the air leakage value. The RFE model, which shows better results than MVR, was used to evaluate the effect of the ageing of buildings. Results showed that the maximum increase in air leakage occurs during the first year after construction – approximately 25%, and then 3.7% in the second year, after which the increase rate becomes insignificant and relatively constant – approximately 0.3% per year. The findings from this study can provide significant information for building designs, building performance simulations and strengthening standards and guidelines policies on indoor environmental quality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T02:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221121519
       
  • Vulnerable or resilient' The response of informal settlements to
           COVID-19: The case of urban village communities in Beijing

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      Authors: Ying Dong, Shunyi Wang, Aiping Lin, Fang Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has brought topics of the impact, response and adaptation of cities in emergencies to the forefront. When compared with formal settlements, the problems faced by informal settlements are more prominent. We propose the framework of an actor-network theory, substantiated by an empirical study of three typical informal settlements in Haidian District, Beijing, in which the process, characteristics and internal mechanism of the spatial reconstruction of the informal settlements in response to COVID-19 are closely scrutinised. Human actors such as local governments, community volunteers, landlords, tenants and non-human actors all participated in the response to COVID-19 according to their goal vision and political logic, with the local government as the core driving force, forming an integrated actor network. Rooted in the special locality of informal settlements, the actor network was both hierarchical and flexible, and its inherent dynamism has proven to be efficient during COVID-19, resulting in social adaptation and spatial reconstruction. This study contributes to the cautiously optimistic estimate of similar urban community resilience in terms of global epidemics and enriches the understanding of their interlacing dynamics from the perspective of spatial reconstruction.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T10:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221125860
       
  • Adaptability of traditional villages as tourist destinations in Yellow
           River Basin, China

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      Authors: Fang Wang, Xingguang Zhao, Yanxian Qiu, Jie Luo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Tourism has become an indispensable aspect of rural development. For traditional villages with historical and cultural importance, whether the development of tourism had led to traditional villages being restricted or supported needs to be studied. Taking 684 traditional villages in the Yellow River Basin in China as an example, we used Adaptive Cycle Theory to construct an index system and explored the adaptability of Chinese traditional villages in terms of undergoing development for tourism by describing the spatiotemporal coupling and evolution process of village adaptation. Then, we constructed a binary logistic regression model to measure the adaptation differences for villages providing different tourism services. The results showed that from 2000 to 2018, the social adaptability of traditional villages tended to deteriorate and was spatially and regionally different. Compared with the traditional villages without tourism, in villages where tourism has been developed, the adaptability of villages dominated by agriculture is poor. Villages dominated by traditional national culture and ecological leisure agriculture showed higher adaptability. By exploring the adaptation model and evaluating the technological development of traditional villages, we provide support for enhancing the interaction between the external and internal resources of tourism-oriented traditional villages.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T08:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126056
       
  • Effects of indoor low humidity on eye discomfort and associated
           physiological responses in soft contact lens and non-lens wearers

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      Authors: Kanoko Ito, Satoru Takada
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Eye discomfort due to dryness is one of the major complaints reported in indoor spaces. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of low humidity on eye discomfort in soft contact lens (SCL) and non-CL wearers. In addition to subjective sensations, physiological parameters related to eye discomfort including tear-film parameters and blink patterns were comparatively evaluated between relative humidities of 10% and 45% at 23°C. For both the SCL and non-CL wearer groups, low humidity had a significant effect on some of the measured physiological parameters. The SCL group showed lower ocular surface temperature and larger temperature differential after blinking at 10% relative humidity (RH) than that at 45% RH, indicating faster tear evaporation. Furthermore, their tear films tended to be thinner and have a shorter break-up time at 10% RH than at 45% RH. The non-CL group showed a significantly higher blink frequency and longer eye-closure time at 10% RH than at 45% RH, presumably as a compensatory response to the disturbance of the tear film due to low humidity. These results suggest the importance of humidity control in indoor spaces in terms of tear-film quality, which contributes to eye discomfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T02:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126352
       
  • Investigation of the indoor environment of a passive house office building
           under cold climate in China

