Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

RUBBER (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1477-7606 - ISSN (Online) 1478-2413
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Preliminary evaluation of properties and performance of natural rubber
           (NR) latex band for microplastic capturing in seawater

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      Authors: Nur Ayunni Ahmad Shahrul Amin, Nur Shauqina Mohd Sabri, Neettha Nai Sem, Muaz Mohd Zaini Makhtar, Mohamad Danial Shafiq
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Microplastic particles are emerging water-laden waste that cause a worrying concern towards the environment and humans health. Due to its small size and geometry, and uncertain surface properties, the microplastic waste capturing method in water is still evolving. To date, a number of findings report on the emergence of microplastic surface charging, especially when exposed to water environment. In this study, the natural rubber (NR) latex band was utilized to capture the microplastic waste via a surface capturing mechanism. The NR band was produced using a film casting and curing methods. The surface charging mechanism on the NR band was introduced via the usage of high amount of ZDEC accelerator and, periodic stretching and relaxation procedures. In this work, ZDEC was used as an accelerator for the rubber formulation, and surface charge booster for the NR band. The surface charge of the NR band generates electrostatic interaction with the microplastic waste in water. The polypropylene (PP) microplastic was captured via the surface attraction mechanism using the manufactured NR band. Based on FTIR analysis, the presence of PP microplastic can be quantified on the contaminated NR band surface. The NR band shows the improvement in tensile and tear properties and crosslink density, mainly due to high amount of ZDEC used. At ZDEC loading of 20 phr, the NR band recorded the highest surface potential value, and this is owing to the formation of Zn2+ complex ions on its surface. XRF analysis indicates that the increment of Zn content in the NR band with increasing ZDEC content, that suggests the formation of Zn2+ complex ions.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T07:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606241231886
       
  • Performance assessment of aluminum chips in reduced-scale friction for
           developing copper-free elastomer-modified friction composites

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      Authors: Prosenjit Ghosh
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research paper investigates the frictional and thermomechanical properties of a copper (Cu) free non-asbestos organic (NAO) composite for developing brake friction material for automotive/railway applications. Reduced-scale brake composites were manufactured and tested in a pin on disc tribometer. The effect of aluminum (Al) chips on the dry sliding wear behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) modified phenolic resin-based reduced-scale friction composites was investigated. Other common ingredients of friction materials like fiber, filler, and friction modifiers were not included to get the specific effect of Al on the various properties of the composites. Four composites were prepared with varying Al content, for example, 25, 50, 75, and 100 phr (parts per hundred resins). The average COF increases by ∼70% for 75 phr Al loaded composite (optimum composition) compared to the base composite (devoid of Al). However, mechanical properties, such as hardness and flexure strength, decrease with increasing phr of Al, although compressive strength does not change significantly. The optimum composite exhibits the lowest specific wear rate among Al chips loaded composites. The optimum composite also shows nearly three times improvement in thermal conductivity compared to the base composite. The wear behavior of the composites has been analyzed from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-05T08:25:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606241231887
       
  • Preparation of intercalated hydrotalcite materials and its effect on
           thermal stability properties of polyvinyl chloride

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      Authors: Guifang Du, Jinsheng Duan, Peijie Jia, Zhaogang Liu, Fushan Feng, Yanhong Hu, Jinxiu Wu, Xiaowei Zhang, Jianfei Li
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, ZnAlLa-maleate-LDHs was synthesized using the co-precipitation-hydrothermal method. The effects of aluminum-lanthanum ratio, co-precipitation time, hydrothermal time, and hydrothermal temperature on the crystal structure were investigated. As indicated by the result, the optimal condition was n (Al3+): n (La3+) = 10:1, the co-precipitation time reached 24 h, the hydrothermal time was 8 h, and the hydrothermal temperature reached 180°C. The effect of hydrotalcite on the thermal stability properties and plasticizing properties of PVC was analyzed. The result suggested that ZnAlLa-maleate-LDHs enhanced the thermal stability, plasticizing properties, and mechanical properties of PVC compared with ZnAlLa-CO3-LDHs. The layer spacing of hydrotalcite was increased with the introduction of maleic acid, such that the entry of Cl− into the interlayer guest was facilitated, and the decomposition of PVC was inhibited. Moreover, the long-term thermal stability mechanism was analyzed using FTIR before and after hydrochloric acid treatment. As revealed by the above result, the thermal stabilizer ZnAlLa-maleate-LDHs are capable of hindering the breakage of C-Cl bonds in PVC, inhibiting the formation of HCl, and playing a certain role in thermal stabilization.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-23T10:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606241229205
       
