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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0454-6245 - ISSN (Online) 2446-3280
Published by Royal Danish Library Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Anmeldelser 2021

    • Authors: Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab
      Abstract: Knut Ivar Austvoll, Marianne Hem Eriksen, Per Ditlef Frederiksen, Lene Melheim, Lisbeth Prøsch-Danielsen & Lisbeth Skogstrand: Contrasts of the Nordic Bronze Age. Essays in Honour of Christopher Prescott
      (Heide Wrobel Nørgaard) Sandie Holst & Poul Otto Nielsen (eds.): Excavating Nydam. Archaeology, Palaeoecology and Preservation. The National Museum’s Research Project 1989-99
      (Xenia Pauli Jensen) Mogens Høegsberg, Dorthe Haahr Kristiansen, Lars Krants Larsen, Jette Linaa, Hans Skov & Michael Vinter: Bebyggelse på Samsø i vikingetid og middelalder
      (Mogens Bo Henriksen) Lutz Klassen (ed.): The Pitted Ware Culture on Djursland. Supra-regional significance and contacts in the Middle Neolithic of southern Scandinavia
      (Lasse Sørensen) Andrzej Kokowski: Illerup Ådal 15: Kleinfunde zivilen karakters
      (Andres S. Dobat) Hans Krongaard Kristensen: Øm Kloster
      (Jes Wienberg) Stine Vestergaard Laursen og Rasmus Birch Iversen med bidrag af
      Peter Mose Jensen og Mads Bakken Thastrup: Hummelure. Landsby, langhus og Landbrug i Østjyllands yngre jernalder
      (Sune Villumsen) Jette Linaa (ed.): Urban diaspora. The Rise and Fall of Diaspora Communities in Early Modern Denmark and Sweden. Archaeology – History – Science
      (Göran Tagesson) Bente Sven Majchczack: Die Rolle der nordfriesischen Inseln im frühmittelalterlichen Kommunikationsnetzwerk Studien zur Landschafts- und Siedlungsgeschichte im südlichen
      Nordseegebiet vol. 11
      (Morten Søvsø) Bjarne Henning Nielsen, Tine Nord Raahauge, Peter Steen Henriksen & Jan Harrild: Smedegård. A village mound from the Early Iron Age near Nors in Thy, north-west Denmark
      (Per Ole Rindel) Torben Sarauw: Bejsebakken. En nordjysk bebyggelse fra yngre jernalder og vikingetid
      (Lone Gebauer Thomsen) Morten Søvsø: Ribe 700–1050. From Emporium to Civitas in Southern Scandinavia. Ribe Studier 2
      (Sven Kalmring) Katja Winkler: Ahrensburgien und Swiderien im mittleren Oderraum. Technologische und typologische Untersuchungen an Silexartefakten der Jüngeren Dryaszeit
      (Kristoffer Buch Pedersen) Jørgen Witte: Aabenraa i Højmiddelalderen – ca 1230-1375
      (Lars Chr. Bentsen)
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Sociokulturel betydning af tragtbægerkulturens tidligneolitiske

    • Authors: Casper Sørensen, Mathias Bjørnevad-Ahlqvist, Lasse Sørensen
      Abstract: The socio-cultural significance of flint axes from the Early Neolithic Funnel Beaker culture
      The Funnel Beaker culture in Denmark, beginning around 4000 BCE, saw the introduction of arable agriculture and animal husbandry, marking a seminal shift from hunter-gatherers to farmers. The culture’s polished flint axes embody many of the inherent changes and the foundation of a new social structure during this period. In previous research, these axes have primarily been employed in typological, chronological discussions or to contextualise broader interpretations. Rarely have the axes themselves been in focus. In this article, we invert this approach to explore the socio-cultural significance of axes in the Early Neolithic Funnel Beaker culture (c. 4000-3300 BCE), with an emphasis on the characteristic thin-butted examples.
      The article begins with an introductory presentation of the axes from a case study area, the southern Limfjord, focusing on the production of axes and their deposition in hoards in this area. The background and context of the axes in the Early Neolithic, EN I, c. 4000-3500 BCE, is then outlined. The following section focuses primarily on EN II (c. 3500-3300 BCE) but with a brief look at the first part of the Middle Neolithic. Finally, the two periods are discussed, highlighting the role of the axes in relation to the organisation of society. 
