Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)

Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted alphabetically
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Artifact : Journal of Design Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Design Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Sustainable Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Survey, Appraisal & Valuation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Design, Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Interior Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Res Mobilis : Revista internacional de investigación en mobiliario y objetos decorativos     Open Access  
Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Mit Beiträgen aus Umweltmedizin und Sozialmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Indoor and Built Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.525
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-326X - ISSN (Online) 1423-0070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Airtightness evaluation of Canadian dwellings and influencing factors
           based on measured data and predictive models

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      Authors: Maysoun Ismaiel, Maged Gouda, Yong Li, Yuxiang Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The airtightness of buildings has a significant impact on buildings’ energy efficiency, maintenance and occupant comfort. The main goal of this study is to provide an evaluation of the air leakage characteristics of dwellings in different regions in Canada. This study evaluated the key influencing factors on airtightness performance based on a large set of measured data (73,450 dwellings located in Canada with 11 measurement parameters for each). Machine learning models based on multivariate regression (MVR) and Random Forest Ensemble (RFE) were developed to predict the air leakage value. The RFE model, which shows better results than MVR, was used to evaluate the effect of the ageing of buildings. Results showed that the maximum increase in air leakage occurs during the first year after construction – approximately 25%, and then 3.7% in the second year, after which the increase rate becomes insignificant and relatively constant – approximately 0.3% per year. The findings from this study can provide significant information for building designs, building performance simulations and strengthening standards and guidelines policies on indoor environmental quality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T02:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221121519
       
  • Vulnerable or resilient' The response of informal settlements to
           COVID-19: The case of urban village communities in Beijing

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      Authors: Ying Dong, Shunyi Wang, Aiping Lin, Fang Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has brought topics of the impact, response and adaptation of cities in emergencies to the forefront. When compared with formal settlements, the problems faced by informal settlements are more prominent. We propose the framework of an actor-network theory, substantiated by an empirical study of three typical informal settlements in Haidian District, Beijing, in which the process, characteristics and internal mechanism of the spatial reconstruction of the informal settlements in response to COVID-19 are closely scrutinised. Human actors such as local governments, community volunteers, landlords, tenants and non-human actors all participated in the response to COVID-19 according to their goal vision and political logic, with the local government as the core driving force, forming an integrated actor network. Rooted in the special locality of informal settlements, the actor network was both hierarchical and flexible, and its inherent dynamism has proven to be efficient during COVID-19, resulting in social adaptation and spatial reconstruction. This study contributes to the cautiously optimistic estimate of similar urban community resilience in terms of global epidemics and enriches the understanding of their interlacing dynamics from the perspective of spatial reconstruction.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T10:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221125860
       
  • Adaptability of traditional villages as tourist destinations in Yellow
           River Basin, China

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      Authors: Fang Wang, Xingguang Zhao, Yanxian Qiu, Jie Luo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Tourism has become an indispensable aspect of rural development. For traditional villages with historical and cultural importance, whether the development of tourism had led to traditional villages being restricted or supported needs to be studied. Taking 684 traditional villages in the Yellow River Basin in China as an example, we used Adaptive Cycle Theory to construct an index system and explored the adaptability of Chinese traditional villages in terms of undergoing development for tourism by describing the spatiotemporal coupling and evolution process of village adaptation. Then, we constructed a binary logistic regression model to measure the adaptation differences for villages providing different tourism services. The results showed that from 2000 to 2018, the social adaptability of traditional villages tended to deteriorate and was spatially and regionally different. Compared with the traditional villages without tourism, in villages where tourism has been developed, the adaptability of villages dominated by agriculture is poor. Villages dominated by traditional national culture and ecological leisure agriculture showed higher adaptability. By exploring the adaptation model and evaluating the technological development of traditional villages, we provide support for enhancing the interaction between the external and internal resources of tourism-oriented traditional villages.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T08:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126056
       
  • Effects of indoor low humidity on eye discomfort and associated
           physiological responses in soft contact lens and non-lens wearers

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      Authors: Kanoko Ito, Satoru Takada
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Eye discomfort due to dryness is one of the major complaints reported in indoor spaces. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of low humidity on eye discomfort in soft contact lens (SCL) and non-CL wearers. In addition to subjective sensations, physiological parameters related to eye discomfort including tear-film parameters and blink patterns were comparatively evaluated between relative humidities of 10% and 45% at 23°C. For both the SCL and non-CL wearer groups, low humidity had a significant effect on some of the measured physiological parameters. The SCL group showed lower ocular surface temperature and larger temperature differential after blinking at 10% relative humidity (RH) than that at 45% RH, indicating faster tear evaporation. Furthermore, their tear films tended to be thinner and have a shorter break-up time at 10% RH than at 45% RH. The non-CL group showed a significantly higher blink frequency and longer eye-closure time at 10% RH than at 45% RH, presumably as a compensatory response to the disturbance of the tear film due to low humidity. These results suggest the importance of humidity control in indoor spaces in terms of tear-film quality, which contributes to eye discomfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T02:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126352
       
  • Investigation of the indoor environment of a passive house office building
           under cold climate in China

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      Authors: Yueer HE, Fei HAN, Lingmin ZHAO, Shuanggen LI
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzed the applicability of the Passive House standard to office buildings in northern China from an indoor environment perspective. The case building has been auto-monitored continuously since 2017 and a survey for instantaneous and retrospective appraisal of indoor environmental conditions was administered in 2021 during the summer, winter and months in between, referred to as ‘transition months’. The results show that indoor environment quality was good, with high satisfaction levels and ultra-low energy consumption; overheating and the need for window opening were observed. The prevalence of sick building syndrome was reduced compared to conventional buildings. This work further determined how comfort parameters such as perceived thermal comfort, indoor air quality and acoustics could affect end-users’ appraisal. Findings show that indoor thermal comfort design parameters, particularly in summer, are critical factors affecting users' satisfaction in Passive Houses. We further examined the feasibility of the PMV-PPD index for predicting occupants’ perceived comfort and suggested deriving the preferred thermal comfort design parameters for the Chinese market, using long-term data and measurements. These findings provide insights into the localization of Passive Houses in China, thereby improving the acceptance of Passive Houses in what is expected to be a fast growing market.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T02:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221126011
       
  • The investigation of street canyon flow field and pollutant diffusion
           under the coupling effect of dynamic air flow field and roof angle

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      Authors: Mengru Sun, Pei Zhou, Chunmei Wang, Changfa Tao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics theory, the Euler-Lagrangian method was used to study the effects of three-dimensional dynamic airflow structure and roof angle on the flow structure and pollutant distribution in street canyons. The results show that the variation of inlet airflow speed could influence the airflow structure of street canyon seriously under the dynamic airflow. The airflow structure and pollutant distribution were compressed firstly and then expanded with the increase and decrease of the incoming airflow speed, respectively. The time-varying total pollutant concentration and the concentrations within the pedestrian height zone were increased sharply and then decreased with the increase in roof angles. According to the evolution of the total pollutant concentration and the concentrations within pedestrian height zone with different roof angles, we concluded that the street canyon with roof angle of 25°–30° can provide a clean and livable room for the residents.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T08:24:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221123756
       
  • A global challenge of accurately predicting building energy consumption
           under urban heat island effect

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      Authors: Miao Yang, Haorui Wang, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T01:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221123222
       
  • Influence of learning-space enclosure on attention in undergraduate
           students measured by eye-tracking technology

