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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
Showing 201 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted by number of followers
Heritage, Memory and Conflict Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Skyscape Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ancient West & East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cultural Heritage and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Viking : Norsk arkeologisk årbok     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Theoretical Roman Archaeology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern Christian Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Danish Journal of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brill Research Perspectives in Ancient History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Die Welt des Orients     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gaia : Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mythos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Primitive Tider     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
In Situ Archaeologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herança : Revista de História, Património e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Offa's Dyke Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gallia : Archéologie des Gaules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Archaeologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Otium : Archeologia e Cultura del Mondo Antico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anadolu Araştırmaları / Anatolian Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AP : Online Journal in Public Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kentron     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Archaeomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologia Baltica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archéologie médiévale     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ADLFI. Archéologie de la France - Informations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
REUDAR : European Journal of Roman Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of African Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Frankokratia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Archaeologia Adriatica     Open Access  
Anales de Arqueología y Etnología     Open Access  
Kuml     Open Access  
Arkæologi i Slesvig-Archäologie in Schleswig     Open Access  
Antiquités Africaines     Open Access  
Archaeonautica     Open Access  
Sylloge epigraphica Barcinonensis : SEBarc     Open Access  
Pyrenae     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Historia Antigua Oriental     Open Access  
Athar Alrafedain     Open Access  
SPAL : Revista de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Archäologie im Rheinland     Open Access  
Bajo Guadalquivir y Mundos Atlánticos     Open Access  
Index of Texas Archaeology : Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State     Open Access  
Portugalia : Revista de Arqueologia do Departamento de Ciências e Técnicas do Património da FLUP     Open Access  
BSAA Arqueología     Open Access  
Boletín de Arqueología     Open Access  
Damrong Journal of The Faculty of Archaeology Silpakorn University     Open Access  
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
ISIMU. Revista sobre Oriente Próximo y Egipto en la Antigüedad     Open Access  
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
Archaeologia Lituana     Open Access  
Veleia     Open Access  
Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale     Open Access  
Anatolia Antiqua : Revue internationale d’archéologie anatolienne     Full-text available via subscription  
PHILIA. International Journal of Ancient Mediterranean Studies     Open Access  
Revista Arqueologia Pública     Open Access  
Comechingonia : Revista de Arqueología     Open Access  
Revista Otarq : Otras arqueologías     Open Access  
Gallia Préhistoire     Open Access  
SPAFA Journal     Open Access  
Anales de Arquelogía Cordobesa     Open Access  
Arqueología y Territorio Medieval     Open Access  
Lucentum : Anales de la Universidad de Alicante. Prehistoria, Arqueología e Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Boletín de Arqueología Experimental     Open Access  
Conimbriga     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Arqueología de la Universidad de Navarra     Open Access  
Arqueología     Open Access  
Semitica : Revue publiée par l'Institut d'études sémitiques du Collège de France     Full-text available via subscription  
SAGVNTVM Extra     Open Access  
Berkala Arkeologi     Open Access  
Queensland Archaeological Research     Open Access  

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Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2520-8217
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Seasonality of Human Occupations in El Mirón Cave: Late Upper Paleolithic
           Hunter-Gatherer Settlement-Subsistence Systems in Cantabrian Spain

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      Abstract: Abstract We revisit the models of Upper Paleolithic forager settlement-subsistence systems for the coastal greater Cantabrian region of Spain proposed by K.W. Butzer and L.G. Straus in the 1980s, with a significant new seasonality dataset from El Mirón Cave in Cantabria (northern Atlantic Iberia). This large, strategically located site contains a nearly complete, archeologically rich, and well-studied stratigraphic sequence from the late Middle Paleolithic to the Bronze Age. Based on the seasonality data obtained from the most hunted taxa, red deer (Cervus elaphus) and ibex (Capra ibex/pyrenaica), the diachronic human occupation of the site is discussed. Visits to the cave during the Mousterian and early Upper Paleolithic were fleeting, with an uptick in use of the site during the Solutrean, possibly as a short-term hunting camp during the cool-cold seasons. Throughout the Initial and Lower Magdalenian, this physically and locationally advantageous site in the montane interior was often occupied as a long-term, multifunctional, residential base camp but, at other times, during the cold months of the year, as a minor, short-term, specialized hunting bivouac. A clear shift in the cave’s use to mainly the warm months in the Middle and Upper Magdalenian and Azilian is observed. The results indicate that major residential base camps were not only located in or strictly adjacent to the coastal zone as was argued a quarter-century ago. These findings confirm that the montane interior of Cantabrian Spain—only 25–50 km from the Last Glacial shore—was an integral part of band territories for both logistical and residential purposes.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
       
