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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
Showing 201 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lucentum : Anales de la Universidad de Alicante. Prehistoria, Arqueología e Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mythos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Offa's Dyke Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Otium : Archeologia e Cultura del Mondo Antico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
PHILIA. International Journal of Ancient Mediterranean Studies     Open Access  
Portugalia : Revista de Arqueologia do Departamento de Ciências e Técnicas do Património da FLUP     Open Access  
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Primitive Tider     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Pyrenae     Open Access  
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Queensland Archaeological Research     Open Access  
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Restauro Archeologico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
REUDAR : European Journal of Roman Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Arqueologia Pública     Open Access  
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Historia Antigua Oriental     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revista Otarq : Otras arqueologías     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ROMVLA     Open Access  
SAGVNTVM Extra     Open Access  
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Technology of Archaeological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SCIRES-IT : SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology     Open Access  
Scottish Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Scripta Ethnologica     Open Access  
Semitica : Revue publiée par l'Institut d'études sémitiques du Collège de France     Full-text available via subscription  
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southeastern Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SPAFA Journal     Open Access  
SPAL : Revista de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Studia Celtica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity and Classics     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Sylloge epigraphica Barcinonensis : SEBarc     Open Access  
Tel Aviv : Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Journal of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
The Midden     Open Access  
Theoretical Roman Archaeology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Time and Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Trabajos de Prehistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transfers     Full-text available via subscription  
Veleia     Open Access  
Viking : Norsk arkeologisk årbok     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Virtual Archaeology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zephyrvs     Open Access  
Δελτίον Χριστιανικής Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2450-3177 - ISSN (Online) 2450-3177
Published by Adam Mickiewicz University Homepage  [58 journals]
  • About Professor Ilona Czamańska

    • Authors: Zdzisław Pentek
      Pages: 7 - 24
      Abstract: Occasional text devoted to professor Ilona Czamańska, on the occasion of the Her 70th birthday anniversary. The autor discusses the scentific achievements of the Jubilarian the field of her research in the area of the Balcan Peninsula.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.1
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Flavius Patricius, consul for the year 500

    • Authors: Mirosław Leszka
      Pages: 25 - 42
      Abstract: This article is devoted to Flavius Patricius, consul for the year 500. For several years he was a close associate of the emperor Anastasius, who entrusted him with important tasks in the military, civil and religious spheres, which indicated that he placed his confidence and esteem in him. During the election of the ruler in July 518, it was probably him who was proclaimed emperor by the guards subordinate to Celer, magister officiorum. This appointment was thwarted by the subordinates of Justin, the comes excubitorum. At the start of the reign of Justin I (late 518, early 519), after intervening in Edessa against the local bishop Paul, Patricius fell out of favour, was deprived of his property and sentenced to exile. After this event he disappears from the sources.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.2
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Critobulus of Imbros: the historian of perished world

    • Authors: Anna Kotłowska
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: The aim of paper is to present wrtitings composed by Critobulus of Imbros, together which some remarks, especially from historiosophical point of view. For him the most important thing was to explain halosis in terms of traditional Byzantine historiosophy.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.3
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The Abbasid Revolution and its aftermath in the chronicle of Theophanes
           the Confessor. Part one

    • Authors: Błażej Cecota
      Pages: 55 - 69
      Abstract: This article attempts to interpret the messages of Theophanes the Confessor about the seizure of power in the Muslim caliphate by the Abbasid dynasty. The Byzantine studies debate of the last decades about Chronography was dominated by the dispute over the so-called eastern sources of information contained in the Byzantine chronicle. There were numerous suggestions, most notably about Teophilus of Edessa and alleged Arab sources. In view of this very important discussion, however, the issue of the work that Theophanes the Confessor himself (or the team of people who worked with him and George Syncellus in the context of the selection of materials) put into the creation of this chronicle disappears. What elements of the narrative did he want to emphasize, how did he conduct the narrative, what he wanted to suggest to his readers. According to the author of this text, a good example of the selection work performed by Theophanes are those elements of the narrative that concern the rise and takeover of power by the Abbasids. In the first part of this article, I dealt with the circumstances of the Abbasid seizure of power, which was highlighted by the Byzantine chronicler. Theophanes was certainly not an "supporter" of the Umayyads, as seen especially in the description of Marwan's reign, but he is negative about how the Abbasids seized power - considering their legitimacy questionable, presenting them as the people who led to the robberies and murders by the lower classes . I dealt with these issues, as well as some elements related to possible religious interpretations, in the first part of the work, presented here. In the second, I will present elements of Theophanes' narrative, which seem to suggest that with the seizure of power by the Abbasids he saw a certain collapse of the Muslim state.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.4
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Brašov charter of Ivan Sracimir: a small document of great importance