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      Authors: Yueer HE, Fei HAN, Lingmin ZHAO, Shuanggen LI
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzed the applicability of the Passive House standard to office buildings in northern China from an indoor environment perspective. The case building has been auto-monitored continuously since 2017 and a survey for instantaneous and retrospective appraisal of indoor environmental conditions was administered in 2021 during the summer, winter and months in between, referred to as ‘transition months’. The results show that indoor environment quality was good, with high satisfaction levels and ultra-low energy consumption; overheating and the need for window opening were observed. The prevalence of sick building syndrome was reduced compared to conventional buildings. This work further determined how comfort parameters such as perceived thermal comfort, indoor air quality and acoustics could affect end-users’ appraisal. Findings show that indoor thermal comfort design parameters, particularly in summer, are critical factors affecting users' satisfaction in Passive Houses. We further examined the feasibility of the PMV-PPD index for predicting occupants’ perceived comfort and suggested deriving the preferred thermal comfort design parameters for the Chinese market, using long-term data and measurements. These findings provide insights into the localization of Passive Houses in China, thereby improving the acceptance of Passive Houses in what is expected to be a fast growing market.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T02:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126011
       
  • A global challenge of accurately predicting building energy consumption
           under urban heat island effect

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      Authors: Miao Yang, Haorui Wang, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T01:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221123222
       
  • Influence of learning-space enclosure on attention in undergraduate
           students measured by eye-tracking technology

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      Authors: Chao Liu, Xiaotong Jing, Yalin Zhang, Weijun Gao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although the use of enclosed learning space appears to influence both attention and learning in undergraduates, this issue has rarely been investigated. This study used four types of desktop spaces with different degrees of enclosure, namely, unenclosed, enclosed on one side, enclosed on two sides and enclosed on three sides, with enclosure degrees of 0, 25, 50 and 75%, respectively. Subjective evaluations, attention tests and eye tracking were used to analyze the effects of the four types of enclosure on attention in 38 undergraduates. Subjective evaluations showed that the three-sided enclosure was favoured by 52.63% of the undergraduates, 84.21% of which considered that it contributed to improved attention. The objective data showed that quiz times were shortened by 25.95% in unenclosed spaces compared with 75%-enclosed spaces, with increases in the mean pupil diameter, area of interest attention and target fixation rate of 11.36, 8.15 and 6.89%, respectively. These results indicated that the attention level increased in correspondence with the degree of enclosure of the learning space and that highly enclosed spaces were more conducive to attention and learning in undergraduates. This suggests that relatively closed spaces should be recommended to learning institutions to improve the learning efficiency of undergraduates.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T01:13:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221122654
       
  • The impact of low-carbon policy on green manufacturing development

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      Authors: Qian Liu, Weiming Liang, Charlie Chan, Yuqiang Cao, Meiting Lu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In September 2020, China announced its intentions to reach peak carbon emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 (known as the ‘30–60’ greenhouse gas reduction goals). With a focus on China’s pilot low-carbon city initiative, this paper adopts the difference-in-differences approach to examine the effect of low-carbon policies on the green development of China’s manufacturing industry. The findings show that the implementation of low-carbon policies could significantly reduce pollutants and improve productivity. The results hold after a battery of robustness tests. Further analysis shows that the effect of low-carbon policies on the emissions reduction of larger taxpayers is more pronounced, suggesting that including low-carbon policies as a part of the government’s performance assessment weakens the opportunistic behaviour of local governments in pursuing economic growth at the expense of the environment. It also finds that manufacturing firms typically do not respond to the policy in a negative way (by limiting or reducing production) but instead achieve positive emissions reduction by increasing resource recycling. The findings of this paper provide empirical evidence and policy implications to support the government expanding its low-carbon policies to a national level to mitigate climate change and achieve green manufacturing development.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221121061
       
  • Ceiling displacement ventilation system in an experimental theatre: A
           method to optimize thermal comfort