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      Authors: Chao Liu, Xiaotong Jing, Yalin Zhang, Weijun Gao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although the use of enclosed learning space appears to influence both attention and learning in undergraduates, this issue has rarely been investigated. This study used four types of desktop spaces with different degrees of enclosure, namely, unenclosed, enclosed on one side, enclosed on two sides and enclosed on three sides, with enclosure degrees of 0, 25, 50 and 75%, respectively. Subjective evaluations, attention tests and eye tracking were used to analyze the effects of the four types of enclosure on attention in 38 undergraduates. Subjective evaluations showed that the three-sided enclosure was favoured by 52.63% of the undergraduates, 84.21% of which considered that it contributed to improved attention. The objective data showed that quiz times were shortened by 25.95% in unenclosed spaces compared with 75%-enclosed spaces, with increases in the mean pupil diameter, area of interest attention and target fixation rate of 11.36, 8.15 and 6.89%, respectively. These results indicated that the attention level increased in correspondence with the degree of enclosure of the learning space and that highly enclosed spaces were more conducive to attention and learning in undergraduates. This suggests that relatively closed spaces should be recommended to learning institutions to improve the learning efficiency of undergraduates.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T01:13:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221122654
       
  • The impact of low-carbon policy on green manufacturing development

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      Authors: Qian Liu, Weiming Liang, Charlie Chan, Yuqiang Cao, Meiting Lu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In September 2020, China announced its intentions to reach peak carbon emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 (known as the ‘30–60’ greenhouse gas reduction goals). With a focus on China’s pilot low-carbon city initiative, this paper adopts the difference-in-differences approach to examine the effect of low-carbon policies on the green development of China’s manufacturing industry. The findings show that the implementation of low-carbon policies could significantly reduce pollutants and improve productivity. The results hold after a battery of robustness tests. Further analysis shows that the effect of low-carbon policies on the emissions reduction of larger taxpayers is more pronounced, suggesting that including low-carbon policies as a part of the government’s performance assessment weakens the opportunistic behaviour of local governments in pursuing economic growth at the expense of the environment. It also finds that manufacturing firms typically do not respond to the policy in a negative way (by limiting or reducing production) but instead achieve positive emissions reduction by increasing resource recycling. The findings of this paper provide empirical evidence and policy implications to support the government expanding its low-carbon policies to a national level to mitigate climate change and achieve green manufacturing development.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221121061
       
  • Effect of environmental factors on the concentration distribution of
           bioaerosols with different particle sizes in an enclosed space

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      Authors: Xiaojian Duan, Chao Shen, Dongqin Chen, Zhiqiang (John) Zhai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 has alerted us about the need to quantify the effect of different environmental factors on the concentration distribution of bioaerosols. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, airflow speed and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, on the potential dispersion risk of bioaerosols in an enclosed space by tracking the Serratia marcescens as the tiny organisms. Research results indicated that the concentration of bioaerosols is the highest at the indoor air temperature of 25°C among the tested conditions (20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C). The particle size of bioaerosols can be influenced by temperature, resulting in changes in the amount of settling. Increasing relative humidity from 50% to 80% and airflow speed from 1.5 m/s to 2.2 m/s have a negative impact on the dispersion of bioaerosols as the amount of particle settlement increases accordingly. As for the UV radiation parameters, a better disinfection efficiency was achieved at a radiation distance of 40 cm in the tested range of 20–50 cm and a radiation exposure time of 30 min in the tested range of 10–50 min. This study delivered novel data for the concentration distribution of bioaerosol under different environmental factors for creating a safe indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T02:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221115613
       
  • Ceiling displacement ventilation system in an experimental theatre: A
           method to optimize thermal comfort

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      Authors: Fujing Wan, Sujie Liu, Huan Zhang, Wandong Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Compared to traditional theatres, experimental theatres have a lower floor height and the lights are closer to the audience. The large vertical temperature gradient caused by the underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system extremely impairs thermal comfort. Thus, an improved method by introducing the ceiling displacement ventilation (CDV) system was evaluated. CFD models of the experimental theatre were established and verified by field tests. The influence of designing and operation parameters of the CDV systems on thermal comfort was investigated. Effects on energy consumption and air quality were also analyzed to improve application feasibility. The results indicated that the increment of air temperature at the audience head (AHA temperature) was reduced by 51.0% with the help of the CDV system. Thermal comfort was improved as the installation height was extended higher. Furthermore, under constant total air supply rate, the AHA temperature of the last row was decreased with the increase in the air supply ratio of the UFAD to CDV systems (RUtoC), and the total power consumption was declined by 3.1% through adjusting RUtoC compared to the traditional UFAD system. Additionally, the air quality could be significantly improved. The results are helpful to the design and operation of HVAC systems in experimental theatres.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T10:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221119334
       
  • Optimization study on the performance of a thermosyphon-based radiative
           cooler

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      Authors: Bingru Yao, Kai Zhang, Jinchen Zhu, Shaojie Wu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      By comparison with cool roofs, the cooling energy produced by radiative cooling can be stored in hybrid radiative cooling air conditioning (HRcAc) systems, which is more feasible for the application of radiative cooling. A thermosyphon mainly relies on buoyancy to drive the water circulating in a pipe without a pump and has been widely used in solar thermal collectors. Thus, more cooling benefits can be achieved by integrating a thermosyphon with HRcAc. This paper investigated the cooling performance of a thermosyphon-based radiative cooler (STRC). The STRC was modelled by using OpenModelica to derive the effects of structure parameters on the cooling performance. The optimized structure was determined according to the proposed optimization process. Finally, the cooling energy saving potential and economics for the application of the STRC in a single-floor family house in five climate zones of China were evaluated. The results show that the annual cooling electricity consumption can be reduced by 41%–56% and that the simple payback period for a single-floor family house with an optimized STRC in all five climate zones of China is between approximately 8.4 years and 10.5 years.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T10:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221117758
       
  • Development of urban air environmental control policies and measures

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      Authors: Chen Ren, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T04:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221120380
       
  • Development of a high-efficiency and cost-effective ground source heat
           pump system for hot-climate applications

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      Authors: Xiaoou Hu, Rui Miao, Yao Yu, Ahmed C Megri
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the possibility of using a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a vertical closed-loop GSHP system to reduce the borehole size with the intention of increasing the cost-effectiveness of the system without compromising system efficiency. The developed system is expected to be a game changer in the residential sector of the USA involving the use of high-efficiency heat pump systems as a substitute for conventional systems for space cooling and heating in hot/warm climates. The simulation results show that (1) the use of a dry fluid cooler with advanced control strategies in a GSHP system contributes to increasing or maintaining the GSHP system’s efficiency in the long run by balancing the heating and cooling through charging thermal energy to the ground in hot climates; (2) the concept of integrating a dry fluid cooler into a GSHP system with advanced control strategies is proven to be effective for the studied house located in hot climates, such as Miami. In comparison to a conventional GSHP system, the initial system costs can be reduced by up to around 14% by shortening the borehole length without compromising system efficiency because of the use of a dry fluid cooler.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T12:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221115599
       
  • Perceptual difference of urban public spaces between design professionals
           and ‘laypersons’: Evidence, health implications and ready-made urban
           design templates

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      Authors: Liyan Xu, Yichi Zhang, Fu Li, Jie Yin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Urban Public Spaces (UPS) are important arenas for human interaction and social activities, and ensuring their quality and functionality is crucial for a successful urban design with public health benefits. However, mostly for insufficient public participation, user experiences of UPS are usually not what the designers were expecting. Therefore, the urgent need to investigate the difference in UPS perception between design professionals and ‘laypersons’, that is, non-professional users, has been increasingly highlighted. In this paper, we utilize Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and physiological measurement tools to obtain empirical observations on the psychological and physiological responses, as well as environmental preferences on UPS of the two groups, compare their perceptual similarities and differences, and consequently analyze the influencing factors and potential mechanisms. We find that the environmental perception of the two groups do differ, with design professionals showing a higher degree of ‘intolerance’ in the quality rating of UPS, and being more sensitive to scene features related to necessary than spontaneous and social activities. The findings reveal structural differences for the two groups in the mechanisms by which environmental features trigger perceptual differences, thus providing new support for designers to prepare ready-made UPS design templates that are evidence-based.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T10:26:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221116318
       