    • Authors: Mariola Walczak-Mikołajczakowa
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: The so-called Brašov charter is a document that came out of the chancellery of the last Bulgarian ruler, Ivan Sracimir, at the end of the 14th century. This small text of only 7 lines is an example of a medieval international agreement based on Byzantine models. In it, the Tsar grants tax exemption to the merchants of Brasov, gives them trading freedoms and guarantees his protection. Despite its modest size, Ivan Sracimir’s charter has been the subject of heated discussions among scientists of various fields for years. The article reviews the findings so far on the date of its creation, the meaning of the content it contains, the graphics used, and most importantly the language. It is also the first time that the content of Brasov charter has been translated into Polish.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.5
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • On Empresses of the Latin Empire (1204–1261). Yolanda of Flanders

    • Authors: Zdzisław Pentek
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: The article is the third part of the series ‘On Empresses of the Latin Empire (1204–1261)’. The article is the second part of the series On Empresses of the Latin Empire (1204–1261). This one is dedicated to Yolanda of Flanders, the second wife of Peter II of Courteney. Yolanda became empress in 1217, lost her husband the same year, and probably gave birth to Baldwin in 1218. It did not play any significant role in the history of the Latin Empire.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.6
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Hungarians and the Turkic people before Ottomans

    • Authors: Ryszard Grzesik
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: The Finno-Ugric Hungarians made contact with people from the Turkish language group not later as in present-day Bashkiria. It was their original homeland, which was mentioned as the Great or Eastern Hungary by the medieval chroniclers. The Turkic people lived on the Great Steppe in that time, therefore the name of the Turks was a synonym of the nomads. However, in the Byzantine sources it were the Hungarians who were called The Turks. They settled in the region of the Azov Sea together with a branch of the Bulgarian Onogurs, noted in the Arabian sources as s.k.l, and later known as the Szeklers. They got under the political dependency of the Khazars. The Slavic name of the Hungarians *Ągri, from which the Latin name of the Hungari and the Polish Węgrzy was derived, descended from the name of the Onogurs. It seems that the Hungarian tribal commonwealth, which originally wandered to the Maeotidian Steppes and afterwards migrated to the Carpathian Basin, was multiethnical, with great participation of the Turkic population (such as the Szeklers and the Kabars). This people was Magyarized, but left elements of the own historical consciousness to the Hungarians, such as the memory of Attila, which was the basis of the eruditional story of the Hunnic-Hungarian identity by Simon of Kéza. Nevertheless, the Hungarian state preserved its multiethnical character, which generated problems only in the 19th century, a period of growth of the modern nationalisms, which resulted in the disintegration of the state in 1918.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.7
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Legal substratum and social conditions of dissolution of marriage in
           Moldavia: comparative study (14th–17th centuries)

    • Authors: Lilia Zabolotnaia
      Pages: 101 - 116
      Abstract: The main objective of the study is to show the specifics and features of the social phenomenon of divorce in medieval Moldavia. Divorce was known in all civilizations, however, in the context of European history, both common and specific features were observed in the Principality of Moldavia. The study of documentary historical, legal and act material of the era, notes and information of Catholic missionaries shows that in the Principality of Moldavia not only men, but also women had the right to divorce and remarry. Moldavian women could and had the right to initiate a divorce.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.8
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Selected aspects of the economic activity of the inhabitants of Dubrovnik
           in the lands occupied by the Turks in the second half of the 15th and the
           beginning of the 16th century

