Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)


Showing 1 - 29 of 29 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ceramics     Open Access  
Ceramics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
CeROArt     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Challenging Glass Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Crystal Growth & Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Glass and Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Glass Technology - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Glass Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Ceramics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access  
Journal of Ceramics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids : X     Open Access  
Journal of the American Ceramic Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of The Chinese Ceramic Society     Open Access  
Journal of the European Ceramic Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society : 한국세라믹학회지     Hybrid Journal  
Liquid Crystals Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Old Potter's Almanack     Open Access  
Open Ceramics     Open Access  
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
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ISSN (Online) 2571-6131
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 253-268: Smart Self-Sensing Piezoresistive
           Composite Materials for Structural Health Monitoring

    • Authors: Relebohile George Qhobosheane, Monjur Morshed Rabby, Vamsee Vadlamudi, Kenneth Reifsnider, Rassel Raihan
      First page: 253
      Abstract: The use of fiber-reinforced composite materials has widely spread in various sectors, including aerospace, defense, and civil industry. The assessment of these heterogeneous material systems is important for safer and risk-free applications and has contributed to the need for self-sensing composites. This work is focused on the development of piezoresistive composites, the prediction of their performance and structural health monitoring (SHM). Additionally, this work unpacks the complexity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) micro-fabrication and the development of piezoresistive and electromagnetic (EM) waves detection electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the CNTs structure and morphologies. The manufactured CNTs were incorporated in epoxy systems to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)-CNTs smart composites with piezoresistive properties. The detection of micro-damage onset and its progression was carried out in mode I, to evaluate the sensitivity of the smart composites to damage development. The change in electrical conductivity of the nanotubes-reinforced composite systems due to localized mechanical strains enabled crack propagation detection. The relationship between crack propagation, fracture toughness, and electrical resistivity of the smart composite was analyzed.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5030020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 173-181: Microstructure, Thermal and Mechanical
           Properties of Refractory Linings Modified with Polymer Fibers

    • Authors: Marcin Prochwicz, Paweł Czaja, Jerzy Morgiel, Tomasz Czeppe, Anna Góral
      First page: 173
      Abstract: The reduction in the inherent brittleness of coatings applied on parts of ceramic shielding used for continuous steel casting (CSC) processes is highly desired, since it can significantly diminish losses occurring during post-application handling and mounting. One of such coatings, prepared mostly from fused silica, ludox, tabular alumina, chamotte, cenospheres, dextrine and aluminum powder, is known commercially as Thermacoat™. The present experiment is focused on the effect of the modification of its composition by rising the content of the cenospheres (max. 2.5 wt.%) or by introducing up to 1.5 wt.% of polymer Belmix™ fibers (~34 μm diameter/12 mm length) on the microstructure and mechanical properties. The maximum amount of introduced additions was limited by the accompanying loss of mass viscosity, which must allow for deposition through immersion. Next, the differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermogravimetric analysis techniques were employed to evaluate the extent of the weight change and heat response of the mass during the drying and annealing stages. The dried materials’ microstructure was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical composition was studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Finally, a three-point flexural bending method was used to determine changes in the material mechanical properties. The performed experiments proved that the small addition (~1 wt.%) of polymer fibers is sufficient for the significant improvement of the Thermacoat™ green mechanical strength at ambient temperature, presenting a reproducible ultimate flexural strength of ~0.2 MPa.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5020015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 182-200: Highlighting of LaF3 Reactivity with SiO2
           and GeO2 at High Temperature

    • Authors: Hussein Fneich, Manuel Vermillac, Daniel R. Neuville, Wilfried Blanc, Ahmad Mehdi
      First page: 182
      Abstract: LaF3 is commonly added to oxide glass, in particular to silica, to form oxyfluoride glass. After appropriate thermal treatment at a temperature lower than 800 °C, usually, glass ceramics are obtained. Recently, LaF3 nanoparticles have been used as precursors to obtain amorphous nanoparticles of undefined composition in optical fiber. However, fiber fabrication necessitates temperature much higher (typically up to 2000 °C) than the one required for bulk glass. In this article, we report on the reactivity of fluoride ions in LaF3 with SiO2 and GeO2 (a common dopant used to dope optical fiber) powders at high temperature. TGA, EDX-SEM, XRD and Raman analyses were performed. Above 1000 °C, LaF3 starts to react, preferentially with SiO2, to form SiF4 gaseous species. The remaining lanthanum ions form La2Si2O7 and La2Ge2O7 phases. These results could contribute to improve material development for the fiber optics community.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5020016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 201-209: Synthesis of Submicron, Nanostructured
           Spherical Powders of Y3Al5O12-Phases by the Method by Ultrasonic Spray
           Pyrolysis and Investigation of Their Structure and Properties

