Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

RUBBER (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Journal of Rubber Research
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1511-1768 - ISSN (Online) 2524-3993
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Automated rubber seed ventral surface identification using hue,
           saturation, value (HSV) image processing and a decision rule approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Rubber seeds should be planted and handled correctly to boost the germination rate by placing the ventral surface facing down and adhering to the soil. Traditionally, this planting technique has been performed manually by labourers. Automation is not only the key to solving labour shortage issues but can also improve the production performance. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the dorsal and ventral surface of rubber seeds using image processing techniques of hue, saturation, value colour space and a decision rule approach. Five features were extracted at the centre of the seed based on the detected edge images, namely maximum length, ratio of major and minor axis, number of pixels, maximum convolution and number of intersections. These features were used as a dataset to develop new prediction models using a decision rule and an artificial neural network (ANN). Based on the results, it was found that the decision rule model performed better with a higher value of accuracy (88.75%), sensitivity (90%) and specificity (87.50%) compared to ANN. This was most likely due to the rules prepared by applying expert knowledge when developing a decision rule model. On the other hand, the development of the prediction model was created based on the analysis of each feature. This study could benefit the rubber industry, especially for the nursery application during the planting process, where it can potentially reduce time and labour intensity while increasing production efficiency at the same time.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Influence of freeze–thaw cycles and aging on the horizontal mechanical
           properties of high damping rubber bearings

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      Abstract: Abstract Freeze–thaw cycles, aging, and freeze–thaw cycles superimposed aging test on high-damping rubber bearings (HDR) were performed to study the durability of HDR for sea-crossing bridges in northern coastal areas. The change laws of horizontal mechanical properties of HDR under different tests were revealed. After freeze–thaw cycles, the equivalent damping ratio and yield force of HDR decreased, the post-yield stiffness increased slightly, but the horizontal equivalent stiffness wasn’t change; The ultimate shear force and displacement of HDR abated. Under aging test, horizontal equivalent stiffness and post-yield stiffness increased significantly, and the change of its yield force could be ignored, while the equivalent damping ratio decreased. The horizontal equivalent stiffness and post-yield stiffness of HDR increased; however, the equivalent damping ratio and yield force decreased after the freeze–thaw cycles superimposed aging test. Besides, experimental results indicated considering freeze–thaw cycles or aging alone cannot accurately estimate the change of HDR’s performances in the actual environment. This study is likely to provide a whole life cycle design and evaluation basis for coastal seismically isolated bridges with HDR in the cold regions of northern China.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • The development of an automatic rubber seed sowing system with machine
           vision assistance

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural rubber is an important world commodity to produce gloves, tyres and many other important goods. Rubber plant naturally grows from seeds and it can also be grafted artificially. Rubber seedlings in nurseries are currently manually sowed by labour. The rubber seed must be placed with the dorsal side facing upwards and the ventral side facing downwards. Due to the labour shortage in plantations currently faced in Malaysia, nursery automation would be beneficial to maintain production and to increase productivity. An automated nursery seeding system would be able to reduce labour requirements and further increase the seed placement accuracy of manual sowing. The objective of this paper is to elaborate on the development and testing of an automated robotic arm with camera vision assistance for sowing rubber seeds. The developed robotic arm was shown to successfully pick rubber seeds and place them in a polybag germinator in the correct orientation. An integrated machine vision was used to assist in identifying the surface of rubber seeds to get the correct positioning during sowing. The seed image frames were obtained from a recorded video from a smartphone camera and they were transferred to a computer via a wireless network and processed using Matlab to identify the dorsal and ventral side of the seed. The developed system had managed to achieve 90% accuracy under indoor light condition of 40 samples of rubber seeds tested. The system gave the highest precision (100%) at 50% motor speed setting. The average time of 10 s was taken to complete the operation from capturing the seed image to successfully placing the seed in the correct orientation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Storage stability of cuplump modified bitumen binder

