Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

RUBBER (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1829-6971 - ISSN (Online) 2460-4461
Published by Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastics Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Acknowledgement

    • Authors: Iwan Pahlawan
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.7107
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • FTIR-PCA analysis as an initial analysis to distinguish the origin of skin
           and leather

    • Authors: Ragil Yuliatmo, R. Lukas Martindro Satrio Ari Wibowo, Wisnu Pambudi, Sofwan Siddiq Abdullah, Thoyib Rohman Hakim, Yuny Erwanto
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Leather products are parts of daily fashion in Indonesia, such as bags, shoes, jackets, and gloves. Adulteration of raw materials for leather products can occur if there are no labels on these products. Various methods such as PCR, GC-MS, HPLC, and FTIR have been carried out to distinguish the origin of leather products. The FTIR method is known as an easy and inexpensive method to use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of FTIR spectroscopy and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) for lipid identifcation and initial analysis to distinguish the original materials on leather products. Lipid extracts obtained from the various skin were scanned using an FTIR spectrophotometer at 4000–450 cm-1. It resulted in spectral differences in several wavenumbers (3000-2800 cm-1 and 1200-1000 cm-1). The same result is also found in lipid spectra from leather product extraction. The FTIR spectroscopy and PCA can differentiate pigskin and goatskin through specifc peaks in infrared spectra. This can be used as an initial analysis on determining the existence of skin adulteration in leather products. This study is prospective to be continued by chemometrics as quantitative analysis.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6348
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The effect of additive dosages on crepe quality produced

    • Authors: Sherly Hanifarianty, Afrizal Vachlepi, Mili Purbaya
      Pages: 7 - 16
      Abstract: Thin Pale Crepe (TPC) products are currently increasing in demand by rubber product manufacturers. Its production process is relatively more efcient than crumb rubber, which is Indonesia’s main product. The drying of TPC products still uses air drying from the burning of rubberwood. The use of rubberwood is predicted to be less economical in the future. With an increasing limited natural forest, rubberwood will be an alternative substitute for wood from natural forests. As a result, the economic value of rubberwood will be even greater which will have an impact on the increasing cost of TPC products if it continues to use rubberwood as fuel. Therefore, we need an alternative to rubberwood as an energy source for drying TPC. Sunlight can be an alternative source of energy that can be maximized for the drying process of natural rubber, including in TPC production. This research was conducted in two stages, namely 1) the production of TPC using latex from various clones with several additive dosages, and 2) TPC drying using various renewable energy sources. The results of research activities are in the form of a technology package regarding the TPC production process using renewable energy sources. The results showed that the TPC products produced with various treatments fulflled SNI 1903-2000. The three clones (BPM 24, PB 260, and GT 1) were able to produce TPC with bright yellow color.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6307
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Purge material berbasis campuran recycled HDPE dan lempung kaolin untuk
           ekstrusi polipropilena dan masterbatch

    • Authors: Fitria Ika Aryanti, Elga Chaerul Pasya
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Extruder (sistem screw/barel) telah menjadi alat yang sangat penting dalam pengolahan produk akhir plastik. Proses pembersihan residu dalam barel extruder dengan memasukkan bahan pembersih (purge material) tanpa membongkar mesin disebut purging extruder. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lempung kaolin pada variasi 0, 3, 6, dan 9% dalam bahan pembersih recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) terhadap warna dan gugus fungsi ekstrudat. Hasil uji warna menunjukkan bahwa seiring penambahan lempung kaolin, warna ekstrudat bahan pembersih semakin bersih dari kontaminasi warna primer PP/masterbatch. Jumlah optimum penambahan lempung kaolin adalah 6% dengan kandungan masterbatch lebih rendah dibandingkan variasi lainnya karena diperoleh kontaminasi warna dan kandungan gugus fungsi residu yang rendah pada ekstrudatnya.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6657
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Analisis post mortem kulit kambing mentah yang diolah di UPTD penyamakan
           kulit Padang Panjang