  • A machine learning-enhanced design optimizer for urban cooling

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      Authors: Tongping Hao, Jianxiang Huang, Xinyu He, Lishuai Li, Phil Jones
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Urban cooling becomes a priority in urban planning and design practices. Limited by the slow running speed and prescriptive nature, existing computational tools such as simulation and optimization are yet to be fully integrated in the design decision-making process. This paper describes the Machine Learning-Enhanced Design Optimizer (MLEDO), a novel workflow in search of optimal design option for urban cooling. A physics-based simulation model was developed to assess the cooling performances of a large database of urban design variations. The database was used to train an Artificial Neural Network model, which was then linked with a Genetic Algorithm to rapidly identify optimal design options. The MLEDO workflow was evaluated using a new development urban site against a traditional Simulation-based Genetic Algorithm Design Optimizer (SGADO) as well as human designers. MLEDO outperformed the latter two in terms of efficiency and the performance of the optimal design options. It can also quantify the importance of design parameters in their contribution to cooling performances, which can be used to enhance the understanding of human designers and inform design revisions. MLEDO has the potential to be further developed into a software tool in support of early-stage urban design.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T07:56:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221112857
       
  • Cognitive performance in a warming planet

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      Authors: Hui Zhu, Songtao Hu, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T01:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221116786
       
  • Cool facades to mitigate urban heat island effects

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      Authors: Chao Hong, Yupeng Wang, Zhaolin Gu, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T11:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221115369
       
  • Indoor environment and the blood pressure of elderly in the cold region of
           China

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      Authors: Yang Lv, Rui Zhu, Jingchao Xie, Hiroshi Yoshino
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the indoor environment of urban and rural elderly residential dwellings in Dalian and Beijing during the heating period in 2017–2018. Each dwelling was assessed for temperature, relative humidity, air pollution and biological pollution, as well as blood pressure parameters related to the health of the elderly. The results showed that the temperature in urban dwellings was higher and more stable than that in rural dwellings, due to the difference in heating devices. Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in some dwellings exceeded the limit. Indoor formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were lower than the limit values, while urban dwellings had more formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) pollution than rural dwellings. For rural houses, indoor fuel combustion resulted in higher concentrations of particulate matter below 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and higher concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO). The biological pollution in rural areas was generally higher than in urban areas. The blood pressure of the elderly in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas, and blood pressure was found to be negatively correlated with room temperature and positively correlated with relative humidity. These results can provide an indicator for the improvement of housing environmental quality for older people in China.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T03:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221109510
       
  • Study on thermal comfort of low-sweat and high-sweat young men based on
           heart rate variability analysis under different clothing

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      Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Faghihimani, Seyed Abdolkarim Hosseini
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal comfort is one of the most important factors affecting human performance. In recent years, the Low Frequency to High Frequency Ratio (LF/HF) index, which is obtained from the frequency analysis of heart rate variability, has been proposed as an accurate method for evaluating thermal comfort in different conditions. In this study, using LF/HF, the effect of sweating amount on thermal comfort under the influence of clothing characteristics was investigated. After a moderately heavy physical activity in the indoor situation and without good ventilation, skin temperature, electrocardiogram signal and a qualitative assessment of their thermal comfort were recorded in participants divided into two groups: low sweat and high sweat. The results of qualitative measurement and frequency analysis of thermal comfort were then discovered to have a significant correlation. According to findings, the low sweat group had less thermal comfort than the high sweat group (p < 0.05). The type of clothing was also found to have a significant effect on the thermal comfort sensation. Although the amount of sweating is an inherent feature of an individual, the feeling of thermal comfort can be improved (p < 0.05) by optimizing clothing characteristics for each group without spending more energy on cooling.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:38:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221105628
       
  • The influence of filtration velocity on the full-sized fibrous filter
           performance

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      Authors: Jing Ee Yit, Yat Huang Yau, Bee Teng Chew
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Filtration velocity is a fundamental parameter that influences fibrous filtration performance. The previous work focuses on the effect of velocity on filtration performance, mainly using downsized filters, a flat sheet media or numerical methods. In this study, the actual performance of the full-sized fibrous filters was simulated according to standard test procedures, ISO 16890:2016 at different filtration velocities. The experimental findings show that the filtration efficiency increases with increasing velocity as the inertial impaction increases at higher velocity. The initial pressure differential shows an increasing relationship at [math] with increasing velocity. The dust cake specific resistance coefficient, Kc increases linearly with the velocity at the depth filtration stage and the beginning of transitional filtration stage. Kc exhibits a quadratic growth with filtration velocity since the middle stage of transitional filtration and surface filtration. Dust holding capacity would be reduced and the final pressure differential would be increased with the increasing velocity due to the greater force incurred by the higher velocity, causing the filter media to deform and rupture easily. The experimental outcome of this study can be applied directly to industrial and commercial heating, ventilation and air conditioning design in consideration of the filter pressure differential for a lower energy consumption without compromising the efficiency for indoor air quality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T06:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221113446
       
  • Impacts of building envelope design on indoor ozone exposures and health
           risks in urban environments

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      Authors: Nan Ma, Max Hakkarainen, Miaomiao Hou, Dorit Aviv, William W Braham
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Much of human exposure to ozone takes place indoors. However, few studies have focused on human ozone exposures in normally occupied residential houses in the U.S. urban environments. Only rare studies have explored the implication of building envelope design variables on outdoor ozone penetration. Our study reveals the extent to which outdoor ozone penetrates and persists in the occupied houses in one of the most ozone-polluted cities, as influenced by building characteristics, building geometry, envelope design variables, window conditions and urban meteorology conditions. Through a set of analysis and variable regressions, we found that (1) the ratios of indoor to outdoor ozone concentration (I/O) were higher with windows open (0.700 ± 0.13) than with the windows closed (0.53 ± 0.22); (2) the indoor ozone concentration is typically elevated when the outdoor ozone concentration is high; and (3) design variables such as exterior envelope finishes, wall surface area and window-to-wall ratio are reasonably effective predictors. Our results of health risk evaluation suggest that the observed levels of indoor ozone exposure could pose a considerable risk to human health. Further work is needed to discover how building envelopes can be designed, constructed and maintained to support occupant health.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T08:32:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221112010
       
  • Exploring the possibility of using CO2 as a proxy for exhaled particles to
           predict the risk of indoor exposure to pathogens

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      Authors: Dadi Zhang, Philomena M Bluyssen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Airborne transmission has been confirmed as one of three principal ways of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 indoors, understanding the distribution of respiratory droplets (or aerosols) present in human breath seems therefore important. To study whether the CO2 concentration can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles present in an occupied space, the distribution of particles with different diameters (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 μm) and CO2 concentrations were monitored in a classroom setting with six healthy subjects. Additionally, numbers of particles with the same sizes were measured in the breath of the same six healthy subjects separately. Results showed that (1) on the contrary to CO2, the main source of indoor particles came from outdoor air, and not from occupants; (2) the impacts of ventilation regimes on indoor particle numbers were different to the impacts on CO2 concentrations; and (3) almost no significant relationship between the number of indoor particles and CO2 concentration was observed. Based on these results, this study could therefore not conclude that the CO2 concentration in a classroom can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles by the occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T09:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110043
       
  • Characterization and size distribution of initial droplet concentration
           discharged from human breathing and speaking

