Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 41 of 41 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Current Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Journal of Cellular Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Plasmas and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers and Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
SPE Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.272
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0095-2443 - ISSN (Online) 1530-8006
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1164 journals]
  • Patents

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      Pages: 552 - 561
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 552-561, August 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T09:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211011367
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Journal of Elastomers & Plastics

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      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.

      PubDate: 2021-10-15T01:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211055775
       
  • Wear characteristics of exfoliated MoS2/polyamide-6,6 composite

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      Authors: Jae Ik Kim, Jung W Kim, Sung H Ryu
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Effect of exfoliation of MoS2 on the wear characteristics of the MoS2/PA-6,6 composite is investigated. Exfoliation of MoS2 is identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Wear loss of composites is done using Taber abrasion tester with CS-17 abrasive wheel and atomic force microscope is used to characterize the worn surface. It is observed that wear loss of MoS2/PA-6,6 composite is strongly affected by content and exfoliation of MoS2. Wear loss of composites is decreased by the addition of MoS2 irrespective of exfoliation and it is improved with increasing filler content. Exfoliated MoS2/PA-6,6 composites show improved wear characteristic, that is, reduced wear loss, compared to the pristine MoS2/PA-6,6 composite. Addition of MoS2 induces less plastic deformation of the worn surface of composites, and it is more distinct for exfoliated MoS2.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-10-09T11:58:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211047072
       
  • Synergistic effect and mechanism of polysilazane and platinum on the
           thermal stability of silicone rubber

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      Authors: Wanjuan Chen, Xueyi Zhang, Caiying Liang, Dongchu Chen, Min Zhang, Lei Miao
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Polysilazane and platinum were adopted to enhance the thermal stability of silicone rubber. The effect and mechanism of polysilazane and platinum on enhancing thermal stability were investigated via thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Remarkable synergism between polysilazane and platinum was found in enhancing thermal stability of silicone rubber. When 1.34 wt% polysilazane and 8 ppm platinum were added, the degradation temperatures were elevated. Furthermore, the thermal residues of silicone rubbers were increased from 30–45 to 66–76 wt%, and maximum degradation rates were reduced from 8.81–15.8 to 4.55–5.02 wt%/min. Besides, silicone rubber demonstrated excellent shape retention at high temperature in the presence of polysilazane and platinum. The mechanism may be that platinum cooperated with polysilazane and efficiently catalyzed radical crosslinking between polysilazane and silicone chains. As a result, a tightly crosslinked network was developed, and degradation of silicone rubber was suppressed.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T10:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038675
       
  • Influence of different curing regimes on properties of new copolymer of
           chloroprene and acrylonitrile

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      Authors: Mousumi De Sarkar, Takashi Sunada, Atsunori Kondo
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The curing system plays a vital role in designing rubber compounds for various industrial applications. Therefore, it is paramount to establish viable curing strategies for any new elastomer to explore its application potentials and commercial significance. Impacts of different curing regimes on the properties of a recently developed copolymer of chloroprene and acrylonitrile (acrylonitrile-chloroprene rubber, NCR) are reported here. Several primary accelerators (four from thiourea- and one from thiazolene product families) were used for curing the new rubber along with fixed loadings of zinc oxide (5 phr) and magnesium oxide (4 phr). Besides, curatives based on sulfur and peroxide were also evaluated. The influence of different curing systems on the rheological and physical properties of the copolymer was explored. It has been seen that the properties of the copolymer are considerably influenced by the different curing systems used. While ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU), as primary accelerators, provide the highest state of cure but may cause scorch. The use of trimethyl thiourea (TMU), on the other hand, results in the fastest rate and the most stable state of cure, good scorch safety, bin stability, and an overall good balance of properties. The sulfur-based crosslinking system induces good mechanical properties but causes limited bin stability, poor high-temperature compression set, and impaired heat resistance properties. As a curing agent, peroxide delivers the best bin stability in the rubber stocks but yields higher stiffness and limited aging resistance in the vulcanizates.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T09:11:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038667
       
  • Identification of glycerol as a novel accelerator for sulphur
           vulcanization of unsaturated rubbers

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      Authors: Sambhu Bhadra, Nitin Mohan, LNVG Krishna R, Sujith S Nair
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Different organic polyols were investigated as accelerators for different type of vulcanization system such as sulphur, metal oxide, peroxide with different rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), butadiene rubber (BR), butyl rubber (IIR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). Among all the polyols studied, glycerol found to be the most efficient accelerator for sulphur vulcanization of unsaturated rubbers. Moreover, from rheometric study glycerol was found to be reversion free and scorch safe accelerator. A detailed study was performed with glycerol for sulphur vulcanization of silica filled, SBR + BR-based standard passenger car radial (PCR) tire tread compound and plausible mechanism of acceleration was proposed. Finally, from the PCR tyre tread compound 70% of conventional accelerators, namely N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CBS) and di-phenyl guanidine (DPG) were replaced with 5 phr (parts per hundred gram of rubber) of glycerol and properties of the vulcanized compounds were measured. The results evidenced that glycerol could efficiently replace 70% conventional accelerators (CBS + DPG), with additional improvement of scorch time by 68%, tensile strength by 31.5%, elongation at break by 75.6% and tear strength by 9.4% of the PCR tyre tread compound. The increase in mechanical properties was due to the improvement in compatibility between silica and rubber in presence of glycerol. Moreover, glycerol is an environmentally benign (nitrogen free, halogen free), fossil free, low-cost material.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T09:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038676
       
  • Preparation and characterization of novel potassium ion conducting
           nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on PEMA

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      Authors: S Jayanthi, GP Kokila, S Shenbagavalli, B Sundaresan
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Potassium ion conducting nanocomposite polymer electrolytes was prepared by employing the solvent casting technique. Poly ethyl methacrylate (PEMA), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and nano-strontium titanate (SrTiO3) (
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T09:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038661
       
  • The effect of repetitive magnetic and cyclic loading on the fatigue life
           prediction of a magnetorheological elastomer

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      Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini, Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Hamed Saeidi Googarchin
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Prediction of fatigue life is particularly crucial in magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) based rubber components, especially when are exposed to repetitive magnetic and cyclic loading. MREs are smart composites that contain soft elastomer matrix and carbonyl iron particles (CIPs). In this research, silicon rubber was mixed with 20% of CIPs in the absence of an external magnetic field to produce MREs. Firstly, for the determination of material constants (including hyper elastic, magnetic, and viscoelastic), two types of tests such as uniaxial compression and relaxation, were performed on the samples. Then, fatigue tests were performed by a servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine with cyclic loading in a repetitive magnetic field. Fatigue equations were obtained based on the number of fatigue life and maximum stress. The results confirmed that maximum stress could be used as a trustworthy fatigue life predictor for MREs when they are subjected to a combination of repetitive magnetic and cyclic loading. Scanning electron microscopy images from fatigue crack showed that the internal structure of MREs became stronger in the direction of the magnetic field. The maximum stress of the MRE was smaller in the absence of a magnetic field and decreased as the number of fatigue cycles increased with and without the magnetic field.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T10:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038671
       
  • The compatibility performance of fuel system elastomers with two dioxolane
           molecules as blends with diesel