    • Authors: Sri Mutiar, Anwar Kasim, Emriadi Emriadi, Alfi Asben
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: Tujuan dari studi ini untuk mengetahui persentase kulit mentah yang memenuhi syarat untuk disamak dan kulit mentah reject serta untuk mengetahui tingkat kualitas kulit mentah dari sumber baik dari dalam atau dari luar kota yang menggunakan jasa UPTD penyamakan kulit. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara purposive random sampling terhadap 100 lembar kulit kambing mentah tanpa memperhatikan memenuhi syarat atau tidak sebelum proses penyamakan. Pengolahan data menggunakan analisis statistik deskriptif dengan menggunakan Microsoft Excel. Hasil pengamatan panelis di UPTD pengolahan kulit mentah yang memenuhi syarat untuk disamak adalah 93,22±4,15% dan rata-rata kulit reject adalah 6,45±1,33%. Kualitas kulit mentah dari beberapa daerah yang menggunakan jasa UPTD untuk penyamakan kulit sebagian besar adalah kualitas 2 dan kualitas 3. Berdasarkan pengamatan dimensi rata-rata kulit mentah awet garam memiliki luas 4,78 ft2, panjang 88,81 cm, lebar 64,31 cm dan ketebalan 1,49 mm. Berdasarkan cacat pada kulit mentah nilai tertinggi disebabkan karena benjolan caplak yaitu 14%.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6699
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The investigation of optimum condition of natural rubber epoxidation
           reaction in latex phase

    • Authors: Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Hani Handayani, Mohammad Irfan Fathurrohman, Asron Ferdian Falaah
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) latex epoxidation is a chemical modifcation of natural rubber to produce natural rubber with higher polarity (oil resistant) which is commonly called epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). ENR is produced from the reaction of natural rubber latex with performic acid. Performic acid is formed from in situ reaction between formic acid and hydrogen peroxide. During epoxidation process, the carboxyl group of natural rubber is converted into epoxy group and various side reaction products such as carbonyl, hydroxyl, and hydro furan. These side products must be minimalized to optimize the epoxy level. The epoxidation reaction was carried out at 70 °C for 6 hours using 2 types of latex: fresh latex (FL) and concentrated latex (CL). The addition of reactant was varied in two ways: dropwise (coded “1”) and poured all at once (coded “2”). The epoxy product and rate constant (k) were analyzed to obtain optimum reaction condition. The epoxy and side reaction content were determined by Attenuated Resonance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR). The slope of epoxy-time plotting curve was determined as ENR rate constant (k). The optimum NR epoxidation reaction was achieved in CL2, which exhibited lowest value of side reaction and highest value of k (2.8082x10-5 L mol-1 sec-1).
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6069
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Characterization of ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA)/modified starch
           expanded compounds for outsole material

    • Authors: Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Umi Reza Lestari, Gunawan Priambodo
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: The use of non-biodegradable material in shoe components has negative impacts on environmental sustainability when disposed into landfills due to poor biodegradability. This study prepared ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA)/modified starch expanded compounds as outsole material to overcome environmental pollution. This research aimed to investigate the effects of EVA/modified starch ratio on the properties of the compound. Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer was blended with a modified cassava starch in various amounts (10-50 phr) using a two-roll mill. Effect of modified starch content was characterized its tensile strength, elongation at break, tearing strength, 50% permanent set, density, abrasion resistance, flex resistance, biodegradability, and morphology.  The optimum value of tensile strength (61.33 kg/cm²), elongation at break (895%), and tear strength (16.62 N/mm) were obtained for samples containing 20 phr modified starch. The EVA compound containing 30 phr of starch showed the optimum 50% permanent set  (4.85%) and the highest abrasion resistance with the smallest volume loss of 439.99 mm³. The addition of modified starch up to 50 phr provided good flexural resistance to 150000 number of cycles. The morphology image showed that distribution of modified starch particles was not homogeneously dispersed in the EVA/modified starch expanded compound. Incorporation of modified starch in EVA compound was improving its biodegradability.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i1.6916
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Ekstraksi kolagen dari kulit kerbau menggunakan asam asetat

