Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

RUBBER (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Rubber Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Rubber Chemistry and Technology
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0035-9475 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4804
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  • BUTADIENE RUBBER: SYNTHESIS, MICROSTRUCTURE, AND ROLE OF CATALYSTS

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      Authors: Kumar A; Mohanty S, Gupta V.
      Pages: 393 - 409
      Abstract: ABSTRACTButadiene rubber (BR) is one of the most useful and second most produced rubber worldwide. Polymerization of 1,3-butadiene (BD) is a highly stereospecific reaction that offers a wide variety of BR with different microstructures and influences the fundamental properties of the rubber. Since the first successful polymerization of conjugated diene using the Ziegler–Natta–based catalyst (TiCl4 or TiCl3 with aluminum alkyls) in 1954, the research on producing synthetic rubber with an appropriate catalyst system has been accelerated. Subsequently, various research groups are actively engaged in designing active catalyst systems based on a suitable combination of transition metal complexes with alkyl-aluminum and successfully using them in BD polymerization. Although various scientific inventions have proven their significance for the production of high-quality BR, with the rising demands in improving the quality of the product, research on developing new catalyst systems with enhanced catalytic activity and high stereoselectivity is still in progress. The present review focuses on the synthesis of BR using various transition metal catalysts and discusses their microstructures. The catalysts based on new-generation metal complexes with phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands (e.g., phosphines, imines, 1,10-phenanthroline, and imino-pyridines) have been introduced. The role that catalysts play in the production of BR with different microstructures (i.e., high-cis, high-trans or low-cis, low-trans polybutadiene) has also been described. The combination of catalyst (transition metal complex) and suitable co-catalyst (alkyl-aluminum) is the major factor influencing the reaction and microstructure of the resulting polymer. This report focuses on the effect of transition metal catalysts (i.e., lithium [Li], titanium [Ti], zirconium [Zr], iron [Fe], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], and neodymium [Nd]) on the activity and stereoselectivity of polymers such as 1,4-cis-, 1,4-trans-, and 1,2-vinyl-polybutadiene.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79948
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • MODIFICATION OF POLYBUTADIENE RUBBER: A REVIEW

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      Authors: Prabhu C. P; Mohanty S, Gupta V.
      Pages: 410 - 431
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDevelopments in modification of polybutadiene rubber (PBR) using various reagents and catalysts have been reviewed. Hydrogenation and functionalization occurring at the site of unsaturation along chain length are discussed. Hydrogenation involving various metal catalyzed processes is discussed. Suitable conditions that are effective during hydrogenation and functionalization are mentioned in this article. Reactivity ratios associated with microstructures of polybutadiene rubber and possible mechanisms involved are described in the review. The importance of reaction conditions during reactivity and their impact on product properties are highlighted. A specific method that needs to be adopted in order to achieve expected product properties is discussed. Various industrial applications of modified PBR and their commercial products in the global market are discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79892
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • NOVEL EPDM/PARAFFIN FOAMS FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS

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      Authors: Valentini F; Dorigato A, Fambri L, et al.
      Pages: 432 - 448
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe thermomechanical behavior of ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) foams filled with different concentrations of a paraffin (melting temperature of 21 °C) are investigated for the first time. Samples were prepared by melt compounding and hot pressing, and the effects of two different foaming agents such as Expancel® 909DU80 (E) and Hostatron® P0168 (H) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and density measurements highlighted that the use of E foaming agent led to foams with a closed-cell morphology and a mean pore size of about 20 μm, whereas foams expanded with H were characterized by a mixed closed-/open-cell porosity with a larger cell size (of about 100 μm) and a less uniform pore distribution. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated that the produced foams were endowed with noticeable thermal energy storage properties (up to 67 J/g with a paraffin amount of 50 wt%). The corresponding thermal parameters were found in the range of 15–50 J/cm3, which were directly dependent on the paraffin content in both heating and cooling. The drop in the maximum tensile stress at elevated paraffin contents observed in the tensile impact tests at 23 °C was counterbalanced by a noticeable enhancement of the deformation at break and of the absorbed impact energy. Tensile tests performed at 0 °C demonstrated that the addition of paraffin within the foams was responsible for a substantial increase in stiffness, whereas at 40 °C, it plays a plasticizing effect.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79976
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • HEAT-TRIGGERED SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT OF PEROXIDE CROSS-LINKED
           ETHYLENE–METHACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER/NITRILE–BUTADIENE RUBBER
           THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES WITH SEA-ISLAND STRUCTURE