    • Authors: Rainer Gadow, Valery I. Antipov, Alexey G. Kolmakov, Leonid V. Vinogradov, Maxim D. Larionov, Yuliya E. Mukhina
      First page: 201
      Abstract: The results of laboratory studies of the submicron Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phase powders synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis are presented. A structural-phase analysis of aerosol powders was carried out and an assessment of the tendency of the synthesized powders to sintering was made. The working solution for the aerosol was prepared on the basis of distilled water with aluminum nitrate hexahydrate Al(NO3)3 x 6H2O and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate Y(NO3)3 x 6H2O dissolved in specified proportions. Spherical submicron nonagglomerated powders of Y3Al5O12–phase with a small YAlO3-phase content were synthesized by this method. Powder granules with a diameter of 0.75 microns had a nano-fragmentary polycrystalline structure with an average crystal size of 16 nm. During the sintering of powders with such a unique structure, diffusion mass transfer processes are activated, which contributes to a more efficient compaction of the material. Aerosol powder sintering experiments have shown that the best results are achieved when the process is carried out at 1700 °C for 6 h. As a result, a dense YAG-ceramic material was obtained, the structure of which does not contain residual pores and is characterized by a uniform distribution of equiaxed grains.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5020017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 210-236: Cermet Systems: Synthesis, Properties,
           and Applications

    • Authors: Subin Antony Jose, Merbin John, Pradeep L. Menezes
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Cermet is an advanced class of material consisting of a hard ceramic phase along with a metallic binding phase with the combined advantages of both the ceramic and the metal phase. The superior properties of this class of materials are particularly useful in high-temperature, tribological, and machining applications. This review paper seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the various cermet systems. More specifically, the most commonly used cermet systems based on tungsten carbide (WC), titanium carbide (TiC), titanium carbonitride (TiCN), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are discussed based on their development, properties, and applications. The effect of different metallic binders and their composition on the tribological and mechanical properties of these cermet systems is elaborated. The most common processing techniques for cermet systems, such as powder metallurgy (PM), reaction synthesis (RS), thermal spray (TS), cold spray (CS), and laser-based additive manufacturing techniques are discussed. The influence of the processing parameters in each case is evaluated. Finally, the applications and challenges of cermet systems are summarized.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 237-252: Investigation of the Microstructure of
           Fine-Grained YPO4:Gd Ceramics with Xenotime Structure after Xe Irradiation

    • Authors: Dmitriy A. Mikhaylov, Ekaterina A. Potanina, Aleksey V. Nokhrin, Albina I. Orlova, Pavel A. Yunin, Nikita V. Sakharov, Maksim S. Boldin, Oleg A. Belkin, Vladimir A. Skuratov, Askar T. Issatov, Vladimir N. Chuvil’deev, Nataliya Y. Tabachkova
      First page: 237
      Abstract: This paper reports on the preparation of xenotime-structured ceramics using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. Y0.95Gd0.05PO4 (YPO4:Gd) phosphates were obtained using the sol-gel method. The synthesized powders were nanodispersed and were agglomerated (the agglomerates sizes were 10–50 µm). The ceramics had a fine-grained microstructure and a high relative density (98.67 ± 0.18%). The total time of the SPS process was approximately 18 min. The sintered high-density YPO4:Gd ceramics with a xenotime structure were irradiated with 132Xe+26 ions with 167 MeV of energy and fluences in the range of 1 × 1012–3 × 1013 cm−2. Complete amorphization was not achieved even at the maximum fluence. The calculated value of the critical fluence was (9.2 ± 0.1) × 1014 cm−2. According to the results of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), the volume fraction of the amorphous structure increased from 20 to 70% with increasing fluence from 1 × 1012 up to 3 × 1013 cm−2. The intensity of the 200 YPO4:Gd XRD peak reached ~80% of the initial intensity after recovery annealing (700 °C, 18 h).
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 34-43: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
           of Different Connector Designs for All-Ceramic Implant-Supported Fixed
           Dental Prostheses

