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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Archaeologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ADLFI. Archéologie de la France - Informations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Archaeomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 59)
Anadolu Araştırmaları / Anatolian Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Arquelogía Cordobesa     Open Access  
Anales de Arqueología y Etnología     Open Access  
Anatolia Antiqua : Revue internationale d’archéologie anatolienne     Full-text available via subscription  
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ancient West & East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Antiquités Africaines     Open Access  
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AP : Online Journal in Public Archaeology     Open Access  
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologia Adriatica     Open Access  
Archaeologia Baltica     Open Access  
Archaeologia Lituana     Open Access  
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Archaeonautica     Open Access  
Archäologie im Rheinland     Open Access  
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archéologie médiévale     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archipel     Open Access  
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkæologi i Slesvig-Archäologie in Schleswig     Open Access  
Arqueología     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología y Territorio Medieval     Open Access  
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Athar Alrafedain     Open Access  
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Cane Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bajo Guadalquivir y Mundos Atlánticos     Open Access  
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Berkala Arkeologi     Open Access  
Boletín de Arqueología     Open Access  
Boletín de Arqueología Experimental     Open Access  
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brill Research Perspectives in Ancient History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
BSAA Arqueología     Open Access  
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale     Open Access  
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Comechingonia : Revista de Arqueología     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conimbriga     Open Access  
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Arqueología de la Universidad de Navarra     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Cultural Heritage and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Damrong Journal of The Faculty of Archaeology Silpakorn University     Open Access  
Danish Journal of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Die Welt des Orients     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E&G Quaternary Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Eastern Christian Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frankokratia     Full-text available via subscription  
Gaia : Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gallia : Archéologie des Gaules     Open Access  
Gallia Préhistoire     Open Access  
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Herança : Revista de História, Património e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heritage, Memory and Conflict Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
In Situ Archaeologica     Open Access  
Index of Texas Archaeology : Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State     Open Access  
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ISIMU. Revista sobre Oriente Próximo y Egipto en la Antigüedad     Open Access  
Journal of African Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Skyscape Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kentron     Open Access  
Kuml     Open Access  
La zaranda de ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Journal of World Prehistory
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.022
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 33  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-7802 - ISSN (Online) 0892-7537
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The First ‘Urnfields’ in the Plains of the Danube and the Po

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      Abstract: Abstract Archaeological research is currently redefining how large-scale changes occurred in prehistoric times. In addition to the long-standing theoretical dichotomy between ‘cultural transmission’ and ‘demic diffusion’, many alternative models borrowed from sociology can be used to explain the spread of innovations. The emergence of urnfields in Middle and Late Bronze Age Europe is certainly one of these large-scale phenomena; its wide distribution has been traditionally emphasized by the use of the general term Urnenfelderkultur/zeit (starting around 1300 BC). Thanks to new evidence, we are now able to draw a more comprehensive picture, which shows a variety of regional responses to the introduction of the new funerary custom. The earliest ‘urnfields’ can be identified in central Hungary, among the tell communities of the late Nagyrév/Vatya Culture, around 2000 BC. From the nineteenth century BC onwards, the urnfield model is documented among communities in northeastern Serbia, south of the Iron Gates. During the subsequent collapse of the tell system, around 1500 BC, the urnfield model spread into some of the neighbouring regions. The adoption, however, appears more radical in the southern Po plain, as well as in the Sava/Drava/Lower Tisza plains, while in Lower Austria, Transdanubia and in the northern Po plain it seems more gradual and appears to have been subject to processes of syncretism/hybridization with traditional rites. Other areas seem to reject the novelty, at least until the latest phases of the Bronze Age. We argue that a possible explanation for these varied responses relates to the degree of interconnectedness and homophily among communities in the previous phases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Landscapes for Neolithic People in Mainland, Orkney