  • Pointing to the Ahmarian. Lithic Technology and the El-Wad Points of
           Al-Ansab 1

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      Abstract: Abstract The Ahmarian is the earliest fully fledged Upper Palaeolithic Levantine industry, and its hallmark is the el-Wad point, assumed to be a projectile implement. The Ahmarian is a blade-bladelet volumetric industry; however, bladelet production has frequently been portrayed as undifferentiated or secondary to blade production. El-Wad points are blades or bladelets with a fine to steep lateral retouch, often further shaping the tip. The role of bladelets and blades, both in the retouched and unretouched assemblages, is highly debated in order to refine Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) taxonomical and technological issues. Here, we use data coming from our excavations at the southern Ahmarian site of Al-Ansab 1 to reconsider the role of bladelets and el-Wad points in the assemblage. We show that bladelet production was key, and blades were mostly used to shape the convexities to produce convergent bladelets. El-Wad point blanks mostly stemmed from an early stage of the reduction sequence, being conventionally classified as small blades or big bladelets. Modification of these blanks likely improved their suboptimal shape, while smaller bladelets were not modified. Our detailed review of the existing literature produced corresponding evidence regarding lithic technology, while the exact function of el-Wad points is still pending on complementary use-wear analyses. With our new data, we expect to provoke a reconsideration of the Ahmarian technological system. As bladelets attract more and more attention in EUP research, we propose that the southern Ahmarian had already fully completed the technological and cultural shift to the preferred use of small projectile inserts.
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
       
  • What about Apatite' Possibilities and Limitations of Recognising Bone
           Mineral Residues on Stone Tools

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      Abstract: Abstract Bone mineral residues derived from stone tool production and use can survive on lithic artefacts for extended periods of time. They thus form a line of evidence for reconstructing Palaeolithic human activities. Despite having been frequently reported on ancient stone tools, the identification of these residues is not without complications, and their diagenesis as well as their potential overlap with residues formed in the burial environment are only beginning to be addressed. We report here environmental and use-related calcium phosphate residues on previously washed and handled Gravettian stone tools from Hohle Fels (Germany) and Abri Pataud (France). The residues were characterised with optical microscopes and SEM–EDS. Our results provide an optimistic note on the preservation of bone mineral residues at sheltered Upper Palaeolithic sites, but also point to multiple and complex origins of apatite deposits on lithic tools. We discuss the characteristics of functional versus taphonomic residues and draw attention to the formation of authigenic hydroxylapatite and its implications for the identification of ancient bone mineral residues from tool use. We argue that this aspect has been largely overlooked by analysts until now. This calls for further refinement of analytical techniques, including continued research into sediment diagenesis and residue taphonomy, as well as the incorporation of production and use-wear evidence to ensure reliable residue interpretations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
       
  • Characterising the stone artefact raw materials at Liang Bua, Indonesia

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      Abstract: Abstract At Liang Bua, the type site of Homo floresiensis on the Indonesian island of Flores, the stone artefact assemblages are dominated by two raw materials, qualitatively classified as chert and silicified tuff in previous studies. Field observations describe both stone types as locally abundant and of good flaking quality, but no systematic analysis has yet been carried out to characterise their nature. In this study, we conducted the first geological, mechanical, and quantitative assessment of these two raw materials using a suite of analytical approaches. Our results show that the two stone types are mineralogically alike in composition and derive from fossiliferous limestone that had undergone diagenetic silica replacement, but they clearly differ from one another geochemically. Therefore, the ‘chert’ and ‘silicified tuff’ categories used in previous studies are more aptly described as silica-dominated (i.e., SiO2-dominated) nodular chert and iron-rich (i.e., Fe2O3-rich) nodular chert, respectively. We discuss the implications of our results on the shift in raw material utilisation patterns at Liang Bua that occurred after ~ 46 ka and coincided with the arrival of Homo sapiens at the site.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Correction to: A Middle Pleistocene Butchery Site at Great Yeldham, Essex,
           UK: Identifying Butchery Strategies and Implications for Mammalian Faunal
           History

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      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • The role of vision during Lower Palaeolithic tool-making