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      Authors: Fujing Wan, Sujie Liu, Huan Zhang, Wandong Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Compared to traditional theatres, experimental theatres have a lower floor height and the lights are closer to the audience. The large vertical temperature gradient caused by the underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system extremely impairs thermal comfort. Thus, an improved method by introducing the ceiling displacement ventilation (CDV) system was evaluated. CFD models of the experimental theatre were established and verified by field tests. The influence of designing and operation parameters of the CDV systems on thermal comfort was investigated. Effects on energy consumption and air quality were also analyzed to improve application feasibility. The results indicated that the increment of air temperature at the audience head (AHA temperature) was reduced by 51.0% with the help of the CDV system. Thermal comfort was improved as the installation height was extended higher. Furthermore, under constant total air supply rate, the AHA temperature of the last row was decreased with the increase in the air supply ratio of the UFAD to CDV systems (RUtoC), and the total power consumption was declined by 3.1% through adjusting RUtoC compared to the traditional UFAD system. Additionally, the air quality could be significantly improved. The results are helpful to the design and operation of HVAC systems in experimental theatres.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T10:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221119334
       
  • Perceptual difference of urban public spaces between design professionals
           and ‘laypersons’: Evidence, health implications and ready-made urban
           design templates

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      Authors: Liyan Xu, Yichi Zhang, Fu Li, Jie Yin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Urban Public Spaces (UPS) are important arenas for human interaction and social activities, and ensuring their quality and functionality is crucial for a successful urban design with public health benefits. However, mostly for insufficient public participation, user experiences of UPS are usually not what the designers were expecting. Therefore, the urgent need to investigate the difference in UPS perception between design professionals and ‘laypersons’, that is, non-professional users, has been increasingly highlighted. In this paper, we utilize Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and physiological measurement tools to obtain empirical observations on the psychological and physiological responses, as well as environmental preferences on UPS of the two groups, compare their perceptual similarities and differences, and consequently analyze the influencing factors and potential mechanisms. We find that the environmental perception of the two groups do differ, with design professionals showing a higher degree of ‘intolerance’ in the quality rating of UPS, and being more sensitive to scene features related to necessary than spontaneous and social activities. The findings reveal structural differences for the two groups in the mechanisms by which environmental features trigger perceptual differences, thus providing new support for designers to prepare ready-made UPS design templates that are evidence-based.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T10:26:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221116318
       
  • Exploring the possibility of using CO2 as a proxy for exhaled particles to
           predict the risk of indoor exposure to pathogens

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      Authors: Dadi Zhang, Philomena M Bluyssen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Airborne transmission has been confirmed as one of three principal ways of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 indoors, understanding the distribution of respiratory droplets (or aerosols) present in human breath seems therefore important. To study whether the CO2 concentration can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles present in an occupied space, the distribution of particles with different diameters (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 μm) and CO2 concentrations were monitored in a classroom setting with six healthy subjects. Additionally, numbers of particles with the same sizes were measured in the breath of the same six healthy subjects separately. Results showed that (1) on the contrary to CO2, the main source of indoor particles came from outdoor air, and not from occupants; (2) the impacts of ventilation regimes on indoor particle numbers were different to the impacts on CO2 concentrations; and (3) almost no significant relationship between the number of indoor particles and CO2 concentration was observed. Based on these results, this study could therefore not conclude that the CO2 concentration in a classroom can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles by the occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T09:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110043
       
  • Characterization and size distribution of initial droplet concentration
           discharged from human breathing and speaking

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      Authors: Shihai Pan, Chunwen Xu, Chuck Wah Francis Yu, Li Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A study of the aerodynamic characteristics of aerosol expiration is important for understanding the size distribution of droplet concentration in COVID-19 disease transmission. This study measured the initial concentration and size distribution of droplets released during four breathing processes: nose breathing, mouth breathing, reading alphabets and counting numbers. Influencing factors on droplet generation were studied by statistical analyses. Significant differences in droplet concentration among the four breathing activities in pairs were found (p < 0.001), except for reading alphabets and numbers (p = 1). The droplet concentration during nose breathing (p < 0.05), but not mouth breathing (p = 0.136), of male subjects, was found significantly higher than that of female subjects. The droplet concentration generated by speaking during letters reading with special phonemes, for example, /i:/, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than reading letters without phonemes. The discharged droplet sizes from four breathing activities were dominated by small droplets (dp < 1.037 μm of over 50% and dp < 2.642 μm of over 80%). Basically, no particles larger than 8 μm were detected by the aerodynamic particle sizer. The inference indicates a possible aerosol transmission of disease during non-symptomatic aerosol-producing activities such as breathing or speaking and may elucidate the disease transmission pathway of COVID-19.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110975
       
