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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
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Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0079-497X - ISSN (Online) 2050-2729
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • PPR volume 87 Cover and Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 5
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.15
       
  • PPR volume 87 Cover and Back matter

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      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.16
       
  • ‘The Dead are Watching Us’: A Landscape Study of Prehistoric Rock-cut
           Tomb Cemeteries in Ossi, Sardinia, Italy

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      Authors: Robin; Guillaume, Soula, Florian, Tramoni, Pascal, Manca, Laura, Lilley, Kirsty
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: The island of Sardinia is well known for its Late Neolithic and Copper Age underground rock-cut tombs that were used over generations for collective burials. Many tombs were decorated to resemble house interiors and cemeteries are often referred to as villages of the dead. Research so far has focused on excavating stratigraphic contexts within some of these monuments, or on typological classifications of tomb plans and wall decorations, but the landscape context of the cemeteries and their relationship to settlements have been overlooked. The article presents the results of two seasons of survey in Ossi (north-west Sardinia), focusing on two major cemeteries (Mesu ‘e Montes and S’Adde ‘e Asile). Combining fieldwalking, mapping and 3D recording techniques, the survey provides a comprehensive documentation of the cemeteries (from the underground architecture of individual tombs to their landscape setting) and yields evidence of prehistoric settlements in their vicinity. The article discusses the topographic and visual relationships between the tombs and the residential areas and how they may reflect social interactions between the living and the dead in late prehistoric Sardinia.
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.2
       
  • Between Novelty and Variability: Natufian Hunter-Gatherers (c. 15–11.7
           kyr) Proto-Agrotechnology and the Question of Morphometric Variations of
           the Earliest Sickles

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      Authors: Rosenberg; Danny, Chasan, Rivka
      Pages: 31 - 50
      Abstract: How hunter-gatherers manipulated and utilised their natural surroundings is a widely studied topic among anthropologists and archaeologists alike. This focuses on the Natufian culture of the Late Epipalaeolithic period (c. 15–11.7 kyr), the last Levantine hunter-gatherer population, and specifically on the earliest composite tools designed for harvesting. These tools are widely referred to as sickles. They consisted of a haft into which a groove was cut and flint inserts affixed. This revolutionised harvesting and established it on new grounds. While the plants manipulated by these tools are yet to be identified with certainty, it is evident that these implements were rapidly integrated and dispersed throughout the Natufian interaction sphere, suggesting that they provided a significant advantage, which probably constituted a critical step toward agriculture. At the same time, the Natufian haft assemblage demonstrates high morphometric variability. We review the available data concerning Natufian hafts and offer three possible models to explain the noted variability. We conclude that while these models are not mutually exclusive, this varied technological pattern is best understood as deriving from a protracted formative phase of technological development, progressing through incremental processes of trial and error.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.5
       
  • Hands Stencils in El Castillo Cave (Puente Viesgo, Cantabria, Spain). An
           Interdisciplinary Study

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      Authors: Ripoll; Sergio, Bayarri, Vicente, Muñoz, Francisco J., Ortega, Ricardo, Castillo, Elena, Latova, José, Herrera, Jesús, Moreno-Salinas, David, Martín, Ignacio
      Pages: 51 - 71
      Abstract: Our Palaeolithic ancestors did not make good representations of themselves on the rocky surfaces of caves and barring certain exceptions – such as the case of La Marche (found on small slabs of stone or plaquettes) or the Cueva de Ambrosio – the few known examples can only be referred to as anthropomorphs. As such, only hand stencils give us a real picture of the people who came before us. Hand stencils and imprints provide us with a large amount of information that allows us to approach not only their physical appearance but also to infer less tangible details, such as the preferential use of one hand over the other (i.e., handedness). Both new and/or mature technologies as well as digital processing of images, computers with the ability to process very high resolution images, and a more extensive knowledge of the Palaeolithic figures all help us to analyse thoroughly the hands in El Castillo cave. The interdisciplinary study presented here contributes many novel developments based on real data, representing a major step forward in knowledge about our predecessors.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.11
       
  • El Niño Cave (Aýna, Albacete, Spain): Late Middle Palaeolithic, Rock
           Art, and Neolithic Occupations from Inland Iberia

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      Authors: García-Moreno; Alejandro, Cubas, Miriam, Davidson, Iain, Garate, Diego, López-Dóriga, Inés, Marín-Arroyo, Ana B., Mateo Saura, Miguel Ángel, Ortiz, José E., Polo-Díaz, Ana, Rios-Garaizar, Joseba, San Emeterio, Aixa, de Torres, Trinidad, Wood, Rachel
      Pages: 73 - 81
      Abstract: El Niño cave, located on the south-eastern border of the Spanish Meseta, hosts a discontinuous sequence including Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic levels, along with Upper Palaeolithic and Levantine style paintings. It is a key site for understanding human occupations of inland Iberia during the Palaeolithic and early prehistory. This paper summarises the main results of a multidisciplinary project aimed at defining the prehistoric human occupations at the site.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.14
       