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      Authors: Shihai Pan, Chunwen Xu, Chuck Wah Francis Yu, Li Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A study of the aerodynamic characteristics of aerosol expiration is important for understanding the size distribution of droplet concentration in COVID-19 disease transmission. This study measured the initial concentration and size distribution of droplets released during four breathing processes: nose breathing, mouth breathing, reading alphabets and counting numbers. Influencing factors on droplet generation were studied by statistical analyses. Significant differences in droplet concentration among the four breathing activities in pairs were found (p < 0.001), except for reading alphabets and numbers (p = 1). The droplet concentration during nose breathing (p < 0.05), but not mouth breathing (p = 0.136), of male subjects, was found significantly higher than that of female subjects. The droplet concentration generated by speaking during letters reading with special phonemes, for example, /i:/, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than reading letters without phonemes. The discharged droplet sizes from four breathing activities were dominated by small droplets (dp < 1.037 μm of over 50% and dp < 2.642 μm of over 80%). Basically, no particles larger than 8 μm were detected by the aerodynamic particle sizer. The inference indicates a possible aerosol transmission of disease during non-symptomatic aerosol-producing activities such as breathing or speaking and may elucidate the disease transmission pathway of COVID-19.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110975
       
  • Investigation on improving fume hood performance via elimination of
           internal vortices: Experiments and CFD

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      Authors: Chuang Meng, Dong Liu, Naiping Gao, Lirong Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The design elements of a fume hood and the synergy between them are essential for a fume hood to be used for containment in a chemical laboratory. A computational fluid dynamic simulation with an orthogonal design was validated and executed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the fume hood. The ventilation efficiency, that is, the ratio of tracer gas concentration in the exhaust outlet to the hood chamber was introduced as an indicator to evaluate fume hood performance. The ventilation efficiency was found to vary between 4.7 and 12.9 with different baffle opening ratios. The designed doorsill could effectively inhibit the separation of the air boundary layer and thus avoids vortex generation behind the doorsill. The auxiliary air supply would eliminate the eddies behind the sash and could further increase the ventilation efficiency to 13.9. All the designed elements above jointly contribute to the absence of vortices in the flow pattern that is within the hood chamber. The airflow would move from top to bottom and from outside to inside, which would minimize the spread of pollutants to the breathing zone. This paper is intended to contribute to the optimization of the aerodynamic design of fume hoods in chemical laboratories.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T06:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108865
       
  • Evaluation and measurement methods for the surface radon exhalation rate
           of buildings

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      Authors: Lidan Lv, Zhengzhong He, Shoukang Qiu, Quan Tang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Half of the natural radiation dose to the human body comes from indoor radon and its progeny, inhaling of which plays a key role in the development of lung cancer. Given the relationship between the radon exhalation rate (RnER) and the indoor radon concentration, accurate determination and control of the former directly affect the control and protection of the latter. In this study, a method was developed to estimate the actual RnER of building walls through building material samples. The surface RnER of the wall of any thickness that was constructed of any building material could be calculated by its intrinsic RnER value and radon diffusion length, which could be obtained by measuring the RnER of the pre-treated building material sample models through the activated carbon box-γ spectroscopic method. The experimental results indicated that the deviation between the calculated wall surface RnER of the building and the measured wall surface RnER of the building was
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T08:35:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221109754
       
  • Using random forests to predict passengers’ thermal comfort in
           underground train carriages

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      Authors: Kangkang Huang, Shihua Lu, Xinjun Li, Weiwei Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research developed an intelligent ensemble machine learning prediction model for the thermal comfort of passengers inside the compartment of the subway. Data sources used for data-driven modelling were obtained from on-site measurements and passengers’ questionnaires in the compartments of the Nanjing subway. The four models were established using methodologies of Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT) in machine learning, respectively. The performance of the RF method was compared with DT, LR and SVM in terms of conventional statistical metrics, namely, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficients squares (R2). Thermal Sensation Vote with the seven-level indicator (TSV-7) and Thermal Sensation Vote with the three-level indicator (TSV-3) were employed to obtain passengers’ thermal comfort and evaluate the models’ predictions. In this study, the R2 value of the RF model is 0.6527 and 0.6607 for TSV-7 and TSV-3, which shows higher accuracy than DT, LR and SVM models in predicting the two kinds of Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV). The results show that the predictive performance of the proposed RF model is outstanding, and it can predict the TSV value of passengers inside the compartment of the subway more efficiently.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110046
       
  • Impacts of low atmospheric pressure on distribution of indoor hot air jet
           in plateau area

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      Authors: Jiale Hu, Yingying Wang, Dengjia Wang, Jie Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The existing design parameters of hot-air heating for local buildings do not consider the distinctive low-pressure that can be experienced in the plateau regions, resulting in significant inefficiency. In this study, a numerical model based on the Reynolds time-averaged method coupled with the RNG k–ε turbulence model was established by considering the air thermal properties influenced by pressure. Four atmospheric conditions of 101.325 kPa, 84.547 kPa, 70.093 kPa and 57.708 kPa were selected to simulate the velocity and temperature fields of the horizontal and vertical hot-air jets. The influence of low pressure on the flow characteristics of hot-air jets was analyzed subsequently. The results suggest the jet flow patterns are essentially similar under various pressures. The horizontal hot-air jets bent upward more significantly and the diffusion range of the vertical jets was reduced under low pressure. The jet velocity decayed faster at low pressure, and the axial velocity of a vertical jet at 57.708 kPa was 0.26 m/s lower than that at 101.325 kPa. The temperature gradient of the room with a hot-air jet was increased with decreasing pressure, which was 5.0 K/m at 57.708 kPa. This study should be helpful to the detailed design and efficient operation of hot-air heating in buildings in the plateau regions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T08:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108183
       
  • Optimization of ventilation performance of side air supply for large
           indoor spaces using deflectors and slot air outlets

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      Authors: Haorui Wang, Junqi Wang, Zhuangbo Feng, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the large height and span of indoor spaces, efficient indoor ventilation performance may be difficult to achieve using the side air supply for large halls, to control the indoor air pollutants or reduce the infection risk, such as the transmission of COVID-19 within the breathing zone of occupants. An efficient Ventilation Mode with Deflector and Slot air outlets (VMDS) was developed by this study. The use of a deflector with slot air outlets was introduced by utilizing jet collision and adhesion effect to accentuate the ventilation performance of the side air supply for the large space. The numerical simulation model used in this study was validated experimentally. The VMDS was compared with three other side air supply modes used in large spaces, and the results were evaluated comprehensively. The results show that VMDS is effective in reducing indoor air pollutant concentrations and transmission of infectious diseases in large spaces while satisfying the energy efficiency and thermal comfort requirements. Compared with the common side-supply and side-return ventilation modes, VMDS can reduce indoor air pollutant concentration by nearly 40%, reduce the transmission risk of infectious disease to less than 1% at a low air change rate and increase the ventilation efficiency from about 0.85 to about 1.2. In addition, VMDS can theoretically reduce ventilation energy consumption by about 85%.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T02:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108587
       
  • Influence of building envelope characteristics on the effectiveness of
           PMV-based controls for schools located in Saudi Arabia