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      Abstract: Abstract Polymer-modified bitumen (PMB) has been increasingly used to enhance pavement performance. Many polymers have been used for bitumen modification, including polyethylene, polyolefins, and elastomers such as Natural Rubber (NR) and Synthetic Rubber (SR). Commercially, the natural rubber modified bitumen which produced from cuplump is prepared at high temperature and occasionally stored for a certain period at elevated temperature which could create stability problems and separation; in fact, polymers and bitumen components can lose most of the benefits from the modification due to separation during the storage phase. Hence in this work, effect of hot storage on the Cuplump Modified Bitumen (CMB) properties containing 6% of rubber weight were investigated. The CMB was heated and continuously stirred at 120 °C and 160 °C for periods up to 7 days. Changes in physical properties such as viscosities, penetration, softening, rheological and chemical properties were monitored by thermogravimetry (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Results showed that the penetration, softening point and viscosity were less affected by both storage conditions. A negligible effect was also found in the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), where the combustion temperatures sustain at values 469 °C, while similar peaks of CMB were observed by FTIR determination. Indeed, the absence of sulfoxide and carbonyl peak indication of no oxidation occurred. Results indicated that the CMB was stable at both temperatures of 120 °C and 160 °C with continuous and homogenous agitation throughout storage duration without experiencing significant degradation. The continuous agitation during storage managed to avoid rubber separation from occurring and maintaining the rubber in colloidal suspension in bitumen matrix preventing from flocculating.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • Charting progresses, evolution and achievements over nine decades of
           publication

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      PubDate: 2022-03-30
       
  • Natural rubber composite film embedded with bio-ionic filler from eggshell
           as soft compliant electrode

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      Abstract: Abstract Soft and highly flexible electrodes were fabricated from the natural rubber latex and ionic fillers by UV curing. The eggshell was utilized here as the calcium source as the CaCl2 bio-filler. The fabricated electrodes possessed many advantages: softness, flexibility, smoothness, compliance, and various desired physical properties. The tensile strength, tensile strain, electrical conductivity, and critical strain of the soft compliant electrode with the 5.8%v/v eggshell CaCl2 added were 1.28 MPa, 34%, 0.13 S/cm, and 41%, respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity value of natural rubber composite film added with 5.8%v/v eggshell CaCl2 was substantially higher than those of the cured and uncured natural rubber composite films without adding a filler by 5 orders of magnitudes. The soft compliant electrode produced from the eggshell CaCl2 is shown here as a potential candidate material for various electronic applications.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
       
  • Effects of low industrial-grade seaweed (LIGS) in natural rubber latex
           foam (NRLF)

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      Abstract: Abstract Seaweed is an abundant and low-cost material that is commonly utilised in food, pharmaceutical, bio-fertilizer and other product applications as a gelling agent, thickening or emulsifying substance. However, its application in latex is limited. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of low industrial-grade seaweed (LIGS) in natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) applications. The NRLF was produced using the Dunlop method at different loadings of potassium oleate (PO) (0.5 and 1.0 phr), diphenylguanide (DPG) (0–0.75 phr) and low industrial-grade seaweed (LIGS) (1–5 phr). The effects of the LIGS loading as a secondary gelling agent in NRLF were investigated. The density, number of cells per unit volume (N), average cell size, and morphology of the NRLF with the incorporation of the LIGS were analysed. It was found that NRLF density increased with the LIGS loading and peaked at 5 phr LIGS. The addition of LIGS has induced the production of smaller foam cells than the cells of the control NRLF. The LIGS could act as a secondary gelling agent in the NRLF with the assistance of DPG. The prepared NRLF with a low chemical content can be applied in plantable seedling medium or biodegradable pot in horticulture or floriculture applications, which is also recommended as an economical alternative for various applications in the current scenario.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
       
  • Fire-retardant properties of functionalised graphene
           nanoplatelets/modified polybutadiene hybrid composite material: a
           technical note

