Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 39 of 39 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cellular Plastics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access  
Polymers and Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal  
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1566-2543 - ISSN (Online) 1572-8919
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Highly Efficient Removal of Rhodamine B Dye Using Nanocomposites Made from
           Cotton Seed Oil-Based Polyurethane and Silylated Nanocellulose

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      Abstract: Biobased polyurethane nanocellulose nanocomposites were synthesized from cottonseed oil as the source for the biopolyol. The prepared composites were used to study the adsorption of Rhodamine B dye from water. Low functional polyol was derived from cottonseed oil using one-pot synthesis method. Nanocellulose was derived from pineapple leaves and then it was surface-functionalized via silylation. In-situ polymerization technique was used to incorporate the silylated nanocellulose into the polyurethane matrix. The prepared polyol from cottonseed oil was found to have an OH functionality of 2 which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Low functionality of polyol is the key factor in achieving flexible porous polyurethane. The silylated nanocellulose, polyurethane, and composites were characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption parameters were optimized using the Taguchi methodology and the adsorption efficiency was determined by carrying out adsorption at optimized parameters (5 wt% loading of silylated nanocellulose, pH 9, and temperature of 30 °C) for 8 h. Studies showed that the prepared composite has a high adsorption efficiency of 597 mg/g of silylated nanocellulose towards Rh-B.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Recent Approaches on the Application of Agro Waste Derived Biocomposites
           as Green Support Matrix for Enzyme Immobilization

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      Abstract: The present imperative interest is in recycling lignocellulosic wastes arising from the global activities of agriculture and forest-based industries. Lignocellulosic waste valorization may help to produce natural biopolymer-based products and their applications in biomedical, biopharmaceutical, and industrial fields. Among these, crystalline nanocellulose (CNC), a cellulose nano-derivative having better enzymatic performance, production yield through immobilization contributes to a green technology and sustainable sources. This is a comprehensive review on the development of cellulose based support matrices, where surface modification of nanocellulose, nanocellulose-protein interactions and applications of cellulose based composites have been illustrated. Hence, this novel step to recycle primary and secondary agricultural solid waste management will develop pollution free environment, double farmer’s income, and cheaper biomaterial for enzyme immobilization that will minimize the process cost value. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Fully Bio-based Polybenzoxazines Derived from Thymol: Thermal Stability,
           Hydrophobicity and Corrosion Resistant Properties

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      Abstract: In the present work, three types of bio-benzoxazines were synthesized from thymol using three structurally different amines viz. octadecylamine, dodecylamine and furfurylamine through Mannich condensation. The molecular structure of bio-based benzoxazines namely, TH-dda (thymol, dodecylamine), TH-oda (thymol, octadecylamine) and TH-ffa (thymol, furfurylamine) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 1 H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The curing behaviour of synthesized benzoxazines was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The occurrence of ring-opening and cross-linking polymerization of TH-dda, TH-oda and TH-ffa bio-based benzoxazines were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of thermally cross-linked polybenzoxazines, poly(TH-dda), poly(TH-oda) and poly(TH-ffa) were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results obtained from TGA indicate that among the polybenzoxazines studied, poly(TH-oda) possesses the higher thermal stability than that of other polybenzoxazine samples viz., [poly(TH-dda) and poly(TH-ffa)]. The value of limiting oxygen index (LOI) for polybenzoxazine samples was calculated using char yield obtained from TGA indicate that these benzoxazines exhibit good flame retardant characteristics. Data from water contact angle studies infer that these samples possess good hydrophobic properties in the range of 134–139°. Results from corrosion studies infer that mild steel specimens coated with these benzoxazines were found to be more stable towards corrosion.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs): A Review on Biosynthesis,
           Properties, Fermentation Strategies and Its Prospective Applications for
           Sustainable Future