  • Examination of the permeability of rubberized concrete with different
           water/cement ratios and their resistance against acid and sulfate attack

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      Authors: Ufuk Kandil, H. Alperen Bulut
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to examine the permeability and acid and sulfate attack of waste rubber-substituted concrete containing recycled rubber in three different grain size classes (chips, crumb and powder) with two different water/cement (w/c) ratios (0.4 and 0.5). Waste rubber at different ratios (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, 20%, and 24%) was used in concrete by replacing fine and coarse aggregates. Sorptivity, electrical resistivity, and acid and sulfate attack tests were conducted on concrete cured for 90 days. Although the capillarity coefficient values increased with the waste rubber replacement ratio increase, a decrease occurred after the 20% waste rubber replacement ratio. In 12% waste rubber-substituted concrete (0.4WR12) with a water/cement ratio of 0.4, the electrical resistivity value (8.3 kΩ.cm) was the highest, and concretes with low permeability could be produced. As a result of the use of 16% waste rubber in the concrete, 75% less compressive strength loss was observed after the acid attack compared to the control concrete. In concrete with a water/cement ratio of 0.5, when the waste rubber ratio increased by up to 16%, the compressive strength losses caused by the sulfate attack decreased dramatically (95.76% less) compared to the control concrete. The rubberized concrete with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 showed high resistance to acid and sulfate attacks. The experiment results showed that 12% to 16% waste rubbers are ideal ratios. In this study, the water/cement ratio was a valuable parameter for the waste rubber ratio in rubberized concrete.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-22T10:49:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231224132
       
  • Enhancement of hydrophobicity in natural rubber vulcanizates using
           diatomaceous earth

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      Authors: Sachini Narmada Dissanayake, Kanishka De Silva, Shantha Maduwage Egodage, Frank Dennis Blum, Madhubhashini Maddumaarachchi
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study discusses an approach that gives the Natural Rubber (NR) vulcanizates an elevated hydrophobic character. The method used a chemically treated filler called diatomaceous earth (DE) to deliver the hydrophobic characteristics to NR. DE has a nanoscale roughness. It was chemically treated with hexadecyltrimethoxy silane to obtain low surface energy. The combination of nanoscale roughness and low surface energy gave superhydrophobic properties to DE. A series of treated-DE was made with varying silane percentages to find an optimum silane to DE ratio to get the maximum possible hydrophobicity. The optimum ratio was recorded as 38% w/w, and the treated DE displayed a superhydrophobic water contact angle (WCA) of 152°. The treated-DE was added to the rubber as a filler during the compounding process. The filler was added in varying amounts of 5 phr, 10 phr, 15 phr, and 20 phr to observe the changes in the hydrophobic property. The wettability and morphology of developed vulcanizates were measured using WCA measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, respectively. NR compounded with 20 phr filler exhibited an enhanced WCA of 136°, compared to the WCA of 92° of the NR vulcanizate with no treated-DE, and displayed improved tensile, and tear properties.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-22T02:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231224129
       