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      Authors: Michael D Kass, Christopher J Janke, Eric Nafziger, Andrew D Sutton, Trideep Rajale, Cameron M Moore
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The compatibility of 17 elastomers with two dioxolane molecules was assessed by volume change and hardness measurements. Each molecule was blended with diesel in concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30 wt.%. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one each of fluorosilicone, chloroprene rubber (CR), polyurethane, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), hydrogenated NBR (HNBR), a blend of NBR and PVC (OZO), epichlorohydrin/ ethylene oxide (ECO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and silicone. Specimens of each elastomer were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 4 weeks and measured for property change. Afterwards they were dried at 60°C for 20 h and remeasured. The results showed that the dioxolanes were suitable with many of the elastomers and that the performances were essentially the same for both molecules. The dioxolanes were found to either have negligible impact beyond neat diesel or they produced a small increase in swell. This minimal impact is attributed to the fact that the solubility parameters (especially those associated with polarity and hydrogen bonding) of the dioxolanes are similar to those of diesel. As a result, little change in solubility and hence swell occurred when dioxolane was added to the diesel.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T10:26:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038666
       
  • High, intermediate and low temperature performance appraisal of
           elastomeric and plastomeric asphalt binders and mixes

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      Authors: Aboelkasim Diab, Jorge Pais, Siyu Chen, Ankit Gupta, Xuelian Li, Lingyun You, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper is oriented to appraise high, intermediate, and low temperature related performance of elastomeric and plastomeric binders and mixtures in order to evaluate their characteristics at various levels of environmental and loading conditions. Artificial oxidative hardening of asphalt binders and mixes was performed in the laboratory using short- and long-term aging protocols.At the binder level, the elastomers (styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and rubber) and plastomer (ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)) materials improved high and intermediate temperature performance indices (G*/sin(δ) and G*.sin(δ), respectively). Interestingly, the aged SBS/bitumen blend had improved low-temperature cracking resistance compared to unaged counterpart. With the progress of oxidative hardening, the plastomer based binder did not show obvious change in the low-temperature cracking susceptibility compared to elastomer-modified binder. Seemingly, in the case of plastomer/bitumen blend, the propensity to low-temperature cracking is to a great extent controlled by the corresponding base bitumen. The plastomer based mixture had improved permanent deformation performance, whereas the elastomers afforded a tangible amelioration for the vulnerability to load and non-load associated cracking. The SBS based mixture showed highest low-temperature fracture energy compared to the EVA based mixture. Despite the determinantal effect of age-hardening to low and intermediate temperature-related cracking of mixes, the results confirmed that the elastomeric materials can retard the impact of aging level on the low temperature and fatigue cracking. Comparision of results was justified by the statistical analysis in order to determine the significance of bituminous material parameters on the measured properties.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T10:14:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038663
       
  • Evaluation of natural and epoxidized vegetable oil in elastomeric
           compositions for tread rubber

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      Authors: Camila Taliotto Scarton, Nayrim Brizuela Guerra, Marcelo Giovanela, Suélen Moresco, Janaina da Silva Crespo
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In the tire industry, the incorporation of natural origin oils in the development of elastomeric formulations has been one of the alternatives to reduce the use of petroleum derivatives, with a high content of toxic compounds. In this work, soybean vegetable oil was investigated as a lubricant and co-activator in sulfur-vulcanized natural rubber compounds. The soybean oil was used in its natural state and chemically modified by the epoxy ring’s introduction in its structure. In an internal mixer a standard formulation of natural rubber, five formulations replacing a conventional aromatic oil and stearic acid by vegetable oil, and a formulation without an activation system were prepared. The natural and epoxidized soybean oil was characterized chemically, and the elastomeric compositions were evaluated by mechanical and rheological analysis. The mechanical properties showed satisfactory results when vegetable soybean oil was used as a lubricant and could be a substitute for conventional aromatic oils, thus guaranteeing reduction of aromatic polycyclic content in the formulations. The crosslink degree and the rheological characteristics of the samples prepared with vegetable soybean oil were similar to the natural rubber standard sample. The formulations without the zinc oxide and stearic acid evidenced the need for activators in the vulcanization reaction, as they presented properties below standard. We verified that the epoxidized soybean oil, even when promoting better dispersion of the fillers, interfered in the crosslink formation, and consequently there was a decrease in the mechanical properties of these formulations. Finally, we indicated vegetable soybean oil as a substitute for aromatic oil and stearic acid, in the elastomeric compositions used to manufacture treads.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T10:03:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211038655
       
  • PP/POE thermoplastic elastomer prepared by dynamic vulcanization and its
           flame retardant modification

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      Authors: Mingchao Li, Yi Wang, Chunhui Shen, Shanjun Gao
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Flame retardant thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) with excellent mechanical properties and thermal oxidative aging resistance was prepared by dynamic vulcanization technology with ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) and polypropylene (PP) as raw materials. The paper first discussed the effect of the amount of vulcanizing agent on the properties of PP/POE TPE. Based on the study of tensile strength, elongation at break, cross-section morphology, processability and aging properties of TPE, it was found that the TPE prepared with 0.6 phr of bis(1-(tert-butylperoxy)-1-methylethyl)-benzene (BIPB) and 40/60 of PP/POE had the best properties. Then silicone powder (GM) is added to the traditional low-halogen bromine-phosphorus flame retardant system for flame retardant modification. The results show that the addition of GM can effectively enhance the stability of the carbon layer, prevent the material from dripping during combustion, and increase the residual carbon content of TPE at 800°C. When 3 phr of GM is combined with a bromine-phosphorus system. The comprehensive performance is the best, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of TPE increased to 29.8%, reaching the V-0 level. At the same time, the processing fluidity and aging resistance of TPE materials have also been improved.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-07-08T09:57:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211029039
       
  • Research changes in the properties of butadiene-nitrile rubber under
           various aging conditions

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      Authors: Mariya L Davydova, Aytalina F Fedorova
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      This article represents the results of a study of changes in the properties of vulcanizates based on BNR-18 butadiene-nitrile rubber containing as stabilizers the experimental spatially hindered phenols Stafen, CO3, CO4, and industrial antioxidant 6PPD, after accelerated aging (100°C 96 h) and aging under full-scale exposure in extreme climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) during 2 years. In winter, the air temperature reached—48°C, in summer—+36.1°C. It is shown that the experimental sterically hindered phenols more effectively under natural exposure conditions. They are characterized by the most stability in terms of strength throughout the entire exposure period. Under conditions of accelerated aging, the vulcanizate containing the industrial antioxidant 6PPD is characterized by the greatest stability of physical and mechanical properties. According to the viscoelastic characteristics obtained in the dynamic loading mode, the contribution of the presented stabilizers in maintaining resistance to temperature and deformation effects compared with unstabilized rubber is confirmed.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T09:43:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211029036
       
  • Highly epoxidized soybean oil in replacement of mineral oil for high
           performance on silica-filled tread rubber compounds

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      Authors: Leandro Hernán Esposito, Angel José Marzocca
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The potential replacement of a treated residual aromatic extract mineral oil (TRAE) by a highly epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) into a silica-filled styrene-butadiene rubber compound was investigated.In order to determine if ESO compounds performance are suitable for tread tire applications, processing properties cure and characteristics were evaluated. The impact of ESO amount on the silica dispersion was confirmed by Payne Effect. The presence of chemical or physical interactions between ESO and silica improves the filler dispersion, enabling the compound processability and affecting the cure kinetic rate.An adjusted rubber compound with 2 phr of ESO and 2 phr of sulfur presented the higher stiffness and strength values with lower weight loss from a wear test compared with TRAE compound at an equal amount of oil and curing package. Furthermore, wet grip and rolling resistance predictors of both compounds gave comparable results, maintaining a better performance and reducing the dependence of mineral oil for tire tread compounds.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:23:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211029041
       