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      Abstract: Abstract Neolithic occupation of the Orkney Islands, in the north of Scotland, probably began in the mid fourth millennium cal BC, culminating in a range of settlements, including stone-built houses, varied stone-built tombs and two noteworthy stone circles. The environmental and landscape context of the spectacular archaeology, however, remains poorly understood. We applied the Multiple Scenario Approach (MSA) to Neolithic pollen records from Mainland, Orkney, in order to understand land cover and landscape openness across the timespan 4200–2200 cal BC. Interpreted within a framework provided by Bayesian chronological modelling, 406 radiocarbon dates from archaeological contexts and a further 103 from palaeoenvironmental samples provide the basis for the first detailed reconstruction of the spatio-temporal patterns of Neolithic people and their environment. Major alterations to the land cover of Mainland took place from 3400 cal BC (reduction in woodland from 20% to 10%) and from 3200 cal BC (increase in disturbed land from 3% to 30%). The dramatic increase in disturbed land coincided with the Grooved Ware phenomenon and the establishment of settlements at Skara Brae and Ness of Brodgar. The upturn in the signal for disturbance communities in the pollen record may indicate an increase in the amount of land used as pasture. This accords with the archaeological record, since the Neolithic Orcadian economy probably relied heavily on cattle for subsistence. By 2800 cal BC in the core of the Orkney Mainland, most settlements appear to have been ending, with people dispersing into the wider landscape, as the MSA modelling indicates a maintenance of disturbed land, and indeed a subsequent slight increase, implying persistence of human activity elsewhere in Mainland. People exhausted themselves rather than their land; that and its varied resources endured, while the intensive social relationships and practices of the peak of late Neolithic Orkney could not be maintained.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
       
  • The Use of Desert Kites as Hunting Mega-Traps: Functional Evidence and
           Potential Impacts on Socioeconomic and Ecological Spheres

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      Abstract: Abstract For almost a century there has been debate on the functional interpretation of desert kites. These archaeological structures have been interpreted as constructions for animal hunting or domestication purposes, sometimes for both, but with little conclusive evidence. Here, we present new evidence from a large-scale research programme. This unprecedented programme of archaeological excavations and geomatics explorations shows the unequivocal and probably exclusive function of kites as hunting traps. Considering their gigantic size, as well as the significant energy and organization required to build them, these types of traps are called mega-traps. Our research is based on five different field studies in Armenia, Jordan, Kazakhstan and Saudi Arabia, as well as on satellite imagery interpretation across the global distribution area of kites throughout the Middle East, the Caucasus and Central Asia. This hunting interpretation raises questions about the transformation of the landscape by human groups and the consequent anthropogenic impacts on local ecological equilibrium during different periods of the Holocene. Finally, the role of trapping in the hunting strategies of prehistoric, protohistoric and historic human groups is addressed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-022-09165-z
       
  • Earliest Herders of the Central Sahara (Tadrart Acacus Mountains, Libya):
           A Punctuated Model for the Emergence of Pastoralism in Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on a reassessment of the emergence of herding in Africa seen from the Tadrart Acacus and neighbouring regions in the Libyan central Sahara. The paper examines whether the presence of wild animals in the Early Holocene ‘green’ Sahara could have represented a ‘disease challenge’ to the spread of domestic livestock, as proposed for sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of the zooarchaeological record and Saharan rock art highlights this potential threat also in North Africa, where it has hitherto been disregarded. Old and new data from the study area in SW Libya, with a focus on Takarkori rock shelter, highlight the presence of herding activity at a very early stage. Direct dating on bones of sheep/goat and cattle secures this chronology, providing evidence of a rapid ingression of small groups of herders who crossed Africa’s north-eastern quadrant around ~ 8300 years cal BP. This rapidity defies the ‘disease challenge’ hypothesis and suggests alternative scenarios. In the central Sahara, the cultural complexity of local Early Holocene hunter-gatherers and their delayed return system of resource exploitation could have facilitated the incorporation of new practices, including the herding of small numbers of domestic animals. The societal implications of the transition from hunting and gathering to herding are archaeologically better visible in the funerary record and in rock art. By contrast, both material culture and the subsistence basis seem to demonstrate continuity with the former foraging groups’ phase. Taken together, the Saharan evidence suggests a punctuated process of acculturation for the inception of food production in North Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09162-8
       
