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Damrong Journal of The Faculty of Archaeology Silpakorn University
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1686-4395
Published by Silpakorn University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: - -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Peer Review

    • Authors: - -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Editorial Team

    • Authors: - -
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Viharn Nam Taem - Viharn Phra Chao Sila of Wat Phra That Lampang Luang:
           The Changes of Naga Than and the Assumptions about the Ages of the Halls

    • Authors: Suparat Rotchaport
      Pages: 9 - 30
      Abstract: Viharn Nam Taem and Viharn Phra Chao Sila were built in the traditional Lanna style, situated on a low foundation. The viharn's foundation and walls were constructed to have two rooms stand out in front and one in the back. The viharn’s roofs were lowered in line with the gauges. There is also a wooden lid (Fa Yoi) with painted patterns corresponding to the phrases painted on the pillars and on the walls of Viharn Nam Taem, unlike the Viham of Phra Chao Sila, which employs concrete to make smooth plaster.
      Furthermore, roof decorations such as the ornamental roof point or Gabel apex, toothlike ridges on the sloping edges of a gable, and other attractive decorations, were handcrafted in the central area. The gable and decorative extension of the gable (Kong Kiw) were made entirely of concrete. Previous research indicates that these two viharas existed prior to the 24th Buddhist Era. Vihara Phra Chao Sila might have been constructed with artifacts or when the Praput viharn and the viharn Nam Taem were constructed. Viharn Nam Taem is an ancient viharn where all examples of earlier pieces of art have been restored to their original design.
      According to scholars, the Naga Than is a highly important structure that has had relatively little restoration. There are two theories on the Naga Than of Viharn Nam Taem. First, it is thought to be from the 21st Buddhist century or, second, to be no older than the 23rd Buddhist century. The Naga Than of Viham Phra Chao Sila was established at the same time as the Nam Taem Vihara. The author discovered that the Naga that appears now was not the original one but was renovated later. The Naga Than Vihara of Nam Taem were created in two periods, and are no older than the 23rd Buddhist century and the 24th Buddhist century. The Naga Than of Viharn Phra Chao Sila is clearly a work of a later generation than the one behind the Viharn Nam Taem, that is, around the end of the 23rd to the 24th Buddhist century. There were still frequent renovations until the 25th Buddhist century.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Relationship between Ayutthaya Style Pulpit Art and the Lanna Art

    • Authors: Patison Benyasuta
      Pages: 31 - 48
      Abstract: This article aims at comparing and pointing out the influence of Lanna arts towards Ayutthaya’s wooden-carved pulpits from 16th-17th centuries by focusing on remaining architectural elements and ornamental patterns. The early style of Ayutthaya’s wooden pulpits (dating around 16 – 17th century) was influenced by styles of art from Lanna states in the north of Thailand, as a result of many wars in the 16th century. During that time, the style of Ayutthaya’s pulpits was inspired by many characteristics of the Mandapa (sacred images architecture), some Prasat-styled stupas, and also involved Lanna decorative patterns for a short period of time (especially emphasized on the example from the sermon throne in Wat Kokkham and Wat Krut), and later the Ayutthaya pulpit gradually developed its own style throughout 17th and 18th centuries. Some decorative details can be observed in the appearance of the rooftop style, elements of the columns, and decorative patterns that clearly show the influence from Lanna art.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Landscape Archaeology of the Eastern Phnom Dongrek Range along the
           Thai-Cambodian Border

    • Authors: Sureeratana Bubpha
      Pages: 49 - 90
      Abstract: This study reports on an archaeological study of the relationships between humans and topography in the eastern Phnom Dongrek Range along the Thai-Cambodian border. It covers an area of ​​4,238.5 square kilometers in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand and Preah Vihear province in Cambodia. This study aims to (1) investigate the settlement hierarchy for indicating its archaeological chronology and cultural development, and (2) to study the relationships between settlement patterns, land use patterns, and their topography, which can be suggestive of the cultural patterns in the past. A total of 45 archaeological sites were discovered in the research area. Topography was an important factor affecting human patterns in the past, especially regarding settlements, subsistence patterns, beliefs, and natural resources affecting the technological patterns in the construction of sacred places. Use of the area was distributed according to three different terrains: the mountain slopes and the crest areas in Ubon Ratchathani Province, and the lowlands in Preah Vihear Province. A settlement hierarchy was discovered spanning the period from Iron Age Prehistory and the ancient Khmer and Lan Xang periods. Throughout the survey area, in terms of density, the archaeological sites located along slopes is the largest, with evidence from the Iron Age and the ancient Khmer and Lan Xang periods, while the least distribution of archaeological sites were found on the crests, with no Lan Xang era sites. Many ancient Khmer temple sites were found in the lowlands in Preah Vihear Province. As expected, the multitude of these Khmer sanctuary sites implies that ancient communities grew in number during the prosperity of the Khmer Empire and the spread of political and cultural significance from the lowlands in the southern part of the Phnom Dongrek Range entering the territory of Thailand through various mountain passes since the 15th century onwards. Many of these archaeological sites had a wide range of functions as both living spaces and sacred areas. Additionally, some sites are also used as activity areas or production sites.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Khru Pakam Myth: The Tales of the Origination of Things and Tamra