  • Expanded vermiculite-filled flexible polymer composites

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      Authors: Mukaddes Sevval Cetin, Ozan Toprakci, Omer Suat Taskin, Abdullah Aksu, Hatice Aylin Karahan Toprakci
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of vermiculite-filled flexible polymer composites. Exfoliated vermiculite was incorporated into triblock thermoplastic elastomer copolymer, styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene (SEBS), at various levels from 1 to 15 wt% by a high shear mixer. The composite films were obtained by the combination of solvent casting and compression molding. The morphological, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties and contact angle of the composites were determined. Some micro-morphological differences were observed between the samples and the difference was assumed to be caused by high shear mixing and filler concentration. High shear mixing was found effective in terms of the detachment of vermiculite layers at all concentrations. However, at low filler loading, that behavior was more obvious. At 1 wt% filler concentration, mechanical properties increased that was probably caused by good filler-matrix interaction stemmed from smaller particle size. At higher vermiculite concentrations, fillers found to show agglomerations that led to a decrease in mechanical strength and strain at break. Elastic and secant modulus showed an increasing trend. Contact angle measurements were carried out to determine the oleophilic character of the samples. An increase in the vermiculite content resulted in higher oleophilic character and the lowest contact angle was obtained at 15 wt% VMT loading. In addition to these, thermal stability, thermal dimensional stability and flame retardancy were improved by the incorporation of VMT. 15 wt% vermiculite-filled sample showed the best performance in terms of thermal stability and flame retardancy.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211029038
       
  • Synergistic activities of binary accelerators in presence of magnesium
           oxide as a cure activator in the vulcanization of natural rubber

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      Authors: Md Najib Alam, Vineet Kumar, Pranut Potiyaraj, Dong-Joo Lee, Jungwook Choi
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      We describe the synergistic activities of binary vulcanizing accelerators in presence of magnesium oxide as cure activator in the vulcanization of natural rubber. Thiuram type tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD) and thiocarbamate type zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDMC) accelerators in combination with dibenzothiazyl disulfide (MBTS) were investigated for the vulcanization of rubber. The cure, mechanical, and thermal properties of rubber vulcanizates were studied with magnesium oxide-based cure activator. Notable synergism in the delta torque, cross-link density, and mechanical properties was found when using binary accelerators with magnesium oxide. The zinc-containing thiocarbamate accelerator, ZDMC, showed better synergistic activity in presence of magnesium oxide than the non-zinc-based thiuram accelerator, TMTD. To find out the possibility of making a zinc-oxide-free natural rubber compound, a control compound was prepared with 5 phr of zinc oxide as a cure activator with the best evaluated binary accelerators system with magnesium oxide (3:6 millimolar ratio of ZDMC to MBTS). We also compared the curing and mechanical properties of carbon black-reinforced rubber with zinc oxide and magnesium oxide separately with this binary accelerators system. The results indicated that a completely zinc-oxide-free natural rubber compound was possible with comparable values in the mechanical properties, thermal properties and a higher rate of vulcanization.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:03:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211020794
       
  • Estimation of adhesive wear behavior of the glass fiber reinforced
           polyester composite materials using ANFIS model

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      Authors: Serhat Yilmaz, Recep Ilhan, Erol Feyzullahoğlu
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) composite materials are widely used in various applications. The prediction of wear values for composite materials is very complex and nonlinear phenomena. Artificial intelligence methods (AI) and expert systems such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy inference systems (FIS) have a series of properties on modeling nonlinear systems. In some situations, ANNs are insufficient under abrupt changes in input variables. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is capable of integrating the linguistic expressions of FIS with the adaptation and learning skills of the ANNs. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum material content and working conditions in terms of wear resistance. This study proposes an ANFIS sub-clustering based prediction model for estimation of wear behavior of GFRP composites within various concentrations of materials and under diverse loads and speeds. Proposed ANFIS model extracted optimum concentrations and operating parameters to obtain the minimum wear rate. Due to the wear rate estimation model, optimum wear rate value is reached to 25.0013 (mm3/Nm)*10−6 at CaCO3, polystyrene, glass fiber, glass bead, alumina, load and speed values of 49%, 0%, 11%, 10%, 0.8%, 10 N and 100 rpm respectively. A high estimation capability (R2 = 0.964) has been achieved using ANFIS Model.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211020793
       
  • The effect of silica modified by deep eutectic solvents on the properties
           of nature rubber/silica composites

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      Authors: Hao Yang, Liu Yang, Huaiqing Guo, Wenbo Hu, Aihua Du
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of deep eutectic solvent (DES) modified silica on the properties of nature rubber (NR) composites were investigated. The DES is an environment-friendly and low-cost solvent, which was prepared by mixing choline chloride and urea in a 1:2 molar ratio. The NR composites filled with DES modified silica were prepared and the properties were tested. The interaction between the DES and silica were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the interaction between silica and silica were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dynamic properties, such as rolling resistance and wet skid resistance, and were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Morphologies of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the DES can interact with silica by hydrogen bond to improve the compatibility between the rubber and silica. When the content of DES was 3 phr, the tensile strength, modulus at 300%, tear strength, and the crosslinking density of the composites was increased. At the same time, the proper content of DES can reduce the rolling resistance of the vulcanized rubber while maintaining good wet skid resistance.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211020051
       
  • Prediction and optimization of mechanical properties of PA6/NBR/graphene
           nanocomposites fabricated by friction stir processing

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      Authors: Ali Ghorbankhan, Mohammad Reza Nakhaei, Ghasem Naderi
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The friction stir process (FSP) method used to prepare polyamide 6 (PA6)/nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) nanocomposites with 1 wt% Graphene nanoparticles. Response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design were used to study the effects of four input variables including tool rotational speed (ω), shoulder temperature (T), traverse speed (S), and the number of passes (N) on tensile strength and impact strength of PA6/NBR/Graphene nanocomposite. In order to investigate the dispersion state of Graphene and the morphology of the PA6/NBR blend in the presence of Graphene, wide x-ray patterns (WAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed. Furthermore and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of PA6/NBR containing 1 wt% Graphene nanoparticles. The results confirmed that at the optimum range of input variables, PA6/NBR/Graphene nanocomposite provided good thermal stability as well as the highest tensile strength, and impact strength. This is caused by the large surface area to volume ratio of the dispersed layered Graphene in PA6/NBR blends. Under optimal conditions of the rotational speed of 1200 rpm, traverse speed of 20 mm/min, shoulder temperature of 125°C, and number pass of 3, the maximum tensile strength and impact strength are 70.4 MPa and 70.3 J/m, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T09:40:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211020049
       
  • On the use of Ozawa/Flynn/Wall method to determine aging activation energy
           for elastomers