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      Abstract: Abstract The proposed technical note is devoted to the study of the fire-retardant properties of a hybrid composite (HC) based on functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (FGNPs) and polybutadiene (PB). The HC was synthesised by the joint of oxidative chlorophosphorylation reaction of FGNPs and polybutadiene and subsequent hydrolysis of the resulting product. To confirm the fire-retardant effect of HC, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been used to form a thin film (HC + PVA) for practical application. Thin films of PVA and HC + PVA were torched with a butane lighter flame and the flammability characteristics were compared. Based on the results, it was determined that the HC imparts fire-retardant properties to PVA. X-ray diffraction phase analysis of HC + PVA before and after combustion was used to explain the combustion mechanism.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
       
  • Thermal stress distribution in a hyperbolic disk made of rubber/brass
           material

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      Abstract: Abstract This article deals with the study of the thermal stress distribution in a hyperbolic disk made of natural rubber/brass material under the effect of density, thickness and temperature. Seth’s transition theory and generalised strain measure are used for finding the governing equation. Analytical solutions are presented for the hyperbolic disk (k < 0, convergent; k = 0, uniform; k > 0, divergent) made of natural rubber/brass material. The effects of different pertinent parameters (i.e., temperature, density and thickness) are considered for the hyperbolic disk made of rubber/brass material. The behaviour of stress distribution, angular speed and temperature distribution are investigated. From the obtained results, it is noticed that convergent disk (i.e., k < 0) made of natural rubber material requires higher angular speed at the center of the disk in comparison to the uniform/divergent disk (i.e., k = 0/k > 0). By applying the thermal condition, the value of circumferential stress is also increasing at the inner surface of the hyperbolic disk made of natural rubber/brass material. The radial stress of hyperbolic disk (i.e., convergent/uniform/divergent) made of natural rubber/brass material increases throughout under the thermal effect and density profile. The convergent disk (i.e., k < 0) made of natural rubber/brass material is more convenient than that of the uniform/divergent disk (i.e., k = 0/k > 0).
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-022-00147-6
       
  • Post-harvest maturation of Hevea brasiliensis latex coagula: ranking of
           the key drivers of the mesostructure and physical properties of natural
           rubber

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      Abstract: Abstract The coagula derived from Hevea latex are the main raw material for block natural rubber production, especially for the two most commercialized grades (TSR10 and TSR20). The properties and mesostructure of dry natural rubber depend on several factors during coagula maturation. This work investigated an experimental design allowing concomitant control of several factors during maturation of cup coagula, namely, temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, vertical weight, coagulation conditions, clone, and maturation duration. For each combination of factors, several indicators were measured. They dealt with the coagula (thickness, DRCcoag), with the dry rubber (physical properties (P0, PRI, ASHT), and the mesostructure (Gel>1µ, Mn, Mw, Mz). Statistical treatment of the results (recursive partition) led to a hierarchical ranking of factors for each measured indicator. The first-ranked parameter was coagulation mode followed by genotype (clone) or maturation duration, temperature, or weight application. The provided identification of the most important drivers occurring during coagula maturation could allow improvements of the post-harvest operational handling aiming at a better control of the variability of produced natural rubber properties.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-022-00146-7
       
  • Modeling tensile modulus of nanoclay-filled ethylene–propylene–diene
           monomer/styrene–butadiene rubber using composite theories

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      Abstract: Abstract Nanocomposites of ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM)/styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) (80/20) filled with different content of nanoclay 0–10 phr (parts per hundred rubber) were prepared on the two-roll mill. Tensile modulus was studied using composite theories. Transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of intercalated, aggregated, and partially exfoliated structures. The tensile modulus of nanocomposites was studied by the Guth, Halpin–Tsai, and modified Halpin–Tsai equation, which is generally used for composites reinforced through fiber-like or rod-like fillers. Composite models are mostly used in particulate-reinforced polymers, particularly in non-rigid polymer matrices. The aspect ratios of nanoclay platelets in nanocomposites were determined by statistically analyzing transmission electron micrographs. The modulus reduction factor is a vital role in the enhancement of predicted theoretical values of the tensile modulus. Taking account of the lower influence of the platelet-like filler to tensile modulus than the fiber-like filler, the modulus reduction factor for the platelet-like fillers of 0.66, determined by fitting experimental data, is introduced into the above three equations. Because of the necessity for the development and reduction of characterization of these materials for diverse applications, modeling of rubber-based nanocomposites has become a hot issue in recent years. Mechanical modeling of rubber nanocomposites is critical for studying Young's modulus using various composite theories. Moreover, the effect of nanoclay addition on tensile properties of EPDM/SBR–nanoclay composite was tested. Percentage increase in tensile strength and elongation at break are 80% and 27%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00140-5
       
