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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted by number of followers
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 65)
World Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity and Classics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
E&G Quaternary Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Scottish Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Tel Aviv : Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Science and Technology of Archaeological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Time and Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Studia Celtica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Δελτίον Χριστιανικής Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trabajos de Prehistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cane Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southeastern Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Virtual Archaeology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restauro Archeologico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La zaranda de ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Archipel     Open Access  
ROMVLA     Open Access  
SCIRES-IT : SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology     Open Access  
The Midden     Open Access  
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Zephyrvs     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Scripta Ethnologica     Open Access  
Transfers     Full-text available via subscription  
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  

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Virtual Archaeology Review
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1989-9947
Published by Universitat Politècnica de València Homepage  [24 journals]
  • Constructive analysis and digital 3D reconstruction of the Yuanmingyuan
           Ruins: Wanfanganhe Pavilion (China)

    • Authors: Yan Chen, Federico Luis del Blanco García
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing after the sacking by Franco-British troops in 1860 has been an inestimable loss in the history of architecture, described by several authors as one of the wonders of Chinese architecture.This paper presents the virtual reconstruction and geometrical analysis of the Universal Peace Pavilion for the Ancient Palace of Beijing. It is a unique project in the traditional Chinese architecture both in its form and in the combination of the wooden structural elements. At the present time, only the foundation platform remains.In order to achieve a rigorous and accurate reconstruction, original sources from China and the Forbidden City Museum have been used, translating the ancient Chinese texts of the Qing dynasty and compiling the original existing documentation. The results include new unpublished documentation of the project.The reconstruction of the Universal Peace Pavilion continues the efforts made by the "Mission Palais d'Eté" (Summer Palace Mission) between 1983 and 1985, carried out by the cooperation of French and Chinese researchers and architects. Recently, the "Cooperans" institution has resumed the research of the Old Summer Palace in order to strengthen the cultural links between Europe and China.The digital reconstruction of the project makes it possible to visualize, analyse and understand a project of which only its ruins remain. By documenting the remains of the ancient ruins and exporting the Wanfanganhe Pavilion to a virtual reality system, it is possible to establish a link between Chinese architecture and the interested people, breaking down language barriers. The process of measuring, 3D modelling and translating the fundamental elements of traditional Chinese architecture has been carried out with precision to generate a model that represents an unforgettable part of the Chinese history.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16523
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Data-driven conservation actions of heritage places curated with HBIM

    • Authors: Tugba Saricaoglu, Gamze Saygi
      Pages: 17 - 32
      Abstract: Digital surveying tools provide a highly accurate geometric representation of cultural heritage sites in the form of point cloud data. With the recent advances in interoperability between point cloud data and Building Information Modelling (BIM), digital heritage researchers have introduced the Heritage/Historic Information Modelling (HBIM) notion to the field. As heritage data require safeguarding strategies to ensure their sustainability, the process is closely tied to conservation actions in the architectural conservation field. Focusing on the intersection of the ongoing trends in HBIM research and the global needs for heritage conservation actions, this paper tackles methodological pipelines for the data-driven management of archaeological heritage places. It illustrates how HBIM discourse could be beneficial for easing value-based decision-making in the conservation process. It introduces digital data-driven conservation actions by implementing a novel methodology for ancient building remains in Erythrae archaeological site (Turkey). The research ranges from a) surveying the in-situ remains and surrounding stones of the Heroon remains with digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to b) designing a database system for building archaeology. The workflow offers high geometric fidelity and management of non-geometric heritage data by testing out the suitability and feasibility for the study of material culture and the physical assessment of archaeological building remains. This methodology is a fully data-enriched NURBS-based (non-uniform rational basis spline) three-dimensional (3D) model—which is integrated and operational in the BIM environment— for the holistic conservation process. Using a state-of-the-art digital heritage approach can be applied from raw data (initial stages) to decision-making about an archaeological heritage site (final stages). In conclusion, the paper offers a method for data-driven conservation actions, and given its methodological framework, it lends itself particularly well to HBIM-related solutions for building archaeology.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.17370
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Ancient restorations: computer-based structural approach for the
           identification and reinterpretation of the Medracen’s constructive