    • Authors: Sri Mulyani, Antonius Hintono, Neisya Rizki Adefatma, Iwan Fajar Pahlawan
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Kulit kerbau berpotensi sebagai bahan baku alternatif pembuatan kolagen halal, pengganti sapi dan babi. Namun, kompleksitas kulit kerbau diduga lebih tinggi dibandingkan kulit sapi maupun kulit babi. Asam asetat merupakan asam lemah yang mampu mengekstraksi kolagen dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan interaksi berbagai konsentrasi asam asetat dan waktu ekstraksi terhadap kualitas kolagen, diantaranya rendemen, kadar air, serta karakteristik kolagen, berdasarkan berat molekul dan gugus fungsi. Materi utama penelitian ini berupa 3 lembar kulit kerbau rawa jantan berumur 3-4 tahun. Studi ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial, yang terdiri dari faktor konsentrasi asam asetat (0,5 M, 1 M, 1,5 M) dan waktu ekstraksi (48 jam dan 72 jam). Seluruh perlakuan direplikasi sebanyak empat kali. Hasil optimum ekstraksi kolagen dari kulit kerbau adalah menggunakan asam asetat dengan konsentrasi 1 M dengan ekstraksi selama 72 jam, dimana menghasilkan kolagen dengan rendemen 1,42±0,27%, berdasarkan faktor konsentrasi, dan 1,70±0,35%, berdasarkan faktor lama ekstraksi, kadar air 4,19±0,14%, serta teridentifkasi bahwa kolagen belum mengalami degradasi menjadi gelatin berdasarkan berat molekul dan gugus fungsi.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.7025
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Natural rubber-based cushion gum compound formulation at various type and
           dosage of rubber processing oil and tackifier resin

    • Authors: Santi Puspitasari, Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Arief Ramadhan, Adi Cifriadi, Mochammad Chalid
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Cold retreading technique dominates retreaded tire manufacturing process. The technique applies rubber cushion gum compound as adhesion medium to bond new tread with a worn old tire. High-quality cushion gum compound mainly requires good adhesive strength. Tackiness of the rubber compound can be improved by addition of tackifier resin and rubber processing oil (RPO). The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of various types and dosages of tackifier resin and bio-based RPO to physic-mechanical properties of cushion gum. A method in the manufacture of natural rubber-based cushion gum compound was in accordance with ASTM D 3182. Cushion gum rubber compound formula was designed by using bio-based RPO such as pine tar oil at 5 and 12 phr and three types of tackifier resin such as rosin resin, phenolic resin, and hydrocarbon resin at 3 and 7 phr. Petroleum-based RPO and commercial cushion gum were selected as reference material. Curing characteristic and physic-mechanical properties test results were used as a reference to determine cushion gum quality. The observation during experiment indicated that natural rubber-based cushion gum compound formulated with addition of 5 phr rosin resin and 5 phr pine tar oil (code ZH4) has the closest curing characteristic and physic-mechanical properties to commercial cushion gum.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.6531
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The use of epoxidized natural rubber for producing rubber seals of LPG
           tube valves

    • Authors: Hani Handayani, Mohammad Irfan Fathurrohman, Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Asron Ferdian Falaah
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Rubber seal of Liquifed Petroleum Gas (LPG) tube valves should fulfill Indonesian National Standard (SNI 7655:2010), which has high n-pentane resistance properties. This study aimed to design a rubber seal compound based on epoxidized natural rubber which fulfll SNI 7655:2010 requirements. The formulation of compound were designed by using epoxidized natural rubber with varied levels of epoxidation. Epoxidation reaction was occurred in an epoxidation reactor at 70 ºC for 6 hours with 0.75 mole/mole isoprene unit of hydrogen peroxide and 0.4 mole/mole isoprene unit of formic acid. Mechanical properties, ageing properties, and swelling performance in n-pentane of the modifed natural rubber were tested and the result compared to the minimum requirement of SNI 7655:2010. The result showed that the increasing in epoxidation level made natural rubber becomes more polar so it is more resistant to immersion in n-pentane. Epoxidized natural rubber with levels of 40% and 50% fulfilled specifcations for volume change in accordance with the quality requirements in SNI 7655:2010. The use of natural rubber created good elasticity to all level of epoxidized rubber where these properties are needed for rubber seal of LPG tube valve. However, the formulas of compound were less resistant to aging.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.6775
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Korelasi antara sistem vulkanisasi dengan sifat mekanis dan sifat redaman
           vulkanisat karet butil tanpa pengisi