  • Investigation of vibration, flexural, tribological and flame retardant
           properties on rubber crumb-reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: N Thangapandian, M Satthiyaraju, P GaneshKumar, Vinothkumar Sivalingam
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research aims to fabricate polymer matrix composites with improved mechanical, flame retardant, and damping properties by incorporating waste rubber crumbs as the reinforcement. The damping characteristics of the polymer matrix composites reinforced with different weight percentages of rubber crumb such as 0, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% were analyzed using a free vibration test. The experimental results confirmed that the addition of rubber crumb significantly improved the damping characteristics of the material. In addition, the rubber crumb-reinforced composites showed improved mechanical and fire-retardant properties. The flexural strength improved exceptionally with the increase in rubber reinforcements up to 7.5%, whereas the tensile strength increased up to 2.5% weight and reduced with the further increase in rubber. Enhanced flame-retardant properties were witnessed in the polymer composites reinforced with rubber crumb than that of the plain Epoxy - Glass fibre composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also used to ascertain the thermal properties. The scanning electron microscope was employed to analyze the surface and fractography of the polymeric composites. The overall results showed the contemporary effect of rubber crumbs on polymer composites.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T12:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231220420
       
  • Effect of electron beam radiation on the mechanical, electrical, heat
           shrinkable and morphological properties of linear low-density
           polyethylene/polyolefin elastomer blends

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      Authors: Rohini Agarwal, Manjeet Singh, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, Harish Jagat Pant
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The blending of polymers is an efficient means for developing new materials in a less hazardous and more economical way compared to the synthetic route. Polymers with different properties are blended to obtain a new material with combined properties. In this study, a thermoplastic elastomer blend is prepared by melt mixing a metallocene-based polyolefin elastomer (Engage 8003, abbreviated as EN) with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE, abbreviated as LL) using a twin-screw extruder in various compositions. To investigate the effect of the electron beam on the properties, LL, EN and their blends are irradiated in the 50–250 kGy dose range. The samples are subjected to gel fraction, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, hardness, heat shrinkability, volume resistivity and morphological studies. The % gel fraction, hardness and heat shrinkability of a sample increase with an increase in the irradiation dose. With increasing LL content, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength of the blends are increased, maintaining the % elongation at break in an attractive region. LE64 (60 wt% LL and 40 wt% EN) and LE46 (40 wt% LL and 60 wt% EN) blends show optimized mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. Irradiation further increases the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of LE64 up to 150 kGy and LE46 up to 200 kGy. The volume resistivity of the LE64 blend increases tenfold and quadruples for LE46 compared to non-irradiated blends when irradiated at 200 kGy. The morphological structures of the non-irradiated and crosslinked blends support the outcome of the obtained properties nicely.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-04T05:00:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231220421
       
  • Effect of accelerated weathering on the properties of poly(lactic
           acid)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blend and composite
           containing wood flour and wollastonite

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      Authors: Saowaroj Chuayjuljit, Thanawadee Leejarkpai, Phasawat Chaiwutthinan
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of the present work was to explore the effects of accelerated weathering test on properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend and PLA)/PBAT/wood flour (WF)/wollastonite (WT) composite. The 70/30 (wt%/wt%) PLA/PBAT blend and its composite with 25 phr WF and 5 phr WT were prepared on a twin screw extruder and injection molding machine. Resulted blend and hybrid composite were exposed to accelerated weathering conditions of UV-irradiation and moisture cycles at 63°C in a laboratory Xenon Weather-Ometer chamber for various periods (250, 500, 750, and 1000 h). The alterations in the surface quality (color change), chemical structure, surface morphology, tensile properties, thermal behaviors, and thermal stability of the specimens were evaluated by spectrocolorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), universal testing machine, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The photo- and hydrolytic degradations were found to occur during the weathering exposure time. Both blend and composite showed a continuous increase in the total color change with prolonged exposure time, which was mainly due to the degradation of PLA and wood components, especially lignin. The SEM images also confirmed their degradations by illustrating roughness, voids, and cavities on the specimen surfaces after accelerated weathering. Meanwhile, the tensile and thermal properties of both blend and composite were found to decrease. Thus, this study can be used for quality control and material certification.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-30T01:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231219641
       
  • Thermomechanical devulcanization of butyl rubber using twin-screw
           extruder: Process parameters, viscoelastic and compatibility properties