      The two longest flint axes ever found in southern Scandinavia are from the southern Limfjord area, between Viborg and Skive. The longest example, 50.5 cm in length, was found recently in a peat-filled gully near Kardyb, together with a slightly shorter axe, now broken, which was originally probably 40-45 cm long (fig. 1). The Kardyb hoard was found 1.1 km from the Kardyb long dolmen, the longest long barrow in Denmark (fig. 2), which may have been contemporary with the nearby hoard. The second-longest axe, 46.4 cm in length, was found further to the east, at Jægstrup Bæk (fig. 3), together with two shorter axes, 32.5 and 29.6 cm in length. In addition to these hoards, single finds of so-called ‘ceremonial axes’, greater than 30 cm in length and often showing no traces of use (fig. 4), are particularly densely distributed in the southern Limfjord area relative to other regions of southern Scandinavia.
      Hoards of smaller axes are also well represented in the case study area: For example, those found at Vestergaard Øst, Engedal Mark and Kølsen (fig. 5), with the former having been deposited at a possible settlement. In contrast to the large ceremonial axes, which are often made of high-quality Senonian flint, these smaller axes were produced using Danien flint that was probably sourced locally, for example at Daubjerg and Mønsted (figs. 6, 7, 8). Axe planks and flakes have been found at Daubjerg, attesting to the production of axes here (fig. 9).
      The distribution of the axe depositions, hoards and single axes, is quite varied. They are found in dry areas and in various wetlands, including along the Lim­fjord, on lake margins, in river valleys and in small bogs. Although they are found throughout the case study area, there is a slight predominance in the west, particularly around the former lake Tastum Sø, the location of the area’s only known causewayed enclosure, Søby Møllegård.
      Recent evidence indicates that the spread of the Funnel Beaker culture and the introduction of farming took place via a process of farmers immigrating from Central Europe coupled with the modification of the local material culture by Ertebølle hunter-gatherers. In the centuries around 4000 BCE, expansions of agrarian communities into the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany and southern Scandinavia can be observed. All these communities have features of their material culture which suggest either direct or indirect influences from the Michelsberg culture (c. 4400-3600 BCE), which originated in northern France, Belgium, southern Netherlands, Bohemia and southern and central Germany. In southern Scandinavia, these Michelsberg influences are evident in many of the changes that occurred throughout the first centuries of the Neolithic: transitions from core axes with specialised edges, pointed-bottomed vessels, small huts and relatively few ritual deposits to polished pointed-butted axes, flat-bottomed vessels, two-aisled houses, large pits, flint mines and numerous ritual depositions. One of the most conspicuous changes in southern Scandinavia, arising from influences from the Michelsberg culture, is the emergence of pointed-butted flint axes, interpreted as imitations of alpine jade axes.
      The jade used in these highly prized axes was obtained from the Italian Alps and further processed at several settlements in northern France, after which the axes were distributed throughout Europe. They have been interpreted as a cultural mediator representing both functional and ideological ideas emanating from Central European agrarian societies. In southern Scandinavia, local imitations of these jade axes, produced in flint and stone, are in evidence from the beginning of the Funnel Beaker culture. This suggests that the axes did not lose their significance as status symbols and can therefore be interpreted as material agents for the expansion of farming communities from Central Europe to southern Scandinavia.
      The farming communities in southern Scandinavia also had links with other parts of Central Europe, as evident from the many imported copper axes dating from the early part of the Funnel Beaker culture. Thin-butted flint axes, first seen in Denmark around 3800 BCE, are also interpreted as local imitations of the copper axes of Kaka type or thin-butted copper axes from the Gumelnița culture, concentrated in northeastern Bulgaria during the 5th millennium BCE.
      The polished axe went through ...
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Nonneklostret i Hundslund

    • Authors: Morten Larsen
      Abstract: Hundslund priory
      The history of its medieval buildings
      The Benedictine priory of Hundslund is situated in Vendsyssel, northern Jutland. It flourished from its establishment in around 1200 until the Reformation, after which it became transformed into a manor house, Dronninglund Slot. This transformation secured parts of the medieval complex, which are consequently preserved to the present day (figs. 1-4).