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      Authors: Alaa Alaidroos, Ayad Almaimani, Moncef Krarti, Emad Qurnfulah, Alok Tiwari
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive analysis to investigate the performance of both thermal comfort-based and temperature-based controls for schools in harsh hot climates of Saudi Arabia. The analysis considers the impact of building envelope characteristics including thermal insulation level of exterior walls and air leakage rate on the ability of both control options to maintain indoor thermal comfort while minimizing cooling energy consumption. The analysis utilizes a calibrated energy model for an existing Saudi school with monitored energy consumption data. The analysis results indicated that the thermal comfort-based control is able to maintain the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) value at 5% throughout the year for any combination of the exterior wall’s R-value and air infiltration rate unlike the case of the temperature-based controls that do not maintain acceptable indoor thermal comfort conditions. However, the thermal comfort-based controls consume more cooling energy than the temperature-based controls. The analysis also revealed that the difference between the annual cooling energy of the PMV-based control and the temperature-based controls increases almost linearly with the cooling degree days of the site where the school is located. The analysis results indicate that acceptable indoor thermal comfort levels can be achieved using temperature-based controls when optimal temperature set points are used.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T08:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221107504
       
  • Improving the indoor thermal environment in lightweight buildings in
           winter by passive solar heating: An experimental study

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      Authors: Fangcheng Kou, Shaohang Shi, Ning Zhu, Yehao Song, Yu Zou, Jinhan Mo, Xin Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional lightweight building envelopes with constant thermal properties are of small heat capacity and large thermal resistance. Lightweight building envelopes with variable thermal conductivity and variable equivalent specific heat capacity can promote passive solar heat gain for clean heating and improve the indoor thermal environment in winter. In this paper, a real-scale lightweight solar house integrated with flat gravity-assisted heat pipes and PCM (phase change material) was built up, and the indoor heating effects of four forms of the solar house were experimentally studied. The results showed that (1) the heat pipes efficiently transferred solar heat absorbed by the exterior surface of the south envelope into the indoor environment during the day and increased the average daytime indoor air temperature by 3.8°C, but this benefit was not proportional to the area of heat pipes. (2) The PCM effectively stored solar energy during the day and released heat to the indoor environment at night, and the daily range of indoor air temperature was reduced by 8.7°C, with only 81% mass and 33% volume of concrete block, respectively. (3) The solar house increased the effective proportion of solar energy for indoor heating from 8.7% to 57.5% in the form of DHP + PCM house.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T01:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221091448
       
  • Dynamic prediction of the pre-dehumidification of a radiant floor cooling
           and displacement ventilation system based on computational fluid dynamics
           and a back-propagation neural network: A case study of an office room

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      Authors: Meng Su, Jiying Liu, Shiyu Zhou, Jikui Miao, Moon Keun Kim
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study was carried out to solve the problem of condensation in radiant floor cooling systems. Computational fluid dynamics simulation and back-propagation neural network prediction were employed to conduct thorough research to predict the effects of the displacement ventilation dehumidification phase in an office building located in Jinan, China. The effects of the air supply temperature (Tas), air supply flow rate (Vas), air supply humidity ratio (Has), floor temperature (Tfloor), initial indoor temperature (Tini) and relative humidity (Hini) on the duration and energy consumption of pre-dehumidification were investigated. The big data show the air dew point temperature (Tad) produced the most significant effect on the pre-dehumidification duration and energy consumption, while Tas would cause the least significant effect. With the decrease of Tad, the pre-dehumidification duration and energy consumption were, respectively, decreased by 59.1% and 44.2%. Furthermore, with the variation of Vas, the energy consumption exhibited a fluctuating trend. This study provides a novel and effective method to assess the pre-dehumidification control of radiant floor surfaces by considering different initial indoor conditions and air supply parameters.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T03:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221107110
       
  • Does the marine environmental carrying capacity of the Yellow Sea’s
           large marine ecosystem maintain sustainable development' – Evidence
           from Shandong China

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      Authors: Su Wang, Gang Zhou, Zhuo Chen, Daokui Jiang, Guilin Dai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Under the framework of sustainable development of the marine economy, much consideration has been given to various coastal states for the large marine ecosystem (LME) concept. The Yellow Sea LME (YSLME) is one of the most heavily exploited LMEs in the world, and its sustainable development has been heavily threatened by human activities, with negative impacts on the economies of bordering countries, such as China. With the aim of mitigating environmental threats by developing a low-carbon economy based on low pollution, low energy consumption and low emission, an index system for evaluating marine environmental carrying capacity (MECC) was established in this study based on the entropy method, and gray relation analysis (GRA) was carried out to assess the MECC of three main coastal cities (Qingdao, Yantai and Weihai) along the YSLME in China. The results verified the importance of the environmental carrying capacities (ECCs) of marine resources, marine economy and marine environmental governance for the sustainable development of the YSLME, and revealed paths for improving the MECC of the studied cities. Based on the results, suggestions for ecosystem-based management of a low-carbon economy were provided to help government departments to reasonably develop and utilize marine resources, protect the marine environment and implement sustainable development strategies.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T10:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221099121
       
  • Thermal comfort evaluation in architectural studio classrooms – A summer
           study in a warm to moderate Indian climate

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      Authors: Naveen K. Khambadkone, Prabhukumar Madhumati, Mavukere Nanjundappa Ranganath
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports the findings from a thermal comfort field study conducted in institutional studio classrooms in the warm-to-moderate climate of Tumkur in Karnataka, India. A total of 506 datasets were obtained in the questionnaire survey consisting of students of architecture. The survey was carried out during the hot-dry months of March, April and May 2019 using subjective questionnaires during which indoor environment variables were measured simultaneously in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 55 Class II protocols. A comfort temperature of 30.4°C was obtained using Griffith’s method, and the comfort band was found to be between 25.0°C to 32.5°C on the central sensation scale for 80% acceptability for the summer (hot-dry) season. Subjects showed greater tolerance and adaptation to warmer conditions with the main means of adaptation by opening windows, wearing lighter clothing, use of ceiling fans, drinking of cold water and use of curtain blinds. Comparison of the field study results with international standards shows that the standards failed to capture the comfort limits and adaptations of subjects in tropical climates of India. Findings of the present study bear significance in developing guidelines for thermal comfort for institutional buildings in the warm-to-moderate climate of India.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221098552
       
  • Insights into the house dust-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
           their potential human health risk in Greater Cairo, Egypt

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      Authors: Salwa K Hassan, Asmaa El-Mekawy, Mansour A Alghamdi, Mamdouh I Khoder
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Data dealing with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in settled dust of Greater Cairo houses (GCH), Egypt, and their implication on human health risk are scarce. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the characterisations of PAHs in settled dust in GCH and their associated carcinogenic and mutagenic risks. ƩPAH concentrations were 3125 and 268 ng/g in settled dust in GCH and rural houses (RH), respectively. Heavier congeners (4–6 aromatic ring PAHs) represented 86.5% (GCH) and 92% (RH) of ƩPAHs. Houses on main streets are exposed to higher levels of PAHs than those on the side streets. The main sources of PAHs in GCH and RH were vehicular emissions (pyrogenic sources) and PAHs in GCH come from local emissions and in RH from the surrounding urban cities. Results showed that the carcinogenicity of PAHs associated with dust exceeds their mutagenicity. Based on Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) estimations, the order of cancer risk (CR) was as follows: urban houses (UH)> suburban houses (SUH)> RH. CR and ILCRs calculations suggest that children and adults exposed to settled dust-bound PAHs in GCH and RH have an increase in CR, as CR and ILCRs values exceeded accepted levels.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T04:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221092130
       
