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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 300 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted by number of followers
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 65)
World Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity and Classics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
E&G Quaternary Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Scottish Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tel Aviv : Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Science and Technology of Archaeological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Time and Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Journal of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studia Celtica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trabajos de Prehistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Δελτίον Χριστιανικής Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southeastern Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La zaranda de ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cane Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Restauro Archeologico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Virtual Archaeology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Archipel     Open Access  
ROMVLA     Open Access  
SCIRES-IT : SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology     Open Access  
The Midden     Open Access  
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Zephyrvs     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Scripta Ethnologica     Open Access  
Transfers     Full-text available via subscription  
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1866-9565 - ISSN (Online) 1866-9557
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Integrated and interactive 4D system for archaeological stratigraphy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The digitization of some of the processes carried out in an archaeological excavation is changing the way of working at the site. Today, new technologies coexist with traditional methodologies. The study of stratigraphy can combine drawings of profiles and plans, the Harris Matrix diagram, as well as digitized files that perform a complete record of the stratigraphic sequence. However, this information is usually unaggregated from the rest of the information system that makes up the archaeological record. In this paper, we present an integrated software tool and the associated methodology to record, store, visualize and analyze the 3D stratigraphy of a site. The implementation uses spatial databases to store information of a heterogeneous nature and game engines for the visualization and interaction with this information. During the excavation process, the strata are scanned using the Tof technology, which is available in many smartphones. The resulting 3D model of the stratum, once uploaded to the software system, allows us to visualize the sequence of strata incorporating the findings into their original arrangement. Some additional tools, such as the scrollbar, help to perform a temporal analysis of the site. The result is a 4D interactive stratigraphy tool, which together with the Harris Matrix, complements the archaeological record and facilitates the work to archaeologists. This methodology also allows to speed up the on-site work and the subsequent analysis, while improving the user experience with the 3D archaeological site replica.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
       
  • The evolution of pyrotechnology in the Upper Palaeolithic of Europe

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Pyrotechnology, the ability for hominins to use fire as a tool, is considered to be one of the most important behavioural adaptations in human evolution. While several studies have focused on identifying the emergence of fire use and later Middle Palaeolithic Neanderthal combustion features, far fewer have focused on modern human fire use. As a result, we currently have more data characterizing the hominin fire use prior to 50,000 years before present (BP), than we do for Upper Palaeolithic of Europe. Here we review the available data on Upper Palaeolithic fire evidence between 48,000 and 13,000 years BP to understand the evolution of modern human pyrotechnology. Our results suggest regional clustering of feature types during the Aurignacian and further demonstrate a significant change in modern human fire use, namely in terms of the intensification and structural variation between 35,000 and 28,000 years BP. This change also corresponds to the development and spread of the Gravettian technocomplex throughout Europe and may correspond to a shift in the perception of fire. Additionally, we also show a significant lack of available high-resolution data on combustion features during the height of last glacial maximum. Furthermore, we highlight the need for more research into the effects of syn- and post-depositional processes on archaeological combustion materials and a need for more standardization of descriptions in the published literature. Overall, our review shows a significant and complex developmental process for Upper Palaeolithic fire use which in many ways mirrors the behavioural evolution of modern humans seen in other archaeological mediums.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Isotopic reconstruction of the subsistence strategy for a Central Italian
           Bronze Age community (Pastena cave, 2nd millennium BCE)

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      Abstract: Abstract The Pastena cave is located in central Italy, and its best-preserved sector is Grotticella W2, which is dated radiometrically to the Early-Middle Bronze Age. The aim of this paper is to explore human diet, animal husbandry, and plant management, analysing the findings there discovered. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was carried out on 40 charred seeds, six faunal remains, and four human individuals, investigating the whole bio-archaeological material available. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first papers presenting stable isotope analysis on carpological remains dated to the Italian Early-Middle Bronze Age. The obtained results are consistent with a diet based on terrestrial protein, mainly on plants, and secondly on animal products. The data suggest that plants, especially broad beans, were partially subjected to human management, while livestock was managed through different husbandry strategies. The cooperation between archaeological studies and molecular analysis allows us to contribute to clarifying the economic strategies for a Central Italian community in a scenario that is still poor in published data.
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
       
  • Overall frailty gauged in victims of the Italian plague (Imola,
           1630–1632): was plague an indiscriminate killer'