      The medieval complex consisted of a church and several buildings constructed at different times. The oldest part of the complex is the brick church, constructed around 1200 in a distinct Romanesque style similar to the nearby diocese church at Børglum and a small group of local parish churches. Some monastic buildings must have existed in conjunction with the church, but these have left almost no trace in the archaeological record (figs. 5-9).
      A building boom occurred in the latter part of the 15th century, and the church was subject to several building projects. The walls were raised and the church was vaulted, a tower was built on the west side of the nave and a large monastic wing was constructed. After a short break, rebuilding resumed in the early 16th century, when two transepts were added to the church as well as a porch, and a new west wing of monastic buildings was constructed. In addition to the dateable construction works, a major canal was constructed at the priory in the late medieval period, as well as some smaller buildings on the priory area (figs. 10-20).
      The priory church had a dual function, serving both the priory’s nuns and the local parish. This meant that the church and the monastic complex had to have a layout which secured the integrity of the monastic clause. Especially during the later Middle Ages, when there was a building boom, this may have been difficult to ensure, as the natural topography also imposed some limits with respect to where the monastic buildings could be constructed. This resulted in a somewhat unique structure, whereby the monastic buildings lay to the far west of the church, instead of directly adjoining it. It was consequently not possible to achieve a traditional monastic layout with adjoining buildings and cloister walks (fig. 21a-c).
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Østrup Slot

    • Authors: Thomas Guntzelnick Poulsen
      Abstract: Østrup Slot
      New and old excavations 1894-2017
      In the spring of 2017, archaeologists from East Jutland Museum undertook an excavation at the medieval castle of Østrup Slot, located 10 km east of Randers on the north side of Randers Fjord. The excavation formed part of a restoration project at the castle and was aimed at documenting the damage caused by the construction of a geothermal heating system.
      The castle has currently both a partially preserved rampart and a moat, as well as a small section of stone wall. The eastern and southern parts of the castle have been demolished and replaced by modern structures. The castle originally covered an area of ​​around 80 x 100 m. Excavations have previously been carried out at the castle by the Danish National Museum in 1894 and 1913, and there are also a number of written records associated with it. Throughout the Middle Ages, the castle was owned by the Church, but it passed to the Crown during the Reformation and was subsequently used as a hunting lodge. In 1591, Frederik II ordered the castle to be demolished, as it was in too poor a state to be repaired.
      During the recent excavation, chronologically discrete phases representing presumed construction phases were recorded. The results of this excavation were supplemented by information from the earlier excavations in 1894 and 1913. The excavations show that the oldest part of the castle was built as early as the late 11th or early 12th century. The site appears to have been unfortified during this early phase, but at some point during the 13th century a small rampart and moat were constructed. It appears that this early fortification was constructed over a massive layer of burnt material, which could indicate that the fortification took place in response to an attack on the site sometime in the 13th century. In the 14th century, the castle underwent extensive expansion and rebuilding. The size of the moat and the ramparts doubled, and a large new building was constructed. Likewise, the early excavations showed that stone buildings were constructed along the ramparts on both the eastern and western sides. Overall, the fortification’s defensive capabilities were significantly improved. The 14th century traces constitute the latest surviving remains of the castle. No remains were recorded from either the Late Middle Ages or the Renaissance until the castle’s demolition in 1591.
      An attempt has been made to link the excavation results to the historical developments. It is clear from the excavation in 2017 that Østrup was already about 100 years old when it was first mentioned in written records in 1191. It is not clear, however, when Østrup came into the possession of the bishopric of Aarhus.
      It was not possible to date the early fortifications more precisely than to the 13th century. The fact that the fortifications were constructed over a burnt layer indicates that the time of their construction should be sought in the turbulent period around the middle of the century, when the sons of Valdemar Sejr battled for power in the kingdom. There were several episodes at this time that may have resulted in the site being burnt down. Similarly, the expansion and reinforcement of the castle in the 14th century corresponds well with historical developments when the entire country was mortgaged to the Holstein counts. Bishop Svend of Aarhus was caught directly in the middle of this power struggle and was eventually forced to flee the country in the 1330s. Subsequently, ownership of Østrup probably passed to one of the Holstein counts. It is impossible to determine whether the entrepreneur behind the great expansion of Østrup’s fortifications was Bishop Svend or a Holstein count, potentially Count Gerhard III, as all these events took place within a relatively short period of time.