  • Understanding lifetime and dispersion of cough-emitted droplets in air

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      Authors: Kai Lordly, Leya Kober, Mehdi Jadidi, Sylvie Antoun, Seth B Dworkin, Ahmet E Karataş
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To understand the exact transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 and to explore effects of time, space and indoor environment on the dynamics of droplets and aerosols, rigorous testing and observation must be conducted. In the current work, the spatial and temporal dispersions of aerosol droplets from a simulated cough were comprehensively examined over a long duration (70 min). An artificial cough generator was constructed to generate reliably repeatable respiratory ejecta. The measurements were performed at different locations in front (along the axial direction and off-axis) and behind the source in a sealed experimental enclosure. Aerosols of 0.3–10 µm (around 20% of the maximum nuclei count) were shown to persist for a very long time in a still environment, and this has a substantial implication for airborne disease transmission. The experiments demonstrated that a ventilation system could reduce the total aerosol volume and the droplet lifetime significantly. To explain the experimental observations in more detail and to understand the droplet in-air behaviour at various ambient temperatures and relative humidity, numerical simulations were performed using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The simulations show that many of the small droplets remain suspended in the air over time instead of falling to the ground.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T06:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221098753
       
  • Farmers’ livelihood strategies and sensitivity to climate change:
           Evidence from southwest China

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      Authors: Jing Lan, Biqing Song, Qiuming Li, Zhen Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although urbanization has deeply changed farmers’ livelihoods, the improvement of their adaptation to climate change is not yet particularly clear, due to many interactive pressures and complex differences in farmers’ livelihood strategies. This study uses 2-year household survey panel data from Na’Yong and Zhen’Xiong in southwest China, both of which are typically affected by meteorological disasters. First, we constructed a multi-dimensional induction of sensitivity indicators. Then, we divided farmers’ livelihood strategies and identified their sensitivity levels. Finally, we extracted the typical characteristics of farmers’ livelihood strategies that contribute to low sensitivity. The research shows that although non-agricultural labour can improve the income level of farmers, there is no clear positive relationship between farmers’ income and their sensitivity. Levels of sensitivity depend not only on the risk of farmers with a higher exposure to the natural environment but also on the ability of farmers to disperse and avoid natural risks. Livelihood strategies with lower sensitivities have three main characteristics: diversification, marketization and ecological sustainability. This study provides a practical basis for the sustainable livelihood of farmers in the context of climate change and attempts to provide a reference for other developing countries towards the end of achieving ecological poverty alleviation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T09:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097065
       
  • Informal settlements in the context of COVID-19: Pandemic restrictions and
           the building of community resilience

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      Authors: Chun Wang, Haoyi Xu, Aiping Lin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As the fundamental unit of urban governance, communities are the grassroots for responding to and facing disasters directly, and their resilience to disaster risks has garnered increasing consideration. Despite the large body of community resilience research that now exists, few studies have considered the resilience of informal settlements such as ‘urban villages’. In fact, the high density of building facilities in informal settlements, the diversity and mobility of their populations, their lack of public space and infrastructure and all kinds of managerial problems have become more prominent in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of the migrant populations and healthy living environments of informal settlements, sum up the pandemic prevention measures and their effects, study the community resilience of informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the strategies to build resilience. Our research results can be utilised to (1) enrich the content of existing community resilience research and promote the resilience of the whole city system in the face of public health events, and (2) provide a scientific basis for comprehensive management of informal settlements and optimise the living environments of migrant populations from the perspective of resilience.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097821
       
  • A semi-empirical mesh strategy for CFD simulation of indoor airflow

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      Authors: Yang Liu, Zhengwei Long, Wei Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Proper meshing is critical for accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In the three stages of CFD simulation, pre-processing accounts for about 40–60% of the total time. In this study, the performance of the grid for a large number of numerical simulations was analyzed, and base mesh sizes were recommended for different indoor geometric models. The simulation results for temperature, velocity, mesh resolution and computation time were compared, and mesh types were recommended for different models. Considering factors such as wall function, wall y+, face quality of the mesh, grid volume change rate and prism layer setting, a semi-empirical mesh strategy was presented. This strategy was verified in three cases with different geometric complexity. The verification results showed that the mesh strategy can yield reasonable simulation results. The root-mean-square error of the velocity simulation results of the optimized grid can be reduced by nearly 20%. This strategy can save nearly 50% of the mesh adjustment time. Through analysis and fitting of the grid results, the evaluation criteria for this mesh strategy were obtained. The criteria can be used to evaluate the cases using this mesh strategy.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T10:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221089825
       
  • Multiscale analysis of material flow and computational fluid dynamics for
           predicting individual diethyl-hexyl phthalate exposure concentration in
           indoors

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      Authors: Ryota Muta, Sung-Jun Yoo, Hyuntae Kim, Toru Matsumoto, Kazuhide Ito
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The establishment of a healthy indoor environment requires the accurate evaluation of an individual’s exposure to pollutants. The concentration of indoor chemical pollutants is a representative indicator for such evaluation and is generally measured on-site. Moreover, material flow analysis (MFA), using macroscopic statistical data, is a reasonable method for objectively evaluating pollution on a wide scale; however, no effective strategy exists for the prediction of indoor air pollution, nor for the assessment of an individual’s exposure from social stock data. Accordingly, we developed a novel integration method comprising MFA and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a computer-simulated person (CSP) to establish a framework for evaluating indoor pollutant concentration and individual exposure of residents. We focused on diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and first estimated the amount of DEHP-containing product accumulation in Japan by MFA. Second, we conducted a thorough survey and measurement of DEHP emission rates. Using these results as boundary conditions for indoor CFD with CSP, the individual exposure of a resident, in a standard residential house, was quantitatively evaluated. The total daily exposure per unit of body weight was estimated to be more than 100 (μg/kg/d) in the worst-case scenario which was considered the upper limit for exposure in this analysis.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T11:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221092613
       
  • Improving hosts’ pre-interaction capabilities for sustainability based
           on Airbnb host content emergence characteristics

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      Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Chuang Qu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The sharing of accommodation as a sustainable environmental solution for the lodging market is prevalent all over the world. However, the rapid expansion and low occupancy rate could be due to the accommodation hosts’ lack of attention to the pre-interaction content while reducing their carbon footprint, which have caused a significant impact on guests’ decision-making and prevented sharing accommodation. To improve the host pre-interaction capabilities and achieve the environmentally friendly potential of sharing accommodation, this research aims to explore the host expression characteristics including important topics and keywords of host pre-interaction content from a symbolic interaction perspective. Conducting the latent Dirichlet allocation machine learning model, keywords clustering characteristics emerged as main topics based on 38,814 listings from Airbnb in Beijing. The result of investigating the features in these topics and the word distribution in three types of properties shows that in a homogenous accommodation community, hosts who make the pre-interaction have more orders than those who do not. At the same time, the focus of hosts on expressing explicit and abundant topic symbols can effectively increase the attractiveness of their listings. However, accommodation hosts who just post a long text but do not emphasize listing key topics would not convince guests to use the accommodation. A variety of practical implications of findings has been discussed for sharing accommodation practitioners to answer the challenge of sustainability.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097279
       
  • Internet of things and machine learning applied to the thermal comfort of
           internal environments

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      Authors: Matheus Nascimento, Paulo Lopes
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The internet of things connects objects to the internet, enabling the dialogue between devices and users, providing new opportunities for applications, such as thermal comfort. In the research, adequate sensors were used to measure the heat index, the thermal discomfort index and the temperature and humidity index based on the temperature and relative humidity of a remote indoor environment. This research evaluated the level of thermal comfort in real-time using tools of storage, processing and analysis of big data information from the collection of IoT devices. With the analysis of the environment, it is possible to intelligently monitor the level of comfort and alert possible hazards to the people present. Machine learning algorithms were also used to analyse the history of stored data and formulate models capable of making predictions of the parameters of the environment. Health researchers, for example, have the necessary knowledge to evaluate clinical data, but they are not used to using data analysis resources and machine learning algorithms. The platform was developed to reduce dependence on data experts and encourage healthcare researchers to develop their own models by automating the steps required for model development, using automated machine learning (AutoML).
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T06:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097338
       