    • Authors: Adi Cifriadi, Asron Ferdian Falaah, Santi Puspitasari
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Sifat peredaman karet butil dipengaruhi banyaknya ikatan silang, jenis dan jumlah bahan pengisi yang digunakan. Pada penelitian ini karet butil dikompon tanpa menggunakan pengisi karena pengisi memberikan efek yang bervariasi terhadap sifat material yang dihasilkan. Kompon dibuat dengan sistem vulkanisasi belerang konvensional, semi efsien dan efsien dengan variasi perbandingan sulfur dan pencepat. Sifat mekanis vulkanisat diuji kekerasan, kekuatan tarik, perpanjangan putus, ketahanan sobek, kepegasan pantul, dan pampatan tetap. Pengujian mekanik sifat peredaman dilakukan pada regangan 100% dengan loop empat kali. Hasil uji sistem vulkanisasi konvensional memberikan nilai tertinggi untuk kekerasan (30 shore A), kuat sobek (13 N/mm), kepegasan pantul (24%), dan pampatan tetap (13%). Sedangkan sistem vulkanisasi efsien memberikan nilai maksimum untuk kuat tarik (3 MPa), dan perpanjangan putus (960%). Sifat peredaman diwakili oleh kekakuan dan modulus geser, dimana nilai tertinggi diberikan oleh sistem vulkanisasi semi-efsien. Nilai tertinggi secara berurutan, yaitu 26,5049 N/mm dan 0,2120 MPa.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.7042
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Formulasi paduan karet alam/kloroprena dalam rancangan material komposit
           karet untuk bantalan isolator tahan gempa

    • Authors: Adi Cifriadi, Santi Puspitasari, Asron Ferdian Falaah, Usman Wijaya
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Penggunaan sistem isolasi dasar pada suatu konstruksi bangunan dapat memitigasi kerusakan pada saat terjadinya gempa bumi. Sistem isolasi dasar yang paling umum digunakan adalah karet tahan gempa yang tersusun oleh lapisan komposit karet dan pelat logam secara berselang seling. Komposit karet dapat dibuat dari karet alam (NR), karet sintetik (kloroprena), dan paduannya (CR/NR). Riset eksperimental ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari rasio CR/NR pada paduan komposit karet tahan gempa melalui proses desain formulasi kompon karet. Formula kompon karet dirancang dengan memvariasikan rasio CR/NR sebesar 95/5 phr, 90/10 phr, 85/15 phr, dan 80/20 phr. Sistem vulkanisasi dirancang dengan menerapkan kombinasi sistem vulkanisasi sulfur efsien dan oksida logam. Hasil analisis karakteristik vulkanisasi dan pengujian sifat mekanik serta termal komposit paduan karet CR/NR menunjukkan bahwa komposit paduan karet CR/NR sebesar 90/10 phr merupakan komposisi paduan karet yang terbaik. Paduan karet tersebut berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi produk karet tahan gempa jenis HDRB (modulus geser 1,1-1,5 MPa) karena dapat menghasilkan kompon yang mudah diproses (ML 1,17 kg-cm), derajat ikatan silang yang tinggi (MH-ML 12,58 kg-cm) dan diikuti dengan sifat mekanik dan termal yang unggul dibuktikan dengan perubahan nilai kuat tarik (2,4%) dan perpanjangan putus (-2,4%) setelah pengusangan yang terrendah dibandingkan dengan komposisi CR/NR yang lain.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.6944
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • High-density thermoplastic vulcanizates based on LLDPE/NR for truck
           floor mats application