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      Abstract: Exponential increase in the use and disposal of synthetic plastics has raised an alarming concern related to their adverse effect on the environment due to their recalcitrant nature and non biodegradability. Nevertheless, the depletion in the petrochemical sources made it imperative to search for other sustainable alternatives to synthetic plastics. This triggered the attention on biodegradable plastics produced from plants, animals and microbial sources that have excellent material properties like their synthetic counterparts. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are ineluctably promising microbial polyesters that have the competence to supersede traditional oil-based synthetic polymers which causes major disposal issues worldwide. The compostable nature, biocompatibility, thermostability, and resilience of these bio-based polymers make them an acceptable replacement in the global market. Their versatile material properties made them a propitious candidate in packaging, biomedicine, tissue engineering, biofuel production, nanocomposite formation, and other industrial applications. Despite their potential advantages, the commercialization of PHA is hindered majorly due to the high cost associated with their production and extraction. This review work majorly focuses on the production, extraction, applications and fermentation strategies for enhancing PHA production. The review also addresses the production of PHA from extremophiles, challenges associated with PHA production and sustainable substrates for PHA production using various agroindustrial wastes.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Exploring Potential of Adsorptive-Photocatalytic Molybdenum
           Disulphide/Polyacrylonitrile (MoS2/PAN) Nanofiber Coated Cellulose Acetate
           (CA) Membranes for Treatment of Wastewater

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      Abstract: Adsorptive-photocatalytic electrospun nanofiber membranes have received remarkable attention as they could provide an excellent solution for the effective treatment of wastewater. However, the mechanical properties of nanofiber have limited their use in pressure-driven filtration applications. In this study, dual-layered MoS2/PAN-CA adsorptive-photocatalytic-based membranes have been successfully fabricated using molybdenum disulphide/polyacrylonitrile (MoS2/PAN) nanofiber coated porous cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. The fabricated CA membranes were coated with electrospun MoS2/PAN nanofiber via the electrospinning technique. Subsequently, hot-pressed treatment was applied to the fabricated membrane to form a stronger attachment between the CA and MoS2/PAN nanofiber layers. The physicochemical properties of the fabricated membranes were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), water contact angle (WAC), porosity analysis, and tensile strength test. In addition, the membrane separation performance of the fabricated nanofiber membranes was evaluated in terms of water flux and contaminant rejection using a self-assembled cross-flow filtration system. The MoS2/PAN-CA membrane demonstrated improved physicochemical and structural properties where WAC, porosity and mechanical strength increased up to 38% (44.0°), 25% (55%) and 26% (32.1 MPa), respectively, as compared to pristine CA membrane. Upon hot-pressed treatment at a temperature of 120 °C, pure water flux of MoS2/PAN-CA membrane improved by 28% to 36.3 Lm−2 h−1. These improved properties of dual-layered adsorptive-photocatalytic MoS2/PAN-CA membranes recommend it as a potential membrane material to treat various pollutants in water and wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Preparation and Properties of Self-healing Triboelectric Nanogenerator
           Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Containing Diels–Alder Bonds

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      Abstract: A type of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) with excellent self-healing and recyclable properties was successfully prepared by introducing Diels–Alder (DA) reaction groups into it. FT-IR was used to verify the successful synthesis of samples and the retro-DA reaction in the WPU-DA films. It was found that the self-healing efficiency of the WPU-DA-4/4 films was 72.8%. After four cycle times, the self-healing efficiency could still achieve 49.7%. Moreover, the WPU-DA film could be applied as the positive friction layer to prepare a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Working in contact-separation mode, the electrical outputs with 2 × 2 cm2 area can reach 58 V, 3.2 µA, 17.6 nC, respectively. It is also interesting to find that the electrical output properties of the TENG after damage-healed can be restored to more than 90% of the original one. The cross-linked WPU had good reprocessability and had great potential application prospects in intelligent materials.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Polyethylene Glycol-decorated GO Nanosheets as a Well-Organized Nanohybrid
           to Enhance the Performance of Chitosan Biopolymer