  • Complex Pathways Towards Emergent Pastoral Settlements: New Research on
           the Bronze Age Xindian Culture of Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract The Xindian culture of northwest China has been seen as a prototypical example of a transition toward pastoralism, resulting in part from environmental changes that started around 4000 years ago. To date, there has been little available residential data to document how and whether subsistence strategies and community organization in northwest China changed following or in association with documented environmental changes. The Tao River Archaeology Project is a collaborative effort aimed at gathering robust archaeological information to solidify our baseline understanding of economic, technological, and social practices in the third through early first millennia BC. Here we present data from two Xindian culture residential sites, and propose that rather than a total transition to nomadic pastoralism—as it is often reconstructed—the Xindian culture reflects a prolonged period of complex transition in cultural traditions and subsistence practices. In fact, communities maintained elements of earlier cultivation and animal-foddering systems, selectively incorporating new plants and animals into their repertoire. These locally-specific strategies were employed to negotiate ever-changing environmental and social conditions in the region of developing ‘proto-Silk Road’ interregional interactions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09160-w
       
  • Resilient Social Actors in the Transition from the Late Bronze to the
           Early Iron Age on Cyprus

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      Abstract: Abstract Our understanding of the earliest Iron Age on Cyprus has long remained somewhat obscure. This is the result of both a relative lack of material evidence and the fact that scholarly attention has focused more on the preceding Late Bronze Age and on the subsequent Cypro-Archaic period. As more, and more varied, data have accumulated, there have been calls for a more theoretically informed approach to considering the social changes involved, and even for prehistorians to extend their work into the Cypriot Iron Age. As a response to this, the present study considers a broad range of material and documentary evidence, attempts to reconstruct the political economy, and offers an interpretative framework based on social understandings of Complex Adaptive Systems theory. Using this approach, the authors conclude that, while the enduring realities of Cyprus—its geography, copper resources and long tradition of agropastoralism—continued to shape Cypriot culture, the Iron Age is not simply a continuation of its Bronze Age sociopolitical forms. We argue instead that the earliest Iron Age involved social actors negotiating new politico-economic agendas in response to changing conditions in the Iron Age eastern Mediterranean.
      PubDate: 2021-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09163-7
       
  • Seeking Horses: Allies, Clients and Exchanges in the Zhou Period
           (1045–221 BC)

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      Abstract: Abstract Horses and chariots—and the associated technology and expertise—derived from the steppe contributed to the success of the Zhou conquest of the Shang in c. 1045 BC and remained important throughout Zhou rule in ancient China. On the basis of material cultural patterns, including the style and material used in bridle cheek-pieces found in tombs of the late second and early first millennium BC, this paper points to a northern origin for Zhou horses. Important intermediaries, providing these horses, were the clans whose cemeteries have been identified on the northern edges of the Central Plains. The necessity for repeated exchanges bringing south horses from the north was a consequence of key environmental differences between the steppe and the Central Plains, including climate, geomorphology, essential soil nutrients, and land use. These created significant difficulties in sustainably breeding and pasturing horses of quality. As a result, the people of the Central Plains were bound, over millennia, to seek horses from the northwest, along a cultural corridor that also moved northern materials and technologies, such as gold-, iron- and some bronze-working, into the Central Plains from the steppes.
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09161-9
       