    • Authors: Lamia Amokrane, Tsouria Kassab, Juan Monjo-Carrio
      Pages: 33 - 48
      Abstract: This paper addresses the importance of a structural approach for identifying and interpreting building chronology, as well as for the establishment of historical stratigraphy. Through structural analyses, carried out on the oldest extant royal mausoleum in North Africa, the Medracen (4th-3rd century BC), located in eastern Algeria, it has been possible to identify building sequences and structural characteristics; a reinterpretation of its constructive sequence within a specific historical context was also suggested. A static linear Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis was performed on a simplified 3D model conceived with solid elements to assess the structural behaviour of the structure under the effect of its self-weight and to identify, consequently, its construction sequence. The equilibrium approach was effective in identifying the structure’s geometry. Results show that Medracen’s ancient restoration was a strengthening intervention strategy and had a symbolic aim related to the function of the funerary building. Restoration works, consisting of repairing specific parts of the building and adding an external cladding, as a whole architectural entity, contributed to reducing the effect of tensile stress, therefore, stabilizing the inner core. Besides, this same action was a means for the Numidian elite to transform an ancient monumental burial (sepulchrum) into a monument (monumentum) with cultural significance likely to convey socio-political messages relating to power and sovereignty. Therefore, we can speak of an “evolutionary restoration” that reflects the ambitions of the Numidian elite to become part of the Mediterranean orbit.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.17394
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Geospatial integration in mapping pre-Hispanic settlements within Aztec
           empire limits

    • Authors: Raúl Miranda-Gómez, Héctor V. Cabadas-Báez, Xanat Antonio-Némiga, Norma Dávila-Hernández
      Pages: 49 - 65
      Abstract: Mexico’s vast archaeological research tradition has increased with the use of remote sensing technologies; however, this recent approach is still costly in emerging market economies. In addition, the scales of prospection, landscape, and violence affect the type of research that heritage-culture ministries and universities can conduct. In Central Mexico, researchers have studied the pre-Hispanic Settlement Pattern during the Mesoamerican Postclassic (900-1521 AD) within the scope of the Aztec Empire and its conquests. There are settlements indications before and during the rule of the central empire, but the evidence is difficult to identify, particularly in the southwest of the capital, in the transition between the Lerma and Balsas River basins and their political-geographical complexities. This research focuses on a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based processing of multiple source data, the potential prospection of archaeological sites based on spatial data integration from Sentinel-2 optical sensors, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and field validation. What is revealed is the relationship between terrain morphologies and anthropic modifications. A binary map expresses possible archaeological remnants as a percentage; NDVI pixels and the morphometry values were associated with anthropic features (meso-reliefs with a tendency to regular geometries: slope, orientation, and roughness index); they were then interpreted as probable archaeological evidence. Within archaeological fieldwork, with limited resources (time, funding and staff), this approach proposes a robust method that can be replicated in other mountainous landscapes that are densely covered by vegetation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16106
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Andean pre-Hispanic pottery forming 3D analysis: a pilot study from
           Quebrada de Humahuaca (Argentina) using digital methods

    • Authors: Agustina Scaro
      Pages: 66 - 80
      Abstract: Digitization, three-dimensional (3D) documentation and visualization of archaeological materials are processes in increasing development that are used for the enhancement of heritage. These tools have multiple uses for the analysis and research of archaeological objects, although their use in pottery forming techniques studies is less explored. In this paper, diverse digital methods are explored in the study of pottery forming macro-traces, using the 3D model of an archaeological vessel from South-Central Andes. This case is proposed as a pilot study, aiming to reveal the potential of digital techniques for understanding pottery forming techniques. The particular case analysed corresponds to a globular pot of the Humahuaca Black-on-Red style, recovered at the Pucara de Volcán archaeological site, in Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy, Argentina). Initial studies of macro-traces on the pot suggested the use of paddling as the forming technique. The workflow used to contrast this hypothesis included the generation of a 3D model by close-range photogrammetry; and the analysis of the resulting point-cloud and mesh using Morphological Residue Model (MRM) and Virtual Reflectance Transformation Imaging Visualization (V-RTI), with diverse open-source software packages, such as AliceVision Metashape and CloudCompare. These methods increased the micro-topography visibility of the pot surface. As a result, the presence of sub-circular depressions in the body of the pot -similar to percussion cupules-, horizontal pressure lines in the collar, and micro-pull-outs in the maximal diameter of the pot were described. These macro-traces were interpreted as corresponding to the paddling technique used for the elaboration of the pot body —a technique not previously identified in pre-Hispanic traditional pottery manufacturing in the north of Argentina—, and of coiling for manufacturing the collar. The digital methods explored have great potential in the study of pottery forming techniques, although their scope depends on the accuracy of the 3D model analysed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16863
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Modelling the landscape: iconography, and visual and sound perceptions in
           Macroschematic rock art