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      Authors: Maryam Parsamanesh, Foroud Abbassi-Sourki, Mohammad Karrabi, Sedigheh Soltani
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Thermomechanical devulcanization of butyl rubber (BR1), bromobutyl rubber (BR2) vulcanizates, both prepared in laboratory, and a waste commercial butyl rubber (BR3) using a twin-screw extruder is reported. The commercial butyl rubber vulcanizate (BR3) was used as a tire curing bladder and the waste rubber received from a tire manufacturing company. The devulcanization process was carried out at various barrel temperatures and screw speeds (40, 80 and 120 r/min). The lowest sol fraction was obtained for devulcanized waste commercial butyl rubber (D-BR3). According to Horikx theory, devulcanized butyl rubber (D-BR1) presented mainly crosslink breakup while devulcanized bromobutyl rubber (D-BR2) and devulcanized waste commercial butyl rubber (D-BR3) showed a mixture of main chain and crosslink scission. As cure rheographs at 190°C indicated, the addition of devulcanized rubbers to the corresponding virgin ones influenced both scorch and optimal cure times. The tensile properties of devulcanized/virgin rubber blends changed depending on the blend type and virgin rubber. The stress relaxation experiment revealed that the addition of devulcanized rubber to virgin one mostly influenced short relaxation times and also decreased G0. BR1/D-BR3 blends exhibited higher elastic component than BR1/D-BR1 and BR2/D-BR2 samples. The Han plots revealed higher compatibility for BR2/D-BR2 blends.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T01:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231207000
       
  • Mechanical properties of a hybrid waste tyre, sisal and polyester resin
           composite fibre board

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      Authors: Kankomba Kankompe, Sizo Ncube, Nkosilathi Nkomo, Nqobizitha Ndebele, Peeps Gonde, Londiwe Nkiwane
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Millions of used or worn-out tyres are disposed of by many countries annually. These tyres can be put to good use when recycled. Used tyres are among the most problematic and challenging sources of solid waste, especially in landfills. Therefore, the use of waste tyres for composite materials having desired performance properties can be used as a means of disposing of the tyres. Fibrous material-reinforced composites with enhanced physical and mechanical performance and incorporating sisal fibres were produced using waste tyre material, sisal, and polyester resin. The physical and mechanical properties of hybrid composite board panels, including flexural strength, compression strength, tensile strength, and water absorption, were determined according to ASTM Standards. The rubber tyre particles used in the study had a size of 1.00 mm, and the sisal used had an average length of 6mm. A systematic experimental design was formulated and worked accordingly in the fabrication of the composite. The hybrid composite produced has adequate mechanical properties to perform as a substitute for solid wood in several applications such as tabletops, general purpose, load-bearing boards, ceiling boards, furniture, door panels and partitioning boards.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T08:18:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231218350
       
  • Mechanical, morphological, and dimensional properties of heat-treated
           fused deposition modeling printed polymeric matrix of polyethylene
           terephthalate glycol

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      Authors: Sudhir Kumar, Inderjeet Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Jonty Mago, S. S. R. Koloor
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the impact of heat treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and dimensional properties of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), a commonly used thermoplastic in 3D printing. Taguchi L25 orthogonal array (OA) was employed to optimize 3D printing parameters, considering factors such as infill percentage (ranging from 20% to 100%), layer height (0.12 mm to 0.28 mm), layer width (0.32 mm to 0.62 mm), and infill pattern. Following ASTM D638 type IV standards, mechanical testing revealed that the optimal printing conditions included a 100% infill percentage, a layer height of 0.16 mm, a layer width of 0.32 mm, and an infill pattern of 5. Specimen 22, produced under these conditions, exhibited a notable stress-bearing capacity of 46.43 ± 1.394 MPa. These results are consistent with previous studies that underscored the significance of high infill percentages and finer layer dimensions in enhancing tensile properties. Subsequently, these optimized specimens were exposed to various heat treatment conditions. It was discovered that heat treatment at 85°C for 15 min yielded the most significant improvements, increasing the stress-bearing capacity to 53.462 ± 1.604 MPa, representing an impressive ∼16% enhancement compared to non-heat-treated specimens. However, this treatment also led to increased brittleness. Morphological analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) further substantiated the findings. Specimens subjected to heat treatment at 85°C exhibited fewer voids and porosities than those printed with lower infill percentages and larger layer dimensions. These observations underscored the importance of adequate infill density and finer printing details for optimizing strength. Regarding dimensional stability, dimensional changes were meticulously measured after heat treatment. Notably, specimens subjected to heat treatment at or near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PETG experienced the most significant shrinkage. Specimen 6, treated at 85°C, displayed the highest shrinkage, with length and width reductions of 133.30 ± 3.85 mm and 25.90 ± 0.87 mm, respectively.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T02:49:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231218354
       