  • Radiocarbon Dated Trends and Central Mediterranean Prehistory

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reviews the evidence for long term trends in anthropogenic activity and population dynamics across the Holocene in the central Mediterranean and the chronology of cultural events. The evidence for this has been constituted in a database of 4608 radiocarbon dates (of which 4515 were retained for analysis following initial screening) from 1195 archaeological sites in southern France, Italy and Malta, spanning the Mesolithic to Early Iron Age periods, c. 8000 to 500 BC. We provide an overview of the settlement record for central Mediterranean prehistory and add to this an assessment of the available archaeological radiocarbon evidence in order to review the traditional narratives on the prehistory of the region. This new chronology has enabled us to identify the most significant points in time where activity levels, population dynamics and cultural change have together caused strong temporal patterning in the archaeological record. Some of these episodes were localized to one region, whereas others were part of pan-regional trends and cultural trajectories that took many centuries to play out fully, revealing prehistoric societies subject to collapse, recovery, and continuing instability over the long-term. Using the radiocarbon evidence, we model growth rates in the various regions so that the tempo of change at certain points in space and time can be identified, compared, and discussed in the context of demographic change. Using other published databases of radiocarbon data, we have drawn comparisons across the central Mediterranean to wider prehistoric Europe, and northern Africa. Finally, we include a brief response to the synchronously published but independently developed paper (Palmisano et al. in J World Prehist 34(3), 2021). While there are differences in our respective approaches, we share the general conclusions that large-scale trends can been identified through meta-analyses of the archaeological record, and these offer new perspectives on how society functioned.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09158-4
       
  • Long-Term Demographic Trends in Prehistoric Italy: Climate Impacts and
           Regionalised Socio-Ecological Trajectories

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      Abstract: Abstract The Italian peninsula offers an excellent case study within which to investigate long-term regional demographic trends and their response to climate fluctuations, especially given its diverse landscapes, latitudinal range and varied elevations. In the past two decades, summed probability distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates have become an important method for inferring population dynamics in prehistory. Recent advances in this approach also allow for statistical assessment of spatio-temporal patterning in demographic trends. In this paper we reconstruct population change for the whole Italian peninsula from the Late Mesolithic to the Early Iron Age (10,000–2800 cal yr BP). How did population patterns vary across time and space' Were fluctuations in human population related to climate change' In order to answer these questions, we have collated a large list of published radiocarbon dates (n = 4010) and use this list firstly to infer the demographic trends for the Italian peninsula as a whole, before addressing each of five sub-regions in turn (northern, central, and southern Italy, Sicily, Sardinia). We also compare population fluctuations with local paleoclimate proxies (cave, lake, marine records). At a pan-regional scale, the results show a general rapid and substantial increase in population in the Early Neolithic with the introduction of farming at around 8000 cal yr BP and further dramatic increases during the Bronze and Iron Age (~ 3800–2800 cal yr BP). However, different regional demographic trajectories exist across different regions of Italy, suggesting a variety of localised human responses to climate shifts. Population and climate appear to have been more closely correlated during the early–mid Holocene (Mesolithic–Neolithic), while later in the Holocene (Bronze–Iron Ages) they decouple. Overall, across the Holocene the population dynamics varied by region and depended on the long-term socio-ecological dynamics prevailing in a given area. Finally, we include a brief response to the paper ‘Radiocarbon dated trends and central Mediterranean prehistory’ by Parkinson et al. (J Word Prehist 34(3), 2021)—synchronously published by Journal of World Prehistory but wholly independently developed—indicating how our conclusions accord with or differ from one another.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09159-3
       
  • The Western Periphery of the Red Sea as a Hominin Habitat and Dispersal
           Corridor: Marginal or Central'

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      Abstract: Abstract The Western Periphery of the Red Sea (WPRS) is an important region for paleoanthropological discussions about the history of hominin dispersal out of Africa. This paper examines the existing Paleolithic evidence in the region and some key aspects of its environmental setting, with the goal of assessing its role in hominin survival and dispersals. The paper’s chronological focus is the span 1.8–0.05 million years ago (Ma). Although the majority of the Paleolithic (Stone Age) sites so far documented in the region lack precise chronological control, the available evidence comprises Acheulean, Middle and Later Stone Age technocomplexes that can be broadly linked to distinct hominin settlement episodes. Most of the documented sites appear to be related to terrestrial niche exploitation around channelized alluvial plains between the coastal zone and the eastern slopes of the Red Sea Hills, although wave erosion may have destroyed sites associated with coastal resource use. As an extension of the East African Rift system, the WPRS mirrors the landscape features of the fossil-rich Rift Valley region, with the addition of a coastal niche. Thus, it may have posed little survival risk for hominins coming from the inland habitats, and some of the inhabitant populations may have easily dispersed toward Eurasia from there.
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09157-5
       