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      Abstract: Abstract Plague is an epidemic-prone infectious disease that has affected humanity with catastrophic effects throughout almost its entire history. One of the most intriguing questions of the last years is whether plague kills indiscriminately. To address the question regarding pre-existent health conditions, this study aims to assess the overall frailty of plague victims and compare it with a sample of non-plague victims from the same period and area. Frailty was assessed using the biological index of frailty (BIF) on two skeletal series dated to the seventeenth century from north-eastern Italy: one of plague victims from the Imola’s Lazzaretto (n = 93) and another from an attritional cemetery located in Ravenna (n = 58). Comparisons between the BIF values of the two samples were performed separately by sex and age classes. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted to analyze factors associated with the risk of dying from plague. The age-adjusted ANCOVA test revealed no significant differences in BIF results between the two samples. However, according to Cox’s regression, individuals in the lowest BIF category (the least frail) had a significantly higher hazard of dying from plague. Although we found no differences between the mean frailty values of plague and non-plague victims in the univariate analysis, individuals with a low level of frailty showed a higher hazard of dying from plague than from other causes. In fact, otherwise healthier individuals (i.e., with low levels of frailty) could be found only among plague victims.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Not so unusual Neanderthal bone tools: new examples from Abri Lartet,
           France

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      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Tracing the missing fragments of Cycladic architecture: a
           geo-ethnoarchaeological study on the degradable architectural elements of
           the Cyclades

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      Abstract: Abstract Cycladic architecture has been the focus of archaeological, ethnographic and architectural studies, which have produced significant knowledge about the islands’ built environment. Despite the number of published studies, there is little archaeological evidence related to the parts of buildings, such as roofs and second storeys made of degradable materials (i.e. sediments and organic materials), which are nowadays lost or poorly preserved. On the other hand, ethnographic and architectural studies lack the details of local variabilities regarding the construction of the fragile architectural components. This geo-ethnoarchaeological study applied a high-resolution analysis including soil micromorphology and phytoliths to the roofs of abandoned traditional farmsteads (mitata) on two islands, Kato Kouphonisi and Naxos in the Cyclades, supplemented by oral testimonies from elderly residents and published ethnographic information. This was combined with comparable microstratigraphic analysis conducted on sediments from the nearby Early Bronze Age site of Dhaskalio, Keros. The analysis of abandoned farmsteads generated a high-resolution dataset of micro-characteristics linked to known practices and materials of traditional roof construction. These were then traced into our archaeological samples to detect similar features and ultimately improve on contextual interpretation beyond field observations. We therefore suggest that this geo-ethnoarchaeological approach is useful in the identification of roof sediments in archaeological deposits, enhancing the ability to recognise such events in the field and demonstrating that a signature of collapse events can be defined.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Interpersonal violence in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt: evidence of
           craniofacial traumas from the tomb of Pwinre (TT39) (fifteenth century
           BC), Luxor

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Skull 39-S1, from the tomb of Pwinre (TT39) the second prophet of Amun during the Middle Kingdom, was macroscopically and radiologically analysed. The skull presents a consolidated fracture of the nasal bones with displacement and tripod fracture, which caused a collapse of the floor of the left orbit, a thrusting of the maxilla over the zygomatic and left zygomatic-maxillary suture and zygomatic arch fracture with overthrusting of the fragments. These two fractures, independent of each other, are consistent with one or more episodes of interpersonal violence, whose ultimate origin may be found in impacts of a fist or a blunt object. The border situation of Thebes (ancient Luxor) and sports/ritual practices of Nubians put us in a possible scenario of interpersonal violence as the formal practice of stick-fighting or wrestling combat typical of this geographical area.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • The “post-weanling’s conundrum”: exploring the impact of infant and
           child feeding practices on early mortality in the Bronze Age burial cave
           of Moro de Alins, north-eastern Iberia, through stable isotope analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract The relationship between infant and child feeding practices and early mortality is difficult to address in past societies. Here, stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope measurements of bulk bone and sequential dentine samples of deciduous second and/or permanent first molars of four younger children, one older child, one late adolescent, and two young adults (n = 8) from Moro de Alins cave, north-eastern Iberia, are used to explore the potential impact of early-life nutrition on mortality in the Bronze Age. Isotope results are compatible with generally short exclusive breastfeeding and standard weaning periods compared to other pre-modern populations. However, there are differences in exclusive breastfeeding mean δ13C values and in Δ13C trophic shifts between exclusive breastfeeding and immediate post-weaning isotope values for those individuals who survived into adolescence and adulthood and those who did not. While the former seem to be consistent with trophic distances published for modern mother–infant pairs, the latter are above most of them. This may suggest that individuals who consumed similar foods to their mothers or suffered from less physiological stress during or after weaning had greater chances of survival during early childhood and beyond. Post-weaning seems to have been a particularly stressful period of life, where a number of instances of patterns of opposing isotopic covariance compatible with catabolic changes, often preceding death among non-survivors, are detected. This outcome shows the key role of nutritional and/or physiological status in early-life morbidity and mortality among partially and especially fully weaned children from pre-antibiotic, pre-vaccination, and poor sanitation contexts and proposes that adult survival is rooted in early life experiences, in keeping with the developmental origins of health and disease.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • Fuel sources, natural vegetation and subsistence at a high-altitude
           aboriginal settlement in Tenerife, Canary Islands: Microcontextual
           geoarchaeological data from Roques de García Rockshelter