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      Abstract: Abstract Stone tools are the result of goal-oriented actions involving cognitive processes. Because visual attention is a requirement in accurate tool-making, visual exploration can provide information about the relationship between perception and technological evolution. The purpose of this study is to analyse visual behaviour while an expert knapper produces different stone tools, using a portable eye tracking device. To understand where gaze was directed moment by moment, different areas of interest were defined. The preliminary results show that the most observed areas were the middle region, the knapped surface, the first face of the tool being struck and the next point of percussion. There were differences in visual exploration between choppers and handaxes during knapping. The distal position, upper region, cortex and the first face of the tool being struck were more explored in choppers, while the base, knapped surface and first tool’s face knapped were more viewed for handaxes. These areas can be considered to be the most salient features needed to control knapping, hence constituting action affordances for the successful production of stone tools.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Correction to: Agia Marina and Peristereònas: Two New Epipalaeolithic
           Sites on the Island of Lemnos (Greece)

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      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • The Late and Final Middle Palaeolithic of Central Europe and Its
           Contributions to the Formation of the Regional Upper Palaeolithic: a
           Review and a Synthesis

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      Abstract: Abstract For decades, the relationship of pre-modern hominins to anatomically modern humans (AMH) and the transition from mode 3 to mode 4 industries remain topics of ongoing scientific debate. Over the last 20 years, different disciplines have added new data and much detail to these questions, highlighting the demographic and social and cultural complexity underlaying these major changes or turnovers in human evolution. As with most other regions outside Africa, archaeologists faced long-lasting discussions whether or not the central European archaeological record is to be understood as a regional transition from the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) to the Upper Palaeolithic (UP) or if it is characterised by the replacement of Neanderthal MP techno-complexes by industries of overall UP character imported by modern humans. These debates have been re-fuelled by the discoveries of new sites, of new hominin fossil remains and by aDNA studies pinpointing towards the arrival of AMH in Europe several millennia earlier than previously thought (Slimak et al., Science Advances, 8, eabj9496, 2022; Hajdinjak et al., Nature, 592, 253-257, 2021; Prüfer et al., Nature Ecology & Evolution, 5, 820–825, 2021). Together with new radiometric age-estimates and detailed archaeological site studies, these developments call to recapture the present knowledge of the Late (LMP) and Final Middle Palaeolithic (FMP) of central Europe, viewed from the perspective of lithic technology and typology, raw material exploitation and land-use strategies. We will review and characterise this record as it represents the demographic and cultural substrate that AMH had met and will discuss to which degree this substrate contributed to the formation of the central European UP.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00126-8
       
  • From Veld to Coast: Towards an Understanding of the Diverse Landscapes’
           Uses by Past Foragers in Southern Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract In this brief contribution, we outline the aims of a collection entitled “From veld to coast: towards an understanding of the diverse landscapes’ uses by past foragers in southern Africa,” and we define its chronological, geographic and thematic framework.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00124-w
       
  • Using Formation Processes to Explore Low-Density Sites and Settlement
           Patterns: A Case Study from the Swabian Jura

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      Abstract: Abstract Paleolithic archaeologists often rely on cave and rockshelter sites with rich occupation levels to explore hominin behavior and settlement patterns. However, a closer look into regional occupation data may reveal an uneven distribution of sites and the presence of occupational hiatuses or low-density occupation horizons that often remain understudied. In contrast to this trend, this paper focuses on low-density occupation data to explore regional settlement patterns, using the rich and well-studied Paleolithic record of the Swabian Jura, Germany, as a case study. In this regard, we employ a geoarchaeological approach based on micromorphology to investigate the formation processes of two low-density occupation sites, Schafstall II and Fetzershaldenhöhle, and compare their formation history with the geogenic sequence from Lindenhöhle. We demonstrate that the investigated sites have comparable formation processes, despite their differences in chronology and context. We argue that humans used Schafstall II and Fetzershaldenhöhle for short-term activities, while the sites mostly served as carnivore activity areas, emphasizing the importance of fauna in the accumulation of thick sedimentary sequences. In addition, our findings corroborate the regional climatic record and provide novel insights into the geomorphological history of the less studied Lauchert Valley, where Schafstall II is located. By comparing our results with data from intensively occupied caves in the Swabian Jura, we provide broader implications for the settlement patterns of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. We conclude with methodological suggestions for investigating sites in hunter-gatherer contexts combining a distributional and a site-specific approach.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00127-7
       
