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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
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Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2514-8362
Published by Ubiquity Press Limited Homepage  [40 journals]
  • FAIRer Data through Digital Recording: The FAIMS Mobile Experience

    • Abstract: Critical data and metadata must be captured or created in the field, or shortly thereafter, to avoid loss. For the past 10 years, the Field Acquired Information Management Systems (FAIMS) project has developed and operated a customisable field data capture platform. Over time, we built features and approaches that incorporated the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles into born-digital datasets created during fieldwork. This paper synthesises our experience helping more than 40 projects adapt the FAIMS platform to nearly 70 research workflows in archaeology and other fieldwork domains. We review what elements of the FAIR Data Principles FAIMS was able to build into our software, how users received these capabilities, and what sociotechnical challenges impeded creation of FAIRer field data. Based on our experience, we argue that field data capture software can facilitate the production of FAIRer data, making those data much more Findable and Reusable, and somewhat more Accessible and Interoperable. Any such improvements, however, depend upon (1) making FAIR-data features an integral part of field data collection systems, minimising the burden imposed on researchers, and (2) researchers’ willingness to spend time and resources implementing FAIR Data Principles that do not provide immediate benefits to their research. Published on 2022-11-10 12:19:15
       
  • Effectiveness of 2020 Airborne Lidar for Identifying Archaeological Sites
           and Features on GuĂ„han (Guam)

    • Abstract: Guåhan (Guam), part of the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific, has an archaeological record spanning almost four millennia. In this seminal academic paper on the use of lidar for archaeological investigation on Guåhan, we determined which known sites can be visually detected to explore the effectiveness of lidar in this context. Several archaeological site types and features from the Latte, Spanish, and Modern Periods were examined using high-resolution 2020 airborne lidar. We generated the most commonly used digital elevation models (DEMs), which are digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital surface models (DSMs), and visualised them as a hillshade. Lidar proved effective for identifying all the Modern Period sites and most of the Latte and Spanish Period sites, although some features remained obscure. Major challenges and limitations of using lidar on Guåhan were vegetation, site size, and visual ambiguities. While this study used conventional lidar derivatives, it exposed the potential to find more archaeological sites by applying more complex lidar processing techniques in the future. The benefits of lidar are of great interest to the local community, especially the Indigenous CHamoru, interested in non-destructive ways to assist their cultural heritage management. Published on 2022-11-09 12:30:32
       
  • The Mernda VR Project: The Creation of a VR Reconstruction of an
           Australian Heritage Site

    • Abstract: The Mernda VR Project is an initiative exploring the possible applications of hypothetical digital reconstructions of rural archaeological sites, with an aim to investigate the efficacy of virtual reality as a means of fostering engagement and interest in rural archaeology. Expanding on existing work into digital reconstructions of heritage, the Mernda VR Project investigates whether reconstructions of heritage sites may be suited to smaller scale rural archaeology, in addition to reconstructions of grander, more well-known, and celebrated heritage sites. While reconstructions of renowned heritage sites certainly have their place in engaging the public with heritage, rural archaeological heritage is at a greater risk of destruction resulting from development, or simply being overlooked and forgotten in the public imagination. As such, these sites are in greater need of innovative representations and outreach programs for their cultural merit to be understood and remembered. The Mernda VR Project used physically based rendering (PBR) to create a life-like digital environment reconstructing a mid-19th century cottage and flour mill in Mernda, Victoria, and imported the 360 degree rendered images into the virtual tour software 3DVista for development into an interactive educational experience. The experience is planned for display in local schools to assess the practicability and effectiveness of such displays for increased engagement, interest, and comprehension compared with more traditional educational displays. This article is intended as a technical guide for the creation of 3D modelled archaeological displays using polygonal modelling and PBR textures and structure from motion photogrammetry, and acts as a companion piece to Keep (in press) which provides further details on the historical context of the reconstructed site. Published on 2022-11-09 12:27:16
       
  • After the Revolution: A Review of 3D Modelling as a Tool for Stone
           Artefact Analysis