  • Random forest and Shapley additive explanation for compressive strength
           prediction of NaOH-pretreated crumb rubber concrete

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      Authors: Yang Sun
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The compressive strength (CS) of crumb rubber concrete (CRC) can be improved through a chemical pretreatment involving immersion of the crumb rubber particles in a NaOH solution. Despite the potential benefits of this treatment, accurately estimating the CS value of NaOH-pretreated CRC remains challenging. To address this issue, a comprehensive database encompassing 118 entries on the fundamental mixtures of CRC along with NaOH concentration and pretreatment duration has been meticulously compiled for machine learning analysis. The random forest (RF) algorithm is employed to predict the 28-day CS value of NaOH-pretreated CRC. The model hyperparameters are optimized using a random search technique with 10-fold cross-validation. The findings reveal that the optimized RF attains acceptable predictive performance, yielding RMSE, MAE, and R2 values of 3.83 MPa, 2.84 MPa, and 0.85, respectively, on the testing dataset. Additionally, the model is interpreted using multiple techniques, including permutation importance, RF model-based feature importance, and Shapley additive explanation from global or local perspectives. The feature importance analyses consistently highlight the crucial role of crumb rubber content in determining the 28-day CS value of NaOH-pretreated CRC, and the influence of NaOH concentration and pretreatment time appear relatively inconsequential compared to features associated with the CRC mixture. This research contributes to a deeper understanding and better mixture design of CS for NaOH-pretreated CRC.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231211793
       
  • Utilization of engineered silicate dispersion as a cost-effective
           cheapener and engineered carbonate dispersion as novel reinforcing
           additives for nitrile latex glove application

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      Authors: Norfatirah Muhamad Sarih, Muhammad Afiq Misman, Simon Maher, Azura A Rashid
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Utilization of silicate minerals fillers in latex offer dual function as a compatible filler and cheapener that economical way to reduce latex consumption. This research explores the effect of using Engineered Silicate Composite Dispersion (ESD 086) as fillers for nitrile latex-supported gloves, seeking to explore their properties while ensuring cost-effectiveness. The reinforcement effect of novel Engineered Carbonate Dispersion (ECD 011) for ESD 086 filled Carboxylated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (XNBR/ESD 086) latex films has also been explored. XNBR latex films were compounded with three variants of ESD 086 at different loadings (in phr). From three variants of ESD 086 fillers, variant ESD 086A at 10 phr shows the highest tensile strength. As the ESD 086A filler loading increased up to 15 phr, the tensile strength decreased, indicating the ineffectiveness to be used at higher loading. The work was continued by exploring the use of novel ECD 011 to minimize the decrement effect. The 15 phr ESD 086 filled XNBR latex films (XNBR/ESD 086A-15) were subjected to a hybrid loading from 0 to 1.2 phr with 0.2 phr staggered increment together with the reduction of ECD 011:ZnO ratio in the XNBR latex compounds. Results show that at 0.6:0.6 phr of ECD 011:ZnO, the tensile strength of XNBR/ESD 086A-15 latex films increased and the elongation at break also improved. Using ESD 086A can reduce the usage of XNBR latex. Still, it can only be used up to 10 phr (optimum loading) and ECD 011 can maintain the physical properties and offer maximum cost-saving options for XNBR latex glove formulation at higher loading of ESD fillers. Overall, both engineered dispersions offer potential commercial benefits for the Nitrile gloves industry.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T04:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231203850
       
  • A review of the recent development in self-healing rubbers and their
           quantification methods