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      Authors: Sudhir Bafna
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      It is often necessary to assess the effect of aging at room temperature over years/decades for hardware containing elastomeric components such as oring seals or shock isolators. In order to determine this effect, accelerated oven aging at elevated temperatures is pursued. When doing so, it is vital that the degradation mechanism still be representative of that prevalent at room temperature. This places an upper limit on the elevated oven temperature, which in turn, increases the dwell time in the oven. As a result, the oven dwell time can run into months, if not years, something that is not realistically feasible due to resource/schedule constraints in industry. Measuring activation energy (Ea) of elastomer aging by test methods such as tensile strength or elongation, compression set, modulus, oxygen consumption, etc. is expensive and time consuming. Use of kinetics of weight loss by ThermoGravimetric Analysis (TGA) using the Ozawa/Flynn/Wall method per ASTM E1641 is an attractive option (especially due to the availability of commercial instrumentation with software to make the required measurements and calculations) and is widely used. There is no fundamental scientific reason why the kinetics of weight loss at elevated temperatures should correlate to the kinetics of loss of mechanical properties over years/decades at room temperature. Ea obtained by high temperature weight loss is almost always significantly higher than that obtained by measurements of mechanical properties or oxygen consumption over extended periods at much lower temperatures. In this paper, data on five different elastomer types (butyl, nitrile, EPDM, polychloroprene and fluorocarbon) are presented to prove that point. Thus, use of Ea determined by weight loss by TGA tends to give unrealistically high values, which in turn, will lead to incorrectly high predictions of storage life at room temperature.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T09:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211020330
       
  • Epoxidized polybutadiene rubber as an effective compatibilizer for
           acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber blend

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      Authors: Vivek K Srivastava, Ganesh C Basak, Sukdeb Saha, GS Srinivasa Rao, Raksh Vir Jasra
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, epoxidized polybutadiene rubber (EBR; 30 mol% epoxidation) was synthesized using commercial-grade cis-polybutadiene rubber (BR). The EBR was successfully utilized as an effective compatibilizer between two incompatible elastomers, namely polar acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and non-polar polybutadiene rubber (BR). The NBR and BR were blended in varied formulations and studied for morphological and mechanical properties. The observed properties of the blends containing EBR, as a compatibilizer, were compared with analogous blends without EBR. The optimum loading of EBR in NBR/BR formulations was found to be 5 phr (parts per hundred gram of rubber). The significant improvement in various mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break and hardness were observed in presence of optimum loading of EBR in NBR/BR blends. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA) studies revealed that the compatibility between two incompatible rubbers improved in the presence of EBR. The results observed with EBR-compatibilized blends revealed that EBR can be used as an effective compatibilizer between two incompatible rubbers (NBR and BR).
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T09:28:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211017178
       
  • The effect of nanocellulose on mechanical and physical properties of
           chitosan-based biocomposites

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      Authors: Hamidreza Talebi, Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Alireza Ashori
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of two types of nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of chitosan (CH) film was examined in terms of elongation, tensile strength, and dynamic-mechanical properties such as tan δ and storage modulus. Chitosan films were reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) with different ratios. CH/CNC and CH/CNF nanocomposite films containing 0–7 wt.% nanofibers were produced by solution casting. A comparison between CNC and CNF was made based on their nanostructures and interfacial bonding with the CH matrix. For both CNC and CNF, reinforcing effects in nanocomposite polymer films were presented. The results demonstrated that nanocomposite films can increase mechanical properties; 7 wt.% CNF and CNC had the most increasing effect on the mechanical properties, raising the tensile strength of the chitosan film by 104% and 52%, respectively. Moreover, the values of CH/CNC and CH/CNF films showed higher storage modulus compared to the pure chitosan film. CNF shows higher modulus and strength compared with CNC at the same amount of fiber because of CNFs’ percolation networks and their larger aspect ratio. Morphological studies revealed the dispersion of CNC and CNF is in the contiguous matrix of chitosan with a homogeneous distribution without agglomeration. The results also illustrated that CNC and CNF can improve the water resistance of chitosan films. The mechanical properties of composite films were acceptable to use as artificial skin and wound dressings.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T09:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211017169
       
  • Effect of masterbatch drying methods on the properties of rubber
           reinforced with renewable hydrophilic filler

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      Authors: L Jong
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Hydrophilic fillers contain functional groups capable of forming hydrogen and/or ionic bonds. Many recent developments with biobased fillers are masterbatch process with rubber latex. The effect of the different process influences the characteristics of filler network and therefore rubber properties. In this study, the rubbers reinforced with hydrophilic filler, soy protein particles, and carbon black processed in two different methods, casting and freeze-drying methods, are investigated using crosslink density, dynamic mechanical properties, stress softening effect, stress relaxation, tensile properties, and thermal degradation. Stress softening effect is analyzed with the Kraus model and shows that the characteristic strains shifted to smaller strains for the rubbers prepared by a casting process. Stress relaxation of the reinforced rubber prepared from the two different processes shows that the rubbers from the casting process have slower relaxation rates because of higher crosslink density and modulus. Overall, the rubber composites prepared by casting method have higher crosslink density, greater softening effect, slower rate of stress relaxation, and higher moduli attributed to greater interactions between hydrophilic components in the reinforced rubber.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T10:16:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211017179
       
  • Shot blasting dust as a filler in elastomer composites

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      Authors: Mirosława Prochoń, Jacek Sawicki, Maciej Reda, Piotr Sirek, Małgorzata Suwalska, Bartosz Werstak
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this article was to determine the impact of using shot blasting dust as a filler in natural rubber (NR) composites. Increasing filler contents were used, from 0 to 30 parts by weight per 100 g of rubber. Examination of the wetting characteristics of the dust confirmed its hydrophobic nature. This characteristic makes it easier to introduce dust into the elastomer structure, with better binding to the mixture ingredients. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of the filler in the elastomer matrix, with changes in absorbency intensity and the absence of peaks at given wave numbers. SEM images were taken to compare the surface topography of the compositions with and without the filler. The compositions with fillers showed the presence of a common spatial network. The functional properties of the obtained elastomer compositions were analyzed. Mechanical examinations demonstrated that the introduction of dust into the elastomer compositions contributed to improve the mechanical properties of the compositions. The conductivity of the elastomer structures increased with the addition of the filler but these changes were minor and allow the vulcanizates to remain classified as insulators. TGA/DSC demonstrated an increase in the thermal stability of the composites after the introduction of shot blasting dust into the elastomer structure. The decomposition temperature shifted toward higher values and an increase in glass transition temperature was observed for the filled compositions. The results of this study indicate that the use of shot blasting dust as a filler in NR improves the functional properties of the vulcanizates and could be competitive with more widely-used methods using fillers such as silica or chalk.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T10:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015357
       
  • Time dependent ultrasonic treatment of waste gypsum toward improved
           mechanical performance of its EPDM composite

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      Authors: In Tae Kim, Tridib Kumar Sinha, Junho Moon, Tae Woong Kong, Jeong Seok Oh
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, we have attempted to recycle the waste gypsum to be used as filler material in polymer composite. In this regard, aqueous dispersion of gypsum was ultrasonicated for varying time duration (10, 30, and 60 min), dried and used as fillers to develop corresponding EPDM composites. As per the mechanical performance (i.e., tensile strength and elongation at break), the gypsum obtained after ultrasonication for 60 min (i.e., U-60 gypsum) was found best performing filler material compared to the other ultrasonicated gypsum samples, commercial carbon black, and another surface treated gypsum sample. The decreased particle size and enhanced surface area of U-60 gypsum are supposed to be responsible for improving the mechanical property of the composite. Corresponding particle size, surface area, and morphology of all the gypsum samples were thoroughly examined to conclude the reason behind such observation.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T10:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015356
       