    • Abstract: With over 200 peer-reviewed papers published over the last 20 years, 3D modelling is no longer a gimmick but an established and increasingly common analytical tool for stone artefact analysis. Laser and structured light scanning, photogrammetry, and CT scanning have all been used to model stone artefacts. These have been combined with a variety of different analytical approaches, from geometric morphometrics to custom reduction indices to digital elevation maps. 3D lithic analyses are increasingly global in scope and studies aim to address an ever-broadening breadth of research topics ranging from testing the functional efficiency of artefacts to assessing the cognitive capabilities of hominid populations. While the impact of the computational revolution on lithic analysis has been reviewed, the impact of 3D modelling on lithic analysis has yet to be comprehensively assessed. This paper presents a review of how 3D modelling in particular has impacted the field of stone artefact analysis. It combines a quantitative bibliometric analysis with a qualitative review to assess just how “revolutionary” 3D modelling has been for lithic analysis. It explores trends in the use of 3D modelling in stone artefact analysis, its impact on the wider lithic analysis field, and methodological, regional and theoretical gaps which future research projects could explore. Published on 2022-11-04 10:59:20
       
  • Exploratory GIS: Modelling Past Land Use and Occupancy with Functional
           Connectivity, Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area, NSW, Australia

    • Abstract: Exploratory GIS models present multiple different conceptual versions of space. This article focusses on the landscape level pathways between areas defined as suitable for land use and occupancy within the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area (WLRWHA), New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Models of the potential connections between ecologically significant land use patches and key hydrology provide iterative networks of functional connectivity, highlighting salient pathways of past land use and occupancy of Country. The shape of the connections between places is important to understanding Country from the inside. Outputs from these network models are a powerful visualisation tool because they display areas where contact with the 19thc Europeans, particularly through fence construction and ground water appropriation, caused greater levels of exploitation and damage than currently recognised. Concomitantly, the benefit of situating these network techniques within an exploratory framework cannot be understated. The iterative nature of the exploratory design allows for multiple presentations of the connectivity between the spaces within the WLRWHA and therefore multiple ways of knowing and seeing space. Modelling the potential pathways between suitable patches opens the door to discussions about the diverse possible corridors of activity within pre-European settlement of Country and the corollary discussion of how European settlement substantially impacted upon these connections and continues to impact on a living Country. Published on 2022-11-03 10:46:52
       
  • SAGAscape: Simulating Resource Exploitation Strategies in Iron Age to
           Hellenistic Communities in Southwest Anatolia

    • Abstract: In this paper, we present SAGAscape, an agent-based model of resource exploitation and subsistence strategies to explore the human impact of hilltop settlements on the natural environment in the study area of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey) during the Iron Age to Hellenistic period. Using realistic GIS data and empirical settlement patterns as input, we simulate communities with resource exploitation strategies for three main resources: food, wood and clay. The model produces results consistent with empirical observations by simulating anthropogenic zones of human impact embedded in a forest matrix. General patterns of sustainability for most communities under most model settings can be observed. Under certain high demand settings, however, trade-offs between resource exploitation strategies start to emerge, resulting in disruption of resource stocks in certain communities. The SAGAscape model provides a suitable baseline for the assessment of socio-ecological sustainability in subsistence and resource exploitation of local communities. Through this work, we aim to advance the usage of computational modelling and simulations in Classical and Anatolian archaeology. Published on 2022-11-02 11:00:15
       
  • Experimental Improvements to the Volume Ratio and Quantifying Movement
           Using Stone Artefact Analysis

    • Abstract: Many conceptual frameworks of archaeological assemblages have assumed that stone artefact assemblages include all products of manufacture, use, and discard, although recent studies have indicated this is not always the case. The volume ratio is a method that examines the potential for the removal or addition of stone artefacts to an assemblage after manufacture. As humans transport material, and the movement of material effects the composition of assemblages, the alteration of an assemblage through the addition or removal of material can act as a proxy for mobility. This research uses three experimental assemblages to test the effect that different methods of volume quantification and reconstruction have on the calculation of the volume ratio. Results suggest observed assemblage volume is accurately and efficiently calculated using a standardised density of 2.46 g/cm3, while the modelled assemblage volume is relatively accurately calculated using either the Volumetric Reconstruction Method (VRM) or the Flake Volumetric Reconstruction Method (FVRM) with the potential for future research to further improve this methodology. Published on 2022-10-13 09:57:42
       
