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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
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Cambridge Archaeological Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.121
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 108  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0959-7743 - ISSN (Online) 1474-0540
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • Humanist Missteps, A Black Studies Critique of Posthumanist Archaeologies

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      Authors: Greer; Matthew C.
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Posthumanist archaeologies have attempted to move beyond humanist conceptions of the human for over a decade. But they have done so by primarily focusing on the ontological split between humans and non-human things. This only addresses one part of humanism, as Black studies scholars have long argued that it also equates humanity writ large with white, economically privileged, cis-gendered, heterosexual men, thereby excluding everyone else from the category of the human. They further argue that the violence and oppression inflicted on those excluded from humanism's definition of the human allows this ontological category to come into being. This article introduces Black studies’ critiques of humanism and applies them to posthumanist archaeologies. Ultimately, it argues that by not attending to the critiques raised by Black studies scholars, posthumanist archaeologies have inadvertently made humanist missteps wherein they continue using elements of humanism's definition of the human in their attempts to move beyond humanism.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000367
       
  • CAJ volume 34 issue 1 Cover and Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774324000040
       
  • CAJ volume 34 issue 1 Cover and Back matter

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      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774324000052
       
  • Commentary

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      Authors: Cipolla; Craig N.
      Pages: 15 - 16
      Abstract: Does non-anthropocentrism necessitate a turn away from marginalized people' This is a crucial question, asked lately by a growing number of archaeologists. Some see a turn toward things as a turn away from people, while others take a more nuanced view. Greer falls into the latter group, exploring this question by highlighting important contributions and corrections from Black Studies. Although the paper is framed as a challenge to posthumanism, I read it as a broad critique of non-anthropocentric approaches; after reflecting on these relationships over the last few years, I no longer draw strong associations between posthumanism and symmetrical archaeology, entanglement theory, or even ANT; for me, posthumanism involves a relatively greater degree of social and political concern than the others.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000379
       
  • Reflections on a Counter-Humanist Archaeology: A Commentary on Greer 2023

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      Authors: Montgomery; Lindsay M.
      Pages: 17 - 18
      Abstract: In ‘Humanist Missteps’, Matthew Greer makes the pointed observation that non-anthropocentric frameworks, including symmetrical, object-oriented and posthuman feminist archaeologies, have primarily focused on deconstructing the human–non-human binary while failing to problematize humanist assumptions about who counts as Human. At the core of Greer's argument is the matter of citational practice: which social theorists are archaeologists referencing in their efforts to craft relational approaches to humans, things, animals and plants' In answering this question, the author points to a notable lack of Black Studies theorists, particularly the work of Sylvia Wynter, Zakkiyah Jackson and Tiffany King, in posthumanist archaeologies. While I agree with Greer's critiques, his essay stops short of explaining this citational silence. In this brief commentary, I suggest that this absence of Black Studies scholarship reflects the fact that the discipline of archaeology remains a ‘white public space’ (Brodkin et al. 2011: 545) and maintains an artificial division between analysis and activism.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000380
       
  • Comments

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      Authors: Pollock; Susan
      Pages: 18 - 20
      Abstract: Matthew Greer offers us a powerful, refreshing and thought-provoking critique of posthumanist approaches in archaeology as he sees them through the lens of Black Studies. He asks us to leave aside—temporarily—concerns with anthropocentrism to concentrate instead on the human side of the equation, while nonetheless positioning himself in line with posthumanist efforts to dismantle the human–non-human divide. The crux of Greer's arguments is that posthumanist approaches do not go far enough in distancing themselves from humanism for two reasons. First, humanity remains (tacitly) equated with white, heterosexual, economically well-off men, a single group that forms the scale against which all other people are measured. Second, posthumanist approaches do not acknowledge that racism and related forms of oppression were integral to the emergence of humanism and not a by-product of it.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000392
       
  • Commentary

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      Authors: Sterling; Kathleen
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: Greer offers an excellent primer on some Black Studies scholars’ critiques of humanism, for which he uses the label ‘counter-humanism’ after Erasmus (2020), distinguishing these approaches from ‘posthumanism.’ He identifies two primary strains of posthumanism relevant to archaeological interpretation, symmetrical archaeology and posthuman feminism, though examples of the latter are drawn from a broader body of academic literature and are subject to less critique. Posthumanists are shown to prioritize dismantling a human–object divide, while counter-humanists critique the human–non-human split. This may appear to be more or less the same project, but the framing of ‘A/not-A’ rather than ‘A–B’ emphasizes the hegemonic relationships between these categories, the continuity within, and makes more explicit the fact that people are included in both the non-human and object categories.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000409
       