    • Authors: Piotr Wróbel
      Pages: 117 - 130
      Abstract: Despite the increasing threat from the Turks and the chaos they brought to the Balkans, the first half of the 15th century was a period of economic boom in the Dubrovnik Republic. Thanks to skilful diplomacy and the activity of Dubrovnik merchants, the city’s trade flourished. As Turkish conquests in the Balkans progressed, the ability of the people of Dubrovnik to function in the new conditions became a key issue. The author analyzed selected aspects of the economic activity of the people of Dubrovnik in the territories occupied by the Turks in the second half of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The study considers their involvement in the extraction and trade of minerals (mainly silver and lead), and their activity in the trade of salt and forest, field and stall goods. The collected material shows that the Turkish invasion put the Dubrovnik merchants in a difficult situation. Trade in Bulgaria collapsed temporarily. In Bosnia and Serbia, the crisis first affected the mining and trade of silver, and then lead. However, even in the most difficult moment, the Ragusans were able to maintain the exchange of other goods with lands in the Bosnian and Serbian hinterlands. They also managed to defend their salt trade and skillfully reorganize the grain trade. As shown by the example of the Bulgarian lands, they were even able to regain previously lost positions under changed conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.9
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • From the history of Petru Rareș fight for Transylvania

    • Authors: Katarzyna Niemczyk-Wiśniewska
      Pages: 131 - 144
      Abstract: The aim of the paper is to talk over the fight for Transylvania. The main person who was interested in conquering this territory was the ruler of Moldova Petru Rares. After battle of Mohacs, where the king of Hungary — Ludwik Jagiellon died — the war between Ferdinand Habsburg and Johannes Zapolya and Suleyman the Great began. And Transylvania was in the middle of this conflict. Petru Rares wanted to make use of this situation and conquer this territory.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.10
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Political interests and family affairs in the correspondence of Teophila
           née Leszczyńska Wiśniowiecka (1680–1757)

    • Authors: Agnieszka Jakuboszczak, Bernadetta Manyś
      Pages: 145 - 168
      Abstract: Teofila (1680-1757) belongs to the group of active magnates living in the first half of the 18th century which, however, remains less. The preserved correspondence makes it possible to analyze her activities in the political and family fields. Her letters are therefore a valuable source of knowledge about the everyday life of her relatives and about the backstage of political events in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.11
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Economic and social consequences of the Serbo-Turkish war 1876–1878
           for Kingdom of Serbia

    • Authors: Miroslaw Dymarski
      Pages: 169 - 182
      Abstract: The article is concerned with the analysis of economic costs and social consequences of the Serbo-Turkish war of 1876–1878, both in its direct aftermath and for the situation in the Kingdom of Serbia in the long term. The immediate financial consequences of the war with Turkey are analyzed and the author also considers the costs of war reparations, requisitions, supporting war refugees who had fled to Serbia, and compensations for Muslim owners for the land and real estate they lost as a result of the incorporation of Sanjak of Niš and part of Sanjak of Pirot. The costs of the war reflected the Serbian state’s financial politics having been harnessed to realize a singular objective: political expansion into the territories historically linked to Serbia as an integral part of the process of building the Serbian nation-state.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.12
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • First Serbian cookbooks: the idea of modernisation and europeisation of
           Serbian culture in the 19th and early 20th century

    • Authors: Tadeusz Czekalski
      Pages: 183 - 198
      Abstract: The article discusses the emergence and specific character of the first cookbooks published in the 19th century and early 20th century in the Serbian language and their role in the process of establishing Serbian culinary culture. The first attempts to codify Serbian culinary culture are shown against the background of the development of cookbooks on the Balkan Peninsula in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The works of Jerotej Draganović, Katarina Popović Midžina, as well as Spasenija Pata Marković’s culinary instructions published in the Belgrade press were part of the project of modernisation and westernization of Serbian society, which had been implemented since the end of the 19th century and which also included daily diet and organization of social life.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.13
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Bulgarian-Romanian relations in the years 1912–1913 (on the base of
           Bulgarian, German and Austro-Hungarian diplomatic sources)