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      Authors: Noor Faezah Mohd Sani, Noor Aishatun Majid, Abdul Rehman, Nabil Hayeemasae, Subramaniam Radhakrishnan, Malhari B. Kulkarni, Raa Khimi
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The emerging self-healing concept in rubber materials appears to be a good option for reducing rubber waste since it can enhance the longevity of the product's structure in conjunction with standard development goals to ensure sustainable consumption and efficient use of resources. Self-healing elastomers are fabricated to heal cracks and damage both at the micro and macroscopic levels to restrict failure by incorporating healing agents extrinsically or intrinsically. The major successful techniques to fabricate self-healing rubber were reviewed. The review also focuses on testing and analysis methods to understand the healing phenomena and quantification methods to measure the healing performance. The review also includes an overview of the self-healing elastomers for tyre applications.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T01:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231200952
       
  • A critical review on fractographic studies of steel cord and bead wire
           used in tyre reinforcement

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      Authors: Ramesh Shilavant, Barun Kumar Samui, Jagannath Chanda, Prasenjit Ghosh, Rabindra Mukhopadhyay, Shib Shankar Banerjee
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Fracture is one of the failure modes of a material or product which may occur during its manufacturing process or its usage. Fractography is the science and art of examination and analysis of the fractured surface. Texture and nature of the fractured surface provide valuable information on origin of a crack and crack propagation; thereby, it helps to understand the mechanism of fracture and facilitate to identify the likely causes of failure. This review covers an extensive study on various types of fractures of steel cord and bead wire which are primarily used in rubber composites viz tyre, conveyor belt etc. Different types of fractures studied include ductile, central burst, brittle, fatigue, torsion, corrosion, delamination and weld fractures. Fundamentals on specific characteristics of each type of fracture and their likely causes have been elaborately discussed Microscopic examination through scanning electron microscope (SEM) provides deeper insights of the fractured surface as well as microstructure of material. In addition to the fundamental aspects of fractures, examples of different types of fractured samples have been illustrated in this article. This focused review would be useful to the steel cord and bead wire manufactures as well as to tyre manufacturers for detailed failure investigation of material/product and thereby to take appropriate corrective measures.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T03:36:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231201866
       
  • Investigation of structural parameters of acoustic panels produced from
           post-industrial textile wastes containing different raw materials

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      Authors: Ipek Yalcin-Enis, Hande Sezgin
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Although noise pollution appears to be a minor issue, it worsens as a result of urbanization and population growth. Unwanted noises have a wide range of negative effects, including anxiety, hostility, high blood pressure, tinnitus, hearing loss, and sleep difficulties. The researchers are compelled to conduct a creative search in order to uncover future environmental solutions due to the noise problem, which is becoming each day worse. Moreover, the textile sector, which is growing day by day, generates huge amounts of waste with the effect of fast fashion trend. The objective of this study is to develop ecofriendly acoustic panels utilizing recycled textile waste and thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) fibers. Within the scope of the study, waste fabrics made of viscose, lyocell, flax, cotton, and polyester are shredded into fibers, and sandwich panels including waste fibers bonded together with PP fibers are generated using the hot press technique. In addition to the use of natural and synthetic fibers, the effects of surface shape (perforated-imperforated) and layer thickness (5 mm and 10 mm) on acoustic performance are examined. The results of the sound absorption and sound transmission loss tests reveal that the acoustic properties of the samples improve as the sample thickness increases, but the perforation process does not have the desired favorable impact on samples of the same thickness. Additionally, the outcomes demonstrate that around 2000 Hz, natural and regenerated fibers with high cellulose content had the best sound absorption coefficients around 0.60. The findings indicate that these eco-friendly panels can be used to reduce unwanted noise in open offices, co-working spaces, and meeting rooms.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-06T06:55:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231200953
       
  • Progress in recycling and reutilization of waste polyethylene
           terephthalate