    • Authors: Gabriel García Atiénzar, Virginia Barciela González, Neemías Santos da Rosa, Margarita Díaz-Andreu
      Pages: 81 - 99
      Abstract: Since the 1980s different approaches have been followed to analyse the spatial distribution of rock art shelters and their relationship to the construction of social landscapes by prehistoric societies. These approaches focus on finding out the clues that shelters offer as to how symbolic landscapes were structured or whether these were chosen following visual preferences. Previous work on post-Palaeolithic art in the Iberian Peninsula has used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool for analysis. However, sometimes, the results obtained reveal some contradictions, which could be linked to either the low resolution of the cartography available when those models were designed or to the random treatment of data. This paper attempts to overcome these contradictions by focusing on macroschematic rock art (ARM, in its Spanish acronym), an artistic manifestation with a well-defined geographical location —north of the province of Alicante (Spain)— and chronological framework —Cardial Early Neolithic; ca. 5600-5200 cal BC—. In order to analyse the symbolic and sensory landscapes generated around this artistic manifestation, different scales of analysis (Chippindale, 2004) have been implemented. Firstly, a new typology of macroschematic motifs based on an iconographic analysis is proposed. For this purpose, four major motif types are considered: anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, curvilinear geometric and minor motifs. This categorization allows for a better understanding of the semantics of this manifestation (Hernández Pérez, 2003), which draws significant parallels with other Neolithic manifestations in the Mediterranean area. Secondly, the spatial location of each rock art shelter is studied, with special attention to the quantity and variety of motifs represented in each one of them. This work has resulted in the observation of a different distribution of certain motifs. It has also revealed a different concentration in the number and variety of motifs in certain shelters that can be considered sanctuaries. Lastly, a set of GIS analytical tools have been applied to model the visual and sound perception of and from the macroschematic rock art shelters. To avoid distortions as identified in similar reconstructions carried out in previous works a prior assessment of the cartographic requirements has been made. Regarding the visibility issue, the methodology of the GIS analysis conducted has been finetuned by adding the following factors: visual field and range. For its modelling, the Individual Distance Viewshed tool designed by Fábrega-Álvarez & Parcero-Oubiña (2019) for ESRI ArcGis 10.5 has been used. In the analysis of sonority variables related to musicality, as documented in the archaeological and anthropological record, alongside technical issues associated with the propagation of sound in outdoor spaces, have been considered. For the GIS study of sound propagation Sound Mapping Tools v. 4.4 for ESRI ArcGis 10.5 (Reed et al., 2012) has been applied. This analytical work has permitted the mapping of sensory-related aspects for each site, thus facilitating a cross-site comparative analysis which has ultimately led to the identification of interesting recurrences and differences. This systematic and orderly analysis proposed has resulted in a holistic approach to the study of an artistic phenomenon as specific and unique as is macroschematic rock art. Based on the results obtained, the existence of a social landscape articulated around this artistic manifestation, in which each shelter could have played a different although complementary role, can be claimed. In this sense, we propose the existence of "main sanctuaries" that could have played an important role as social gathering spaces where visual and sound messages were conveyed. Moreover, "secondary sanctuaries" may be related to the movement of communities through the landscape and, especially, to the paths leading to the central sanctuary of Pla de Petracos (Castell de Castells, Alicante, Spain). The results of the research conducted offer a new and richer interpretation of how the communities that painted the macroschematic rock art perceived the landscape in which they lived. The importance of approaching symbolic landscapes through the prior analysis of rock art, especially of its iconographic variety, but also its internal sequence, should be emphasized. It can be concluded that the procedure followed has allowed the creation of new methodological bases for the study of other symbolic manifestations related to the social articulation of prehistoric landscapes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16998
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Digital technology to locate the water catchment system of the Cuadrado
           Fountain in Montilla (Cordoba, Spain) in the 19th century