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      Abstract: Abstract High-altitude island environments, with their characteristic strong seasonal contrast and limited resources, are challenging contexts for human subsistence. However, although archaeological contexts in this kind of setting hold great potential to explore the diversity of human biological and cultural adaptations, such sites are rare. In this paper, we present the results of a microcontextual geoarchaeological study carried out at Roques de García Rockshelter, the highest altitude cave archaeological site in the Canary Islands (Spain). The site was inhabited by the aboriginal population of the island and has yielded a rich archaeological context derived from combustion activity. We carried out soil micromorphology to characterize site function and lipid biomarker analysis to investigate the natural and anthropogenic organic record. Our data indicate that the aboriginal groups that occupied the site kept goats with them (in the rockshelter) and probably used Juniperus turbinata (sabina) wood, a current distant fuel source. These results suggest that the aboriginal societies of Tenerife occupied the highlands regularly, taking their herds and firewood with them. Further research is necessary to explore the use and exploitation of fuel sources, the seasonality of these occupations and their differences with lowland sites.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • Archaeometric analysis of the pottery from the Chalcolithic site of El
           Cortijo de Montiel Bajo (Santo Tomé de la Vega, Jaén, Spain)

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the findings gleaned from a series of macroscopic, colourimetric, mineralogical, geochemical and microstructural analyses of a pottery assemblage brought to light during the archaeological excavation (2012–2013) of the settlement of El Cortijo de Montiel Bajo (Santo Tomé de la Vega, Jaén, Spain). The different analyses aim at identifying the mineralogical composition and manufacturing processes of the Chalcolithic vessels. The typological and stratigraphic analysis of the different structural complexes, combined with a radiocarbon dating, place the site in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC. The study sheds light on the phases of transition characteristic of Eastern Andalusia’s Copper Age and the wide range of analytical techniques confirms both the uniformity of the raw materials (evidencing a local provenance) and that the pottery production process was well integrated into the technological traditions of the south of the Iberian Peninsula.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Dental developmental defects due to mercurial treatment in a child from
           sixteenth-century Alghero (Sardinia, Italy)

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      Abstract: Abstract A child aged 3.5 to 4.5 years, exhumed from the cemetery of Alghero that is referable to the plague outbreak of 1582–83, showed remarkable dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. In particular, the central incisors exhibited large hypoplastic pits, and the first molars were characterized by a honeycomb appearance with large areas of missing enamel. Microtomographic analysis revealed very low values of enamel volume, while the dentin volumes of the crowns were mainly preserved; chemical analysis showed very high levels of mercury in the hard tissues. The enamel disturbances observed in the child from Alghero are highly suggestive of the administration of mercurial treatment to the individual during early childhood. Despite the absence of the typical signs of congenital syphilis, such as Hutchinson’s incisors, it cannot be excluded that the child was affected by the disease. After the appearance of venereal syphilis in Europe at the end of the fifteenth century, mercury was employed to treat its severe skin manifestations, remaining in use until the nineteenth century despite its well-known negative side effects. However, mercury was also used in the treatment of a number of dermatological conditions and to eliminate head lice and fleas. Regardless of the disease the child was treated for, the case presented provides evidence of some of the highest levels of mercury recorded in osteoarcheological remains so far, making the individual the youngest patient documented in the paleopathological literature to exhibit signs of mercurial treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Refinement of retrospective photogrammetry: an approach to 3D modeling of
           archaeological sites using archival data