  • Changes in the rheometric, morphological and mechanical properties of
           nitrile rubber composites by the use of different concentrations of
           cellulose nanofibers

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      Authors: Vânia Celestini, Willian B Ribeiro, Thamires Damo, Alessandra Lavoratti, Ademir J Zattera, Rosmary N Brandalise
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Cellulose nanofibers were produced with waste from the paper industry, in a stone grinder and were used as filler in elastomeric composites in the acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR). Two different cellulose mass concentrations (0.5 and 2.0 wt%) were ground in water and incorporated in concentrations of 0, 10 and 20 phr by the coagulation of the NBR, followed by drying. The other components of the formulation were incorporated and vulcanized in an open mixer and molded by compression. Due to the proposed grinding it was possible to obtain nanocellulose, in the range of 20.5 nm to 83.6 nm at an average diameter of 42.8 nm for the solution produced with 2.0 wt% and 18.3 nm at 90.5 nm at an average diameter of 44.3 for the solution with 0.5 wt%. The composites with a 20 phr of nanofiber presented lower vulcanization times and better mechanical properties before and after accelerated aging for 7 days, as well as a superior resistance to gasoline and diesel than the NBR and the samples with 10 phr. A tear strength of 61 N.mm−2 was obtained at the concentration of 20 phr and 0.5 wt% of incorporated nanofibers in line with a shorter vulcanization time.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T09:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211017183
       
  • Experimental study on mechanical properties of polypropylene
           nanocomposites reinforced with a hybrid graphene/PP-g-MA/kenaf fiber by
           response surface methodology

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      Authors: Jaber Mirzaei, Abdolhossein Fereidoon, Ahmad Ghasemi-Ghalebahman
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP)-based nanocomposites reinforced with graphene nanosheets, kenaf fiber, and polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used as the experimental design. The blends fabricated in three levels of parameters include 0, 0.75, and 1.5 wt% graphene nanosheets, 0, 7.5, and 15 wt% kenaf fiber, and 0, 3, and 6 wt% PP-g-MA, prepared by an internal mixer and a hot press machine. The fiber length was 5 mm and was being constant for all samples. Tensile, flexural, and impact tests were conducted to determine the blend properties. The purpose of this research is to achieve the highest mechanical properties of the considered nanocomposite blend. The addition of graphene nanosheets to 1 wt% increased the tensile, flexural, and impact strengths by 16%, 24%, and 19%, respectively, and an addition up to 1.5 wt% reduced them. With further addition of graphene nanosheets until 1.5 wt%, the elastic modulus was increased by 70%. Adding the kenaf fiber up to 15 wt% increased the elastic modulus, tensile, flexural, and impact strength by 24%, 84%, 18%, and 11%, respectively. The addition of PP-g-MA has increased the adhesion, dispersion and compatibility of graphene nanosheets and kenaf fibers with matrix. With 6 wt% PP-g-MA, the tensile strength and elastic modulus were increased by 18% and 75%, respectively. The addition of PP-g-MA to 5 wt% increased the flexural and impact strengths by 10% and 5%, respectively. From the entire experimental data, the optimum values for elastic modulus, as well as, tensile, flexural, and impact strengths in the blends were obtained to be 4 GPa, 33.7896 MPa, 57.6306 MPa, and 100.1421 J/m, respectively. Finally, samples were studied by FE-SEM to check the dispersion of graphene nanosheets, PP-g-MA and kenaf fibers in the polymeric matrix.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T09:48:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015362
       
  • Discoloration of green PET bottles recycled with chemical agents by
           reactive extrusion

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      Authors: Javier Guillén-Mallette, Carlos Rolando Ríos-Soberanis, Jazmín Enríquez-Reyes
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluates the effect of incorporating chemical agents with green polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles on extrudate color change and other properties. First, the best type of chemical agent that decolorizes recycled green PET bottles (RGPB) with good processability was determined. RGPB-chemical agent mixtures were evaluated, reducing, photoinitiator, or oxidant, where the best one turned out to be the oxidizing agent, a dicumyl peroxide. Then new mixtures of RGPB-oxidizing agent, dicumyl or benzoyl, were made in a reactive extrusion process employing a drying hopper to avoid hydrolytic degradation. The intrinsic viscosity, crystallinity, and color change of extrudates were determined. It was determined by SEM with EDS that the dye is possibly a chlorinated copper phthalocyanine. The final results show an increase in the intrinsic viscosity of the PET handling dicumyl peroxide, a partial whitening of the extrudates, and an increase in the crystallinity of the PET, which contributed to a decrease the hue and saturation of the green color of RGPB. Where the dicumyl peroxide present in mixtures with RGPB interacts with chlorinated copper phthalocyanine to produce phthalamide or phthalic acid, which are white.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T09:47:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015358
       
  • Effect of injection parameters on the thermal, mechanical and
           thermomechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL)

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      Authors: Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna, Danilo Diniz Siqueira, Eduardo da Silva Barbosa Ferreira, Edcleide Maria Araújo, Renate Maria Ramos Wellen
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, an experimental design was applied in the injection molding process of polycaprolactone (PCL), aiming to evaluate the mechanical properties (impact strength, tensile strength and Shore D Hardness), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) and thermomechanical (heat deflection temperature (HDT)), in PCL injected specimens. A type 2n planning was applied, with n = 3 and central point, having the input factors: processing temperature profile, mold temperature and injection flow. The results showed that the DSC curves presented a complex mechanism during crystallization, suggesting that depending on the processing conditions a high degree of crystallinity can be obtained. When using a higher processing temperature and a higher injection flow, there is an increase in the mass of the PCL parts. The impact strength is more expressive when a higher injection flow and a lower processing temperature are applied, reaching values around 260 J/m. The mold temperature impairs the elongation at the break of the PCL, while the elastic modulus was governed by the degree of crystallinity. A deleterious effect on HDT was observed with increased injection flow, suggesting that this parameter negatively affects thermomechanical resistance. The use of experimental design in the processing of PCL is important, since it is possible to optimize properties with the ideal conditions of injection molding.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-10T09:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015345
       
  • Fabrication of micro/nano hydrophobic surfaces by a soft molding method
           using polyurethane-based elastomer

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      Authors: Eroğlu Murat, Parmak Şam Ebru Devrim
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, a stretchable and non-sticky hydrophobic surface is developed using flexible polyurethane-based elastomer Vytaflex 20A. The hierarchical roughness of rose petals was replicated by soft molding method to achieve hydrophobicity. The morphological properties, wettability properties and mechanical properties of replicated micro/nanostructures were characterized. The replicated surface exhibited a similar micro/nanostructure to that of rose petal. Rose petal and replicated surface were highly hydrophobic and their static water contact angles (θ ≈ 124°) are nearly equal. Contact angle hysteresis of the produced surface was measured (10°) to be lower significantly than that of the fresh rose petal (50°). The proposed surface is also highly stretchable having an elongation value of approximately % 700. Such surfaces can be a great candidate for providing easy to clean ability to deformable elastomer products.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T09:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211015341
       