  • Breeding for low-temperature stress tolerance in Hevea brasiliensis:
           screening of newly developed clones using latex biochemical parameters

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      Abstract: Abstract Identification of high yielding genotypes with abiotic stress tolerance is one of the most important aspects of crop improvement in Hevea to expand rubber cultivation to non-traditional regions and to meet the needs of the domestic market. This study was aimed to evaluate 20 clones for yield potential and cold stress tolerance and for subsequent selection of cold-tolerant clones suitable for cultivation in cold stress-prone non-traditional regions. Parameters such as girth, dry rubber content (DRC), volume of latex, dry rubber yield, and biochemical parameters like adenosine triphosphate (ATP), sucrose, and thiol contents in latex were estimated in 9-year-old trees grown in cold stress-prone region (Agartala), in comparison with plants grown under congenial climatic conditions in a traditional rubber growing tract. A significant positive correlation was observed between yield with girth, latex volume, DRC, ATP, and sucrose content in latex and an inverse relationship with thiol. Principal component analysis based on growth, yield, physiological, and biochemical parameters revealed six variables contributing primarily to the first component PC 1, thus explaining 54% of the total variance. A clear separation of thiols was observed from the rest of the traits. Six clones such as P 21, P 110, P 107, P 20, P 17, and P 57 were found superior to the check clones RRII 430, RRIM 600, RRII 429, and RRII 105, while clone P 17 exhibited better performance in the traditional region. Further validation of these clones by large-scale evaluation only would indicate the candidate clone for recommendation to the cold stress-prone non-traditional regions of India.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00143-2
       
  • A study on some physical properties of conductive Pb/NR composites

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural rubber (NR)-loaded with the critical concentration (30phr) of N220 black and different concentrations of Lead (Pb) powder were prepared according to the standard method (ASTMD 3185 – (99)). All samples are subjected to the rheometric, mechanical, electrical, and physico-chemical measurements. It is noticed that upon increasing Pb content, minimum torque (ML) and maximum torque (MH) increase, while scorch time (Tsc) and cure time (T90) decrease. The mechanical parameters such as tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb) decrease, modulus at 300% (M300) increases at 20 phr then decreases, whereas hardness markedly increases upon increasing Pb content. The morphology of Pb-loaded NR composites (Pb/NR) was examined to correlate with observations on mechanical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A relatively co-continuous morphology was observed for Pb/NR composites. The SEM analysis indicates that there has been a good compatibility within the rubber matrix. The maximum degree of swelling in benzene (Qm(%))exhibits marked decrease while the crosslink density increases by increasing Pb content. Kinetic parameters such as elastic Gibbs free energy and conformational entropy were determined from Flory–Huggins kinetic model. Furthermore, the marked increase of dc conductivity (σdc) is due to the increase of Pb content which is micro metallic and as a result of that, it is responsible for increasing the conductivity values. Finally, the measurements of σac as a function of frequency confirm the hopping conduction mechanism.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00137-0
       
  • Numerical studies on the heat dissipation process in elastomers under
           rotating loading direction

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      Abstract: Abstract Elastomeric components such as car bearings and vibration dampers are subjected to dynamic loads with various amplitudes and loading directions during operation. To better understand the lifetime expectancy of these components it is required to implement a material model that sufficiently accounts for the material thermo-mechanical behaviour. This paper implements a finite viscoelastic model which includes heat dissipation and addresses the effect of inelasticity on the self-heating and the applied loading conditions. The material model is implemented in a user subroutine and finite element calculations are carried out on a simple shear loading with rotating directions. The self-heating effect and the resulting variation of the dissipation induced forces are shown and discussed. With the aid of the presented material model, thermo-mechanically coupled simulations can be performed. Based on the results, the required loading limits and boundary conditions for the mechanical fatigue tests can be defined to minimise the thermal fatigue effects.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00136-1
       