  • Review of calculating models of unsteady natural ventilation rate due to
           wind fluctuations

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      Authors: Xue Xiao, Junli Zhou, Wei Yang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Natural ventilation is an important form of sustainable building technique that can be used to adjust the indoor environment to ensure indoor thermal comfort and maintain acceptable indoor air quality. Correct estimation of the ventilation rate is a necessary step in natural ventilation design. Natural wind fluctuation and interaction between the wind and buildings determine models of mean flow rate inaccuracy in predicting actual ventilation. In this paper, a summary of calculation models for unsteady natural ventilation is given. Unsteady natural ventilation mechanisms are classified into continuous airflow, pulsating flow, eddy penetration and diffusion phenomena. The theories of different ventilation mechanisms and the differences between various research reports are expounded and discussed. Additionally, an in-situ measurement of the eddy penetration caused by wind turbulence at the opening was conducted to verify the proposed model. The actual application condition of different eddy penetration models is proposed via the comparison between previous models. With respect to the ‘pumping’ mechanism, this is regarded as a special type of eddy penetration for the first time. Research on ‘pumping’ airflow has just started, the mechanism and influencing factors of which will need to be further explored.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T08:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084033
       
  • The effect of thermal environment on stress and thermal comfort of college
           students under acute stress

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      Authors: Yalong Yang, Yunfei Bai, Rui Zhang, Xulai Zhu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the indoor thermal condition on people’s stress and thermal comfort under acute stress. Therefore, an experiment was carried out on 20 human subjects in the climate chamber. Three thermal conditions (PMV = −1, PMV = 0 and PMV = 1) were created. Trier social stress test was used as the program to stimulate acute stress and was divided into three stages: Pre-stressor, Stressor task and Post-stressor under each thermal condition. To analyse stress and thermal sensation, a survey was conducted and human subjects completed questionnaire provided about their responses. Furthermore, the psychophysiological responses of subjects were measured by electroencephalogram at different thermal conditions. The results indicate that subject’s stress is not significantly related to the thermal environment conditions in the stage of Pre-stressor. However, a neutral and slightly cold environment can reduce the stress of the subjects in the Stressor task, while a slightly warm environment would increase more acute stress. The thermal environment and psychological stress were found to have a combined effect, which could affect the thermal sensation, thermal comfort and acceptability of the environment when subjects were under acute stress stimulation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T05:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221086193
       
  • Predicting the infection probability distribution of airborne and droplet
           transmissions

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      Authors: Miguel Yamamoto, Akihiro Kawamura, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Satoshi Hori
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, a method is proposed to predict the infection probability distribution rather than the room-averaged value. The infection probability is predicted by considering both airborne and droplet transmissions based on CO2 concentration and the position of the occupants in a room. The proposed method was used in an actual office setting, and the results confirmed that it could provide a quantitative prediction of the infection probability by integrating the ventilation efficiency and the distance between occupants (i.e. social distancing). We verified the ability of the method to analyse the relative effectiveness of countermeasures for airborne and droplet transmissions. The proposed strategies can be implemented by a facility manager and can enable facility users to check the infection probability distribution in real-time to select a seat with the minimum risk of infection.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T01:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084869
       
  • Performance study of heat and mass transfer in a counterflow liquid to air
           membrane-based parallel-plate dehumidifier

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      Authors: Abir Taous, Kaouther Ben Nasr, Amen Allah Guizani
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid to air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE) is the most important component in a liquid desiccant air conditioning system. Three main configurations of LAMEE are presented in the literature: co-current, counterflow, and cross-counter flow. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of a counterflow LAMEE dehumidifier in terms of its cooling capacity (CC) and moisture removal rate (MRR). A numerical model was developed and validated with experimental results. The impact of solution properties and inlet air characteristics on the LAMEE’s performance were investigated. Simulation results show that CC and MRR are enhanced by decreasing the temperature and increasing the concentration of the liquid desiccant simultaneously. In order to obtain an optimal performance of the LAMEE, the solution mass flow rate should be equal to or slightly higher than the inlet air mass flow rate. On the other hand, we found that both CC and MRR increase with increasing inlet air temperature and relative humidity. Even though solution properties and inlet air characteristics affect the MRR and the CC, they have a negligible effect on the required air sensible cooling to meet the supply air condition (Qsen). The characteristics of outlet air provided by the LAMEE are in a stable state condition, which proves that the LAMEE has a wide range of adaptability in different operating conditions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T12:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080360
       
  • How does industrial agglomeration affect firms’ energy consumption'
           Empirical evidence from China

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      Authors: Wei Wei, Li Zhao, ZhongXing Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Industrial agglomeration is the main engine of economic growth and also the major source of CO2 emission that can have an effect on the social well-being of people in the built environment. This paper investigates the impact of industrial agglomeration on firms’ energy consumption intensity, using Chinese industrial firm data and Chinese industrial firm pollution emission data from 1998 to 2012. We found evidence that industrial agglomeration could effectively cut down firms’ coal consumption intensity and thus reduce the CO2 emission, which shows the positive environmental externality of industrial agglomeration. This finding is robust after carefully dealing with the potential endogeneity issues, while by taking advantage of the rich variations of our dataset, we also found heterogeneous effects across firm ownership, industry and region. In mechanism analysis, we document that specialized agglomeration plays an important role in reducing firms’ energy consumption intensity, and the decline in firms’ energy consumption intensity is mainly caused by the reduction in coal consumption.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T05:02:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080671
       
  • The role of waiting area typology in limiting the spread of COVID-19:
           Outpatient clinics of Erbil hospitals as a case study

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      Authors: Faris Ali Mustafa, Shayan Shero Ahmed
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the post-healthcare context, protecting patients against pandemic diseases like COVID-19 has become designers' responsibility; the amount and effectiveness of change are unknown, particularly in terms of future design. This study explores the potential significance of waiting area typology within outpatient clinics in generating a healthy and therapeutic environment for patients and users in terms of social distancing, as well as whether there is a relationship between outpatient and the provision of social distancing. This study employed a quantitative approach based on space syntax theory, through four different syntactic maps (Isovist, Axial, Convex and Visibility Graph Analysis), to depict hospitals in Erbil city by adopting five outpatient layout typologies such as centralized and decentralized (linear, lobby, sectoral and mixed), through measuring wayfinding, accessibility, privacy, density and circulation as outpatient layout typology factors. Results identified that there is a clear effect of outpatient layout typology factors on providing social distancing especially in waiting areas, the decentralized outpatient layout represented by both sectoral and linear typologies is the most useful typology based on social distancing compared to others. Given the influential role of outpatient layout in providing a healthy and safe healing atmosphere with more social distancing for patients, research findings provide a useful resource for healthcare designers, particularly for waiting areas within outpatient clinics.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T03:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079616
       
  • Effects of makeup air on atrium smoke conditions: A review

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      Authors: Wenjun Lei, Yue Qi, Angui Li, Sen Mei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Makeup air is important for fire smoke control systems, and the effects of makeup air on atrium smoke conditions have long been a concern. Requirements for makeup air velocities and makeup air inlet arrangements are too broad in most standards. Herein, the relevant requirements for the design parameters of makeup air given in standards are summarized, and a comprehensive review of factors that influence makeup air and the corresponding effect on smoke management during atrium fires is provided. These influencing factors are divided into uncontrollable factors (wind, external temperature, the location of fire development and the power of the fire) and controllable factors (layout of makeup air inlets and mechanical makeup air velocity). Due to advancements in makeup air systems, the behavioural characteristics of occupants can now be taken into account in the design stage of makeup air systems. Regarding air supply in the breathing zone, the fresh air provided by a makeup air system can be directly supplied to occupants to reduce harmful effects of smoke and avoid casualties. However, determining how to effectively design a makeup air distribution system and the applicability of this type of air distribution in various complex fire conditions requires further study.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T04:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059132
       