  • Effect of OMMT reinforcement on morphology and rheology properties of
           polyurethane copolymer nanocomposites

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      Authors: Muayad Albozahid, Haneen Zuhair Naji, Zoalfokkar Kareem Alobad, Alberto Saiani
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The remarkable structural features of organic modified montmorillonite particles (OMMT) enable them to complete their important role in enhancing different properties of polyurethane copolymer with 75 wt.% hard segments (PUC/75). Based on the melt intercalation approach, various amounts of OMMT were incorporated into PUC/75 solution followed by the injection moulding process. It is essential to mention that the synthesized PUC/75 in this work relied on using 1,5-Pentanediol as a chain extender in order to produce a long-term and thermal-stable PUC successfully. The effect of incorporating various loading of OMMT on rheological properties of neat PUC/75 and its nanocomposites was investigated. The structure of PUC/OMMT was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were utilized to investigate OMMT effect on the thermal transitions and crystallinity of resultant PUC nanocomposites. Interestingly, the dynamic rheological analysis exhibited a remarkable increase in melt rheology behaviour with increasing OMMT loading compared to neat PUC/75. This could imply a good interaction between the functional group on the surface of OMMT and PUC/75 domains; particularly hard domains, herein the DSC results showed moderate improvement in melt temperature (Tm) of PUC/OMMT nanocomposite. However, a decline in crystalline temperature (Tc) was also seen due to aggregation of OMMT, especially at higher OMMT loading. While XRD results exhibited a slight shifting in crystalline peaks of PUC nanocomposites relative to neat PUC/75.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T06:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211006160
       
  • Molecular sorption and diffusion of organic solvents through maleated
           rubber/layered silicate nanocomposites

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      Authors: Mohamed Zemzem, Ludwig Vinches, Stéphane Hallé
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the study is to investigate barrier properties of a nanocomposite material against organic solvents. Molecular transport phenomena of three alcohols, namely methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, through a nitrile rubber-based nanocomposite, are carried out in temperatures ranging from 23 to 70°C. For each configuration, mass transfer kinetics are investigated for three different types of clay nanoparticles using mass uptake experiments. Maleated nanocomposites with enhanced dispersion morphology are also examined. Results show that all molecular transport parameters are generally susceptible to temperature variations. Sorption and diffusion coefficients noticeably increased as temperatures increased. Polymer/solvent interaction seems to be similarly affected. Molecular volume of the penetrant is observed to have an influence on molecule migration. Diffusion coefficients are likewise affected and decrease with the linear increase of molecular volume. The diffusion mechanism is slightly altered by this factor and the Fickian mode is maintained. When filling the rubbery matrix with layered silicates, sorption decreases at equilibrium. Its level drops even lower with the maleation of the nanocomposite. However, the diffusion coefficient exhibits a less systematic trend. Randomly filled nanocomposites appear to have higher diffusivity than neat rubber, but diffusion parameter considerably decreases after maleation, which emphasizes the nanoclay’s dispersion effect.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T08:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211006162
       
  • Biodegradable composites of waste expanded polystyrene with modified neem
           oil for packaging applications

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      Authors: NG Salini, BG Resmi, Rosy Antony
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Polymer composite film containing expanded polystyrene wastes, poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), epoxidized neem oil and cassava starch was prepared by solution casting technique. The composite film was characterized by FTIR, NMR, X-ray diffraction, and FESEM analysis. The thermal stability of the polymer composite film was studied by TGA and DSC. Melting point, glass transition temperature and cold-crystallization temperature of the composite films were found to decrease with increasing percentages of epoxidized neem oil plasticizer, which point towards the enhanced segmental mobility of the polymer chain. TGA results show that plasticization has enhanced the thermal stability of the polymer composite. The prepared films show improved percentage elongation with moderate tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Soil burial test was adopted to check the biodegradability. The lower values of water absorption indicate the water-resistant nature of the films. This green synthetic approach offers a simple means of up-cycling waste thermocol in a cost-effective manner which imparts partial biodegradability with potential for packaging film and eliminates the usage of toxic chemicals.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T07:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211006164
       
  • Characterization of swelling behavior of carbon nano-filler modified
           polydimethylsiloxane composites

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      Authors: Bo Yang, Balakrishnan Nagarajan, Pierre Mertiny
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Polymers may absorb fluids from their surroundings via the natural phenomenon of swelling. Dimensional changes due to swelling can affect the function of polymer components, such as in the case of seals, microfluidic components and electromechanical sensors. An understanding of the swelling behavior of polymers and means for controlling it can improve the design of polymer components, for example, for the previously mentioned applications. Carbon-based fillers have risen in popularity to be used for the property enhancement of resulting polymer composites. The present investigation focuses on the effects of three carbon-based nano-fillers (graphene nano-platelets, carbon black, and graphene nano-scrolls) on the dimensional changes of polydimethylsiloxane composites due to swelling when immersed in certain organic solvents. For this study, a facile and expedient methodology comprised of optical measurements in conjunction with digital image analysis was developed as the primary experimental technique to quantify swelling dimensional changes of the prepared composites. Other experimental techniques assessed polymer cross-linking densities and elastic mechanical properties of the various materials. The study revealed that the addition of certain carbon-based nano-fillers increased the overall swelling of the composites. The extent of swelling further depended on the organic solvent in which the composites were immersed in. Experimental findings are contrasted with published models for swelling prediction, and the role of filler morphology on swelling behavior is discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211006156
       
  • Investigation of friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene
           and polypropylene sheets

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      Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, two different polymer materials were used. In the joints made with friction stir spot welding, firstly (PP/PP and HDPE/HDPE) and then different materials (PP/HDPE, HDPE/PP) joining processes were carried. The influence of the tool rotational speed and the stirring time on joint formation and weld strength were determined. The temperature of the liquid welding materials varies according to the materials to be combined. High weld strengths were obtained at the friction stir spot welding of similar plastic sheets. The highest weld strengths were obtained in PP-PP welds. Low weld strengths were obtained at the friction stir spot welding of dissimilar plastic sheets because of immiscible and incompatible blends formed during the welding operation. The lowest weld strengths were obtained in PP-HDPE welds. The chemical composition and the phase morphology of the blends, the mechanical scission occurrence and the welding residual stresses determine the strength of the welds.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-03-23T09:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211001526
       
  • Composites based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and silver-calcined
           scallop shell powder: Mechanical, thermal, photocatalytic, and
           antibacterial properties

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      Authors: Marakkattupurathe Manoj, Olongal Manaf, KM Muhammad Ismayil, Athiyanathil Sujith
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) [EVA] and silver-calcined scallop shell powder (Ag-CS) based composite (EVA/Ag-CS) films were synthesized by wet phase inversion method. The composite films were characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), water sorption test, and contact angle measurement. The functional properties such as photocatalytic and antibacterial properties were also studied in detail. Calcined scallop shell powder, which mainly contains CaO and Ca(OH)2 was prepared from a naturally occurring scallop shell by the sol–gel method. Silver-calcined scallop shell powder was prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate solution in the presence of calcined scallop shell powder. It was found that composite with a 6 wt% Ag-CS showed 5% better tensile strength and improved thermal properties than the pristine EVA. The incorporation of Ag-CS imparts photocatalytic property to EVA polymer matrix. Kinetics study showed that the photocatalytic process takes place through a pseudo-first-order manner. The antibacterial study of the prepared samples was tested by the agar-disc diffusion method. The composites are found to be good antibacterial material against Staphillococus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T10:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244321996396
       