  • The Antler, Ivory, and Bone Artefacts from Maszycka Cave (Southern
           Poland). New Signals from a Late Upper Palaeolithic Key Site

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      Abstract: Abstract The well-known Late Upper Palaeolithic cave site of Maszycka (southern Poland), excavated in the end of the nineteenth century as well as in the 1960s, furnished a collection of 89 osseous artefacts manufactured from cervid antler, mammoth ivory, and mammal long bone. The great majority are finished tools, mostly projectile points, while raw material blocks, pre-forms, and production waste are represented by only a few pieces. Based on the presence of the characteristic double-split antler tools, distinct projectile morphologies, and recurring ornaments, the assemblage from Maszycka can be assigned to the early Middle Magdalenian facies à navettes which dates to around 19 - 17.5 ka cal. BP. Compared to the western European sites, which also belong to this facies, Maszycka is characterised by a high proportion of ivory tools, reflecting the abundance of this favourable raw material in eastern central Europe, as well as an unusually high proportion of decorated tools, which may relate to an increased need for symbolic communication within the small and geographically isolated Magdalenian group. Both the remarkable typo-technological similarities of the bone industry from Maszycka to contemporary assemblages in France and the gap in the central European archaeological record between 22 and 19 ka cal. BP speak in favour of a direct immigration of Magdalenian hunter-gatherers from western Europe immediately after the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. Their relations to the bearers of the Epigravettian adjacent to the east and south remain to date poorly understood.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00125-9
       
  • Exploring the Lithic Variability of the Mousterian (MIS 9–3) Open-Air
           Sites of the Pontine Plain (Central Italy)

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a preliminary study of the Middle Palaeolithic lithic industries recovered at six selected open-air sites in the Latium region (central Italy), part of a regional cultural complex known as the “Pontinian”. The pedo-stratigraphic analysis combined with 40Ar/ 39Ar age constraints on the sites permits us to provide for the first time a geomorphological and chronological (300–40 ka) framework for several open-air sites in central Italy. The temporal range is remarkably coincident with the Neanderthal presence in this region. Moreover, the lithic collections analysed include the oldest occurrence of a Mousterian industry in this region. The present work, therefore, provides the background context for future re-evaluation of the peculiar Pontinian techno-complex through a more in-depth technological approach and its comparison with the other Neanderthal occurrences in central Italy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00123-x
       
  • For Our World Without Sound: the Opportunistic Debitage in the Italian
           Context—a Methodological Evaluation of the Lithic Assemblages of Pirro
           Nord, Cà Belvedere di Montepoggiolo, Ciota Ciara Cave and Riparo
           Tagliente

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      Abstract: Abstract The informative potential taken on by lithic artefacts has increased over the years. They gradually grew into proxies to detect the most relevant features of human material culture, including cognitive abilities to realise stone tools or, in other words, to track down the delineation of behavioural complexity. Consequently, notions like predetermination, standardisation (morphologically likewise) and hierarchisation have been intensely used in lithic technology as markers of such complexity, leading to ruling out contexts lacking any trace of these traits. Within the present state of the art, the use of the terms expedient and opportunism has characterised, in a negative way, the dichotomy between complex and simple within prehistoric contexts. Even if a requalification of expedient technologies has been recently observed, opportunistic behaviours still connote the complete absence of planning and complexity (even in terms of the mental scheme) within lithic industries. This background often prevented a consideration as relevant, from a technological and methodological perspective, these assemblages, primarily when Lower Palaeolithic contexts were addressed. With the definition and use of the term opportunistic debitage, this work questions the possible methodological implications of assemblages known as complexity- and planning-free and that can be found throughout different chronological and cultural phases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00117-9
       
  • A Middle Pleistocene Butchery Site at Great Yeldham, Essex, UK:
           Identifying Butchery Strategies and Implications for Mammalian Faunal
           History

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper discusses the evidence relating to an assemblage of Pleistocene bones and teeth discovered in a brick pit at Great Yeldham, Essex, in the late nineteenth century. Surviving elements from this collection, which include a bison foot bone with cut-marks, are now in the British Geological Survey Museum, Keyworth. A re-examination of this collection suggests that humans were present at the site during a temperate period in the earlier part of the late Middle Pleistocene. The cut-marks suggest that the hind foot was detached and discarded as butchery waste at the death site. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of humanly modified bones for understanding aspects of early human behaviour and distribution in Britain, which have hitherto largely centred around the study of stone tools.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00122-y
       