  • Investigation on the fire behaviour and propagation rule of fire overflow
           in the high-rise concave building structure

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      Authors: Xin-Xiao Lu, Guo-Yu Shi, Si-Yuan Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The concave building structure (CBS) featured with a partial sunken façade is prevalent in the high-rise residence and comprehensive buildings. The building is a 3/4 enclosed longitudinal shaft that creates a new channel for longitudinal fire propagation. The objective of the paper is to reveal the dynamic mechanism of fire propagation in CBS. A small-scale experiment and Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) were conducted to investigate the fire behaviour. The results show that CBS could enhance the longitudinal propagation velocity of the flame and smoke with a slender profile. It could reduce the heat loss and create a higher space temperature than no-concave building structure (NBS). The maximum temperature and smoke concentration extended from the external facade centre to two flanks with the building height increase. Raising the structure factor extended the flame length from 7.0 m to 8.6 m. It exhibited a typical three stages of entrainment velocity growth: rapid growth, medium growth and slow growth. The flame transferred from the external façade to the lateral façade when the heat release rate was 8–10 MW. The research is essential to distinguish the hazardous region and provide a basis for architectural design and personal safe evacuation in the CBS fire scenario.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T04:00:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067704
       
  • An analysis of Spatio–temporal patterns of fires in an Iranian city

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      Authors: Alireza Mohammadi, Shahrooz Shahparvari, Behzad Kiani, Sepideh Noori, Prem Chhetri
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Exploring Spatio–temporal patterns of fire incidents provides important information to help develop strategies to prevent and mitigate fire risk based on geographical knowledge. This study aims to map and analyse the Spatio–temporal patterns of urban fire incidents. Fire incident data were obtained from Ardabil Municipality Fire Department and Emergency Services and analysed using radial shape charts, kernel density estimation and average nearest neighbour to quantify spatial and Spatio–temporal patterns of fires. The results show that the Spatio–temporal fire patterns vary, depending on time, their types and causes. Interestingly, results indicate that fires are most likely to occur on Tuesdays and Thursdays and during summer. The study provides evidence to enhance decision-making on resource allocation in terms of establishing new fire stations and deploying an additional workforce to more vulnerable localities, or to formulate prevention strategies, such as education campaigns, to mitigate fire risk.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T06:49:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211055782
       
  • Fire safety of building integrated photovoltaic systems: Critical review
           for codes and standards

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      Authors: Yoon Ko, Monireh Aram, Xin Zhang, Dahai Qi
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A critical review of current regulations and standards is presented pertaining to the fire safety of the integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems need to meet both fire safety requirements as PV systems as well as the building fire codes requirements as building structural components (e.g. facades, roofing and glazing). However, the current building codes do not provide provisions that cover various applications of BIPV. Furthermore, the new building materials of glazing, tiles and claddings with the added function of solar energy collection are beyond the scopes of most of the current codes and standards. The present study also identified gaps in addressing the fire risk of BIPV systems with respect to the application to buildings considering potential fire hazards specific to the application.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211073130
       
  • Experimental investigation on thermal performance of water wall systems
           exposed to fire

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      Authors: Uthpala Rathnayake, Tharindu LW Karunaratne, Shousou Han, Denvid Lau, Cheuk L Chow
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Water wall systems (WWSs) are increasingly being used as glass façades in modern green buildings owing to their enhancement in building energy efficiency. However, little is known about their performance when exposed to fire. In this study, 500 × 1000 mm2 sized water wall systems with 30 mm, 50 mm and 100 mm thick water columns were tested and compared to the thermal performance of a 500 × 1000 mm2 sized single skin glass façade system. These façade systems were heated by a 400 × 600 mm2 isopropanol pool fire. The distance from the pan centre to pane 1 of the façade was 350 mm. Time to first crack and surface temperatures were measured. The experimental results indicate that single skin glass façades are more vulnerable to cracking than water wall systems, but exposed glass pane fallout can easily occur in water wall systems compared to single skin façades. Since the overall performance is dependent on the failure of the fire unexposed glass pane, water wall systems are more fire resistant than single skin glass façades. The water layer thickness significantly affects the WWS thermal performance, where a 50 mm thick water layer would result in a longer time to first crack. The experimental findings of this study are useful for developing practical guidelines for fire-safe glass façade designs.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211057446
       
  • Effects of water spray on smoke layer in buildings with natural venting

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      Authors: Cunfeng Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fire safety is always an important issue in the indoor and built environment. There might be hidden conflicts among different systems such as suppression and smoke control. The effect of water spray on smoke movement in halls with natural venting system is reported in this paper. A series of scale modelling experiments were carried out to study the temperature variation under water spray. A small vent on the opposite side of fire source would intensify smoke stratification and result in a higher smoke temperature. Water spray would weaken the smoke stratification due to the cooling effect on the smoke and the downward drag on the smoke layer. The temperature development of smoke was the result of competition of these two effects on the smoke layer. When the effect of water spray was stronger, the average smoke temperature tended to be lower, and the temperature difference of the ceiling to the smoke layer interface was smaller. When the effect of the opening dominated, the results were reversed. These results would be useful for providing fire safety in indoor and built environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067138
       
  • Resilience, fire and the UK Codes and Standards. Where are they and where
           could they go'

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      Authors: Martina Manes, David Lange, David Rush
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The term resilience is being more widely adopted in fire safety engineering, however, its comprehensive description is not clearly explained or correctly applied in practice. This study, therefore, defines the categories, dimensions, characteristics, capacities, objectives and missions possessed by resilience to provide a holistic understanding of the term. This is followed by an analysis and classification of the UK Standards and Codes addressing resilience considering their administrative and engineering features of resilience, and their resilience dimensions with definitions of fire resilience measures and approaches. A practical example of a fire resilience framework is applied in educational buildings considering internal resilience for a safe facility, risk reduction and disaster management, and external resilience involving redundancy of resources and community support. Finally, a fire resilience design framework is created in which structural and fire safety engineering are considered clarifying the steps to follow in a comprehensive design process based on a flow chart. This paper will contribute to the creation of a unified terminology and understanding of the concept linked to resilience to be adopted in various disciplines.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T01:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211054423
       
  • Fuzzy-based escape route fire-vulnerability assessment model for indoor
           built environment

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      Authors: Nilüfer Kızılkaya Öksüz, Ali Murat Tanyer, Mehmet Koray Pekeriçli
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fire safety evaluation is rarely involved in the iterative building design process except for legislative approval phases compared to other building objectives. However, regardless of architectural design priorities, all buildings should have adequate fire protection. This research develops a fire vulnerability assessment model based on the impact of architects on fire protection and effects of building design characteristics on fire safety. Inherent to the uncertain nature of fire safety evaluation practice, this study proposes a fuzzy vulnerability decision-making methodology to detect and visualize escape route vulnerabilities, which have the highest impact on the interoperability of fire safety and architectural design practices. The model was validated in an opera house building since the assembly occupancies have specific importance due to the significant number of fire causalities. The escape routes of the case study building were evaluated for materials’ fire reaction, route flow, route equipment, means of egress, dimensions and layout input variables. The output vulnerability levels were discussed to enhance the understanding of critical building design factors that contribute to fire vulnerability. The results confirm that the model is fairly effective in the detection and visualization of vulnerability sources by reducing communication time delays and preventing human-induced mistakes.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T12:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211045735
       
  • Progress and prospect of research on the non-uniform indoor environment

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      Authors: Xianting Li, Jiaan Zhao, Chuck WF Yu
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221106279
       
 
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