    • Authors: Pilar Carranza-Cañadas, Manuel Baena-Sánchez, Rafael Hidalgo Fernández, Paula Triviño-Tarradas
      Pages: 100 - 116
      Abstract: The fortuitous discovery of part of the pipeline system that supplied the town of Montilla (Spain) in the late 19th century, which was made in September 2017 by the city’s fire service, originated an academic study in this regard. The engineer José Marí­a Sánchez-Molero y Lleguet designed this canalization, from the fountain of the “Cuadrado” to some tanks located in the “water’s house” (Montilla) in 1868. There are no remains of these constructions, except those found by the firefighters. The aim of this study is to collect, analyse and interpret all the existing graphic and documentary evidence in this regard, perform a 3D modelling of the catchment system at the fountain based on the compiled documentation and determine the terrain’s topography. Indeed, the virtual location on the digital model of the terrain based on the plans of Sánchez-Molero can help archaeologists to discover the true location, highlighting the suitability and usefulness of this research work.The catchment system designed and executed by Sánchez-Molero is a system of ditches. These are made up of a series of ditches filled with gravel, arranged according to the slope in the shape of a herringbone, surrounding the fountain of Cuadrado (perfectly represented in the plan of Sánchez-Molero). Moreover, there is another main ditch attached to the wall of the dam. The system was designed to capture the waters of the fountains or runoff water from the adjoining orchards. It is a system based on gravel-filled trenches with no drainage pipes at the bottom, which could have led to its depletion, due to the possible cementation of spaces between gravels. For this reason, in 1902, other sources were sought, as the water of the Cuadrado was scarce. The system, in addition to the drains and the dam wall, consists of a container or collector, from which the water comes out through the fountain, and through a pipe located on one side of said container.The catchment system is arranged along with a road system that is also indicated in the map of Sánchez-Molero. This distribution of roads still exists today. Therefore, the modelled system on the real scale can be oriented in the digital terrain model (DTM) of the corresponding plot. The location of the Cuadrado coincides with a well that currently exists. The study of the slopes and the runoff water flow lines coming from the fountains suggests that, in this arrangement of the catchment system, the drains intercept the course of water coming from all the upwelling areas, where the slope is steep (8-12%), i.e. twice as steep as in the high areas and orchards, where the average slope is 3-6%.The location in the plan and on the terrain profile of the pipe that carried the water from the outlet of the Cuadrado reservoir to the water house was analysed. The water rise was found to be produced by the communicating vessels effect, due to the coincidence of the heights of the terrain. From there, the water was pumped to the water house. There was the register, located at the lowest point of elevation in the stream, currently called Cuadrado, and the stopcock, where the Flauta Fountain is located today. The pipeline follows the route of the Manantiales (which means “water springs” in Spanish).The obtained results can help archaeologists to know the true location of the Cuadrado fountain, and disseminate the cultural hydric heritage of Montilla, promoting touristic routes. Water resource tourism is already a reality in many cities, including Montilla. The cultural dissemination of water resources is supported by various institutions, through the routes and the many sources and watering holes that the town owns. Among these routes, we can mention the long route of the fountains of Montilla. This route runs along the path of the Manantiales, following the pipeline map of Sánchez-Molero, which passes through the water house, the Flauta Fountain and the Cuadrado Fountain. The results of this work allow culturally the enhancement of this route.
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.15937
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • The recovery of the terra sigillata seals from the Roman ceramic workshop
           of Isturgi (Los Villares de Andújar, Jaén, Spain) from their
           digitalization, reconstruction and 3D printing

    • Authors: Alexis Maldonado Ruiz, Alberto Dorado Alejos, María Isabel Fernández García
      Pages: 117 - 134
      Abstract: Terra sigillata is one of the most important and well-known ceramic types of the Roman Empire. These tableware productions began to become generalized from the 1st century AD, characterized by the habitual presence of what is known as sigillum, a kind of stamped mark that identified the pottery (‘officina’) where they were produced. Currently, the information given by the stamps on vessels becomes one of the main sources for the reconstruction of the social and economic structure of terra sigillata manufacture.In the case of the terra sigillata produced in the Iberian Peninsula, both the smooth-walled and the decorated vessels are distinguished by habitually incorporating this rubric/signature, which was made using a stamp-punch. While in smooth-walled vessels this rubric is usually located on the inner bottom of the container, in the case of decorated one, which used to be produced using negative ceramic moulds; the dynamics can be somewhat more complex. At any rate, and unlike the ceramic itself, which becomes a very common object in the archaeological context, the instruments with which these productions used to be marked are very difficult to find. Indeed, they are very rare elements in archaeological excavations or museum collections. An example of this dynamic is the pottery district of Isturgi (Los Villares de Andújar, Jaén, Spain), which became an important producer of terra sigillata around the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. In this large potter complex, despite numerous systematic excavation campaigns since the early 1970s, no original stamp-punch has been recovered yet.In this regard, the strong development of tools for digitization, analysis, virtual reconstruction and new printing devices has brought important benefits for the study of archaeological heritage in general and ceramic studies in particular. Technologies that, although most of them are already well established in our discipline, continue to generate novel results of great scientific interest. However, to take full advantage of their potential, these technologies should not be used in isolation, but must be combined in synergistic methodological flows that we can carry out from the joint use of various computer software. Only in this way, we can effectively recreate elements and objects that, due to their intrinsic value or the fragility of their nature, do not usually appear in the archaeological record.In the present work, a new methodological workflow is proposed through which to obtain data that would allow the coherent reconstruction of the appearance and operation of these fragile instruments. With this objective in mind, we made a selection of nine smooth-walled vessels of terra sigillata isturgitana in which the potters had recorded their work by means of epigraphic and anepigraphic marks. For this reason, various computerized procedures were applied in a systematic way to each of these selected case studies. First, Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry for digitizing these sigilla. Second, computational photography methods such as Virtual Reflectance Transformation Imaging (V-RTI) or raster images such as Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) to improve the visualization of the most deteriorated rubrics. Third, digital modelling and sculpting to generate reliable reconstructive hypotheses of a digital nature. Finally, we use Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), the most common 3D printing method, to materialize these results into high-resolution and low-cost polylactic acid (PLA) replicas.Through all this workflow described in the previous lines, we not only seek the generation of new data that will benefit the archaeological discipline, but that all this knowledge also results in a direct benefit for the bulk of society. Jointly, the technologies of digitization and rapid prototyping have proven to be extremely useful tools for making archaeological heritage truly accessible to everyone, regardless of the situation, needs or geographic location.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16532
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
  • Applying a GIS to the underwater archaeology of Menorca