  • Does the marine environmental carrying capacity of the Yellow Sea’s
           large marine ecosystem maintain sustainable development' – Evidence
           from Shandong China

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      Authors: Su Wang, Gang Zhou, Zhuo Chen, Daokui Jiang, Guilin Dai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Under the framework of sustainable development of the marine economy, much consideration has been given to various coastal states for the large marine ecosystem (LME) concept. The Yellow Sea LME (YSLME) is one of the most heavily exploited LMEs in the world, and its sustainable development has been heavily threatened by human activities, with negative impacts on the economies of bordering countries, such as China. With the aim of mitigating environmental threats by developing a low-carbon economy based on low pollution, low energy consumption and low emission, an index system for evaluating marine environmental carrying capacity (MECC) was established in this study based on the entropy method, and gray relation analysis (GRA) was carried out to assess the MECC of three main coastal cities (Qingdao, Yantai and Weihai) along the YSLME in China. The results verified the importance of the environmental carrying capacities (ECCs) of marine resources, marine economy and marine environmental governance for the sustainable development of the YSLME, and revealed paths for improving the MECC of the studied cities. Based on the results, suggestions for ecosystem-based management of a low-carbon economy were provided to help government departments to reasonably develop and utilize marine resources, protect the marine environment and implement sustainable development strategies.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T10:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221099121
       
  • Understanding lifetime and dispersion of cough-emitted droplets in air

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      Authors: Kai Lordly, Leya Kober, Mehdi Jadidi, Sylvie Antoun, Seth B Dworkin, Ahmet E Karataş
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To understand the exact transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 and to explore effects of time, space and indoor environment on the dynamics of droplets and aerosols, rigorous testing and observation must be conducted. In the current work, the spatial and temporal dispersions of aerosol droplets from a simulated cough were comprehensively examined over a long duration (70 min). An artificial cough generator was constructed to generate reliably repeatable respiratory ejecta. The measurements were performed at different locations in front (along the axial direction and off-axis) and behind the source in a sealed experimental enclosure. Aerosols of 0.3–10 µm (around 20% of the maximum nuclei count) were shown to persist for a very long time in a still environment, and this has a substantial implication for airborne disease transmission. The experiments demonstrated that a ventilation system could reduce the total aerosol volume and the droplet lifetime significantly. To explain the experimental observations in more detail and to understand the droplet in-air behaviour at various ambient temperatures and relative humidity, numerical simulations were performed using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The simulations show that many of the small droplets remain suspended in the air over time instead of falling to the ground.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T06:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221098753
       
  • Farmers’ livelihood strategies and sensitivity to climate change:
           Evidence from southwest China

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      Authors: Jing Lan, Biqing Song, Qiuming Li, Zhen Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although urbanization has deeply changed farmers’ livelihoods, the improvement of their adaptation to climate change is not yet particularly clear, due to many interactive pressures and complex differences in farmers’ livelihood strategies. This study uses 2-year household survey panel data from Na’Yong and Zhen’Xiong in southwest China, both of which are typically affected by meteorological disasters. First, we constructed a multi-dimensional induction of sensitivity indicators. Then, we divided farmers’ livelihood strategies and identified their sensitivity levels. Finally, we extracted the typical characteristics of farmers’ livelihood strategies that contribute to low sensitivity. The research shows that although non-agricultural labour can improve the income level of farmers, there is no clear positive relationship between farmers’ income and their sensitivity. Levels of sensitivity depend not only on the risk of farmers with a higher exposure to the natural environment but also on the ability of farmers to disperse and avoid natural risks. Livelihood strategies with lower sensitivities have three main characteristics: diversification, marketization and ecological sustainability. This study provides a practical basis for the sustainable livelihood of farmers in the context of climate change and attempts to provide a reference for other developing countries towards the end of achieving ecological poverty alleviation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T09:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097065
       