  • On Striving as Readers: A Response to Greer

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      Authors: Witmore; Christopher
      Pages: 22 - 24
      Abstract: The capacity of northern European gentlemen scholars educated in the love of wisdom, human dignity, friendship and rationality to treat their fellow human beings with irreconcilable prejudice and hold to ghastly beliefs of racial superiority, which legitimated violence, exploitation and extermination elsewhere, is one of the great tragedies of humanism. That the images of the human cultivated in texts were at variance with the lived experience of those who were treated as other than human was rarely noted in the books they read. I appreciate Matthew Greer's efforts to bring these concerns to the fore. I am grateful for the opportunity to read Sylvia Wynter, among others, and to think about their work in counter-humanism. I stand with Greer who reminds us that, as archaeologists, we must do more than critique ideologies, fight for inclusion, and engage in dialogue as demanded by a radical pluralism (Shanks & Tilley 1992, 246). Equity, social justice, openness, and decolonization demand the sustained effort of us all, both in our capacity as archaeologists and as readers of texts.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000410
       
  • Reply: Citational Politics and the Future of Posthumanist Archaeologies

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      Authors: Greer; Matthew C.
      Pages: 24 - 26
      Abstract: I want to begin by thanking Craig Cipolla, Lindsay Montgomery, Susan Pollock, Kathleen Sterling and Christopher Witmore for their responses. I am honoured to be in conversation with such thoughtful and insightful scholars. In my reading, two main themes emerged from their comments—citational politics and what the future of posthumanist archaeologies might look like. To conclude our discussion of archaeology, Black studies and posthumanism, I will address each in turn.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000422
       
  • Revealing the Earliest Animal Engravings in Scotland: The Dunchraigaig
           Deer, Kilmartin – CORRIGENDUM

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      Authors: Valdez-Tullett; Joana, Barnett, Tertia, Robin, Guillaume, Jeffrey, Stuart
      Pages: 171 - 171
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774324000039
       
  • Making Wonder in Miniature: A New Approach to Theorizing the Affective
           Properties and Social Consequences of Small-Scale Artworks from
           Hellenistic Babylonia

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      Authors: Langin-Hooper; Stephanie M.
      Pages: 27 - 42
      Abstract: This article proposes an interpretive framework of paradox and wonder as a new approach to understanding the affective properties and social consequences of miniature objects in the archaeological record. Building upon current scholarly theories of miniatures as inherently intimate, this approach accounts for how small-scale artworks were also designed and deliberately manufactured to elude user attempts at full sensory access and immersive escapism. This desire-provoking tension between intimacy and distance—which lures viewers into small-scale encounters only to insist upon the object's life-size existence—is wonder, and it is what gives miniature objects their social relevance and ability not only to reflect, but also to influence, the real world. The benefits and applicability of this approach to miniaturization are illustrated through analysis of case studies of miniature objects (figurines, coins, seals and seal impressions, and jewellery) from Hellenistic Babylonia (Seleucid and Parthian periods in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq, 323 bce–ce 224).
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000069
       
  • Error or Minority' The Identification of Non-binary Gender in Prehistoric
           Burials in Central Europe

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      Authors: Pape; Eleonore, Ialongo, Nicola
      Pages: 43 - 63
      Abstract: Gender is under focus in prehistoric archaeology, with traditional binary models being questioned and alternatives formulated. Quantification, however, is generally lacking, and alternative models are rarely tested against the archaeological evidence. In this article, we test the binary hypothesis of gender for prehistoric Central Europe based on a selection of seven published burial sites dating from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Results show that the binary model holds for the majority of individuals, but also supports the existence of non-binary variants. We address such variants as ‘minorities’ rather than ‘exceptions’, as only the former can be integrated in interpretive models. However, we also find that quantification is undermined by several sources of error and systematic bias.
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000082
       
  • Wealth in Livestock, Wealth in People, and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of
           Jordan

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      Authors: Price; Max, Makarewicz, Cheryl A.
      Pages: 65 - 82
      Abstract: Within archaeology, the value of livestock is usually presented in terms of use values, the calories and products animals provide humans. Yet domestic animals are also sources of wealth that accrue symbolic and social values, tying livestock production to the reproduction of human social relations. Taking a Marxist perspective that recognizes dialectical relations between forms of value, we develop a model based on ethnographic examples in which the cycling between use value and social/symbolic values adhering to wealth in livestock are mobilized for the reproduction of ‘wealth in people’, or the accumulation of rights stemming from relationships between people. This model of cycling between forms of value can be applied to many ethnohistorical agropastoral political economies. We apply it to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B societies (c. 8500–7000 bc) in Jordan. During this time, the mode of production shifted from one grounded in the community to one centered on extended households. We suggest wealth in people was a key asset for LPPNB households and that wealth in livestock served as a major component of, and a particular ‘moment’ within, its reproduction. This might help explain the accelerated pace by which livestock production overtook hunting in the southern Levant in the eighth millennium bc.
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000136
       