  • A study on the synthesis of lanthanum methionine and its properties in
           rubber

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      Abstract: Abstract The vulcanisation accelerators currently used in rubber manufacturing are often toxic and provide limited benefits to the vulcanisation process. This study presents the benefits of using lanthanum methionine, synthesised from methionine and rare earths, as a non-toxic, multifunctional and environmentally friendly accelerator. We conducted an experiment to test how lanthanum methionine can be used as both a vulcanisation accelerator and an effective anti-ageing agent. In this experiment, accelerants composed of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and lanthanum methionine complex were added to natural rubber (NR) vulcanisation processes and the resulting vulcanisate qualities were tested. The results of the vulcanisation tests and swelling tests conducted support the hypothesis that lanthanum methionine can enhance the vulcanisation performance of NR. The kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear fitting of the sulphurisation curves using the sulphurisation kinetic model and the sulphurisation reaction followed Arrhenius’ law. The results of the tests show a lower activation energy for NR vulcanised with lanthanum methionine. The effect of lanthanum methionine on thermal-oxidative degradation was also measured and the kinetic parameters were determined by analysing the thermogravimetric curves at different heating rates with Kissinger and Flynn-Wall–Ozawa model-free methods. The results show that the vulcanised rubber with lanthanum methionine has better thermal-oxidative ageing resistance. These results confirm that lanthanum methionine can function as both a sulphurisation promoter and thermal-oxidative ageing resistance agent. Thus, lanthanum methionine should be used as a safer and more efficient vulcanisation accelerator in the rubber manufacturing industry.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00124-5
       
  • Effects of different factors on leaf litter decomposition in rubber
           plantations in Danzhou, South China

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      Abstract: Abstract Litter decomposition influences the nutrient cycle and the availability of soil nutrient resources in rubber plantation ecosystem. This study aimed to analyze effects of different factors such as soil layer depths, root accessibility and soil fertility levels on dynamic decomposition of leaf litter in rubber plantations, as well as physico-chemical properties and microbiological parameters of the soil. We performed decomposition experiments to analyze the effect of these factors on leaf litter decomposition in a rubber plantation in Danzhou, South China. The results showed that the rubber leaf litter decomposition activity increased with the depth of the soil layer. The fertility level of soil affected the decomposition process, with higher soil fertility level restraining litter decomposition. The litter decomposition was affected by the root accessibility, but the roots turned out to not be decisive factors in the decomposition process. The microorganism abundance differed seasonally in the above-ground and underground soil layers during the rubber leaf litter decomposition. The number of actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi changed most dramatically between March and May. The fastest rate of rubber leaf litter decomposition also occurred during this period. The microorganisms played a key role in the rubber litter decomposition underground. Enzymes sucrase, urease, polyphenol oxidase and cellulase contributed in regulating the decomposition of rubber leaf litter. These results may provide further insight into the potential of using leaf litter resources in tropical plantations. This study also provides valuable information about the decomposition mechanism of leaf litter as part of the nutrient cycle.
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00134-3
       
  • Distribution of the non-isoprene components in the four Hevea brasiliensis
           latex centrifugation fractions

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      Abstract: Abstract This work is part of a larger project aiming at elucidating the mechanisms by which the biochemical components naturally occurring in Hevea brasiliensis latex influence the structuration of natural rubber (NR). To achieve this overall objective, our strategy consists of measuring the physical properties of NR samples made of reconstructed lattices which were obtained by mixing different proportions of C-serum and bottom fraction (lutoids) to rubber fraction made of small and large particles. This work represents the first step of the above-mentioned project where we carried out a systematic study to identify and locate the main biochemical components of latex that might drive NR structuration. Fresh latex from RRIM600 and PB235 clones was fractionated by centrifugation into 4 fractions: large rubber particles, small rubber particles, C-serum and bottom fraction (lutoids + Frey-Wyssling particles). The fractions were further analyzed to provide a comprehensive description of their biochemical composition (lipids, proteins, minerals) in comparison with the original whole latex. The results gathered in this work are essential for further study of the quantitative influence of each component on NR structuration and properties.
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00133-4
       