    • Authors: Jarosław Rubacha
      Pages: 199 - 212
      Abstract: Bulgarian-Romanian relations in the years 1912–1913 (on the base of Bulgarian, German and Austro-Hungarian diplomatic sources). The tensions in Bulgarian-Romanian relations, which had lasted for over thirty years, reached their peak in 1912–1913, and the prospect of Bulgaria breaching the status quo in the Balkans prompted Romania to ask for new security guarantees and territorial compensation. However, the negotiations between Bucharest and Sofia showed significant divergences in the positions of the parties regarding the modification of the Dobruja border, which even the pressure of the great powers could not offset. Therefore, Romania declared war on Bulgaria, but the modification of the border in Dobruja described in the Treaty of Bucharest of 1913 did not restore good relations between neighbouring countries.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.14
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Yugoslavia and the Balkan unity, 1925–1930

    • Authors: Srđan Mićić
      Pages: 213 - 238
      Abstract: This paper analyzes policies of the Yugoslav foreign ministers Momčilo Ninčić and Vojislav Marinković towards the ideas of the Balkan unity. Not only were both of them prominent political figures, but also economists and in several mandates ministers of finance, national economy, trade (and industry) and/or construction. Therefore the aim is to analyze their views on the political unification and economic co-operation between the Balkan states, and factors that provided opportunities or stood as constraints to the implementation of their plans. Chronologically, the paper covers the period from the beginning of the Locarno period in the Balkans to the beginning of the Balkan Conferences. The paper is primarily based on the Yugoslav and Bulgarian archival sources, domestic and foreign published sources, and scientific literature.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.15
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The dispute between Romania and Ukraine over the deepwater Danube–Black
           Sea shipping route in the light of the Espoo Convention

    • Authors: Agnieszka Kastory
      Pages: 239 - 252
      Abstract: Now the Danube Delta is located on the territory of Ukraine and Romania. In 2002 Ukraine prepared the project of the Danube–Black See deep waterway, which was situated on the arm of Kilia, and one of its branches — Bystre Canal. There were two phases of this project, and each one of them required a separate administrative procedure. Ukraine informed Romania about this project in 2002, and provided an opinion on its impact on the environment in 2004. It was the Espoo Convention violation. Romania launched an investigation procedure against Ukraine. Her compliant was found to be justified. Meeting of the Parties of Espoo Convention took several decisions against Ukraine. The first ordered Ukraine do adapt the provisions to Espoo Convention and to stop work until it was complied with them. Ukraine took advantage of the two phases of project and suspended the second phase, while working on the first one. Subsequent Meetings of the Parties to Espoo Convention noted the half-heartedness and slowness of Ukraine’s action. As a result Ukraine’s work on Danube delta continues to be monitored.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.16
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Chinese activity in the Balkans in the 21st century and its implications

    • Authors: Danuta Gibas-Krzak
      Pages: 253 - 267
      Abstract: Chinese activity in the Balkans in the 21st century and its implications. The paper aims to present how China’s multi-sectoral engagement in the Balkans is expressed as well as to show its significance for the development of this region. The Balkans are important for powerful players, due to their geopolitical and geostrategic location at the crossroads of communication routes between continents. China strongly influences the economic sphere of the countries on the Peninsula and uses the tools of public diplomacy to reduce the influence of other important players: the EU, Russia and the United States in the region. The author hypothesizes that China, like the United States at the end of the 20th century, tries to build a sphere of its influence on the Balkan Peninsula in the era of globalization. The Balkans could be the “gateway” to further Chinese expansion in Europe.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.17
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The state in evaluation of the European Union. The example of Bosnia and