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      Authors: Sun Y; Li J, Liao K, et al.
      Pages: 449 - 461
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDesigning shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) is an essential research topic. An efficient SMP is designed with typical sea-island structured ethylene–methacrylic acid copolymer/nitrile–butadiene rubber (EMA/NBR) TPVs in which the heat-control switched phase performed by the EMA phase is related to the shape fixity ability. The results show that the heat-triggered SMPs exhibit surprising shape memory properties (shape fixity >95%, shape recovery >95%, and fast recovery speed <30 s at the switching temperature of 95 °C). Through X-ray diffraction characterization, it is seen that the shape fixity of TPVs is achieved mainly through ethylene crystallization. The switching temperature is largely determined by the melting temperature (98 °C) obtained by differential scanning calorimetery.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79926
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • REINFORCEMENT EFFECT OF IN SITU DEVELOPED ITACONIC ACID BASED METAL SALT
           NANO-CRYSTALS IN ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE COPOLYMER

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      Authors: Basu D; Kapgate B, Bansod N, et al.
      Pages: 462 - 475
      Abstract: ABSTRACTItaconic acid has been employed as a special facilitator to construct divalent metal ion based ionic crosslinking framework in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber matrix. Readily accessible double bonds in itaconic acid could directly react with the elastomer to form effective covalent bonds. On the other hand, presence of easily dissociable protons in itaconic acid enables them to form ionic bonds that leads to an increase in crosslinking density of the vulcanizates. The synergistic effect of covalent crosslinking induced by peroxide and ionic crosslinking induced by metal carboxylate could effectively enhance the overall mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber composites. In this study, three metal oxides, that is, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, have been selected for this purpose. Tensile strength of nitrile rubber composites depends on the strength of ionic crosslinks, which in turn is influenced by the size of the alkaline earth metals, such as Mg, Ca, etc., and stoichiometric quantity of itaconic acid, which is at par in the formulation of this study. The novelty of this study is that the introduction of a dicarboxylic acid in combination with metal oxides enhances the crosslink density and tensile strength of nitrile rubber composites which could result from the metal organic framework.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79908
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY CONSTRAINED POLYMERS USED AS
           DIELECTRIC ELASTOMERS

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      Authors: Ahmad D; Patra K, Hossain M, et al.
      Pages: 476 - 493
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDielectric elastomer-based transducers are rapidly gaining importance with the syntheses of new polymers that can potentially be used as dielectric materials. However, these materials are always prone to fracture in the presence of cracks and flaws. Failures originate from flaws (or notches), and a complete fracture may take place due to the propagation of cracks. The present work investigates the crack propagation behavior of two popular polymers, VHB 4910 and Ecoflex, that are widely used as dielectric elastomers. In this case, tensile loadings in laterally constrained boundary conditions are considered. The average crack propagation speed for Ecoflex is higher than that for VHB, implying that Ecoflex will fail earlier than that of VHB under similar conditions. Moreover, with increasing notch lengths at a fixed strain rate, the average crack propagation speed decreases appreciably but becomes constant for comparatively larger notches. The results also conclude that the average crack propagation speed and normalized crack tip diameter remain higher for VHB than for Ecoflex for larger normalized notch lengths. It is observed that the average crack propagation speed increases with strain rates, whereas the normalized crack tip diameter is independent of strain rates. Experimental results obtained here will provide a useful comparative insight to understand the failure behavior of two polymers widely used as dielectric elastomers.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.78985
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF CARBON BLACK–REINFORCED NATURAL
           RUBBER