  • Studies of the effect of temperature on charge accumulation in PVDF-PMMA
           double-layered thin films based on depolarization current measurements

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      Authors: Pooja Saxena, Prashant Shukla
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we have reported the interpretation of air gap (Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current) of surface charges in PVDF-PMMA (Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)–Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)) double-layered polymer thin films whose decay could not be observed in metalized electrets with short-circuit TSDC. Since short-circuit TSDC is caused by the relaxations of homo- and hetero-charge flow in one direction and thus makes it difficult to identify, separate, and characterize its components, therefore, an air gap was introduced to the short-circuit TSDC technique to carry out air-gap TSDC. This technique enables one to observe the orientation of dipoles, excess charge decay by ohmic conduction, and decay of surface charge. When a dielectric is charged by an application of an external field, two charges with opposite polarity and different nature can be found. Air-gap TSDC’s of double-layer samples revealed the presence of homo charge; charges trapped at the surface are due to dissipation of space charges thus, the depolarization current is observed to have the same polarity as that of the polarization current. Hetero-charge persists at high temperatures due to the bulk polarization formed because of the electric field created by the homo-charge. Hence, the depolarization current observed in the present study was observed to be of opposite polarity as that of polarization current. The above discussed polymeric layered structure was found to be a source of charge trapping which was identified and confirmed by various calculated parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T07:09:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244321996401
       
  • Characterization and comparison of fluoroelastomer unfilled, filled with
           carbon nanotube (unmodified, acid or base surface modified) and carbon
           black using TGA-GCMS

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      Authors: J Heidarian, A Hassan
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon nanotube (CNT)-, surface-modified CNT: acid (–COOH) modified (MCNT) or base (–OH) modified (OHCNT), carbon black (CB)-filled fluoroelastomer (FE) and unfilled FE were prepared (CNT/FE, MCNT/FE, OHCNT/FE, CB/FE and FE). The thermal properties of the composites were assessed by TGA-GCMS and TGA and compared for all samples. TGA-GCMS results show that degradation products that obtained due to breakage of the CF2-CH2 bond (group A) and CF2-CF2 bond (group B) in base FE, obtained in lower temperatures and higher temperatures of TGA scan respectively, therefore CF2-CF2 bond is more thermally stable than CF2-CH2. For degradation products of group A and group B, the relative abundance decreased in the following orders respectively for all samples: CB/FE, CNT/FE, OHCNT/FE, FE, MCNT/FE; and MCNT/FE, OHCNT/FE, FE, CNT/FE, CB/FE. Therefore nanofillers and particularly surface-modified nanofillers produce less amount of group A degradation products and more amount of group B degradation products and therefore increase the thermal stability of the base FE. For all samples, the volatile degradation products that have the highest intensity are: (C6F7H2)•+, C4H6F+ and C6F11 + and the volatile degradation products are similar except for OHCNT/FE and MCNT/FE. TGA results also show that thermal stability reduced in the following orders in the lower temperature range and higher temperature range respectively: OHCNT/FE, FE, CB/FE, CNT/FE, MCNT/FE; and CB/FE, MCNT/FE, CNT/FE, FE, OHCNT/FE. Totally the results show that OHCNT/FE, MCNT/FE and CNT/FE can be used at high temperatures for making O-rings for very deep oil and gas drilling.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T09:52:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244321990402
       
  • Evaluation of different mechanical recycling methods of EVA foam waste

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      Authors: Vanessa Biondo Rosa, Ademir José Zattera, Matheus Poletto
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, a proposal for the recycling of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam waste from the footwear industry using twin-screw extruder was evaluated. Parameters such as antioxidant addition, number of reprocessing, temperature, rotation speed were evaluated. The recycled material was evaluated by means of gel content, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG) and parallel plate rheometry. From this, the 4 samples were chosen, from the 16 extruded, with a higher probability of forming homogeneous foams to be used in the manufacture of new EVA foams. The foams were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and physical tests of density, abrasion and permanent compression deformation (PCD). The results showed a decrease in the content of crosslinked gel by up to 13 percentage points for the recycled material with antioxidant. However, there was a possible residual crosslinking, as the crosslinking of all recycled foams was greater than reference (foam). The greatest recycled material homogeneity, observed in the SEM, occurred in the samples processed for five repetitions without antioxidant. Some foams manufactured with recycled waste presented very similar morphological aspects to the reference foam. Foam manufactures with G1 recycled waste (extruded once, at 180°C, 450 rpm, without antioxidant), presented the most uniform and spherical cells. This foam also presented the best responses for the physical tests of PCD and abrasion, even compared to foam without recycle. As well as the lower viscosities for these same samples compared to the previous processing. It was understood that the viscosity of the recycled waste directly interferes with the formation of new EVA foam. Rheometry made it possible to identify the recycling process that resulted in an ideal viscosity material for incorporation in the manufacture of new EVA foams.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T09:42:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244321990400
       
  • Rheological studies of SBS/EVA blends modified with bio-based cashew nut
           shell liquid

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      Authors: Isabela Pinto Ferreira, Alex da Silva Sirqueira, Taiane Andre dos Santos, Monica Feijo Naccache, Bluma Guenther Soares
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Research on bio-plasticizers is a topic of strategic interest in polymer blends. A bio-plasticizer, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), was studied in blends of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS). In the literature does not report the addition of plasticizers to SBS/EVA blend. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference in mechanical properties (tension at break, hardness and elongation at break) vs. the unplasticized blend. The minimum CNSL concentration required for a statistical difference was 10 phr. The Carreau-Yasuda rheological model was used to obtain rheological parameters in these blends. The plasticizing influence of CNSL was confirmed by rheology. The effects of CNSL on creep and recovery were evaluated for the SBS/EBA blends. Burger´s model explained well SBS/EVA creep compliance. Moreover, its parameters (Newtonian dashpots and Hookean springs) were evaluated as a function of the CNSL concentrations. The bio-plasticizer concentration influenced significant correlations among the rheological creep-recovery tests, thus enabling a considerable increase in the elastic phase. Experimental creep-recovery data and curve fit were in good agreement.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T09:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244321990407
       
  • Chemically modified soybean oils as plasticizers for silica-filled
           e-SBR/Br compounds for tire tread applications

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      Authors: Viviane Meyer Hammel Lovison, Maurício Azevedo de Freitas, Maria Madalena de Camargo Forte
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Silica-filled styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/butadiene rubber (BR) compounds plasticized with mineral oils are mainly used to produce green tire treads. Previous works have demonstrated that the partial replacement of naphthenic oil (ONAF) by bio-based oils can provide processing and performance improvements for rubber compounds, along with environmental benefits. In this study, two modified soybean oils (esterified, OEST or esterified and epoxidized, OEPX) were investigated with the aim of evaluating the complete replacement of ONAF and determining whether the chemical properties of the oils affect the performance of silica-filled E-SBR/BR compounds, using the compound with ONAF as a reference. The physical properties, curing characteristics, morphology, and dynamic mechanical behavior were evaluated. The use of the modified soybean oils decreased the optimal cure time while increasing the crosslink density and the abrasive wear resistance. Further, the compounds with both modified soybean oils showed a good balance of mechanical properties. The modified soybean oils decreased the glass transition temperature of the rubber compounds, thus acting as true plasticizers. At 0°C, the tan δ value of E-SBR/BR/OEPX increased relative to that of E-SBR/BR/ONAF, whereas at 60°C, the values of the compounds with both modified soybean oils showed slight increases. The tan δ values reveal that compared with E-SBR/BR/ONAF, E-SBR/BR/OEPX has better wet grip and a similar rolling resistance, whereas E-SBR/BR/OEST has a higher rolling resistance. Thus, both modified soybean oils can fully replace ONAF and appear to be extremely attractive plasticizers for use in silica-filled E-SBR/BR compounds employed as green tire treads for passenger cars.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T10:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244320988159
       