    • Authors: Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Umi Reza Lestari
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: The use of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) that was obtained from a blend of thermoplastics and natural rubbers are considered suitable for the automotive applications purpose. To modify the performance of TPVs to a high density TPVs, the high density filler such as bismuth oxide (Bi₂O₃) was added. The focus of this study was on the development of a high density TPVs based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/natural rubber (NR) blend with different proportions of Bi₂O₃ filler that meets with requirements for truck floor mats materials. The high density TPVs were prepared by melt blending in a Kneader. Bismuth oxide  filler loading was varied by 50; 150; 200; 250 phr and 300 phr. An increase in the weight load of bismuth oxide in TPVs increase density, hardness, and volume loss but reduce the tensile properties, tearing strength, and burning rate of high density TPVs. The test results showed that the TPVs containing 250 phr Bi₂O₃ was a promising candidate for use as a truck floor base.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.7159
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Karakteristik fisis bioplastik yang dibuat dari kombinasi pati tapioka dan
           kasein susu apkir

    • Authors: Ariya Dwi Nugrahanto, Asih Kurniawati, Yuny Erwanto
      Pages: 103 - 114
      Abstract: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bioplastik dari kombinasi pati tapioka dan kasein serta mengetahui karakteristik fisis, seperti ketebalan, densitas, transmisi cahaya, dan opasitas. Komposisi bioplastik dibuat dari dua jenis kasein, yaitu kasein komersial dan kasein susu afkir, dengan perbandingan pati tapioka dan kasein yang terdiri dari 4 kelompok perlakuan (4:0, 3:1, 2,5:1,5, 2:2). Setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak 6 kali. Data karakteristik fsis, yang diperoleh, dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian rancangan acak lengkap two-way Anova. Jika terdapat perbedaan, dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio pati dan kasein berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap semua parameter uji (P<0,01). Peningkatan kasein komersial (KK) dan kasein susu apkir (KSA) meningkatkan ketebalan dan opasitas, sementara densitas dan transmisi cahaya menurun. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan, bioplastik dapat dibuat dengan kombinasi rasio pati tapioka dan jenis kasein yang berbeda dengan hasil terbaik pada rasio 2:2 yang menghasilkan ketebalan 0,29 mm, transmisi cahaya 20,03%, opasitas 2,51%, sementara pada densitas memiliki nilai terkecil 0,15 gr/cm3. Kesimpulannya bahan kasein dari susu apkir masih bisa digunakan sebagai biomaterial untuk pembuatan bioplastik dikombinasikan dengan tepung tapioka.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.7422
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • EVA/starch/POE composite for footwear material: How the chemical
           composition affects its properties compared to standards

    • Authors: Umi Reza Lestari, Gunawan Priambodo, Dwi Wahini Nurhajati
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: The usage of biodegradable foam material in footwear components has positive impacts on environmental sustainability when disposed into landfills. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of polyolefin elastomer (POE) on its properties of foamed EVA/cassava starch composites compared to standards. Foamed EVA/cassava starch composites were prepared by mixing EVA, cassava starch, and additives using a two-roll mill laboratory scale. Content of POE was varied 10-20 phr. The ratios of EVA/cassava starch were varied from 90/10; 80/20; 70/30; and 60/40. Effects of POE were characterized its density, tensile properties, tear strength, permanent set, abrasion resistance, flex resistance, morphology, and biodegradability. It was found that the increase of POE content in EVA/starch composites increased the density and abrassion resistance, but decreased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and permanent set properties. The best formula of foamed EVA/cassava starch/POE composites for footwear materials contains EVA 80 phr, starch 20 phr and POE 20 phr with density 0.983 g/cm³, tensile strength 22.27 kg/ cm², elongation at break 645.67%, tear strength 9.42 N/mm, volume loss 88.907 mm, no crack when flexed 150 kcs. These results met the requirements of SNI 0778:2009-Sol Karet Cetak for quality classifcation 3 of outsoles. The foamed composite containing POE20 has denser morphology than POE10, while the addition of POE has no signifcance in weight loss after burial test
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.7449
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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