    • Authors: Laura H. J. Alberto, Lohitha Kalluri, Josephine F. Esquivel-Upshaw, Yuanyuan Duan
      First page: 34
      Abstract: All-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) tend to fracture at the connector regions due to high stress concentration at these areas influenced by their design. This study was performed as an adjunct to an existing clinical study to evaluate the influence of the different radii of curvature of gingival embrasure on the stress distribution of a three-unit all-ceramic implanted supported FDP. Three three-dimensional (3D) models were created by scanning two titanium dental implants, their suitable zirconia abutments, and a patient-retrieved dental prosthesis using a micro-CT scanner. The radius of curvature of the gingival embrasure for the distal connector of the FDP was altered to measure 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm. A finite element analysis (FEA) software (ABAQUS) was used to evaluate the impact of different connector designs on the distribution of stresses. Maximum Principal Stress data was collected from the individual components (veneer, framework, and abutments). The radius of curvature of gingival embrasure had a significant influence on the stress distribution at the assessed components. The tensile peak stresses at all structures were highest in the 0.25 mm model, while the 0.50 mm and 0.75 mm models presented similar values and more uniform stress distribution.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 44-54: Interfacial Reactions between Si and SiO2
           with Ceramic Additives

    • Authors: Yu-Hsiang Chen, Kun-Lin Lin, Chien-Cheng Lin
      First page: 44
      Abstract: In this study, 10 wt.% ceramics—Al2O3, La2O3, Y2O3, MgO, and TiO2—were employed as additives for amorphous SiO2 after pressing and annealing at 1300 °C. The amorphous SiO2 changed to cristobalite SiO2. Through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, the reaction phases of La2Si2O7, Y2Si2O7, and MgSiO3 (Mg2SiO4) were found in the SiO2 with 10 wt.% La2O3, Y2O3, and MgO additives. Cracks formed in the Si and SiO2–ceramic additive sites because of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion among the Si, SiO2, ceramic additives, and reaction phases. After Si came into contact with the SiO2–ceramics, two types of microstructures were found: those with and those without an amorphous SiO2 reaction layer at the interface. Amorphous SiO2 layer formation is due to the replacement of the Si position in SiO2 by Al3+ and Ti4+ impurities, which can break the bonds between Si atoms. The O content in the Si decreased from 6–9 × 1017 atoms/cm3 for SiO2 to less than ~1016 for SiO2–Al2O3 and SiO2–MgO. The average resistivity of the Si was 3 Ω·cm for SiO2 and decreased to 0.12–0.36 Ω·cm for the SiO2 with ceramic additives.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 55-74: Sinterability, Mechanical Properties and
           Wear Behavior of Ti3SiC2 and Cr2AlC MAX Phases

    • Authors: Eduardo Tabares, Michael Kitzmantel, Erich Neubauer, Antonia Jimenez-Morales, Sophia A. Tsipas
      First page: 55
      Abstract: MAX phases are a promising family of materials for several demanding, high-temperature applications and severe conditions. Their combination of metallic and ceramic properties makes MAX phases great candidates to be applied in energy production processes, such as high temperature heat exchangers for catalytic devices. For their successful application, however, the effect of the processing method on properties such as wear and mechanical behavior needs to be further established. In this work, the mechanical and wear properties of self-synthesized Ti3SiC2 and Cr2AlC MAX phase powders consolidated by different powder metallurgy routes are evaluated. Uniaxial pressing and sintering, cold isostatic pressing and sintering and hot pressing were explored as processing routes, and samples were characterized by analyzing microstructure, phase constitution and porosity. Wear behavior was studied by reciprocating-sliding tests, evaluating the wear rate by the loss of material and the wear mechanism.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 75-96: Comparative Properties of Porous
           Phyllosilicate-Based Ceramics Shaped by Freeze-Tape Casting