  • Informal settlements in the context of COVID-19: Pandemic restrictions and
           the building of community resilience

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      Authors: Chun Wang, Haoyi Xu, Aiping Lin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As the fundamental unit of urban governance, communities are the grassroots for responding to and facing disasters directly, and their resilience to disaster risks has garnered increasing consideration. Despite the large body of community resilience research that now exists, few studies have considered the resilience of informal settlements such as ‘urban villages’. In fact, the high density of building facilities in informal settlements, the diversity and mobility of their populations, their lack of public space and infrastructure and all kinds of managerial problems have become more prominent in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of the migrant populations and healthy living environments of informal settlements, sum up the pandemic prevention measures and their effects, study the community resilience of informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the strategies to build resilience. Our research results can be utilised to (1) enrich the content of existing community resilience research and promote the resilience of the whole city system in the face of public health events, and (2) provide a scientific basis for comprehensive management of informal settlements and optimise the living environments of migrant populations from the perspective of resilience.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097821
       
  • Improving hosts’ pre-interaction capabilities for sustainability based
           on Airbnb host content emergence characteristics

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      Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Chuang Qu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The sharing of accommodation as a sustainable environmental solution for the lodging market is prevalent all over the world. However, the rapid expansion and low occupancy rate could be due to the accommodation hosts’ lack of attention to the pre-interaction content while reducing their carbon footprint, which have caused a significant impact on guests’ decision-making and prevented sharing accommodation. To improve the host pre-interaction capabilities and achieve the environmentally friendly potential of sharing accommodation, this research aims to explore the host expression characteristics including important topics and keywords of host pre-interaction content from a symbolic interaction perspective. Conducting the latent Dirichlet allocation machine learning model, keywords clustering characteristics emerged as main topics based on 38,814 listings from Airbnb in Beijing. The result of investigating the features in these topics and the word distribution in three types of properties shows that in a homogenous accommodation community, hosts who make the pre-interaction have more orders than those who do not. At the same time, the focus of hosts on expressing explicit and abundant topic symbols can effectively increase the attractiveness of their listings. However, accommodation hosts who just post a long text but do not emphasize listing key topics would not convince guests to use the accommodation. A variety of practical implications of findings has been discussed for sharing accommodation practitioners to answer the challenge of sustainability.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097279
       
  • Predicting the infection probability distribution of airborne and droplet
           transmissions

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      Authors: Miguel Yamamoto, Akihiro Kawamura, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Satoshi Hori
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, a method is proposed to predict the infection probability distribution rather than the room-averaged value. The infection probability is predicted by considering both airborne and droplet transmissions based on CO2 concentration and the position of the occupants in a room. The proposed method was used in an actual office setting, and the results confirmed that it could provide a quantitative prediction of the infection probability by integrating the ventilation efficiency and the distance between occupants (i.e. social distancing). We verified the ability of the method to analyse the relative effectiveness of countermeasures for airborne and droplet transmissions. The proposed strategies can be implemented by a facility manager and can enable facility users to check the infection probability distribution in real-time to select a seat with the minimum risk of infection.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T01:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084869
       
  • How does industrial agglomeration affect firms’ energy consumption'
           Empirical evidence from China

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      Authors: Wei Wei, Li Zhao, ZhongXing Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Industrial agglomeration is the main engine of economic growth and also the major source of CO2 emission that can have an effect on the social well-being of people in the built environment. This paper investigates the impact of industrial agglomeration on firms’ energy consumption intensity, using Chinese industrial firm data and Chinese industrial firm pollution emission data from 1998 to 2012. We found evidence that industrial agglomeration could effectively cut down firms’ coal consumption intensity and thus reduce the CO2 emission, which shows the positive environmental externality of industrial agglomeration. This finding is robust after carefully dealing with the potential endogeneity issues, while by taking advantage of the rich variations of our dataset, we also found heterogeneous effects across firm ownership, industry and region. In mechanism analysis, we document that specialized agglomeration plays an important role in reducing firms’ energy consumption intensity, and the decline in firms’ energy consumption intensity is mainly caused by the reduction in coal consumption.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T05:02:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080671
       