  • Early Balkan Metallurgy: Origins, Evolution and Society, 6200–3700
           BC

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper analyses and re-evaluates current explanations and interpretations of the origins, development and societal context of metallurgy in the Balkans (c. 6200–3700 BC). The early metallurgy in this region encompasses the production, distribution and consumption of copper, gold, tin bronze, lead and silver. The paper draws upon a wide range of existing archaeometallurgical and archaeological data, the diversity and depth of which make the Balkans one of the most intensively investigated of all early metallurgical heartlands across the world. We focus specifically on the ongoing debates relating to (1) the independent invention and innovation of different metals and metal production techniques; (2) the analysis and interpretation of early metallurgical production cores and peripheries, and their collapses; and (3) the relationships between metals, metallurgy and society. We argue that metal production in the Balkans throughout this period reflects changes in the organisation of communities and their patterns of cooperation, rather than being the fundamental basis for the emergence of elites in an increasingly hierarchical society.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09155-7
       
  • Bronze Age Globalisation and Eurasian Impacts on Later Jōmon Social
           Change

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      Abstract: Abstract From northern China, millet agriculture spread to Korea and the Maritime Russian Far East by 3500–2700 BC. While the expansion of agricultural societies across the Sea of Japan did not occur until around 900 BC, the intervening period saw major transformations in the Japanese archipelago. The cultural florescence of Middle Jōmon central Honshu underwent a collapse and reorganisation into more decentralised settlements. Mobility increased as Late Jōmon influences spread from eastern into western Japan, and populations expanded to offshore islands such as Okinawa and the Kurils. In Kyushu and other parts of western Japan, the eastern Jōmon expansion was associated with the cultivation of adzuki and soybeans but, contrary to earlier assessments, there is no evidence for the introduction of cereal crops at this time. Here, we analyse archaeological and historical linguistic evidence of connections between the Eurasian mainland and the Japanese Islands c. 3500 to 900 BC. A re-evaluation of archaeological material discussed since the 1920s concludes that the transformations in Jōmon society during this period were at least in part a response to contacts with Eurasian Bronze Age cultures. Evidence for linguistic contact between Koreanic and the Ainuic languages which are presumed to have been spoken by Jōmon populations is also consistent with new Bronze Age mobilities. Although prehistoric Japan was one of the most isolated regions of Eurasia, we conclude that the historical evolution of societies in the Japanese archipelago after the third millennium BC was linked with processes of Bronze Age globalisation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09156-6
       
  • The Origins of the Apple in Central Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract The study of agricultural origins has been revolutionized by genomic science. Whole genome sequencing of plant domesticates opens a door to multiple new approaches by which the timing, nature, and geography of human selective pressures on the evolution of domesticated species might be detected. These new scientific pathways greatly enhance understandings of domestication as an evolutionary process, but they also renew long-standing questions for archaeologists about whether and how to perceive human agency in the ancient past of human–plant interspecies relations. Due to its importance as a global commercial crop, the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) was the tenth plant genome to be successfully sequenced in 2010. The genomic record of the apple reveals a deep history of human–plant co-evolution by unconscious selection, domestication through hybridization, and a phylogeographic origin in Central Asia. The first two of these insights document a domesticate that has evolved from protracted and unconscious processes, but the third—the identification of the progenitor Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. in Central Asia, and the necessary corollary that its hybridization arose along the ‘Silk Road’—invites further discussion about the roles of human agency and intentionality in the initial stages of plant domestication. This paper presents a review of apple domestication studies in archaeology and genetics and considers the problematic of Central Asia and the Silk Road in the current paradigm shift of agricultural origins research.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09154-8
       