    • Authors: Ewa Bujwid-Kurek
      Pages: 269 - 280
      Abstract: The main research goal of the article is the answer to the question — what is the condition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the assessment of the European Union. Therefore the European Parliament Resolution of 13 February 2019 on the Commission report for 2018 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is currently the most up-to-date document on this issue, has It should be noted that systematically, every year, a country which aspires to EU membership is subjected to such an assessment. From here, we learn what problems stand in the way of EU membership. Any country that aspires to join the EU, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, must meet certain conditions in accordance with the Copenhagen Criteria, which were adopted by the EU in 1993 in Copenhagen. Particular attention is paid to the state of democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and freedoms (discrimination), corruption, ethnic relations etc. In the assessment of the analyzed European Parliament Resolution, numerous reservations are expressed regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina. In general, it can be said that the country is still struggling with many problems that prevent entry into the EU and is seen as still not fully prepared because it faces many challenges. The article was created using the research method: cade study and analysis of primary sources.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.18
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Foreign policy of Serbia after the breakup of Yugoslavia: the search for
           allies (sketch of the problem)

    • Authors: Wojciech Szczepański
      Pages: 281 - 295
      Abstract: The aim of the article is to characterize generally main Serbian geopolitical strategies since the collapse of socialist Yugoslavia. In the changing global conditions, transforming from a Cold War-bipolar, into a multipolar order, Serbia has developed a concept of functioning in international politics and economy on four pillars: the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Russia and China. However, the Serbian elites are divided into two camps: pro-Western and pro-Russian. The advantage of the pro-Russian option, which has been visible for over a decade, is based on historical and cultural sentiments and the experience of hostility from the West, manifested during the Kosovo crisis period. However, in 2022, as a result of the military aggression of Russia against Ukraine, a gradual weakening of Serbian-Russian ties is possible in order to strengthen the position of Serbia on its way towards EU. The article is merely an introduction to main motives influencing Serbian foreign policy. It also notifies the role for Serbia of Turkey, China and other Asian countries.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.19
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The language biography in the socio-political process. The example of
           Polish woman form the Republic of Moldova

    • Authors: Helena Krasowska
      Pages: 297 - 311
      Abstract: The language biography in the socio-political process: The example of Polish woman from the Republic of Moldova. The aim of this article is to show what sociolinguistic factors influence the shaping of an individual’s multilingualism and what is the correlation between the languages used in the historical and social context. Factors influencing the multilingualism of an individual depend on the place of birth (father’s language, mother’s language), place of residence (village, city, number of speakers in a given language), the status and prestige of the language (the language of the state administration, the language of a minority group), the state’s language policy (constant, variable). The socio-political situation of the Republic of Moldova was outlined in order to understand the specific linguistic case of Poland living in Chisinau and her life in languages, and to show the role of an individual’s language in the context of socio-political changes in Moldova. Various social, political and economic factors influenced the multilingualism of the Polish woman from Chisinau. Over the course of her long life, the range of language use and the competences in each of them have changed. External factors shaped her linguistic behavior. Political and social events in this part of Europe influenced the change, use and acquisition of new languages.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.20
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Byzantine Vlachs on the “Blue Danube” in the 12th century:
           stabilization and aspirations

    • Authors: Jarosław Dudek
      Pages: 313 - 329
      Abstract: Byzantine Vlachs on the “Blue Danube” in the 12th century: stabilization and aspirations. In the 12th century peace was regained in the Byzantine frontier on the lower Danube. Gradually the invasions of militant tribes from Pontic steppes (Pechenegs, Uzes, Cumans) ceased. Internal unrest among the people of Paristrion also died down. The economic boom strengthened the potential of the local elite. After the liquidation of the Pecheneg’s organization and the process of byzantization of the Bulgarian aristocracy, the importance of the local Vlachs increased. However, their leaders, despite their unquestionable contributions to the Byzantine state, did not have the opportunity to join its elite.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.21
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • On the Wallachian frontiers: colonization and directions of migration of
           the Wallachian population in the Silesian-Kysuce-Moravian borderland (in
           the light of historiography)

    • Authors: Krzysztof Nowak
      Pages: 331 - 352
      Abstract: The article discusses the historiography of the problem of the history and directions of migration of Wallachian settlers who came to the geographical border of Silesia, Kysuce and Moravia, i.e. the historical and political border between Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary in the first half of the 16th century. These matters have aroused and aroused controversy for many years. This area was the end point of the Wallachians’ wanderings to the west and therefore there was a lot of confusion as to where they came from and where they traveled. The most documented scientific publication on this subject is still the work of the Czech researcher Josef Macůrek from 1959, so from (unfortunately) more than 60 years ago.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.22
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The military potential of the Morlachs of Dalmatia in the French sources
           form the beginning of the 19th century