  • The role of waiting area typology in limiting the spread of COVID-19:
           Outpatient clinics of Erbil hospitals as a case study

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      Authors: Faris Ali Mustafa, Shayan Shero Ahmed
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the post-healthcare context, protecting patients against pandemic diseases like COVID-19 has become designers' responsibility; the amount and effectiveness of change are unknown, particularly in terms of future design. This study explores the potential significance of waiting area typology within outpatient clinics in generating a healthy and therapeutic environment for patients and users in terms of social distancing, as well as whether there is a relationship between outpatient and the provision of social distancing. This study employed a quantitative approach based on space syntax theory, through four different syntactic maps (Isovist, Axial, Convex and Visibility Graph Analysis), to depict hospitals in Erbil city by adopting five outpatient layout typologies such as centralized and decentralized (linear, lobby, sectoral and mixed), through measuring wayfinding, accessibility, privacy, density and circulation as outpatient layout typology factors. Results identified that there is a clear effect of outpatient layout typology factors on providing social distancing especially in waiting areas, the decentralized outpatient layout represented by both sectoral and linear typologies is the most useful typology based on social distancing compared to others. Given the influential role of outpatient layout in providing a healthy and safe healing atmosphere with more social distancing for patients, research findings provide a useful resource for healthcare designers, particularly for waiting areas within outpatient clinics.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T03:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079616
       
  • Development of urban air environmental control policies and measures

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      Authors: Chen Ren, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      First page: 299
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T04:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221120380
       
  • Analysis of application status and development prospect of environmental
           chambers: A review

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      Authors: Dong Xie, Haixia Zhou, Lifeng Zhou, Chuck Wah Yu
      First page: 305
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental chambers are a kind of equipment to simulate various conventional and extreme environments, which are usually applied to create various environmental conditions and conduct various studies related to environmental parameters. Through our review of literature of the past 30 years, environmental chambers have been mainly used in the following four aspects: pollutants’ emission characterization, human thermal comfort research, products and materials development and transformation and the reaction and behaviour of other living bodies such as animals and plants. In this paper, the current application of environmental chambers is summarized based on the research objectives, conditions and technical means. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the use of environmental chambers for research and analyze the current application of environmental chambers for the future application of environmental chambers and explore the direction of its future transformation and application.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T03:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221112594
       
  • Optimization of ventilation performance of side air supply for large
           indoor spaces using deflectors and slot air outlets

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      Authors: Haorui Wang, Junqi Wang, Zhuangbo Feng, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the large height and span of indoor spaces, efficient indoor ventilation performance may be difficult to achieve using the side air supply for large halls, to control the indoor air pollutants or reduce the infection risk, such as the transmission of COVID-19 within the breathing zone of occupants. An efficient Ventilation Mode with Deflector and Slot air outlets (VMDS) was developed by this study. The use of a deflector with slot air outlets was introduced by utilizing jet collision and adhesion effect to accentuate the ventilation performance of the side air supply for the large space. The numerical simulation model used in this study was validated experimentally. The VMDS was compared with three other side air supply modes used in large spaces, and the results were evaluated comprehensively. The results show that VMDS is effective in reducing indoor air pollutant concentrations and transmission of infectious diseases in large spaces while satisfying the energy efficiency and thermal comfort requirements. Compared with the common side-supply and side-return ventilation modes, VMDS can reduce indoor air pollutant concentration by nearly 40%, reduce the transmission risk of infectious disease to less than 1% at a low air change rate and increase the ventilation efficiency from about 0.85 to about 1.2. In addition, VMDS can theoretically reduce ventilation energy consumption by about 85%.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T02:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108587
       