    • Authors: Fernando Contreras Rodrigo, Adrián Fernández Sánchez
      Pages: 135 - 155
      Abstract: A Geographic Information System (GIS), as a software used to integrate and relate spatial variables, has tools which are widely used in archaeology, either on the land surface, to analyse the spatial distribution of artefacts/settlements, or on the marine subsurface, to explore and analyse underwater elements, providing valuable data. The Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) Archaeological Chart of underwater references currently consists of 285 elements that correspond to wrecks, anchorages and isolated finds from different chronological periods. The developed GIS was intended to define for the next few years the lines of research that can be promoted, as well as to recommend the vestiges that deserve to be protected. The Department of Culture of the Menorca Insular Council has, among its priority lines, the knowledge related to the underwater archaeology of the island; a primary objective list includes preserving, protecting, investigating and disseminating it. With this purpose, in recent decades, projects and works have been promoted aimed at knowing more precisely about the submerged archaeological heritage, drawing up inventories and charts that have been inserted in the Underwater Menorca Archaeological Map. The GIS project was developed to structure and analyse the information that can be extracted from the archaeological map, relating to the themes that have been incorporated from the variety of factors affecting the geophysical and environmental aspects associated with the Menorca maritime archaeology. This study focused on developing the information from the underwater archaeological map, and providing the most likely areas with findings for future surveys and research, shown as optimal areas. The archaeological chart was georeferenced and digitised into a shapefile layer to create a geographical database that could be managed in the ArcGis software. Environmental conditions of the Menorca underwater, such as wind direction, wind speed, meteotsunamis, underwater geology and oceanic currents, were analysed and spatially related using the GIS to predict potential best areas for the anchorage process. An approximation to a shoreline reconstruction (for 1000 BC period) was conducted through palaeoenvironmental interpretation, considering geomorphological features from aerial photography, erosion rates and variations in the past sea levels. Thanks to the GIS analyses, it was possible to define both the excellent conditions of some marine areas that were probably used as anchorages since ancient times, and the most likely coastline of the island that may offer new underwater remains. The analysis was adjusted to the landscape reconstruction, which was also helpful for establishing those certain optimal areas, but according to the territorial features estimated for various periods. Based on the spatial analysis of the archaeological chart underwater elements and on the analysis of optimal areas, possible anchorage places have been established, such as Ses Fontanelles, La Mola de Fornells and Cala Tamarells, where punic remains could be found. A series of areas with a higher probability of locating new underwater remains have been determined. The northern shore area, from Cap de Favaritx to Illes Bledes, was classified as the best area for finding new underwater remains. Inner bays such as Addaia, Favaritx or Fornells were the second-best area for finding remains. Stagnant waters areas, like Albufera d'es Grau or Cala’n Bosch, would deserve special recognition and surveys since it is possibly one of the most inhabited areas north of the port of Mahón, due to the natural resources that lie in this territory. The GIS analysis of the findings distribution supported by palaeoenvironmental research appears to be a promising approach for underwater analysis; it provides reasonable estimations for future surveys. Constant underwater archaeological map updating and, consequently, completing the analysis of this study should be done periodically in order to classify newly surveyed areas.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.4995/var.2022.16917
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 27 (2022)
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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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