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      Authors: Tunnicliffe LB.
      Pages: 494 - 514
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFatigue crack growth behavior of carbon black–reinforced natural rubber is investigated. Rubber compounds of Shore A = 70 are prepared by varying the formulation loadings of a wide range of carbon black types based on their structure and surface area properties. The resulting fatigue crack growth behavior shows significant variation in β exponent values, depending on the properties of the carbon black. These variations are rationalized by considering the strain amplification of natural rubber by carbon black aggregates in the region of compound directly ahead of the crack tip. An assumption is made that little networking of the carbon black aggregates exists in this region of very high strain and that hydrodynamic calculations that consider occluded rubber can therefore provide realistic values for strain amplification. A reasonable scaling of power law crack growth parameters to calculated strain amplification factors is found, with the exponent, β, decreasing with increasing strain amplification. The implication here is that enhanced strain amplification promotes the formation of strain-induced crystallites in the crack tip region. Performance tradeoffs resulting from the crossover of crack growth data sets dependent on the carbon black type are discussed. Of practical significance is the fact that the strain amplification factors can be calculated directly from knowledge of carbon black type and loading in rubber formulations.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79935
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORK: A SMART REPLACEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL NANOFILLERS
           FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND THERMAL STABILITY OF SBR
           NANOCOMPOSITE

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      Authors: Joseph J; Sreethu TK, Mohanty S, et al.
      Pages: 515 - 532
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTo the best of our knowledge, for the first time, metal-organic framework (MOF), a porous reticular structure, has been tried as a reinforcing filler for rubber. A MOF synthesized by solvothermal reaction between 2-aminoterephthalic acid and aluminum chloride hexahydrate was characterized and incorporated as reinforcing filler in SBR. A comparative investigation on the properties of the well-dispersed, thermally stable nano-MOF composite (SBR-MOF) was carried out with reference to SBR–nano alumina composite (SBR-nAl). The SBR-MOF was mechanically more robust than SBR-nAl. The SBR-MOF showed 130% improvement in tensile strength over the pristine SBR composite and 50% better elongation at break than SBR-nAl at 10 phr loading. The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR-MOF are superior to SBR-nAl composite. The highly porous organic framework was favorable for the enhanced entanglement of polymer chains at the interface. The effectiveness of the organic framework on the dispersion and compatibility was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The dispersion studies substantially supported the overall property enhancement. To substantiate the superiority of MOF in the rubber matrix, the tensile properties of SBR-MOF were compared with SBR composites filled with nano silica, nano titania, as well as nano silica and nano alumina with a compatibilizer, thereby documenting a promising nanofiller for introduction into the rubber industry.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79903
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • INFLUENCE OF MASTICATION ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
           RUBBER

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      Authors: Okamoto K; Toh M, Liang X, et al.
      Pages: 533 - 548
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe effects of the masticated state of isoprene rubber (IR) at the carbon black (CB) addition stage on subsequent mixing, microstructure, and physical properties in the case of a kneader with a characteristic large-diameter shaft are investigated by examining the mastication-time dependence. A sufficiently masticated IR shows a shorter black incorporation time, which results in an improved dispersion of CB and better physical properties. Observing the microstructure of a rubber compound using the atomic force microscope–based nanomechanical technique, poor CB dispersion is revealed for insufficient mastication. Specifically, large CB agglomerations surrounded by the interfacial rubber region with higher elastic modulus than that of a rubber matrix are formed. Such a large CB agglomeration, on the other hand, does not appear in rubber compounds with longer mastication times. The thickness of the interfacial region becomes shorter in these cases. These observations are further discussed by the concept of “rheological unit” introduced by Mooney et al. This study demonstrates that the microstructure of a rubber compound is highly heterogenous with rubber regions of different microscopic elastic moduli and that the microstructure has an influence on CB dispersion and the physical properties of rubber.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79952
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • BROMINATED ISOBUTYLENE-CO-PARAMETHYLSTYRENE WITH SUPERIOR IMPERMEABILITY
           FOR TIRE INNERLINER APPLICATIONS