    • Authors: Kassoum Barry, Gisèle Laure Lecomte-Nana, Mohamed Seynou, Michael Faucher, Philippe Blanchart, Claire Peyratout
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Porous phyllosilicate-based ceramics were manufactured by freeze-tape casting from clays of different particle size and morphology in order to characterize their microstructure and stress to rupture changes before and after firing. Three raw clays were selected: HCR (77% Halloysite–10Å), KORS (29% kaolinite), and KCR kaolin (98% kaolinite). These clays exhibited a monomodal distribution and were used to prepare four slurries, three with each clay material and one consisting of a mixture of KCR and HCR labeled KHCR. After shaping by freeze-tape casting, the porosity and stress to rupture obtained by a biaxial flexural test were collected for disk-like samples after drying and sintering at 1200 °C. Results showed that KCR ceramic materials had the highest biaxial bending strength (70 ± 1.1 MPa) and those from KORS had the highest porosity value (80 ± 1%). SEM observation revealed a difference in microstructure and texture for the manufactured porous ceramic materials. In the KCR ceramic disks, the flattened pores appeared more textured, and the primary mullite crystallites formed a rigid skeleton within the amorphous phase. KORS ceramic materials showed a small quantity of secondary mullite needles which were randomly dispersed in a vitreous phase. The relatively important vitreous phase in the porous materials of HCR led to the bulk formation of small mullite particles. The biaxial flexural strength values were related to the presence of the mullite, as well as to the microstructure (volume, morphology, and size distribution of pores) after sintering.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 97-98: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Ceramics in

    • Authors: Ceramics Editorial Office Ceramics Editorial Office
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 99-107: 4-Unit Molar Fixed Partial Dentures Made
           from Highly Translucent and Multilayer Zirconia Materials: An In Vitro

    • Authors: Thomas Strasser, Alois Schmid, Christina Huber, Martin Rosentritt
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Background: Modern zirconia blanks for the fabrication of dental CAD/CAM restorations provide a layer structure with color and strength transitions. Variation in the yttria content has a particular effect on the characteristics of the materials. The properties of dental restorations may vary depending on the milling position within the blank. Especially for wide-span fixed partial dentures (FPDs), relevant effects on clinical performance might result. This study investigated if the application of high-translucent zirconia and positioning within multilayer zirconia blanks affect the in vitro performance of 4-unit FPDs. Methods: 4-unit FPDs were fabricated from monolayer 3Y-TZP-A, 3Y-TZP, 4Y-TZP, 5Y-TZP, 4Y/5Y-TZP, and different positions within multilayer zirconia blanks (3Y-TZP/5Y-TZP). The FPDs were adhesively luted to resin abutment teeth, divided into groups (n = 8 each): “baseline” (24 h water-storage)/“TCML” (chewing simulation by means of thermalcycling and mechanical loading), and loaded to fracture. The statistics included mean and standard deviation, one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and Pearson correlation (α = 0.05). Results: The mean fracture force values varied between 803.8 ± 171.7 N (5Y) and 1474.1 ± 193.0 N (3Y) (baseline) and 713.5 ± 190.9 N (5Y) and 1337.4 ± 205.6 N (3Y) (TCML). Significantly different (p = 0.000) results between the groups and individual significant differences (p ≤ 0.039) were found. Conclusions: Positioning within multilayer blanks affected the fracture force only slightly. Multilayer, 3Y-TZP-A, 3Y-TZP, and 4Y-TZP seem appropriate for the clinical application with 4-unit molar FPDs. Application of 5Y-TZP is critical.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 108-119: Powder Mixture for the Production of
           Microporous Ceramics Based on Hydroxyapatite

    • Authors: Tatiana Safronova, Stepan Chichulin, Tatiana Shatalova, Yaroslav Filippov
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Powder mixtures with a given molar ratio of Ca/P = 1.67 were prepared under mechanical activation conditions from hydroxyapatite powder Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and a 1M aqueous solution of oxalic acid H2C2O4 at a molar ratio of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2/H2C2O4 = 1:4. The phase composition of obtained powder mixture included brushite (calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate) CaHPO4·2H2O, calcium oxalate monohydrate CaC2O4·H2O in form of whewellite and weddellite, and some quantity of quasi-amorphous phase. This powder mixture was used to produce microporous monophase ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with apparent density of 1.25 g/cm3 after firing at 1200 °C. Microporosity of sintered ceramics was formed due to the presence of particles with plate-like morphology, restraining shrinkage during sintering. Microporous ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with the roughness of the surface as a consequence of the created microporosity can be recommended as a biocompatible material for bone defects treatment and as a substrate for bone cell cultivation.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 120-130: Foam-Replicated
           Diopside/Fluorapatite/Wollastonite-Based Glass–Ceramic Scaffolds