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      Abstract: The influence of graphene oxide (GO) decoration with polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the thermal, mechanical, antibacterial, and also biocompatibility of chitosan (CS) biopolymer was investigated. GO-PEG nanohybrids were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, AFM, UV–Vis, and XRD. The results indicated significant changes in morphology, optical properties, interlayer distances, and aqueous stability of GO as a result of the linkage of PEG chains to the surface of GO nanoplates. Afterward, GO-PEG was added to CS as graphene-based hybrid nanosheets to reinforce CS-based environmental biofilms. Outcomes demonstrated that surface decoration of GO with PEG chains effectively improved compatibility and dispersion of GO plates in the CS matrix. Therefore bionanocomposites containing modified GO (CS/GO-PEG) exhibited superior thermal stability, mechanical and antibacterial properties as well as biocompatibility. CS/GO-PEG bionanocomposite with more desirable properties, than CS biopolymer and even CS/GO nanocomposite, can be preferred for biomedical applications (tissue engineering, wound dressing, drug delivery) and also food/drug packaging industry. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Novel Method for Producing Oleophilic Polyurethane Foam to Remove Oil from
           Open Water

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      Abstract: In this study, a novel recyclable, hydrophobicity foam with excellent oil/water separation based on polyurethane (PU) and polypropylene glycol (PPG) grafted stearic acid (PGGA) has been developed. PGGA was simply synthesized by the esterification of stearic acid and PPG, while the PU/PGGA foam was fabricated by the reaction of PPG and methyl diphenyl diisocynate (MDI) with the addition of PGGA. The PU/PGGA foam exhibits improved oil adsorption capacity, water rejection as well as oil/water selectivity with the increase of PGGA weight loadings. The presence of PGGA at high loading (≥ 5 wt%) reduces the pore size and porosity of PU/PGGA foam due to the high viscosity of PGGA preventing the foam formation reaction. As a result, the oil adsorption capacity of PU/PGGA foam is slightly neglected, nevertheless, the oil/water selectivity is significantly enhanced compared to the original PU foam. The result in this work suggests a simple and cost-effective method with potential in oil removal at large scale application. Graphical In this study, novel hydrophobicity agent (PGGA) is developed for enhancing the oil/water separation of polyurethane (PU) foam. At lower weight loading of PGGA (≤ 3 wt%), the PU/PGGA foam exhibits improvement in oil adsorption capacity, water rejection and oil/water separation. Above 5 wt% loading of PGGA, the oil adsorption of PU/PGGA foam is decreased, however, the oil/water selectivity were drastically improved. With this result, the PU/PGGA foam is highly potential for oil removal at large scale application.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Synthesis of Sulfonated Polystyrene-Based Porous Activated Carbon for
           Organic Dyes Removal from Aqueous Solutions

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      Abstract: Nowadays, aquatic pollution is one of the most important global challenges, due to discharges a wide variety of various hazardous materials from different activities which have significant environmental, economic and healthy impacts. Industries and activities related to organic dyes onsume large amounts of water and contribute significantly to the growing problem of water pollution. The current study describes the conversion of plant wastes into activated carbon sphere incorporated sulfonated polystyrene (AC/SPS) for adsorptive removal of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Congo Red (CR) dyes in a batch process. The prepared materials were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, FESEM, TEM, BET-BJH, and TGA. The AC/SPS in weight ratio of 10% was used as a novel adsorbent for RhB and CR remediation. Batch adsorption experiment have been studied by investigating the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, and temperature. The maximum removal efficiency of RhB and CR onto AC/SPS under optimized conditions was estimated to be 34% and 98%, respectively. In addition, it has been found that Freundlich model provided the most appropriate fit for the adsorption of both RhB and CR dyes. Based on the thermodynamic study, it was proven that the adsorption process for both dyes is endothermic and spontaneous. The change in entropy was estimated to be 190.59 and 65.40 J/mol K for CR and RhB dyes, respectively. The kinetic study revealed that the adsorption of CR and RhB dyes followed the pseudo-second order and pseudo-first order kinetic models, respectively. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Toughening Modification of Polylactic Acid by Long-Chain Hyperbranched
           Polymers Containing Polycaprolactone end Groups