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      Abstract: Abstract Photogrammetric 3D modeling of archaeological excavations, structures and monuments using archival photographs has achieved encouraging results thus far. This paper discusses the limitations posed by analogue archival photographs in photogrammetric processes and limiting the photographs used to one moment in time as well as photogrammetric methods with regard to camera calibrations by eliminating elements that reduce the quality of the modeling. This can be particularly important for models using archival photographs from different cameras and photographic times. When archival photographs are made available in an online database, there have been a number of processing elements that contribute to a reduction in the quality and accuracy of the photographs and their ability to be used viably in 3D modeling. Based primarily on retrospective photogrammetric projects undertaken in 2018, this paper demonstrates how archival photographs can perform at a level equivalent to contemporary digital photographs which have metadata. The work presented here illustrates the use of photographs archived by American School of Classical Studies in Athens for reconstructing archaeological sites in the Athenian Agora in order to aid in ascertaining deterioration as well as determining means of preservation and restoration.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
       
  • Perceived space: Demonstrating a quantified approach to illumination in
           archaeological sites based on Asian Buddhist cave temples 5th–8th
           century CE

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      Abstract: Abstract Recent advances in the three-dimensional modelling and lighting simulations provide an opportunity to engage with role of illumination in the functionality of space in archaeological contexts. The original spatial contexts of the once brightly coloured paintings and statuary of the cave temples of South, Central and East Asia provide the perfect case study since they are preserved in situ and their entire form is preserved. Visual perception is a key factor in the experience of a space. To this end, this paper presents a precis on the forms of lighting which were present in these regions during the 5th–8th centuries when these caves were being constructed before presenting data from physical and simulated lighting experiments which demonstrate the varying extents to which the interior of these caves would have been visible to devotees under different potential lighting solutions. These data are then extrapolated in order to outline the way in which lighting affected the historical functionality of the caves.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
       
  • Empires and the acceleration of wealth inequality in the pre-Islamic Near
           East: an archaeological approach

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      Abstract: Abstract We present an approach comparing wealth inequality between c. 3000 BCE and 224 CE in the Near East using house sizes and urban area from 1060 houses in 98 archaeological sites. We divide this dataset into two chronological phases, firstly c. 3000-800 BCE and secondly 800 BCE - 224 CE. The first phase is characterised by small, relatively weak states, while the second phase is characterised by major empires and large states, termed as the Age of Empire (AoE). For these two periods, inequality is measured using house size in relation to settlement scaling, and applying, in addition, the Gini and Atkinson indices on house sizes. Results demonstrate that pre-AoE houses have a lower scaling metric (β) that measures house size relative to site size (0.24), while for the AoE the value is higher (0.41). This indicates more rapid median house size expansion during the AoE as cities grew larger. For the pre-AoE, Gini and Atkinson inequality measures result in 0.45 and 0.16, respectively, while the AoE demonstrates 0.54 and 0.24 for the same measures, respectively. This demonstrates greater house size inequality in the AoE. Overall, we see that wealth inequality is not only greater in the AoE, but that increased wealth inequality has a likely power law relationship to increased settlement area. Alternative metrics to minimise data biases affecting results, including median house size and bootstrap sampling, are applied to strengthen these results and overall conclusions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • To be or not to be a lithic tool: analysing the limestone pieces of Sima
           del Elefante (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain)

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      Abstract: Abstract Sima del Elefante (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) is a model site of the Early Pleistocene in Europe. The site has yielded numerous faunal remains, two human fossils and a small assemblage of stone tools. The study of Unit TE9 has determined that the first humans inhabited western Europe at least 1.2 Ma ago. The lithic assemblage can be chronologically attributed to Mode 1, although the small number of lithic tools and their poor conservation make it difficult to determine more specific characteristics. This study analyses a set of objects made of limestone, the raw material of which the cave is formed. The analysis described in this paper was conducted with the support of several experiments that have the goal of determining whether these objects were produced by humans or not. The development of an experimental knapping programme has allowed us to determine which pieces are the result of human activity, to describe the physical–mechanical qualities of the raw material the pieces are made of and to identify the relationship between these items and the other elements recovered at the site.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • A disabling injury reveals interpersonal care among hunter-gatherers in
           Patagonia