  • Life and Death of the Macrolithic Tools from the Third-millennium cal. bc
           Necropolis of La Orden-Seminario in Southwest Spain

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      Authors: Martínez-Sevilla; Francisco, Linares-Catela, José Antonio
      Pages: 83 - 110
      Abstract: Macrolithic tools are linked to daily activities and, fundamentally, to settlements, hence their importance for the study of Late Prehistoric societies. However, these objects are also associated with funerary contexts, but have not often been analysed holistically. This paper studies an assemblage of macrolithic elements from three collective tombs from the third millennium cal. bc at the site of La Orden-Seminario (Huelva, Spain), from a theoretical and methodological perspective based on the biography of the object. Our analysis focuses on typology, raw materials, technology, function and burial context. The results show that the tools can be linked to domestic activities such as the grinding of cereals and the processing of plant materials, as well as for the production and maintenance of the elements used in these activities. The analysed objects display long biographies of use and, in some cases, we have documented intentional breakage for their deposition in the tombs. The patterns of deposition in the funerary contexts reflect social practices related to the ritual and symbolic behaviours surrounding death and the relationship with everyday objects.
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.1017/S095977432300015X
       
  • Social Exclusion in Ancient Egypt: A Sociological Approach

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      Authors: Jiménez Meroño; Beatriz
      Pages: 111 - 126
      Abstract: Social exclusion has been faced in modern societies as a phenomenon to be prevented in terms of equality. However, it can also be explored in past societies, where some individuals could confront situations of marginalization and exclusion. Previous scholars have accepted or rejected the existence of social exclusion in Ancient Egypt, although none of them has employed a theoretical framework to study it. This paper shows social exclusion as a phenomenon present in Ancient Egypt, analyses the available Egyptian evidence from a theoretical basis inherent to the social sciences, especially Sociology, and applies it to two case studies.
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000161
       
  • Hanging over the Void. Uses of Long Ropes and Climbing Rope Ladders in
           Prehistory as Illustrated in Levantine Rock Art

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      Authors: Bea; Manuel, Roman, Dídac, Domingo, Inés
      Pages: 127 - 145
      Abstract: Direct or indirect evidence of ropemaking are scarce in European prehistory. Only a few references to Middle or Upper Palaeolithic remains are known to us, with more examples towards the Holocene. The archaeological contexts of ropes offer little information about possible uses, as the activities they are used for are often archaeologically invisible. However, some rock-art traditions shed some light on potential uses, worth exploring. In Spain, Levantine rock art offers the best graphic examples across Europe showing various uses of ropes, including climbing. Starting from the recently discovered climbing scene of Barranco Gómez site (Teruel, Spain), including the best preserved and more complex use of ropes seen so far in Levantine art, this paper analyses representations of ropes in this art, as well as their varieties and diverse uses. Our study suggests that different rope-making techniques were used by Levantine societies, which we believe are indicative of a complex rope-making technology, requiring a considerable investment of time and efforts. It also shows a certain variety of rope climbing techniques and rope climbing gear, illustrating that both were mastered by Levantine societies. Moreover, a preferential use of ropes in honey-hunting scenes is observed.
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000173
       
  • Using Topic Modelling to Reassess Heritage Values from a People-centred
           Perspective: Applications from the North of England

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      Authors: Tenzer; Martina, Schofield, John
      Pages: 147 - 168
      Abstract: The historic environment—comprising a palimpsest of landscapes, buildings and objects—carries meaning and plays a crucial role in giving people a sense of place, identity and belonging. It represents a repository of ever-accumulating collective and individually held values—shared perceptions, experiences, life histories, beliefs and traditions. These social or private values are mostly ascribed by people to familiar places within this environment based on the ontological security which this everyday heritage provides. However, these values are notoriously hard to capture and categorize. This makes it difficult to incorporate them into heritage-management strategies, which typically rely on objective, fact-based datasets. In this paper, we present a new methodology to capture those elusive values, by combining Topic Modelling with the principles of Grounded Theory. Results show that our novel approach is viable and replicable and that these important values can be effectively and meaningfully integrated, thus creating more inclusive approaches to heritage management than exist currently.
      PubDate: 2023-06-15
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000203
       
  • Wealth in Livestock, Wealth-in-People, and Shifting Modes of Production in
           the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of Jordan – CORRIGENDUM

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      Authors: Price; Max, Makarewicz, Cheryl A.
      Pages: 169 - 169
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/S0959774323000197
       
 
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