    • Authors: Wojciech Sajkowski
      Pages: 353 - 363
      Abstract: Between 1806 and 1813 Dalmatia became part of the French Empire. The province, whose continental part was inhabited by Vlach shepherds called Morlachs, was economically inefficient, which was a huge problem to the new administration. Various projects of the economic development of Dalmatia had already been drawn up under Venetian rule, but their implementation took time and the collection of taxes had to be regular in the face of the constant wars waged by the French Empire. Hence, the French authorities were convinced that the only form of any kind of financial compensation for their dominion over Dalmatia would be military conscription. The short period of French rule in Dalmatia resulted in analyses concerning the possibility of exploiting the military potential of the Vlach shepherds, which became a kind of summary of all previous considerations concerning this problem. Indeed, the French administrators ruled over areas where the traditional military duties of the Vlach settlers were used in very different ways. Hence, many of those analysis made by the French include a broader historical account of the evolution of Vlach communities in the borderlands of Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Croatia.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.23
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • Fragmentarisation of the Vlach settlement in the Olympus and Vermio areas
           at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries

    • Authors: Jędrzej Paszkiewicz
      Pages: 365 - 380
      Abstract: The aim of the article is to describe, on the basis of historiography, the evolution of main Vlach settlements located in the Olympus and Vermio regions. All they were created as the results of migrations of the population from the Pindos area at the turn of the 18th and 19th century. The culmination of these movements fell on the second part of the 18th (Olympus) and the first part of the 19th century (Vermio). During the following decades the Vlach enclaves, such as Livadi, Kato Vermio or Xirolivado experienced a gradual fragmentarisation. Although the part of the population continued traditional forms of economic activity and kept in contact with its „native” settlements from the Pindos area, the majority became assimilated with the local Greek population. Vlachs supplied Greek-speaking communities in Veroia, Naoussa, Katerini, abandoned the transhumant economy, traditional dialects and migrated to Romania.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.24
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • In search of a “New Grammousta”. Cultural heritage of
           Aromanians/Vlachs shepherds in the southern Pirine in Bulgaria (I)

    • Authors: Ewa Kocój, Łukasz Kocój
      Pages: 381 - 398
      Abstract: In search of a “New Grammousta”: Cultural heritage of Aromanians/Vlachs shepherds in the southern Pirine in Bulgaria (I). The history and cultural heritage of the Aromanian (Vlach) shepherds in Bulgaria is a challenging topic that requires particular inquisitiveness in scientific research. The Aromanians arrived there after years of severe persecution perpetrated by the Turks and Albanians at the end of the 18th century. In the high mountains, they created their own world, which became their refuge for decades, with settlements comprising houses, farms, places of religious worship, and pastures. They set up a network of stakeholders who purchased their goods. Due to their specific lifestyle and the oral nature of their culture, the historical and ethnographic sources illustrating their world are scarce. This paper is to present the history of the Aromanian/Vlach community from the moment they settled in the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria in the 19th century until they left Bulgaria in the first half of the 20th century. It describes the main Aromanian settlements, including their location, traditional professions, wintering places, and the crucial herding routes in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.25
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
  • The vanishing of ethnos and new forms of struggle for identity: the
           Eastern Romance inhabitants of Istria

    • Authors: Ewa Nowicka
      Pages: 399 - 419
      Abstract: The paper is based on the results of two anthropological researches conducted within the communities living in the Istria Peninsula. Until recently they have used specific local Eastern Romance dialects. The text is dedicated to the process of violent changes which endangered the existence of this population in the context of its language and identity. The described groups are being assimilated and integrated to the Croatian-speaking majority and Croatian national culture. On the base of interviews with representatives of local communities from Žejane and Šušnjevica the historical traditions, social status of these groups and the character of their relations with neighbouring population will be described. Moreover, social and educational activities towards the cultural revival of these communities, taken by the local intelligentsia, will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.14746/bp.2022.29.26
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2022)
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