      The strengthening of the fortifications could also have taken place in conjunction with the major revolts against Valdemar Atterdag in 1351 and 1357. During both insurrections, however, the bishop sided with the king, and there therefore do not appear to be any immediate grounds for an expansion of the fortifications.
      There were generally few privately owned castles in the environs of Randers during the Middle Ages, but Østrup is an exception here. This should probably be seen as an indication of a strong royal presence in the area. Østrup was probably given to the Church in the second half of the 12th century: A time when Crown and Church worked closely together and constituted a powerful force in Denmark. The Church was, on the same occasion or shortly afterwards, probably given large areas of land in the area to support its new holdings and it managed to hang on to these throughout the Middle Ages, until the monarchy took over Østrup after the Reformation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Voldstedet Sallingholm

    • Authors: Turi Thomsen
      Abstract: The Sallingholm castle mound – process, results and methodological considerations
      The investigations at Sallingholm castle mound were carried out as part of a study of four test localities in a pilot project called Middelalderborge i Region Midtjylland (Medieval Castles in Central Denmark Region). A joint project established for the region’s archaeologists, carried out in 2014-15.
      Prior to the archaeological survey executed in 2014, the Sallingholm castle mound lay relatively unnoticed in the Hinnerup river valley. Its banks were barely noticeable under the meadow vegetation, especially when compared with the impressive Skansehøj castle mound just 200 m to the east of Sallingholm, with its steep banks towering above the edge of the river valley. A causeway provided the only access to Sallingholm, and Skansehøj is located precisely at the point where the road from the castle mound meets the mainland.
      There has been speculation over time as to the connection, if any, there may have been between the two strongholds. In the study of Sallingholm, several aspects were clarified that have a bearing on an interpretation of the relationship between Sallingholm and Skansehøj.
      Sallingholm turned out to be a much larger structure than foreseen. In earlier submissions, the structure was recorded as consisting of two oval banks, together with a causeway. The project’s initial field survey, followed up by archaeological excavations, revealed that it consists of four discrete man-made turf banks and was extraordinarily well-constructed.
      Given its position, Skansehøj was able to control access to Sallingholm, the castle mound in the meadow, and Sallingholm’s interpretation as a refuge seems obvious. The locality was not excavated in its entirety, and it is possible that the picture that emerged, based on a relatively small number of finds and a limited occurrence of accumulated waste layers, is not fully comprehensive. The information currently available forms the basis for an interpretation of Sallingholm as a stronghold that was not in continuous use and perhaps only occupied quite briefly: This concurs with the theory that Skansehøj was built for a siege.
      One aim of the study was to obtain an accurate date for Sallingholm using dendrochronology. To this end, samples of well-documented, dateable wood were collected for analysis. Of these, ten samples produced reasonably reliable dates and one was particularly precise, specifying a felling date in the spring of 1372. The remaining dates were less precise and fell into two groups: One group dated remains associated with the construction of one of the banks to about 1372, the other group, comprised of samples from a presumed timber road by another bank, gave a date approximately 20 years later.
      A precise date for activities at the stronghold focussed the search for relevant historical sources. The date in the spring of 1372 proved to be particularly interesting in relation to the siege/refuge hypothesis: 1372 was the year when King Valdemar IV Atterdag concluded peace with the coalition of the southern counts who had ruled the kingdom since 1368. Not everyone wanted to surrender to Valdemar voluntarily, and some of the Jutland nobility, in particular, had to be persuaded by force and siege.
      The results presented here suggest that the owner of Sallingholm was one of the rebellious Jutland nobles who, in 1372, needed to defend themselves against the Danish king.
      With this study, Sallingholm, a previously unknown castle mound, has become part of Danish history.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Turnerende putti og et barnløst hertugpar

    • Authors: Ole Kristiansen
      Abstract: Jousting putti and a childless count and countess
      Tiles from Borggade, Aarhus
      Finds of tiles from an insulating and levelling clay layer between a potter’s workshop in Borggade from the mid-16th century and a later 17th-century building give a good insight into the changes in tile fashion from Late Gothic in the early 16th century to the Early Baroque in the first decades of the 17th century. A few polychrome, Late Gothic sherds may have ended up here by chance. A quantity of small, misfired sherds could not be put into a broader context.