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      Abstract: The hyperbranched polyester (HBPEs) were synthesized by the "one-step method" and grafted with caprolactone (ε-Cl) to obtain long-chain hyperbranched polymers (LCHBPs-Cl). In this study, LCHBPs-Cl with Cl long chain end groups were used for the first time to toughen and strengthen polylactic acid (PLA) by melt blending. Compared with pure PLA, the most significant toughening effect was obviously when the addition amount of LCHBPs-Cl was 2.0 phr. The tensile strength increased from 37.00 to 62.61 MPa. The impact strength was increased from 14.88 to 18.50 kJ. The elongation at break increased from 1.80% to 2.50%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed the impact section of the blends became rough, the brittle-ductile fracture transition occurred, and a large number of white wire drawing phenomena were produced. Due to the formation of topological entanglement and cohesive entanglement between the long-chain substituents of LCHBPs-Cl and PLA molecular chains, the plastic deformation of PLA was successfully improved, and the toughness of polylactic acid was highly improved.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Thionyl Chloride Facilitated Polymerization of Xanthan Gum Grafted
           Copolymers for Wastewater Remediation by Exclusion of Synthetic Dyes

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      Abstract: A new synthetic protocol has been devised for the preparation of polysaccharide-based grafted Copolymers which offers the grafted gels with high % grafting and substantial swelling properties which may provide a great overlook for environmental remediation applications by eradication of various lethal contaminants from the aqueous system. Herein, thionyl chloride facilitated cationic polymerization have been reported, which acts as an initiator as well as polymerizing agent for the synthesis of xanthan gum (XG) grafted acrylamide (AAM), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA), N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMA) and acrylic acid (AA) Copolymers and the resulted grafted Copolymers are designated as XAAM, XDMA, XHMA and XAA respectively. The successful synthesis of grafted Copolymers was established from spectral, morphological, and thermal analysis. BET analysis revealed the upsurge in surface area and pore size of grafted Copolymers as compared to virgin XG. The synthesized grafted Copolymers showed the appreciable adsorption capability towards synthetic dyes. The XAAM showed the 99% and 97% adsorption for cationic malachite green (MG) and anionic solochrome black T (SBT) with 119.27 mg/g and 122.67 mg/g adsorption capacity respectively. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the endothermic nature of adsorption process and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The present report divulges that thionyl chloride facilitated cationic polymerization is a promising protocol for the preparation of vinyl monomers based XG grafted Copolymers which can serve as an effectual adsorbent for the environmental remediation. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Hydrogels Based on Polyacrylamide and Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterials
           for Adsorption of a Cationic Dye

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      Abstract: Malachite green (MG) is used for the dyeing of cotton, paper, and jute, among other materials, and presents acute toxicity to a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial animals. A polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel modified with a low content of oxygenated and aminated carbon nanomaterials may be a suitable candidate to adsorb MG from wastewater. Herein, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated during the in situ polymerization of PA. The hydrogels were characterized through thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy as well as imagined by scanning electron microscopy. The swelling and adsorption capacity were investigated to explore the influences of different carbon dimensionalities (1D and 2D), zeta potentials and nanofiller concentrations on the adsorption behavior of the hydrogel. There was an increase of approximately 1500% in the adsorption capacity after 24 h of exposure of a hydrogel with graphene oxide (GO) at 0.25 wt% with respect to the neat PA. Aminated graphene produced similar gains in the adsorption capacity of the GO-hydrogel, although it presents a positive zeta potential that is the opposite of that of GO. The modified CNTs showed smaller gains in the adsorption capacity, reaching a maximum 400% increase with respect to the PA hydrogel. The main factors that seem to affect the adsorption capacity were the dimensionality and degree of functionalization. The graphene oxide-based nanofillers were 3 to 4 times more functionalized than the nanotubes. The adsorption results were adjusted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model that allowed a complementary discussion about the nature of the physico-chemical effects on the process of MG adsorption in the hydrogel nanocomposites.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Fabrication of Hydrophobic Cellulose Aerogels from Renewable Biomass Coir
           Fibers for Oil Spillage Clean-Up