  • Using random forests to predict passengers’ thermal comfort in
           underground train carriages

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      Authors: Kangkang Huang, Shihua Lu, Xinjun Li, Weiwei Chen
      First page: 343
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research developed an intelligent ensemble machine learning prediction model for the thermal comfort of passengers inside the compartment of the subway. Data sources used for data-driven modelling were obtained from on-site measurements and passengers’ questionnaires in the compartments of the Nanjing subway. The four models were established using methodologies of Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT) in machine learning, respectively. The performance of the RF method was compared with DT, LR and SVM in terms of conventional statistical metrics, namely, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficients squares (R2). Thermal Sensation Vote with the seven-level indicator (TSV-7) and Thermal Sensation Vote with the three-level indicator (TSV-3) were employed to obtain passengers’ thermal comfort and evaluate the models’ predictions. In this study, the R2 value of the RF model is 0.6527 and 0.6607 for TSV-7 and TSV-3, which shows higher accuracy than DT, LR and SVM models in predicting the two kinds of Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV). The results show that the predictive performance of the proposed RF model is outstanding, and it can predict the TSV value of passengers inside the compartment of the subway more efficiently.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110046
       
  • A machine learning-enhanced design optimizer for urban cooling

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      Authors: Tongping Hao, Jianxiang Huang, Xinyu He, Lishuai Li, Phil Jones
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Urban cooling becomes a priority in urban planning and design practices. Limited by the slow running speed and prescriptive nature, existing computational tools such as simulation and optimization are yet to be fully integrated in the design decision-making process. This paper describes the Machine Learning-Enhanced Design Optimizer (MLEDO), a novel workflow in search of optimal design option for urban cooling. A physics-based simulation model was developed to assess the cooling performances of a large database of urban design variations. The database was used to train an Artificial Neural Network model, which was then linked with a Genetic Algorithm to rapidly identify optimal design options. The MLEDO workflow was evaluated using a new development urban site against a traditional Simulation-based Genetic Algorithm Design Optimizer (SGADO) as well as human designers. MLEDO outperformed the latter two in terms of efficiency and the performance of the optimal design options. It can also quantify the importance of design parameters in their contribution to cooling performances, which can be used to enhance the understanding of human designers and inform design revisions. MLEDO has the potential to be further developed into a software tool in support of early-stage urban design.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T07:56:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221112857
       
  • The influence of filtration velocity on the full-sized fibrous filter
           performance

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      Authors: Jing Ee Yit, Yat Huang Yau, Bee Teng Chew
      First page: 375
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Filtration velocity is a fundamental parameter that influences fibrous filtration performance. The previous work focuses on the effect of velocity on filtration performance, mainly using downsized filters, a flat sheet media or numerical methods. In this study, the actual performance of the full-sized fibrous filters was simulated according to standard test procedures, ISO 16890:2016 at different filtration velocities. The experimental findings show that the filtration efficiency increases with increasing velocity as the inertial impaction increases at higher velocity. The initial pressure differential shows an increasing relationship at [math] with increasing velocity. The dust cake specific resistance coefficient, Kc increases linearly with the velocity at the depth filtration stage and the beginning of transitional filtration stage. Kc exhibits a quadratic growth with filtration velocity since the middle stage of transitional filtration and surface filtration. Dust holding capacity would be reduced and the final pressure differential would be increased with the increasing velocity due to the greater force incurred by the higher velocity, causing the filter media to deform and rupture easily. The experimental outcome of this study can be applied directly to industrial and commercial heating, ventilation and air conditioning design in consideration of the filter pressure differential for a lower energy consumption without compromising the efficiency for indoor air quality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T06:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221113446
       
  • Development of a high-efficiency and cost-effective ground source heat
           pump system for hot-climate applications