      With the aid of finds from other localities, two previously undescribed tile series are presented here. A sherd from the potter’s workshop bearing a lance-bearing putto riding on a goat is combined with finds from other excavations in Denmark and Germany to assemble most of a previously unknown series of green- or yellow-glazed tiles with jousting putti riding on goats and lions and a grandstand accommodating distinguished spectators. All the portal frames are different, with each tile patrix having been carved individually in its entirety. Several of the tiles show antiquated features in their construction, for example in the attachment of the rear part. It has not proved possible to find graphic originals in the available contemporary book illustrations. The series can be dated to some decades prior to the mid-16th century. Several sherds from the series found at King Frederik II’s castle at Antvorskov can possibly be interpreted as a witty reference to the formidable jousting contests held at his coronation ceremony in 1559. A figure illustrates the possible appearance of such a tiled stove.
      A couple of sherds from the 17th century layer are mentioned: These belong to the known series produced on the occasion of Johannes Albrecht’s inauguration as count of Mecklenburg in 1611. A sherd bearing part of a left arm enables the reconstruction of a larger series with examples from the entire Baltic region. The people depicted in this series can, based on an engraving by Lucas Kilian from around 1613, be identified as members of the family of the count of Pomerania-Stettin, Philipp II, and it is possible to put name to several individuals. The tiles are either blackened or black-glazed, and the relief is quite shallow. The portal frame is common to all the tiles and actually comes from a series depicting the four evangelists
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Bayesiansk kronologisk modellering som redskab i den lovpligtige

    • Authors: Sune Villumsen, Kirstine Haase, Tobias Torfing, Mathias Søndergaard, Helene Agerskov Rose
      Abstract: Bayesian chronological modelling in Danish archaeology
      In Danish archaeology, radiocarbon dating has become an integrated part of the archaeological toolbox. A certain scepticism towards the accuracy of the method means, however, that it often remains a supplement to archaeological interpretation and other informal dating methods.
      Bayesian modelling counters this scepticism by combining radiocarbon dating with archaeological observations and other dating methods such as stratigraphy, dendrochronology and numismatic dating. Based on data from sources such as these, a Bayesian model calculates the statistical probability distribution of individual radiocarbon dates. Because the modelled dates consider all available information relating to the samples and their context, they can produce more accurate, robust dates and chronologies than those based on simple calibrated dates. Moreover, through Bayesian modelling, it is possible to estimate the dates of events that cannot be dated directly, such as the beginning or end of a settlement phase.
      The benefits of implementing Bayesian modelling in Danish archaeology are considerable. However, given that it can seem confusing and difficult to comprehend, in the following we will introduce the method by presenting and discussing some examples of Bayesian modelling.
      Radiocarbon dates are probabilistic, which means that each radiocarbon measurement holds considerable uncertainty. Each radiocarbon date is expressed as a bell-shaped normal distribution around a median (fig. 1). The date is reported as a radiocarbon age and a standard deviation (e.g. 1690 BP ± 30 years). The uncertainty of the radiocarbon measurement is often increased through calibration to calendar years by matching with the wiggles and plateaus of the calibration curve. Since calibrated radiocarbon dates are distributed around the radiocarbon sample’s actual age, a visual assessment of the calibration plot will often lead to misinterpretation of the date of specific events or the beginning, end, or duration of phases. Bayesian statistics is a way of countering these uncertainties and misinterpretations. In the following, we use the calibration program OxCal.
      The first example is a fictional case where ten simulated radiocarbon dates, corresponding to known years at 10-year intervals between AD 970 and 1060, are calibrated (fig. 2). From a visual assessment of the calibrated dates, it seems they are contemporaneous since the probability distribution of each individual date is up to 200 years. The wide probability distribution blurs the fact that the events are each ten years apart. If we add the prior information that the events form a sequence in which sample A is older than sample B etc., the modelled dates then display narrower probability distributions (fig. 3). These are called posterior probability distributions. A so-called Boundary is added to the model to limit the sequence and mark the first and last non-dated event, since it is unlikely that a sample representing the first and last event in a sequence has been taken.