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      Abstract: Hydrophobic cellulose aerogels with high porosities (~ 97.5%) were successfully prepared from renewable biomass coir fibers for use as absorbents for oil separation from oil-water mixtures. The preparation routes included delignification, dissolution and coagulation of cellulose pulp, and freeze drying. Delignification was performed via an alkalization process, and the pulp was dissolved in an aqueous NaOH-urea solution. The cellulose aerogel had ultralow density (ρ = 0.047 g cm−3) and excellent elastic properties. Due to the large number of hydroxyl groups on the cellulose surface, the cellulose aerogel was hydrophilic. It absorbed 22 times its original weight in water and 18 times in oil. To make it hydrophobic, the hydroxyl groups were exchanged with trialkylsilyl groups via silylation. The process significantly improved the hydrophobicity of the cellulose aerogel without influencing its physical properties. Although the oil absorption capacity decreased, the selectivity of the hydrophobic aerogel for separation of oil from a water-oil mixture was greatly enhanced and water was repelled completely. Moreover, the aerogel could be squeezed to force out the absorbed oil and recycled. Therefore, it has great potential for use in oil-spill recovery because it is prepared from low-cost and environmentally-friendly biomass.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Designing PolyHIPE/CNC Nanocomposites for Application of Environmental
           Adsorption Processes

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      Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are attracting specific interest in polymer nanocomposite preparation due to their contribution on physical and thermal properties, biocompatibility, and being a renewable feedstock. Surface modified CNCs have also remarkable potential in Pickering-emulsion preparation besides to developing of efficient adsorbent materials. In this work, polyHIPE/CNC nanocomposites from surface-modified CNC stabilized Pickering-HIPEs were designed and the Nile blue removal efficiency of CNC-based adsorbent from aqueous environment was reported. Surface modification of CNCs was achieved via grafting epoxy-terminated PEG on silylated CNCs. Highly stable Pickering-HIPEs were prepared according to experimental design matrix created based on varying four experimental parameters including nanoparticle loading, emulsifier amount, internal phase ratio, and stirring rate, for three distinctive levels. The main and interaction effects of experimental parameters on morphological and mechanical properties were expressed by mathematical model equations using statistical analysis. By using model equations, a polyHIPE/CNC nanocomposite was selected as adsorbent material, considering the main and interaction contribution of nanoparticle loading on cavity size, interconnected pore size, and specific surface area. The proposed adsorbent was tested in the adsorption of Nile blue from aqueous solutions and 87% of sorption efficiency was achieved. Moreover, kinetic mechanism of Nile blue adsorption was investigated and Freundlich isotherm was found to be as best fitted model consistent with pseudo second-order kinetic model. The designed polyHIPE/CNC nanocomposites have remarkable potential as efficient adsorbents which could be motivated for development of new CNC-based nanocomposites removal of different contaminants from wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evaluation of Wound Healing Effect of Curcumin Loaded OPL Carbon
           Nanospheres Embedded Chitosan Membranes

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      Abstract: Biowaste-derived carbon biomaterial scaffolds are being used for wound healing and are the focus of interest. Carbon nanospheres derived from oil palm leaves without any catalysts via pyrolysis were loaded with a traditional drug curcumin. The wound healing scaffolds were fabricated on the PP non-woven fabric support using chitosan as the biopolymer matrix. Prepared carbon nanospheres and the scaffolds were characterized using ATR-IR and FESEM techniques. The wettability of scaffolds was examined to ensure the feasible moisture absorption ability, in vitro drug release profile and in vitro antibacterial activity against two strains of bacteria. The in vivo wound healing feature of scaffolds was studied by excision wound model for MRSA infected wound. Measured wound contraction percentage and the bacterial count on wounds at regular time intervals proved that, the scaffold dressed with chitosan and curcumin loaded carbon nanospheres showed an efficient reconstruction of skin through histopathological investigations. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Different TiO2 Phases (Degussa/Anatase) Modified Cross-Linked Chitosan
           Composite for the Removal of Reactive Red 4 Dye: Box–Behnken Design