  • Temporal trends in the Colonisation of the Pacific: Palaeodemographic
           Insights

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      Abstract: Abstract The colonisation of eastern parts of the Pacific Islands was the last phase in the preindustrial expansion of the human species. Given the scale and challenges of the endeavour it is unsurprising that scholars have long been interested in understanding the conditions that drove and supported the exploration and settlement of this vast region. There has been speculation as to the influence of demographic factors, either as drivers or in some way regulating the rate and success of human expansion, but testing this has proven challenging. This study evaluates two hypotheses of population dynamics: the adaptation/resilience hypothesis, which proposes that populations respond to localised environmental conditions and changes in subsistence strategy, technology, differences in pathogen loads, and other events that occur at different times in different places; and the temporal hypothesis, which proposes that populations respond to major events such as climate change that occur in a region at an absolute point in, or over an absolute period of, time (noting that the two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive). Applying new methods for estimating the rate of natural population increase from human skeletal remains, this study utilised 23 samples to evaluate trends in population increase following the human expansion into the region. The results indicate a trend in population growth following colonisation, with initially high population growth, followed by a significant decrease and subsequently an increase in growth rates. The lack of a temporal trend may represent a high degree of heterogeneity in the impacts of climate change on individual archipelagos and islands.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09152-w
       
  • Dogs that Ate Plants: Changes in the Canine Diet During the Late Bronze
           Age and the First Iron Age in the Northeast Iberian Peninsula

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      Abstract: Abstract We studied 36 dogs (Canis familiaris) from the Can Roqueta site in the Catalan pre-littoral depression (Barcelona), dated between the Late Bronze Age and the First Iron Age (1300 and 550 cal BC). We used a sample of 27 specimens to analyse the evolution of the dogs’ diet based on the carbon δ13C and nitrogen δ15N isotope composition. The results show a marked human influence in that these natural carnivores display a highly plant-based diet. The offset between canids and herbivorous ungulates does not reach the minimum established for a trophic level, which implies an input of C3 and C4 (millet) cultivated plants. Moreover, the homogeneity in the values indicates that humans prepared their dogs’ food.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-021-09153-9
       
  • Bronze Metallurgy in Southeast Asia with Particular Reference to Northeast
           Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract The long-awaited definitive chronology for the period from the initial use of bronze metallurgy to the end of the Iron Age on the Khorat Plateau of Northeast Thailand has received near universal acceptance. In this review, we trace how bronze was deployed, and assess its social impact from the late Neolithic communities that first encountered metal to the civilization of Angkor. We identify eight phases that, for the prehistoric period, centred on the anchor site of Ban Non Wat, beginning in the eleventh century BC with imported copper axes and the opening of the first mines and associated smelting sites. This was followed in the second and third phases of the Bronze Age by a dramatic increase in mortuary wealth in the graves of social aggrandizers. After about eight generations, bronzes were locally cast in bivalve moulds. However, no further elite burials were found and bronze mortuary offerings were very rare. From about 400 BC, the opening of seaborne exchange networks, the establishment of dynastic China and climatic change then stimulated marked regionality. On the Khorat Plateau, many more bronzes were interred with the dead, but casting activity in the consumer sites declined. In the early centuries AD, increased aridity stimulated an agricultural revolution as sites were ringed by reservoirs and wet rice was grown in ploughed fields. This was accompanied by a surge in the range and number of bronzes with the new social elite that within a century led to the formation of early states. The new royalty now sponsored bronze statues, leading directly on to the dynastic foundries of Angkor, when massive bronzes reflected royal divinity.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-020-09151-3
       
  • Beyond the Bounds of Western Europe: Paleolithic Art in the Balkan
           Peninsula