  • Examining Gender Disparities in Computational Archaeology Publications: A
           Case Study in the Journal of Computational Applications in Archaeology and
           the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology
           Conference Proceedings

    • Abstract: Since the 1970s, archaeologists have begun acknowledging the gender disparities that have long existed within the field of archaeology. This has become especially evident within academic publishing over the past decade as archaeologists have started digging deeper into publishing trends within the field. Following this trend, the present research examines gendered differences in the subfield of Computational Archaeology through the analysis of data from publications in the Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology (JCAA) and the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA) conference proceedings, both of which focus on digital and computational archaeological methods. The results of this study demonstrate that women represent only 25 percent of first authors for the JCAA and 40 percent of first authors for the CAA proceedings. Given these discrepancies, more research is needed to understand why these discrepancies exist and whether parallel differences are present within other publishing outlets, in funding for computational archaeology projects, and within academic hiring. Published on 2022-09-23 11:52:01
       
  • A New Framework for Quantifying Prehistoric Grave Wealth

    • Abstract: Quantifying wealth in prehistoric graves is a long-standing unresolved issue. Previous approaches have focused on only one or a few aspects of grave wealth or grave good value, e.g. scarcity, or total number of object types (TOT), thus neglecting other value aspects, or, if combining value parameters, not in a reproducible or transparent way which makes application or comparison with other cases difficult. This study presents a new framework, QuantWealth, for combining different aspects of grave good value such as manufacturing time and skill, case-specific scarcity, prestige, and raw material distance, as well as estimated meat consumption from animal bones, all equally weighted and, in this study, used to perform PCA and calculate a Gini index. This Gini index can then be combined with Gini indices from more general grave wealth measures, including TOT and grave pit depth to form a more balanced Gini index of overall grave wealth. All of these parameters are calculated in a flexible and semi-automated framework based on experimental and prehistoric crafts reference data, which can be continuously updated and fine-tuned, flexibly integrates the respective chaînes opératoires, and which is openly available. As a case study, QuantWealth was applied to a dataset of 81 graves with preserved skeletal remains from 46 sites of the Corded Ware Culture (CWC) in Moravia, Czech Republic. PCA analysis of the grave good measures on these data along with age and sex/gender determination shows that males tend to be overall richer in grave goods than females, that juveniles have the highest meat expenditure, and that young adults rarely have visible meat expenditure. Published on 2022-09-13 11:19:33
       
  • Depth and Dimension: Exploring the Problems and Potential of
           Photogrammetric Models for Ancient Coins

    • Abstract: In numismatic collections, coins are typically documented and studied using 2D images of their obverse and reverse. While two photographs, under the correct lighting, provide adequate information for basic research, detailed numismatic study has generally required the physical handling of the items to capture the three-dimensional aspects of the coin. Recent advances in photogrammetry and digitisation provide new opportunities for numismatic research. Digitised, 3D models of ancient coins allow researchers and students to interact with these coins remotely, providing opportunities to study coins from collections that would otherwise be difficult to access. Ancient coins, however, can be challenging to digitise due to their small size, irregular shape, and reflectance. This study will explore and outline a methodology for creating 3D models of ancient coins that balances both expediency with quality. Three Roman Republican coins from the University of Auckland’s numismatic collection were digitised using photogrammetric methods to create 3D digital models for student use. Expedient capture relied primarily on the quality of the photogrammetry setup, as well as the use of macrophotography, to capture the detail of each coin effectively. While the digital models took longer to produce than traditional 2D images, it was possible to create high-quality digital 3D model coins in a relatively expedient manner. The balance between speed and increased data opens the door for a new era in numismatic cataloguing and qualitative research opportunities. Published on 2022-09-01 11:01:43
       
 
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