  • Change and Diversity in Neolithic Mortuary Practices on the Isle of Man

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      Authors: Fowler; Chris, Crellin, Rachel J., Gamble, Michelle
      Pages: 83 - 107
      Abstract: While the Early Neolithic chambered tombs of the Isle of Man are well known and the Late Neolithic has been clearly defined with reference to a distinctive suite of artefacts, little is known about the Middle Neolithic. This article reports on 17 new Neolithic radiocarbon dates from cremated human remains from the Isle of Man. These identify five burials in cists as Middle Neolithic and indicate new sequences of activity at cemeteries starting in the Middle Neolithic. Each of these sites is examined in detail. The dates also spur a reconsideration of the development of Ronaldsway pottery and the integration of Grooved Ware pottery and motifs into early 3rd millennium practice on the island. The paper ends with a consideration of the changing effects of mortuary practices throughout the Neolithic on the Isle of Man and a discussion of connections with Middle and Late Neolithic activity in Ireland and Britain.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.12
       
  • Returning from the Underworld: The West Kennet Palisades in the Avebury
           Monument Complex

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      Authors: Sims; Lionel
      Pages: 109 - 131
      Abstract: In recent decades some archaeologists have come to doubt key components and properties of the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (EBA) Avebury monument complex. By site excavation of the Beckhampton Avenue, Silbury Hill, and the West Kennet Palisades the idea of an integrated group of contemporaneous monuments has been thrown into doubt. In this paper these critiques are themselves critiqued and further tested by an inter-disciplinary exercise integrating archaeology, landscape phenomenology, and archaeoastronomy. It is suggested that the emergent properties of this procedure reveal that these recent doubts are unfounded and that this monument complex was designed for rituals to initiate neophytes by simulating journeys through a virtual underworld.
      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.7
       
  • Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) Investigation of Engraved Chalk
           Plaques from the Stonehenge Region

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      Authors: Davis; Bob, Harding, Phil, Leivers, Matt
      Pages: 133 - 160
      Abstract: Newly discovered and previously documented Late Neolithic chalk plaques from the Stonehenge locality have been subjected to new, non-invasive techniques which allow access to previously unseen elements of archaeological evidence. The application of these methods – involving Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) and Polynomial Texture Mapping (PTM) – has revealed detail of the surface preparation and allowed methods and sequence of the compositions to be unpicked, clarifying their complexities. The results reveal a range of approaches to the compositions, some of which demonstrate planning, order, and intention while others include less systematic, rapidly executed sketches. Investigations of lines and surfaces have been made, supplemented by preliminary studies of replicated test pieces, to examine potential implements used in their creation and remark on plaque biographies and surface attrition following manufacture. Furthermore, detail revealed by RTI provides indications of the orientations in which some of the plaques should be viewed and – in one instance – suggests a ‘reflected’ element that may not be entirely abstract. Results from improved radiocarbon determinations place the plaques in the early part of the 3rd millennium bc which, together with identification of individual motifs, allows the plaques and the designs to be reconsidered within the corpus of Neolithic art in the British Isles.
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.13
       
  • The Pre-Pottery Neolithic Water-well at Tell Seker al-Aheimar, Upper
           Mesopotamia: The Social Contexts of its Construction and Management

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      Authors: Nishiaki; Yoshihiro
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: The water-well recovered from a Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) level in Tell Seker al-Aheimar, Northeast Syria, represents the oldest well thus far known in Upper Mesopotamia. It demonstrates that the construction of water-wells was a wide-spread practice among the PPNB communities across Cyprus, the Mediterranean coast, and now a far inland region of Upper Mesopotamia. This article provides detailed data on the water-well’s excavation and its stratigraphy, morphology, spatial positioning in the settlement, dating, and associated artefacts. An important implication of these data is that the construction and use of this well involved community activities that may have included rituals. Further, its location close to the Khabur River suggests that the well was not constructed to merely obtain fresh water; its major purpose could have been to guarantee the procurement of non-polluted water as this was an increasing concern among the developing Neolithic villages. On the whole, the water-well of Tell Seker al-Aheimar gives us important insights that develop our understanding of the Neolithisation processes of the region, notably the ‘domestication of water’.
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.3
       
  • Bronze Age Woollen Textile Production in England: A Consideration of
           Evidence and Potentials

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      Authors: Haughton; Mark, Sørensen, Marie Louise Stig, Bender Jørgensen, Lise
      Pages: 173 - 188
      Abstract: Responding to recent advances in knowledge about the first arrival of woollen sheep in Europe and linked investigations of textile remains on the Continent, this paper argues that our insight into the role of wool in the English Bronze Age needs rethinking. We argue that the relevant questions are: when did the procurement of and working with wool become a routine aspect of settlement life, and did the change from plant fibres to wool affect communities differently' The paper outlines some of the core research questions we need to consider and points to the necessity of triangulating between the evidence provided by textiles, faunal remains, and textile working tools to reach more comprehensive insights. The paper ends by indicating a further research question – namely whether the apparent differences in the ‘wool economy’ in different parts of Bronze Age Europe may suggest differences in ‘body politics’.
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.1
       