  • What Makes the Identity of a Scientific Method' A History of the
           “Structural and Analytical Typology” in the Growth of Evolutionary and
           Digital Archaeology in Southwestern Europe (1950s–2000s)

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      Abstract: Abstract Usual narratives among prehistoric archaeologists consider typological approaches as part of a past and outdated episode in the history of research, subsequently replaced by technological, functional, chemical, and cognitive approaches. From a historical and conceptual perspective, this paper addresses several limits of these narratives, which (1) assume a linear, exclusive, and additive conception of scientific change, neglecting the persistence of typological problems; (2) reduce collective developments to personal work (e.g. the “Bordes’” and “Laplace’s” methods in France); and (3) presuppose the coherence and identity of these “methods” over time. It explores the case of the “Structural and analytical typology” method, developed in France, Spain, and Italy from the 1950s to the 2000s by Georges Laplace and his collaborators for lithic implements. This paper (1) provides a detailed historical account of the evolving content of this collective endeavour over five decades; (2) it addresses the epistemological question of what makes the identity and unity of a scientific method, demonstrating that the core component of the “analytical typology” lies in its particular way to represent real-world phenomena through its notation system; and (3) it reveals how this little known but significant episode of advances in the methods and theory of archaeology, contemporary but independent of the “New Archaeology” trend in English-speaking archaeology, was instrumental in the continuation of evolutionary perspectives in France and in the development of quantitative and formal methods in archaeology in southwestern Europe, foreseeing crucial knowledge representation issues raised today by digital methods in archaeology and data curation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00119-7
       
  • The Middle Paleolithic at Große Grotte (Blaubeuren, southern Germany).
           New Insights from Lithic Technology and Implication for Assemblage
           Classification

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the technological concepts applied at Große Grotte, based on detailed studies of the lithic cores and the bifacial objects of the Middle Paleolithic, which have never been analyzed in detail before. Up to now, the site was classified on the basis of Wagner's typological analyses. The present analysis enables comparisons with other assemblages in terms of technological aspects and thus provides an insight into the much-discussed assemblage variability as well as into the use and function of the cave on a layer-by-layer basis. All layers are characterized by a mix of every conceivable lithic technology that can be found in the Middle Paleolithic assemblages of the Swabian Jura. In addition to Levallois and discoid, and occasionally Quina, bifacial technology is present in almost every layer. The generally small sizes of the cores and their high degree of exploitation, the use of predominantly local raw material, and the extensive tool maintenance indicate numerous short-term visits to the cave. From this it is deduced that the surrounding landscape was well known to the people who settled there for short visits. The Late Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals discarded unusable pieces on-site and repaired tools that they subsequently exported. The location high above the valley was the ideal place in this landscape for observing herds of animals, as the animals were not disturbed in this way. Thus based on our analyses, the cave was repeatedly used between the late MIS 5 and early MIS 3 as a transitory, short-term station, where the herds of animals passing by in the valley were observed. In addition to animal observation, the equipment, consisting of very different technologies, was maintained and small meals were prepared. The repeated deposition of different technologies during very short stays makes it almost impossible for the time being to assign the individual assemblages of the site’s layers to a clear typological classification unit.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00114-y
       
  • Transport Patterns as Heuristic Testing Variables for the Social Coherence
           of Taxonomic Units at Different Spatial Scales

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      Abstract: Abstract Taxonomic units in archaeology strongly convey the assumption of a social connection between the people having left the sites attributed to these units. The (implicit) assumption is that people whose sites are attributed to the same unit had closer social relations among one another than they had to people whose sites are attributed to other taxonomic units, and that such social proximity is reflected in similarities in their material culture. It is often difficult to be sure about the processes behind the emergence of similarities and dissimilarities. Therefore, taxonomic units relying on this criterion require additional testing in order to be meaningful components of studies on social relations. Dynamic objects, whose location of origin is known in addition to their place of discard, provide means for such testing, because they reflect the movement or contact patterns of people, potentially providing information on social boundaries or links on different spatial scales. Social coherence—the degree of connectedness between the people having left the sites attributed to these units—is sensitive to phenomena of spatial and temporal scale. However, there is no coherent terminology that would match scale levels of taxonomic units to those of social units. This paper proposes a hierarchical systematics for taxonomic units and their social equivalents applicable to both hunter-(fisher-)gatherer and farming societies to facilitate discussions on this topic. Based on this systematics, we propose an approach to test the coherence of taxonomic units regarding different social scale levels based on transport patterns of dynamic objects. Knowledge on the mode of acquisition (direct/embedded procurement, exchange, trade) of the dynamic objects is not a prerequisite. Three case studies from the Late Upper Paleolithic in Central Europe, the Late Paleolithic in Bavaria, and the Early Neolithic in Norway will be discussed to evaluate the potential and limits of the approach.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00120-0
       