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      Authors: Xiaoou Hu, Rui Miao, Yao Yu, Ahmed C Megri
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the possibility of using a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a vertical closed-loop GSHP system to reduce the borehole size with the intention of increasing the cost-effectiveness of the system without compromising system efficiency. The developed system is expected to be a game changer in the residential sector of the USA involving the use of high-efficiency heat pump systems as a substitute for conventional systems for space cooling and heating in hot/warm climates. The simulation results show that (1) the use of a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a GSHP system contributes to increasing or maintaining the GSHP system’s efficiency in the long run by balancing the heating and cooling through charging thermal energy to the ground in hot climates; (2) the concept of integrating a dry fluid cooler into a GSHP system with advanced control strategies is proven to be effective for the studied house located in hot climates, such as Miami. In comparison to a conventional GSHP system, the initial system costs can be reduced by up to around 14% by shortening the borehole length without compromising system efficiency because of the use of a dry fluid cooler.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221115599
       
  • Effect of environmental factors on the concentration distribution of
           bioaerosols with different particle sizes in an enclosed space

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      Authors: Xiaojian Duan, Chao Shen, Dongqin Chen, Zhiqiang (John) Zhai
      First page: 408
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 has alerted us about the need to quantify the effect of different environmental factors on the concentration distribution of bioaerosols. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, airflow speed and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, on the potential dispersion risk of bioaerosols in an enclosed space by tracking the Serratia marcescens as the tiny organisms. Research results indicated that the concentration of bioaerosols is the highest at the indoor air temperature of 25°C among the tested conditions (20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C). The particle size of bioaerosols can be influenced by temperature, resulting in changes in the amount of settling. Increasing relative humidity from 50% to 80% and airflow speed from 1.5 m/s to 2.2 m/s have a negative impact on the dispersion of bioaerosols as the amount of particle settlement increases accordingly. As for the UV radiation parameters, a better disinfection efficiency was achieved at a radiation distance of 40 cm in the tested range of 20–50 cm and a radiation exposure time of 30 min in the tested range of 10–50 min. This study delivered novel data for the concentration distribution of bioaerosol under different environmental factors for creating a safe indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T02:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221115613
       
  • Optimization study on the performance of a thermosyphon-based radiative
           cooler

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bingru Yao, Kai Zhang, Jinchen Zhu, Shaojie Wu
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      By comparison with cool roofs, the cooling energy produced by radiative cooling can be stored in hybrid radiative cooling air conditioning (HRcAc) systems, which is more feasible for the application of radiative cooling. A thermosyphon mainly relies on buoyancy to drive the water circulating in a pipe without a pump and has been widely used in solar thermal collectors. Thus, more cooling benefits can be achieved by integrating a thermosyphon with HRcAc. This paper investigated the cooling performance of a thermosyphon-based radiative cooler (STRC). The STRC was modelled by using OpenModelica to derive the effects of structure parameters on the cooling performance. The optimized structure was determined according to the proposed optimization process. Finally, the cooling energy saving potential and economics for the application of the STRC in a single-floor family house in five climate zones of China were evaluated. The results show that the annual cooling electricity consumption can be reduced by 41%–56% and that the simple payback period for a single-floor family house with an optimized STRC in all five climate zones of China is between approximately 8.4 years and 10.5 years.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T10:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221117758
       
  • The investigation of street canyon flow field and pollutant diffusion
           under the coupling effect of dynamic air flow field and roof angle

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      Authors: Mengru Sun, Pei Zhou, Chunmei Wang, Changfa Tao
      First page: 440
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics theory, the Euler-Lagrangian method was used to study the effects of three-dimensional dynamic airflow structure and roof angle on the flow structure and pollutant distribution in street canyons. The results show that the variation of inlet airflow speed could influence the airflow structure of street canyon seriously under the dynamic airflow. The airflow structure and pollutant distribution were compressed firstly and then expanded with the increase and decrease of the incoming airflow speed, respectively. The time-varying total pollutant concentration and the concentrations within the pedestrian height zone were increased sharply and then decreased with the increase in roof angles. According to the evolution of the total pollutant concentration and the concentrations within pedestrian height zone with different roof angles, we concluded that the street canyon with roof angle of 25°–30° can provide a clean and livable room for the residents.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T08:24:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221123756
       
 
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