  • TG and DSC as tools to analyse the thermal behaviour of EVA copolymers

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      Authors: E Díez, A Rodríguez, JM Gómez, J Galán
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses the thermal behaviour of six EVA copolymers supplied by REPSOL Company. In relation to crystallization and melting temperatures, both of them decrease when the vinyl acetate percentage increases, in agreement with the fact that polyethylene is a semi-crystalline material, whereas polyvinylacetate is an amorphous polymer. Actually, when the vinyl acetate percentage reaches 30%, the copolymer is practically amorphous. The non-isothermal crystallization was modelled with the modified Avrami model that showed, with the exception of EVA-460 (the material with higher vinyl acetate percentage), the presence of a secondary crystallization due to spherulite impingement in the later stage of the non-isothermal crystallization. The TG analysis indicated two weight loss stages, the first one due to acetic acid loss and the second one due to fragments of polymer backbone, which appear as two separate peaks in the DTG plots. Finally, due to the linear dependence of melting and crystallization temperatures and of the minimum value of DTG peaks on vinyl acetate percentage, it can be concluded that both TG and DSC techniques can be employed to determine the vinyl acetate percentage of a certain copolymer.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T09:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244320988163
       
  • Development of Nd-Fe-B rubber-bonded permanent magnets: Magnetic and
           mechanical characterization

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      Authors: Mohammed El Yaagoubi, Dietmar Schwegler
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, the mechanical and magnetic properties of a new Nd-Fe-B filled Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) mixtures are investigated. The mass fraction of the magnetic particles was specifically modified to determine the magnetic and mechanical property trends. The particles have isotropic properties, so no magnetic fields are used for particle orientation during vulcanization. Increasing the filler concentration of the Nd-Fe-B powder leads to a reduction of the tensile strength and an increase in density, elongation at break and hardness of the mixture. The vulcanization times of the compound at different vulcanization levels show hardly any differences by changing the degree of filling. By increasing the filler content from 67% to 80%, the viscosity of the compound increases by a factor of 1.41, which has a strong influence on the processability of the material. Increasing the filling degree of the powder leads to an increase in remanence and the coercivity field strength HcB. For the coercivity field strength HcJ, hardly any change is detected due to the variation in filling level.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:42:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244320988162
       
  • The effect of nanoparticles shape on the mechanical properties of poly
           lactic acid matrix

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      Authors: Sajjad Daneshpayeh, Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, mechanical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA)-based nanocomposites were investigated. The nanocomposites were fabricated by adding of three types of nano-materials including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), carbon black (CB) nanoparticles and graphene nano-platelets (GnPs) in four levels from 0 to 3 wt.% to PLA matrix by an internal mixer. Tensile and impact tests were performed to obtain the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. Moreover, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe the state of nano-fillers dispersion. The FESEM images showed that CB nanoparticles and MWCNT are well distributed in the matrix, but that GnPs are agglomerated. The results of the tensile tests showed that the addition of MWCNT and CB nanoparticles increased the tensile strength by 36% and 76% and the elastic modulus by 10% and 68%, respectively. Also, the presence of all three types of carbon fillers at low loading increased the elongation at break of PLA matrix, and this increase was more significant for GnPs by 55% in the 1 wt.% loading. Finally, the PLA polymer become more brittle with the addition of nanotubes and nano-platelets, and its impact strength was reduced. While, the CB nanoparticles increased the absorbing energy and impact strength.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:42:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244320988168
       
  • The investigation of effects of environmental conditions on fatigue
           strength and spring stiffness of rubber materials

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      Authors: Berkan Tan, Erol Feyzullahoğlu
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      Rubber materials are widely used in many applications. The most important applications of rubber materials are seals, tires, gaskets, hoses, hydraulic-pneumatic systems and vibration absorbers. Today, the working environment of rubbers varies. It has become important to see the responses of developed rubber materials to these challenging working conditions. Most rubber parts are subjected to fluctuating loads that can cause fatigue damage in their work environments. In this study, fatigue strength and spring stiffness of rubber materials under different environmental conditions is investigated. Three general factors that affect fatigue strength of rubber materials are the effects of mechanical loading, environmental effects and the effects of rubber formulation. In this study these factors are examined. For this purpose, fatigue strength and spring stiffness of natural rubber (NR), specially developed natural rubber (S-NR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber were examined. The fatigue tests of rubber samples were performed before and after aging processes. During the study, the static and dynamic stiffness values of the rubber materials were examined before and after aging processes. As a result of experimental study, it was found that fatigue life decreases as a result of accelerated aging and annealing in heated oil processes for NR, EPDM and S-NR samples. Annealing in heated oil process is more effective in reducing fatigue life of rubber samples compared to accelerated aging. In this study, it is seen that S-NR rubber has the highest fatigue strength among rubber materials tested. It has been determined that production of samples with the semi-active vulcanization system is the most important parameter in increasing fatigue strength. In S-NR samples produced with the semi-active vulcanization system, the loss in spring stiffness occurring under different aging conditions is less compared to the loss in spring stiffness in conventional vulcanization system produced NR and EPDM samples.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095244320988166
       
  • Effect of feldspar filler on physical and dynamic properties of SBR/CB
           based tire tread compounds: Effect of addition method of silane coupling
           agent

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      Authors: Neşe Kaynak, Sinan Şen
      First page: 525
      Abstract: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, the effects of using feldspar (FLD) as an alumina-silicate inorganic filler, with carbon black (CB) as a novel binary filler system, on the properties of SBR compounds were investigated for tire applications. The bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide (TESPD) was used for modification of FLD. The SBR hybrid composites were produced by replacing 10 phr of CB filler with neat FLD and functionalized FLD (F-FLD). The TESPD was added directly to the rubber mixture including neat FLD. The SBR composite which has only CB filler (50CB) was found to have the highest damping parameter (tan δ) value at 60°C. On the other hand, the composites loaded with the CB and the FLD fillers exhibited relatively lower tan δ at the same temperature showing lower rolling resistance meaning better fuel saving performance. The lowest rolling resistance was achieved for the 40CB-10F-FLD most probably due to its stronger interaction with the SBR elastomer molecules through the silane agent-assisted crosslinks of the F-FLD. As another dynamic property, the storage moduli at −20°C were found to be lower for the SBR hybrid composites as compared to that of the 50CB composite, exhibiting enhanced winter traction performance of the composites having FLD filler together with CB. The composites containing only 10 phr of FLD and F-FLD, on the other hand, exhibited very low tensile strength values which are not acceptable for tire tread materials.
      Citation: Journal of Elastomers & Plastics
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T07:00:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00952443211006158
       
 
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