    • Authors: Francesco Baino, Dilshat U. Tulyaganov, Ziyodilla Kahharov, Abbas Rahdar, Enrica Verné
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Implantation of three-dimensional (3D) bioactive glass-derived porous scaffolds is an effective strategy for promoting bone repair and regeneration in large osseous defect sites. The present study intends to expand the potential of a SiO2–P2O5–CaO–MgO–Na2O–CaF2 glass composition, which has already proven to be successful in regenerating bone in both animals and human patients. Specifically, this research work reports the fabrication of macroporous glass–ceramic scaffolds by the foam replica method, using the abovementioned bioactive glass powders as a parent material. The sinter-crystallization of the glass powder was investigated by hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the pore–strut architecture of the resultant glass–ceramic scaffolds in which diopside, fluorapatite, and wollastonite crystallized during thermal treatment. Immersion studies in simulated body fluids revealed that the scaffolds have bioactive behavior in vitro; the mechanical properties were also potentially suitable to suggest use in load-bearing bone applications.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 131-147: Examining the Interactions of Design
           Parameters in the LDM of Clay as the Basis for New Design Paradigms

    • Authors: Christina Klug, Thomas H. Schmitz
      First page: 131
      Abstract: In the future, architects will not only develop digital designs based on existing technologies and concepts, but will also pursue and experiment with various forms of self-developed processes. The following empirical study deals with the materialization of digital instructions and machine parameters in 3D-printed clay elements. Specifically, forms of materialization are investigated in the transitional area where ideal geometrically defined data and process-related material information intersect. Liquid materials generate additional information quality through their material-immanent shape-forming properties. In previous studies, this somewhat complex material behavior was considered rather problematic and attempts were made to reduce the flow behavior of materials in the printing process. In contrast, this study examines the special possibility of liquid deposition modelling and present new ways of dealing with the material viscosity during and after the printing process.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 148-160: Reinforcement of the Ceramic Matrix of
           CaO-ZrO2-MgO with Al2O3 Coarse Particles

    • Authors: João Mamede, Duarte Felix Macedo, Alberto Maceiras, Abílio P. Silva
      First page: 148
      Abstract: A thermal protection system is subject to high forces, in particular compression, bending and wear, to aggressive environments of high temperatures, high velocity gases and particle shock. Typically, ceramic materials appear as a first barrier or outer shield over a metallic substrate responsible for the structure. When it comes to a coating due to the small thickness, the particles of the raw material are sub-micron scale, but when a shield with a few centimeters is built its structural and economic viability requires the use of wider particle size distributions. In this work, a ceramic fine-grained matrix of CaO-ZrO2-MgO was reinforced with commercial coarse Al2O3 particles. The results show that for larger size distributions, CZM-4A, replacing 63% of fine-grained matrix by coarse Al2O3 particles, the dimensional stability is obtained (ΔL = 5%) and the good mechanical properties such as flexural strength of 154 MPa, elastic modulus of 286 GPa, and hardness of 8.5 GPa, which allows to propose this ceramic composite for a structural application.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
  • Ceramics, Vol. 5, Pages 161-172: Porous Zirconia Blocks for Bone Repair:
           An Integrative Review on Biological and Mechanical Outcomes

    • Authors: Cláudia Inês Resende-Gonçalves, Nuno Sampaio, Joaquim Moreira, Oscar Carvalho, João Caramês, Maria Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes, Filipe Silva, Bruno Henriques, Júlio Souza
      First page: 161
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review of the biological and mechanical outcomes of porous zirconia structures for extensive bone repair. An electronic search was performed on the PubMed database using a combination of the following scientific terms: porous, scaffold, foam, zirconia, bone regeneration, bone repair, bone healing. Articles published in the English language up to December 2021 and related to porosity, pore interconnectivity, biocompatibility and strength of the material, and the manufacturing methods of zirconia porous structures were included. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies were also evaluated. The research identified 145 studies, of which 23 were considered relevant. A high percentage of pores and the size and interconnectivity of pores are key factors for cell migration, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, pore interconnectivity allows for the exchange of nutrients between cells and formation of blood vessels. However, a decrease in strength of the porous structures was noted with an increase in the number and size of pores. Therefore, yttria-stabilized zirconia tetragonal polycrystal (Y-TZP) has mechanical properties that make it suitable for the manufacture of highly porous structures or implants for extensive bone repair. Additionally, the porous structures can be coated with bioactive ceramics to enhance the cell response and bone ingrowth without compromising pore networking. Porous structures and mesh implants composed of zirconia have become a strategy for extensive bone repair since the material and the pore network provide the desired biological response and bone volume maintenance.
      Citation: Ceramics
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ceramics5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
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