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      Abstract: The present work targets to develop the cross-linked chitosan composite with different TiO2 phases (Degussa/Anatase) to attain two adsorbents namely cross-linked chitosan-epichlorohydrin/TiO2-Degussa (CS-ECH/TiO2-D) and cross-linked chitosan-epichlorohydrin/TiO2-Anatase (CS-ECH/TiO2-A). The physicochemical characteristics including crystalline nature, specific surface area, functional groups, surface morphology, and thermal stability of the prepared composites were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric analyses (TGA-DTG), respectively. Response surface methodology combined with Box–Behnken design (RSM-BBD) was used to explore multivariate modeling and optimization of reactive red 4 (RR4) dye removal on CS-ECH/TiO2-D and CS-ECH/TiO2-A based on the related factors including A: adsorbent dose (0.5–1.5 g/100 mL), B: pH (4–10), and C: time (30–90 min). RR4 dye removal was 94.6 and 87.5% for CS-ECH/TiO2-D and CS-ECH/TiO2-A, respectively. The adsorption of RR4 molecules on the surface of CS-ECH/TiO2-(D/A) was constructed by many interactions e.g. electrostatic forces, n−π stacking, and H-bonding. The findings revealed that the biomaterials developed could be viable and convenient potential adsorbents for capturing azo dyes from polluted effluents.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Strontium (II) Biosorption Studies on Starch-Functionalized Magnetic
           Nanobiocomposites Using Full Factorial Design Method

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      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to fabricate starch based magnetic nanobiocomposites using two different starch types (corn and wheat) and to examine the effects of some experimental parameters (such as starch concentration, NaOH concentration and aging time of nanoparticles) that play a role in the synthesis products. The characterization of the starch-based magnetic-nanobiocomposite materials were realized with several techniques. In the previous study, MW_S3 and MC_S3 from starch stabilized magnetite nanobiocomposites were selected for further studies with smaller particle size and large surface areas, as a result of calculations based on XRD results and BET surface area. The usability of starch-based magnetic-nanobiocomposite materials, which can provide rapid separation with their magnetic properties and are not toxic, in removing Sr(II) ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The parameters affecting the biosorption were investigated using a full factorial experimental design. In the biosorption study, pH, temperature, initial Sr(II) concentration and contact time were determined as four independent variables. The regression coefficients were found using the least squares method and the response surface graphs were created according to the polynomial equation obtained from the full factorial experimental design. ANOVA (analysis of variance) analysis within the 95% confidence interval of the model applied for the full factorial experimental design was examined and the compatibility of the model with the experimental findings was examine. It is seen that the biosorption of Sr(II) on MW_S3 and MC_S3 nanobiocomposites increases with increasing concentration in the range of 25–75 ppm. As a result of the regression analysis, it was observed that pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and had an increasing effect for MW_S3. Evaluating the results obtained, it was found that the combined effects of the parameters on the biosorption of Sr(II) on MW_S3 adsorbent were not significant, but the combined effects of concentration and time were only significant on the adsorption of Sr(II) on MC_S3 adsorbent. From the solution of the equation obtained in the full factorial experimental design, it has been determined that the optimum biosorption conditions for MW_S3 adsorbent are; pH is 7, temperature is 34.87 °C, initial Sr(II) concentration is 75 mg/L and contact time is 30 min. Optimum adsorption conditions for MC_S3 adsorbent were determined to be pH is 8, temperature is 34.46 °C, initial Sr(II) concentration is 74.83 mg/L and contact time is 59.54 min. The composition and chemical state of the magnetic nanobiocomposites were investigated by XPS analysis after Sr(II) biosorption. For the purpose of determine the adsorption model, the relevant parameters were calculated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms. Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy and entropy values, which are the values of adsorption thermodynamics, were calculated.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Extraction, characterization, and fabrication of cellulose biopolymer
           sheets from Pistia stratiotes as a biodegradative coating material: an
           unique strategy for the conversion of invasive weeds into value-added
           products