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      Abstract: Abstract Paleolithic art offers unique perspectives on prehistoric societies and cultures. It is also considered a key component of modern human behavior. Until recently, Paleolithic artworks were thought to be geographically restricted to a very few areas, especially southwestern Europe. Discoveries of art in other parts of Europe and other parts of the globe have challenged this vision, expanding the documented distribution of this important cultural phenomenon. As a consequence, there has been renewed interest in less well-known areas, with the goal of determining whether the current lack of art is a reflection of a past reality, the product of limited research, or a matter of preservation. One of these regions is the Balkan Peninsula, a key area for understanding Upper Paleolithic societies given its location at the crossroads of several migration routes into Europe. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Paleolithic symbolic products, including both rock art and portable art from the Balkans. Recent research has led to new discoveries and insights into the symbolism of this long-neglected area. The present review, combining existing literature and new fieldwork, sheds new light on social and cultural interactions in this part of the continent and leads to a better understanding of its role within the European Upper Paleolithic cultural sphere.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-020-09147-z
       
  • Resisters, Vacillators or Laggards' Reconsidering the First
           Farmer-Herders in Prehistoric Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract This article discusses the diffusion of food production from the Levant to Egypt in the Early–Middle Holocene. It attempts to explain how the diffusion and adoption of food production occurred in Egypt in light of optimal foraging theory, niche construction theory and innovation diffusion models. It disputes an old argument that Southwest Asian domesticates appeared late in Egypt and played only a minor role in its inhabitants’ subsistence. The primary focus is on the Fayum in northern Egypt, where the earliest-dated Southwest Asian domesticated cereal remains in Egypt were found together with cultivation-related tools and facilities. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the beginning of food production in the Fayum was not as late as previously thought, and that the subsequent development of food production should be seen as a response to the increasing imbalance between the growing human population and the limited wild food resources available in the Middle Holocene. Lithic evidence strongly indicates that people in the Fayum exerted every possible effort to make food production feasible and efficient with the aid of technology in the course of a millennium, starting in the early-to-mid 6th millennium BC.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-020-09148-y
       
  • A New Perspective on Copper Age Technology, Economy and Settlement:
           Grinding Tools at the Valencina Mega-Site

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      Abstract: Abstract Activity patterns at large prehistoric sites are often difficult to interpret, as they frequently combine productive, domestic and funerary components. Valencina, the largest of the Copper Age mega-sites in Iberia, has proved particularly challenging in this regard. Macrolithic tool assemblages have been generally neglected in these debates but can provide specific insight into the nature and patterning of activities. In this study, 185 grinding tools from seven separate excavations across this 450 ha mega-site were subjected to multiple lines of analysis including quantification, morphology, raw material, use-wear and depositional context. A surprising feature of this assemblage is the high degree of fragmentation, with more than half of the items representing less than 25% of the original artefact and only a small minority of them (< 10%) complete. The absence of intact quernstones is particularly striking. The results indicate a ritualization of deposition at Valencina, and throw new light on the interpretation of this complex site. Furthermore, they emphasize the central role that grinding technology should play in future discussion of European prehistoric mega-sites.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-020-09150-4
       
  • Neanderthal Spatial Patterns and Occupation Dynamics: A Focus on the
           Central Region in Mediterranean Iberia

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on the study of some Middle Palaeolithic assemblages from Mediterranean Iberia to examine Neanderthal occupation patterns and territory management strategies, paying special attention to raw material procurement and technological behaviours, zooarchaeological data and microspatial patterning. The site occupation types are variable, and some of the results may have more importance than is immediately apparent, but there does not seem to be a single cultural, functional, temporal or environmental explanation. Rather, the wide variability in the technical behaviours observed can be explained with reference to the particular requirements of the populations in each specific region. The results obtained allow us to interrogate the data and, drawing comparisons with the southwest European context, establish an initial approach to Neanderthal subsistence strategies and mobility in a region so far little known in this regard.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10963-020-09143-3
       
 
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