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      Abstract: Abstract This study discusses the biological and social implications of a disabling injury suffered by a Late Holocene hunter-gatherer from Northeastern Patagonia. Osseous modifications were analysed through macroscopy, radiography, computed tomography, and three-dimensional models. The differential diagnoses followed bioarchaeological and modern clinical literature, and the overall case was interpreted within the Bioarchaeology of Care theoretical framework. The individual presented a healed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau, a highly disabling injury of the inferior limb, which constrained its locomotion and could have caused new demands on other parts of the body. The restricted mobility produced by this type of fracture and the state of remodelling imply that the individual received different levels of interpersonal attention throughout the progression of the healing process. The model of care for this individual recognizes at least a stage of “direct support” for basic tasks in the short-/medium-term and then “accommodation assistance” in the long-term while he became more autonomous. Apart from thoroughly describing an infrequent injury, this study case provides clear evidence of interpersonal care strategies among Patagonian hunter-gatherers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
       
  • Microvertebrate studies in archaeological contexts: Middle Paleolithic to
           early Holocene past environments

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      PubDate: 2022-09-06
       
  • Rabbits beyond hunter-gatherers’ diets in Western Europe' The case
           for leporid accumulations in Neolithic Southwestern Iberia

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      Abstract: Abstract Rabbit and hare remains are a common occurrence in Mediterranean archaeological contexts. A lot of effort was made to try and ascertain the signatures of different accumulating agents to understand if humans are involved in accumulating these small preys in different archaeological sites. In the last decades, this led to important breakthroughs in hunter-gatherer subsistence debates, but not so much on Late Prehistory agropastoral groups. Southwestern Iberia is a region where Neolithic sites are found in several geographical settings, many of them with important assemblages of rabbit remains. We present the first overview of pieces of evidence regarding leporid accumulations in this large region during the Neolithic (~ 5500–3000 cal BC). On the one hand, we conclude that taphonomical data is generally lacking, thus hindering the assessment of proof for a large-scale anthropogenic influence. On the other hand, when in-depth analysis is made, results point towards intrusive and/or exogenous origins, even if recovery and methodological bias must also be considered. Future works should address these questions to properly assess leporids’ relevance in early agropastoral diets.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
       
  • Application of arsenic surveying for determining the position of former
           mining and metallurgical constructions: an example from the Radzimowice
           area (Lower Silesia, SW Poland)

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      Abstract: Abstract Soil geochemical prospecting is becoming an increasingly important part of archaeological research. Therefore, it is possible to determine the location of various archaeological facilities that no longer exist in the study region. In this study, a morphological analysis of the “Stara Góra” deposit in Radzimowice (Lower Silesia, Poland) was performed using LiDAR DTM (light detection and ranging digital terrain model) images and historical data that describe mining in the vicinity of Radzimowice. This method identified numerous remains of centuries-old mining and metallurgical activity. The data collected were used to create a map of arsenic soil concentrations in this area. The map helped point to the exact locations of the old ore-processing facilities. Geochemical mapping was performed on a 20 × 20-m grid at a sampling depth of approximately 0.2 m. The samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRF-EDS). The highest concentrations of this element occurred near the arsenic calciner and related dumps, as well as near dumps created during extraction from the Arnold shaft. In summary, in this article, we present the possibility of using a geochemical map of arsenic concentrations in soils supported by LiDAR data for archaeological purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
  • Refining silver at the castle: the rare case of a large early modern cupel
           from Middelburg-in-Flanders, Belgium

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      Abstract: Abstract Ash cupels were widely used in early modern Europe for small-scale refining of noble metals in artisanal workshops, mints and assay offices. The manufacture and use of cupels display considerable variability from context to context, which poses both challenges and opportunities for modern investigation. Here, we present the analytical study of an unusually large cupel recovered from castle of Middleburg-in-Flanders (Belgium), probably dated to the sixteenth or early seventeenth century, which we discuss in connection to historical sources and other archaeological finds. We demonstrate that the cupel was made of bone ash mixed with a small fraction of another calcareous material, and most likely used for the refining of silver heavily debased with copper. We illustrate simple methods to investigate the manufacture of cupels and the nature and amount of metals being refined, as well as approaches to assess and discuss cupellation performance in archaeological contexts.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
 
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