  • Rheological and thermal properties of purified raw natural rubber

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural rubber (NR) is a very important raw material in the manufacture of many articles. Moreover, it is still irreplaceable in the manufacturing of heavy-duty vehicle tyres as well as items for both of medical and paramedical uses. The quality of a rubber product depends on properties of the raw rubber. Two raw NR grades were purified by dissolution and filtration. The rheological and thermal properties of the purified rubbers were studied. The results showed that filtered rubbers were more thermally stable than unfiltered rubbers. The effect of filtration on the glass transition temperature and the FTIR spectra was not much, indicating that no important bonds were broken or formed with dissolution and filtration. Both filtered and unfiltered samples were observed to be thermo-rheologically simple within the viscoelastic region. The temperature dependence of the shift factors was observed to fit well to the William, Landel and Ferry (WLF) with parameters (C1, C2) close to those typical for synthetic polyisoprene. Nevertheless, we observed slightly lower values for the filtered samples than the unfiltered samples. This was attributed to the removal of some gels during filtration.
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00125-4
       
  • Utilizing a farm typology for the development of rubber-based farming: a
           case from Moneragala district, Sri Lanka

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      Abstract: Abstract Rubber-based farming has been introduced mainly in the non-yielding phase of rubber to generate farm income. However, the effectiveness of rubber-based farming is not at an acceptable level in smallholder rubber lands due to the poor adoption of technologies. The farming community is heterogeneous and the adoption of technologies is determined by the socioeconomic setting of farmers. This study aims to categorise the adoption of food crops or dairy cattle farming in immature rubber lands using the socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and to identify constraints for the adoption of rubber-based farming. Farm households with different socioeconomic characteristics were categorised into groups based on their homogeneity using a multivariate statistical technique. The results indicated the heterogeneous nature of rubber-based farming and revealed six predominant rubber-based farm types. Six groups were disassociated from each other due to significant differences among the variables, including credit access, market access, non-farm income, farm extent, investment in rubber intercropping, use of machines in cultivation, household size, and age of rubber trees. Six groups were termed as medium resource endowed moderate financing farmers, intensive urbanized farmers, low return on intercropping aged farmers, diversifiers into non-rubber farm income, extensive farmers, and high resource endowed farmers with the small size of households. While the mixed-method approach demonstrating the categorisation of rubber-based farming, it facilitates identifying enabling factors and barriers in technology adoption and further development of rubber-based farming. The outcome of this study assists in evidence-based technology transfer in rubber expansion in non-traditional rubber growing areas. The mixed data analysis approach used in this study can be useful in other similar farm typology studies.
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00127-2
       
  • Uniaxial fatigue behavior of thermal-aged cerium oxide-modified vulcanized
           natural rubber

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work investigated the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life of thermal-aged cerium oxide (CeO2)-modified vulcanized natural rubber (NR/CeO2). Thermal aging was carried out at the temperature ranging from 60 to 100 °C for 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The experimental results show that the CeO2 filler is a useful reinforcing role, which can improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the heat-aged vulcanizates. The uniaxial fatigue properties of thermal-aged NR/CeO2 rubber were studied at the strain amplitudes of 0–125%, 0–150% and 0–175%, respectively. The axial stress amplitude of NR/CeO2 is higher than that of NR. The CeO2 filler can significantly improve the fatigue strength of rubbers. When the aging temperature is lower than 80 °C, the fatigue life of NR/CeO2 is longer than that of NR at the axial strains of 0–125% and 0–150%.
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s42464-021-00131-6
       
 
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