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      Authors: Ruixin Chen, Sai Deng, Tongyan Cui, Shiyu Duan, Qingxiu Jia, Liqun Zhang
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a versatile material with a wide range of applications, and the demand for PET products has been steadily increasing in recent years. This has generated large quantities of non-biodegradable PET waste. To reduce environmental pollution, recycling and reuse of waste PET is an economical solution. Different PET products vary greatly in their impurity contents, processing technology, and performance, which poses certain challenges for the recovery, purification, and reuse of PET waste in a high value-added manner. Various recycling and reutilization methods are compared, potential issues with different PET products in the recycling process are analyzed, and viscosity enhancement modification techniques and applications of recycled PET are introduced. This paper provides a reference for the recycling of various waste PET products.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10T02:07:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231195399
       
  • Some problem questions in studying the properties of dynamically
           vulcanized polymer systems based on ethylene/1-hexene copolymer and
           nitrile butadiene rubber

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      Authors: Najaf Kakhramanov, Zulfira Huseynova, Yunis Gahramanli, Reykhan Hajiyeva, Nushaba Arzumanova, Rena Kurbanova, Elmira Suleymanova
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the type and concentration of nitrile butadiene rubber on the main physical and mechanical properties of polymer compositions based on compatibilized ethylene/1-hexene copolymer (EHC*). SKN-18, SKN-26, and SKN-40 were used as nitrile butadiene rubber. The compatibilizer – polyethylene-graft-methacrylic acid was used to improve the compatibility of the mixed components of the mixture. At the first stage, the task of the study was to investigate the effect of the concentration of the considered nitrile rubbers on such properties of the compositions as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, melt flow rate and heat resistance. It was found that, regardless of the type of used nitrile butadiene rubber, with an increase in its content in the composition of the ethylene/1-hexene copolymer, a regular decrease in strength parameters, heat resistance, and melt fluidity is observed. It is shown that with the loading of 30 wt% SKN-18 or 40 wt% SKN-26 and SKN-40 into the composition of the ethylene/1-hexene copolymer phase inversion occurs in the composite materials, according to which the dispersed phase becomes a dispersed medium. The thermomechanical properties of the considered samples were studied. It was found that in those samples in which phase inversion occurred, a region of a highly elastic plateau is formed, which increases with an increase in the content of the rubber component. This area indicates the formation of elastomer with rubber properties. The regularities of crystallization of the compositions depending on the content of the amorphous component were studied by the method of stepwise dilatometry. The mechanism of crystal formation was studied depending on the content of the amorphous component. The influence of the crosslinking agent concentration – dicumyl peroxide on the main properties of dynamically vulcanized elastomers has been studied.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-11T04:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231189522
       
  • Development of textile printing ink using expanded polystyrene waste as a
           binder

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      Authors: Chizoba M Obele, Shadrack C Ugwu, Jeremiah L Chukwuneke
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research produced textile pigment printing paste using expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a binder, sodium alginate as a thickener, and ultramarine pigment. The printing paste production was optimized through response surface methodology, using central composite design (CCD). The dynamic viscosity of the produced printing paste samples ranges from 5200 to 5550.50 cP (Centi Poise). The Fourier infrared transform (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the functional groups present in the printing paste.The result of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) conducted shows a first step decomposition of 94.14% that occurred at the range of 30.96°C–127.75°C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed an endothermic transition at 119.44°C due to the absorption of energy during the breaking of printing paste bonds. Textile characterization such as wash fastness, croak fastness, and light fastness was carried out to determine the suitability of the print paste on cotton and polyester fabrics. The results of the fastness tests range from 4 to 5 for wash fastness, 3 to 4/5 for croak fastness, and 4 to 6 for light fastness. The optimum values of the model variables are thickener (50%), binder (40%), and pigment (5%). The performance of the printing paste as revealed from the results is moderate and comparable with textile printing paste suitable for commercial application.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-30T01:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231186635
       
  • The phenolic cured butyl rubber reclamation using different
           de-crosslinking agents