    • Authors: Warisara Grotintakom
      Pages: 91 - 114
      Abstract: This purpose of this article is to study the content appearing in Khru Pakam myths, beginning by surveying 60 ancient original manuscripts in the Tamra Khotchakam (Elephants Studies) section of the National Library. A manuscript containing a Khru Pakam myth was found, appearing in the book named Tamra Khotchakam (document number 109, sheaf 12). After that, the ancient Thai language was transliterated to current Thai language, and then the origins or provenances were studied as they appeared in the ancient manuscript, including connections to the Tamra Phruetthebat and 20 Avatars of Vishnu myths. It was found that the origins or provenances of the Procreating Khru Pakam myth could be categorized under 4 origins: 1) the origin of the procreation of Ekathanta elephant 2) the origin of procreation of sacred things 3) the origin of the Phruetthibat ceremony 4) the origin of all 4 Khru Pakams. In addition, the origin can connect to Tamra Phruetthibat which illustrates how to build the place for Phruetthibat ceremony and how to look for the location to build it too. Moreover, the myth of Khru Pakams origin is based on the 20 Avatars of Vishnu myth of Brahmin. It indicates that Khru Pakam myth which led to Tamra Phruetthibat was truly influenced by belief in Hinduism.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Mon Funeral Memorial Books: The Ethnic Consciousness of the Deceased
           and the Selected Preservation of Mon History

    • Authors: Pakawadee Thongchompunuch
      Pages: 115 - 140
      Abstract: This article aims to explain the Mon ethnic consciousness and the selected preservation of Mon history governing the perception of the past of the Mon people in Thailand through the analysis of the funeral books published as the memorials for the passed away people. The analysis reveals that the descendants of the Mon people who fled from the oppression of the Myanmar army and emigrated to Thailand During the Thonburi regime, B.E. 2317, are currently Thai citizens with Mon ethnicity. These people are living in a multicultural society. Nevertheless, they have preserved their Mon ethnic identity. The funeral memorial books present not only a personal background and memorial statements, but also the story of the ethnic consciousness of the deceased persons and how they have engaged in preserving Mon culture and identity. It is generally stated that the departed person are the descendants of Mon ancestors and that they have participated in social movements to conserve Mon culture. In addition, the contents also address the relationships between Mon people and the Mon state in Myanmar. Apart from this, the memorial books also frequently present the main history that governs the perception of the past for Mon people so as to pass on national identity to younger generations. Therefore, the funeral memorial books are not just the symbol of mourning, they are also a space for presenting the Mon ethnic consciousness and conserving Mon history. Thus, these books are a useful source of reference for Mon studies in Thailand.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Learning and Working of Thai Multinational Corporation Personnel in

    • Authors: Dr. Renu Muenjanchoey
      Pages: 141 - 164
      Abstract: This article aims to analyze learning and working of personnel in Thai multinational corporations investing in Myanmar, and is the result of a research study on the project “Managing Cultural Diversity in the Multinational Corporations: Case Studies of Burmese Labors’ Working Culture in the Thai Companies in Myanmar”. The results of the analysis revealed that learning through working is a means of acquiring knowledge. Experience-based understanding is used to reach the desired outcomes of working effectively. It is a learning culture that has emerged from the usual convention and evolved through different eras to define its meaning. “Modern learning” processes and methods are separated from the old style of learning in the education system, and are a form of learning that produces people ready to work according to the needs of today's society. Learning according to the original definition, or “folk learning,” still exists in some areas, such as Myanmar, where there is too little modern learning management to meet the needs of society. When multinational corporations come to invest, they have to recruit local personnel with local learning to do the work. Some corporations have to prepare plans to promote learning and work for their personnel so that they can continue to operate. But some places don't have such a plan, causing problems for work. For example, it is not possible to deliver technology to the Myanmar people as the corporations have promised with the government. The analysis suggested that in this situation, multinational corporations should focus on traditional learning by organizing educational activities. Knowledge of working partners for personnel in the corporation should be systematic, so that such processes and methods of learning can create learning and working for personnel according to their needs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Appearance of Identity, Body, and Social Territory of Kathoey In
           Southeast Asia (1927-1973)