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      Authors: Jacob S; Chen R, Nair S, et al.
      Pages: 549 - 574
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIsobutylene elastomers are of great commercial importance in tire applications because of their notable low gas permeability properties, owing to their efficient molecular packing. Brominated isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene (BIMSM) elastomers are a special class of isobutylene elastomers synthesized by random cationic polymerization of isobutylene and para-methylstyrene (pMS), followed by a selective bromination of the methyl group of the pMS units. BIMSM elastomer, commercially known as Exxpro™ specialty elastomer, exhibits superior heat resistance and aging properties and is much more resistant to chemicals and ozone than butyl- or halobutyl polymers because of its fully saturated backbone structure. The permeability properties of BIMSM elastomers can be tuned by the level of pMS comonomer present in the polymer chain. The pMS comonomer increases the glass transition temperature of the copolymer, and polymers with very low gas permeability needed for demanding tire air retention applications can be produced by suitably selecting the pMS content. A single type of benzylic bromide, but with a versatile functional group, allows for precise control of vulcanization chemistry, potential for other chemical transformations to achieve other reactive groups, and grafting reactions. We present the new material developments to meet the growing market demands and requirements for low maintenance, low inflation pressure loss rate tires and tires for connected autonomous shared electric vehicles.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.80998
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • EFFECTS OF CROSSLINK BOND TYPE OF IIR-BASED WASTE RUBBER POWDER ON THE
           EPDM-ASSISTED DEVULCANIZATION REACTION

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      Authors: Xing Z; Zhang L, Zhang Y, et al.
      Pages: 575 - 590
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIsobutylene–isoprene rubber (IIR)–based waste rubber powder (WRP) present in WRP/ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) blends was devulcanized through a stress-induced reaction by increasing the screw rotation speed in the presence of subcritical ethanol. The effects of crosslink bond type (which was cured using phenolic resin, sulphur, or zinc oxide) of WRP and the screw rotation speed on devulcanization were investigated. The results showed that the Mooney viscosity and gel content of the devulcanized blends (DWRP/EPDM) decreased with an increase in the screw rotation speed, and the optimal screw rotation speed maximized the molecular weight (Mη) of sols and enhanced the mechanical properties of the revulcanized material. The optimal screw rotation speed for the phenolic resin-cured WRP1 and zinc oxide-cured WRP3 was 500 r min−1 and that for sulphur-cured WRP2 was 300 r min−1. At the optimal screw rotation speed, crosslink bonds severely fractured, and the main chain structure remained relatively intact. The 1H-NMR spectra of the sol in the devulcanized blends (DWRP/EPDM) confirmed that the content of the alpha and double-bond protons of sols are the highest at the optimal screw rotation speed, and many promoting agent (480) molecules penetrate and participate in devulcanization. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the size of the unfused gel particles in the mixed-revulcanized materials of IIR/(DWRP1/EPDM), IIR/(DWRP2/EPDM), and BIIR/(DWRP3/EPDM) was the smallest at the optimal screw rotation speed.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Mar 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79956
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • PROPERTIES OF WATER-SWELLABLE COMPOUNDS BASED ON NITRILE RUBBER WITH
           VARIED ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT

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      Authors: Vaniev MA; Lopatina SS, Sychev NV, et al.
      Pages: 591 - 599
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis article examines the development of water-swellable rubbers for oil and gas production packer equipment. The object of the investigation is to document the effect of rubber's acrylonitrile content on the swelling of the elastomers modified with sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose and a copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate. After testing the samples at room temperature, the most influential factor in a material's swelling was discovered to be the mineral content in the liquids imitating well fluids. NBR polarity stemming from the inherent acrylonitrile (CN-group) level was not explicitly detected to affect the swelling rate and maximum ratio under the described conditions of the experiment. It was determined that in sodium chloride aqueous solutions with concentrations from 3 to 22%, swelling of nitrile rubber mostly depends on its cross-linking degree.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.5254/rct.21.79994
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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