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      Authors: Zahara Miranian, Saeed Ostad Movahed, Nadia Ostad Movahed
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The cured rubber-made bladder used for curing the green tire because, it is thermally stable, and has low gas permeability. The bladder is made with the cured butyl rubber as a base rubber under a phenolic curing system. To save the resources and also, the environmental protection, it should be de-crosslink to gum rubber. A commercial source waste bladder rubber compounded with different de-crosslinking agents, including TMTD, DPDS, DCBS, MBTS, MBT, and TBBS. To do de-crosslinking, the prepared compounds were heated in a laboratory heating oven at different temperatures. The de-crosslinking parameters including the sol fraction and de-crosslinking percent measured using traditional rubber swollen tests. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) graphs showed the existence of the phenolic resin in the structure of waste bladder butyl rubber powder. Efficient de-crosslinking was observed for all studied de-crosslinking agents. It evidenced by the scanning electron microscope micrographs and also, the measured crosslink densities of the reclaimed rubbers. The highest and the lowest de-crosslinking percents belonged to the compounds with 4 phr DPDS in recipe at 220 [math] and 4 phr DCBS at 180 [math], respectively. Based on the obtained de-crosslinking parameters, the DPDS was selected as a suitable de-crosslinking agent for used waste rubber. In accordance with Horikx analysis, the oven heating broke down the crosslinks and rubber main chains simultaneously. Increasing the oven temperature had a positive effect on de-crosslinking process with similar effects on the crosslink and main chain break down.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T01:27:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231186631
       
  • Development of hybrid composite with natural fillers for mechanical
           property and machinability study

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      Authors: Jani S P, Sujin Jose A, Rajaganapathy C, Adam Khan M
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The urge to build a more environmentally friendly future has motivated researchers to examine composites outside of synthetic fiber and continue to consider natural fibre polymer composite. This present research, the hybrid bio composite was developed by bio fillers and natural fibres. The preliminary investigation was done to examine the possibility of using natural fillers (palm and coconut shell) in natural fibre (hemp and basalt) reinforced polymer (NFRP) composite for manufacturing application. In that way initially mechanical (tensile and flexural) properties testing were done on four different combinations of NFRP by using palm and coconut shell particles, to their influence on mechanical properties (tensile stress 278 MPa and flexural stress 330 MPa). It was found that 5% wt. palm + coco shell fillers combination hybrid composite presented good results in mechanical properties. Then 5% wt. palm + coco fillers was added in the matrix phase of NFRP composite was developed and study the machinability properties by using Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM). NFRP machining in the relationships of material removal rate (MRR), kerf angle and surface roughness has been experimentally examined for various process parameters (nozzle pressure, distance stand and transverse speed). The research values for quality properties (MRR, Kt and Ra) were analysis-based on the trimming factors by developing the Taguchi method. The influence of optimized input process parameters on quality features were examined by utilizing experiential models. From this study, it is noticeable that, filler material in natural fiber composites reduces the kerf angle and the low and very high traverse speed leads the wide disparity in kerf inclination. For obtaining the good surface roughness and material removal rate medium traverse speed and medium stand of distance is the significant parameter respectively and moreover impact of jet pressure on surface finish is 3 times lower than the impact supplied to the surface finish by traverse speed
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-26T02:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231186633
       
  • Experimental assessment and compressive constitutive model of rubberized
           concrete confined by steel tube

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      Authors: Zhi Zhou, Wei Huang, Xiaodong Wang
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the confining effect and axial compressive behavior of rubberized concrete (RuC) confined by steel tube, axial compression tests were carried out on 12 circular RuC cylinders confined by steel tube. The cylinders considered parameters such as steel tube thicknesses (2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm) and rubber volume replacement ratios of the fine aggregates (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%). It was observed that the compressive strength of RuC decreases as the rubber volume replacement ratio increases. However, an increase in steel tube thickness enhances the confining effect of the core RuC, leading to an increase in its compressive strength and the corresponding strain, similar to that of conventional concrete. Moreover, post-peak curves are more likely to exhibit a strengthening part in confined concrete with more rubber content. Furthermore, a model was developed to determine the compressive strength of RuC confined by steel tube. Finally, an axial stress-strain model of steel tube confined RuC was proposed, which was validated against test results.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T02:12:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606231181414
       
 
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  Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

RUBBER (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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