    • Authors: Wacharawuth Suesat, Dr. Patcharin Sirasoonthorn, Dr. Thanida Boonwanno
      Pages: 165 - 204
      Abstract: This article aims to analyze the appearance of identity, body, and social territory of Kathoey individuals in Southeast Asia during the period from 1927-1973 by applying documentary research, historical documents, and related academic documents in Thai, English, Tai Yuan, and Lao. The study identified the long existence of Kathoey. First, the appearance of identities and bodies of individuals is observed in historical documents related to Buddhist legends, ancient laws, newspapers, and black and white film. Secondly, the social territory of Kathoey individuals was found in newspaper documents reflecting lifestyle, occupations, and the use of the public spaces.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Deconstruction of Phra Sri An Discourse in the Korean Film “Svaha:
           The Sixth Finger”

    • Authors: Dr. Rangsan Naiprom
      Pages: 205 - 238
      Abstract: The objective of this article is to study the deconstruction of Phra Sri An discourse in the Korean film “Svaha: The Sixth Finger”. The study found that, according to the dominant discourse, Phra Sri An would have a magnificent male body with the great dragon as his insignia, and be a symbol of light and a protective Father. This view was dismantled by an alternative discourse, and the screenplay was composed with a new meaning. According to this discourse, Phra Sri An is a female who was born via a bizarre event with an ugly body, accepted as the symbol of darkness with a snake as her guardian, and a protective Mother who comforts her children to do right and become wise. Phra Sri An discourses are dynamic and are interestingly created and reconstructed to have a cultural and political meaning through modern media.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • Rishis in Rammakian by King Rama I

    • Authors: Dr. Nipat Yamdate, Dr. Chirapat Prapandvidya
      Pages: 239 - 270
      Abstract: This article aimed to study the dominant characteristics, roles and some observation of the character creation of Rishis in the drama Rammakian by King Rama I. The results found that the dominant characteristics of Rishis are divided into 5 characteristics: (1) benevolent, (2) having profound knowledge of sciences and arts, (3) having power, (4) having intuition, and (5) having perseverance in religious routine. Rishis in the story have 7 roles: (1) protector, (2) consultant, (3) communicating with gods, (4) mediator, (5)creators of various stories, (6) producers of Rasa in literature, and (7) teaching new ideas. There are four interesting aspects to Rishis character creation: (1) Rishis are a senior person like an honorable relative, (2) Indian seers were adapted into Thai own Rishis (3) The Rishi in literature is related to the Rishi in urban legends (4) Rishis who were related to Rāvaṇa were gullible. This study contributes to the understanding of the genius of the Thai poets who created the dominant characteristics and roles of the Rishis in the drama Rammakian of King Rama I.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • A Historical Study of the Word /rian/

    • Authors: Sakdithach Chamamahutthana, Dr. Methawee Yuttapongtada, Dr. Kowit Pimpuang
      Pages: 271 - 296
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze functions, meanings and evolution of the word /rian/ in writings from the Sukhothai period to the present (BE 2562). It is found that the word /rian/ has 6 functions: 1. transitive verb used since the Sukhothai period, 2. intransitive verb used since the Ayutthaya-Thonburi period, 3. part of compound noun, and 4. base of abstract noun used since the reigns of King Rama I to King Rama III, 5. part of compound adjective used since the reigns of King Rama IV to VI, 6. politeness marker used since the reigns of King Rama VII to the present (BE 2562). Semantically, the word /rian/ has 2 meanings: 1. “to study” and 2. “to tell.” This evolution of the word /rian/ clearly started in the reigns of King Rama IV to King Rama VI, and it was influenced by the prototype meaning of the word /rian/, Thai ancestors’ lifestyle and culture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • บทปริทรรศน์หนังสือ
           A World View of Bioculturally Modified Teeth

    • Authors: Dr. Naruphol Wangthongchaicharoen
      Pages: 297 - 308
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
  • บทปริทรรศน์หนังสือ

    • Authors: Sayan Praicharnjhit
      Pages: 309 - 319
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
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