  • Beyond Newgrange: Brú na Bóinne in the later Neolithic

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      Authors: Davis; Stephen, Rassmann, Knut
      Pages: 189 - 218
      Abstract: The Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site, Ireland is best known for its megalithic monuments, in particular the great developed passage tombs of Knowth, Dowth, and Newgrange, and its abundance of megalithic art. However, our understanding of the wider Brú na Bóinne landscape has changed beyond all recognition in the last decade owing to the application of modern, non-invasive survey technologies – in particular LiDAR and large-scale geophysical survey – and most recently as a result of the hot, dry summer of 2018 which revealed a series of remarkable cropmarks between Newgrange and the River Boyne. Despite a lack of excavation it can be argued, based on their morphological characteristics, that many of the structures revealed belong within the corpus of late Neolithic ritual/ceremonial structures, including earthen henges, square-in-circle monuments, palisaded enclosures, and pit/post-alignments. These display both extraordinary diversity, yet also commonality of design and architecture, both as a group and with the passage tombs that preceded them. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the late Neolithic and presumed late Neolithic landscape of Brú na Bóinne. It provides new evidence and new insights from ongoing survey campaigns, suggesting parallels within the British Neolithic but also insular development within some monument classes.
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.6
       
  • A New Study of the Decorated Cists in Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland

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      Authors: Watson; Aaron, Bradley, Richard
      Pages: 219 - 230
      Abstract: Decorated cists have been identified at three burial cairns in Kilmartin Glen, Mid Argyll. The paper provides a new analysis of the cover slab at Nether Largie North, which features a series of pecked axeheads. Previous studies suggested that they replaced an array of cup marks, but the evidence of photogrammetry suggests a longer sequence and a more complex scheme. The same approach was taken to the decorated cists beneath the Nether Largie Mid cairn and a comparable structure at Ri Cruin. Additional depictions were identified. The carvings within all three cists are organised in similar ways. They date from a period in the Early Bronze Age when metal was imported from Ireland. At the same time, the reuse of older structures suggests a new concern with the past.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.10
       
  • Hot Stone Technology at Bucklers Park, Crowthorne, Berkshire: The Use and
           Re-use of a Persistent Place During the Bronze and Iron Ages

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      Authors: Chittock; Helen, Masefield, Robert, Allison, Enid, Crone, Anne, Hamilton, Derek, Richer, Suzi, Robertson, Jackaline, Wood, Alex
      Pages: 231 - 260
      Abstract: Archaeological investigations at Bucklers Park in Crowthorne have revealed a window onto a significant later prehistoric place, which was used and revisited over 1700 years between the Early Bronze Age and later Iron Age (c. 1800–100 bc). Activity on site was based around the heating of water using fire-heated flint, producing three mounds of fire-cracked flint and burnt organic material. These ‘burnt mounds’ are known across later prehistoric Britain and Ireland, but the ways they may have been formed are uncertain, and they are arguably under-discussed in southern Britain. Whilst water was initially drawn from a stream, a series of wells were established at the site between the Middle Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, one of which contained a well-preserved log ladder. These wells were revisited and recut over long periods of time and during the Middle Iron Age the site’s function shifted dramatically when a roundhouse was constructed. The long-term use of the site, its excellent organic preservation, dating, and its location in a remote area on the Bagshot Heath, make it significant. This paper summarises the findings from the excavations, discussing the formation of the site in the context of wider research on later prehistoric burnt mounds.
      PubDate: 2021-07-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.8
       
  • Copper Mining in the Bronze Age at Mynydd Parys, Anglesey, Wales

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      Authors: Jenkins; David A., Timberlake, Simon, Davidson, Andrew, Mal, Kalla, Marshall, Peter, Mighall, Tim, O’Brien, Charlotte, Smith, David N.
      Pages: 261 - 291
      Abstract: The Bronze Age in Britain is now a term often used to include both the first use of copper c. 2400 bc and also tin-bronze from c. 2100 bc, all of which required the extensive use of copper. Prehistoric mining for this metal has been identified in surface and underground workings in Parys Mine, Mynydd Parys, Anglesey, although almost all of the surface workings are now obscured by the extensive deep spoil from more recent mining in the industrial period. These copper-bearing ores are in bedded lodes, together with some intruded vein deposits. The Bronze Age workings have been exposed underground where they have been intersected by the early 19th century industrial workings on and above the 16 fathom and 20 fathom levels in the Parys Mine. Spoil exposures contain stone hammers (‘mauls’), wood fragments, and charcoal; samples of the latter have been radiocarbon dated with chronological modelling suggesting activity took place in the first half of the 2nd millennium cal bc. Although relatively limited in extent, these important prehistoric mining sites are among the earliest found in the UK. They have survived due to their protection from surface erosion and limited accessibility.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/ppr.2021.4
       
 
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