      Stratigraphic information is termed an informative prior, while an uninformative prior represents a situation where the only information about the samples is that they belong to the same phase. Uninformative priors are illustrated by five samples from the postholes of an Iron Age house. The house had been in use for 30 years. The simulated dates are then placed within a 30-year period (fig. 4). Again, the unmodelled dates blur the actual duration of the use-phase of the house. The prior information that the samples are interpreted as being contemporaneous is now added to the model using the Phase command. The model then estimates when the use of the house began and when it ended. In OxCal, the Agreement Index, A, is an indicator of the match between the data and the model. It is based on the overlap of the calibrated probability distribution and the posterior distributions. An Agreement Index below 60% is an indication of a problematic sample. An Agreement Index is also calculated for the whole model (Amodel).
      In a more complex example, stratigraphical information regarding the Iron Age house is added. Samples from a stratigraphically younger house and a younger pit are added to the model as two phases in a sequence (fig. 5). The three samples from the pit are regarded as being contemporaneous, and the ‘combine’ command is used.
      In the simulated example, five samples are enough to create a robust model for a house’s use-phase. But the number of samples needed also depends on where on the calibration curve the dates end up, and a small number of samples may be compensated for by strong priors.
      The following example is not simulated but from the excavation of an Iron Age house. Three samples were taken from a roof-bearing post. The samples were taken from growth rings spaced, respectively, 10 and 12 years apart. The charred remains of hazel wattle were found between the stones in the cobbled floor (fig. 6). The hazel was interpreted as the remains of the wattle walls of the excavated house. Two ditches surrounding the house were sampled, one of which was stratigraphically older than the other. The samples and the prior information were combined in a Bayesian model. The house’s date was narrowed from 158-8 BC to 91-6 BC (fig. 7).
      The final example is from the excavation of a medieval house in a town (fig. 10). Five samples from the floors in the house’s basement were added in a Bayesian model (fig. 9). The floors superseded each other. Moreover, two dendrochronological samples from latrine barrels, older than the house, and samples from the barrels’ content were added to the model (fig. 10). Based on the archaeological interpretation, the use of the house was dated to between AD 1250 and 1450. However, the model showed that it was more likely to have been in use between ...
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
  • Genforeningens mindesmærker

    • Authors: Jes Wienberg
      Abstract: Memorials marking Danish Reunification
      Shaping a community of remembrance
      In 2020, on the 100th anniversary of Danish Reunification, around 650 memorials had received protected status. They are found all over Denmark and constitute the country’s largest memorial group. The date of their erection, as well as their location, design, inscriptions, images and initiators are all relatively well known. This article critically readdresses two main questions. Firstly, why have so many memorials marking Danish Reunification been erected; the very first in 1919, the great majority in 1920 and the years immediately thereafter, and the most recent on the 100th anniversary in 2020' Are they an expression of national joy, as was claimed back then and subsequently, even up to the present day, or might there be other explanations' Alternative perspectives are presented here which call into question both Reunification as a concept, and the joy associated with it. The memorials are interpreted as efforts to create a community of remembrance. Danish Reunification was fiercely disputed and a few of the memorials even express discontent, in line with differing political attitudes about where the Danish-German border should be drawn. Consequently, the memorials marking Reunification could also be interpreted as an expression of crisis. Secondly, the article examines the present preservation of what might be termed modern heritage. Seen from a global perspective, there is nothing unique in protecting modern remains. In many cases, the memorials have become invisible, being for example neglected or forgotten. Some have been moved and others have disappeared. Their protection was also motivated by references to their unique Danish character, constituting evidence
      of local fervour and a sense of community. Even so, I wonder whether the present, too, just like the time of the Reunification, is a period of crisis in need of an anniversary and acts of protection to divert attention' Appended to the article is a catalogue listing 683 known memorials erected to mark the Reunification from 1919 to 2020, arranged by year of erection and/or inauguration. The article is also illustrated with five figures showings examples of the memorials: The memorial column at Skamlingsbanken, built in 1863 and blown up in 1864; this is not a memorial marking Reunification, but provides an example of the harsh treatment of memorials in the borderland between Denmark and Germany (fig. 1); the very first memorial marking Reunification erected in Tarm in 1919 (fig. 2); a memorial at the location where King Christian X began his historic ride over the old border (fig. 3); a memorial erected in 2010 at the church on Rømø (fig. 4); and finally, the Reunification tower at Ejer Bavnehøj, built in 1924 (fig. 5).
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 70 (2022)
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