  • Beyond Shapes: Core Reduction Strategies in the Magdalenian of Cova Gran
           de Santa Linya (NE Iberia)

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      Abstract: Abstract Core reduction provides insight into the technical actions involved in knapping sequences, one of the central elements in technological analysis. By examining reduction phases, cognitive and operational aspects of the management of lithic resources can be explored, and the technical behaviours of human groups reconstructed. This paper presents a technological and morphometric analysis of cores from the Magdalenian sequence of the Cova Gran de Santa Linya (SE Pyrenees), which ranges from 23 to 16 k cal BP. The knapping strategies suggest two types of lithic exploitation: one on nodules using semi-circumferential methods and the other on thick flakes using burin-core methods. Five knapping modalities were identified through the study of reduction sequences and the analysis of technical attributes, which highlights the technical diversity of lithic production systems. The data collected are supported by statistical analysis and reveal significant differences at the diachronic level and among the lithic assemblages. This study aims to suggest a reference model with which to characterise Magdalenian cores in technological terms. This model can broaden our understanding of the diversity of technical behaviours that appear from the beginning of LGM-b to the end of MIS 2 in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00115-x
       
  • The Late Middle Palaeolithic Occupation of Abri du Maras (Layer 1,
           Neronian, Southeast France): Integrating Lithic Analyses, ZooMS and
           Radiocarbon Dating to Reconstruct Neanderthal Hunting Behaviour

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      Abstract: Abstract The exact strategies and technologies underlying Neanderthal hunting events remain open for debate with lithic points being sparse across the European Middle Palaeolithic. An exception is the Neronian entity in southeast France, defined by ventrally retouched Soyons points. This study contextualises one of the largest Neronian assemblages, layer 1 at Abri du Maras. Our lithic analyses focussed on attributes described as indicative of projectile use or hafting to contextualise the morphometric and technological characteristics of the pointed implements at an assemblage level. We found that retouched points were made on a variety of blank types (including Levallois, laminar and discoidal flaking techniques) and ventral retouch is present across different artefact types (including points, scrapers and denticulates). Next, these lithic data were compared to similar typo-technological data recorded on a sample from the recently excavated and well-contextualised point-rich layer 4.1 of Abri du Maras (MIS-3). Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) was applied to 280 faunal remains from layer 1 and indicated significant proportions of equids, bovids, cervids and reindeer. Carnivore remains and carnivore modifications are absent, while human bone surface modifications are present across a variety of species. Five bones had sufficient collagen for radiocarbon dating but returned dates younger than expected (ca. 41–31 ka cal BP). Finally, we place Abri du Maras layer 1 in its broader regional context and discuss its relation to other Neronian assemblages and more general problematics inherent to studying material from old excavations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00113-z
       
  • Agia Marina and Peristereònas: Two New Epipalaeolithic Sites on the
           Island of Lemnos (Greece)

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      Abstract: Abstract The surveys carried out along the coasts of the island of Lemnos (Greece) have led to the discovery of new Late Epipalaeolithic sites at Agia Marina and Peristereònas. Peristereònas yielded a knapped stone assemblage that is strictly comparable with that from Ouriakos, a site located along the south-eastern coast of the same island, while the artefacts from Agia Marina are more problematic to interpret because they are probably to be attributed to a slightly different period. However, the most characteristic artefacts recovered from the sites are represented by microlithic geometrics obtained by abrupt, bipolar, or direct retouch, end scrapers, and different types of exhausted cores and technical pieces, which help us reconstruct the operational sequence employed for the manufacture of the armatures. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the interpretation of the characteristics of the Late Epipalaeolithic assemblages discovered on the island and to frame them into the general picture of the end of the Pleistocene in this part of the Aegean. The artefacts from the sites show unique characteristics, without parallels to the knapped stone assemblages of the same period so far recovered along the coasts of the Aegean Sea, the eastern Mediterranean, the Levant, and the Black Sea.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s41982-022-00118-8
       
 
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