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      Abstract: This study explores the possibility of using Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) as a cost-effective substrate for the commercial extraction of cellulose biopolymer using a wide variety of physicochemical treatment methods to compare their efficiency in cellulose extraction. The extraction of cellulose from water lettuce, although promising due to their high cellulose content, was less explored as per the available literature. In this study, functional properties like bulk density-packed density, hydrated density, water retention capacity, oil retention capacity, emulsifying activity and setting volume of the extracted cellulose were studied. The cellulose content from water lettuce was found to be 38.94 ± 0.10% by anthrone method. Preliminary confirmation of cellulose biopolymer was done using the study of functional groups using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis. Further characterization studies like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to understand the molecular architecture and purity of the cellulose extracted. Fabrication of cellulose sheets was carried out using starch as the plasticizer. Biodegradation studies were conducted in garden soil for four weeks and a high degradation rate of 78.22 ± 0.71% was observed in the fourth week of soil burial.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Preparation of Photochromic and Photoluminescent Nonwoven Fibrous Mat from
           Recycled Polyester Waste

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      Abstract: Photochromic and photoluminescent clothes can be described as smart textiles that alter their color and emission spectra upon exposure to a light stimulus. Recycled nonwoven polyester fabrics screen-printed with rare-earth strontium aluminate nanoparticles were developed to introduce photochromic and photoluminescent properties. Both spinning and preparation of nonwoven fibrous mat was performed industrially starting from recycled polyester waste. Aqueous-based phosphor-binder nanocomposites containing different concentrations of inorganic phosphor with excellent thermal and photostability were applied directly onto nonwoven polyester fabrics. The screen-printing process produced a uniform photochromic and photoluminescent film onto the nonwoven polyester surface that showed strong green emission color (440 nm) under UV light even at lower phosphor concentrations (0.5 wt%) in the printing paste. The excitation wavelength of the printed nonwoven polyester samples was monitored at 382 nm. Long-persistent greenish-yellow phosphorescence was detected in the dark at higher phosphor concentrations. The morphological microscopic data of phosphor nanoparticles and printed nonwoven polyester fabrics were collected using various analytical methods. TEM analysis of phosphor nanoparticles designated diameters of 4–11 nm, whereas XRD analysis indicated a crystal size of 9 nm. The printed cloth exhibited a quick and reversible photochromic emission when exposed to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet protection, antimicrobial and superhydrophobic properties were improved with increasing the pigment concentration in the printing paste. The static contact and slide angles improved in the ranges of 108.6°–132.6°, and 12°–7°, respectively. The effects of increasing the phosphor concentration in the printing paste on the comfort features and colorfastness were examined.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Zein Protein Obtained from Maize as a Novel Biodegradable Membrane
           Material for Oxygen/Nitrogen Separation: Membrane Fabrication and
           Characterization

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      Abstract: In this study, biodegradable zein protein obtained from maize was used as a novel material to prepare a membrane for oxygen/nitrogen separation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), biodegradability test, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were conducted for characterizing the zein membrane, and membrane properties was compared with that of the polymeric membranes reported in the literature. The developed zein membrane showed a significantly high thermal stability. The mechanical properties of the zein membrane were higher or comparable to those of the previously reported dense membranes. In addition, biodegradation in compost was significantly higher than the other membranes reported in the literature. The developed zein membrane provided a significantly high oxygen/nitrogen selectivity at 2 bar, which was superior to most of the previously reported data on the neat biodegradable polymers with dense structure. The permeability of oxygen and nitrogen at 2 bar was 0.67 and 0.12 barrer, respectively, which brought about the selectivity of 5.45 for oxygen/nitrogen separation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
 
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