Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 32 of 32 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access  
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free  
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
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Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1477-7606 - ISSN (Online) 1478-2413
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  • Process optimization and removal of phenol formaldehyde resin coating
           using mechanical erosion process

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      Authors: Sabarinathan Palaniyappan, Annamalai Veiravan, Vishal Kumar, Nitin Mathusoothanaperumal Sukanya, Dhinakaran Veeman
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Consumption of coated abrasive discs in various automobile and pipe fitting application is increasing, due to its good surface finish. Coated abrasive disc consists of single layer of abrasive grain bonded to a fibre backing. The major portion of the disc is comprised of fibre backing. But the sustainability of the fibre backing is low and is dumped as waste after usage. The present work deals with the removal of resin coating and recovery of fibre backing from the spent coated abrasive discs using physical separation process such as sand blasting technique. Initially, the recovery experiment was carried out based on L16 orthogonal array. The factors and levels chosen for the experiments were erodent pressure (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 MPa), erodent size (36, 60, 80 and 120 grit), disc orientation (30, 45, 60 and 75°) and number of times flexing (5, 10, 15 and 20). The experimental result shows that erodent size and erodent pressure have a major impact on recovery of the fibre backing. The surface structure of the recovered backing was analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The recovered backing was very much useful for the coated abrasive industry as the flexible backing and support material for abrasive grain coating.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T12:26:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211066316
       
  • A model study on the impact of metal ions on pre-vulcanization of
           concentrated natural rubber latex and dipped-products

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      Authors: Porntip Rojruthai, Narueporn Payungwong, Jitladda T Sakdapipanich
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A model study on the influence of some heavy metal ions on the stability and vulcanization efficiency of uncompounded and compounded high-ammonia natural rubber (HANR) latex was carried out by an exogenous addition and then determined by Brookfield viscometer, mechanical stability time (MST) tester, and tensile testing machine. The case of pre-vulcanized HANR latex with different aging times was determined by the change in the volatile fatty acid (VFA) number, MST, and viscosity. The compounded HANR latex was coagulated by adding Mn2+and Mg2+ while it was unaltered by adding Zn2+, Fe2+, and Cu2+ ions, leading to their colloidal stability. Therefore, these metal ions were chosen further to study the pre-vulcanization of compounded HANR latex. The presence of Zn2+, Fe2+, and Cu2+ in the latex is responsible for the delay in the vulcanization process and changes the appearance of compounded latex. Before compounding, the addition of such metal ions led to the reduction in tensile strength of the obtained gloves. At the same time, there was no effect on the tensile properties of the gloves made from the compounded HANR latex containing the metal ions.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T02:05:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211062909
       
  • Effect of basalt and polypropylene fibers on crumb rubber mortar with
           Portland cement and calcium aluminate cement binders: Strength and
           artificial neural network prediction model

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      Authors: Saghar Baghban, Kim Hung Mo, Zainah Ibrahim, Mohammed KH Radwan, Syed Nasir Shah
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to study the influence of basalt fiber (BF) and polypropylene fiber (PPF) in crumb rubber (CR) mortar made of two different types of cement, including ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC). CR was used to partially (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by volume) replace the fine aggregate in OPC and CAC mortars. BF and PPF were added (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% by total volume) in the CR mortars. The consistency, density, compressive, and flexural strength of cement mortars were investigated. The use of CAC cement slightly increased the consistency; however, the results showed that the CR replacement and the addition of both fiber types tend to reduce the consistency in OPC and CAC mortars. Significant reduction in the density of fiber-added CR mortar was found with increasing CR content, whereas the influence of both PPF and BF was minimal. The fiber-added CR mortar made of both binder and fiber types in general exhibited a reducing trend in the 28 days compressive strength when increasing CR and fiber contents. Nevertheless, an enhancement in the compressive strength of CAC mortar with 20% CR was found with the addition of 0.1% of both fibers. The use of CR and addition of the fibers generally decreased the flexural strength of mortar made of both binder types; however, the addition of 0.3% BF in mortars containing 15–20% CR positively affected the flexural performance. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) approach demonstrated the ability to predict the compressive strength of fiber-added CR mortars. The model showed a considerably insignificant mean square error (MSE) of 1.4–1.5 and high plot regression (R) results of 0.97–0.98.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T08:55:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211062912
       
  • Temperature glass and conductivity behavior of epoxy deproteinized natural
           rubber in ternary blend of EDPNR/PMMA/LiCF3SO3

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      Authors: Trịnh Thị Hang, I Putu Mahendra, Tran Manh Thang, Seiichi Kawahara, Phan Trung Nghia
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The temperature glass behavior of epoxy deproteinized natural rubber/polymethylmethacrylate/lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EDPNR/PMMA/LiCF3SO3) and the conductivity behavior of EDPNR in the ternary blends were studied by DSC and multichannel potentiostat. The DSC result revealed the temperature glass of the EDPNR was shifted to the right with the increase of lithium salt amount in these binary blends composition. However, in the ternary blends of EDPNR/PMMA/LiCF3SO3 the temperature glass revealed the miscibility of these ternary blends. Two different temperature glass values were obtained when the ratio of EDPNR in EDPNR/PMMA was less than 80 wt.%. The ionic conductivity of EDPNR could be improved by increasing the amount of lithium salt up to 35 wt.%, after this amount the ionic conductivity of EDPNR was significantly decreased. While in the ternary blends, the highest ionic conductivity value was found at the ratio 80/20 of EDPNR/PMMA. Furthermore, the factors influencing the temperature glass and conductivity behavior of EDPNR were systematically studied in this work. The results demonstrated an intimate correlation between temperature glass and conductivity behavior of EDPNR.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T10:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211042030
       
  • Thermal aging behaviors of the waste tire rubber used in bitumen
           modification

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      Authors: Haopeng Wang, Xueyan Liu, Aikaterini Varveri, Hongzhi Zhang, Sandra Erkens, Athanasios Skarpas, Zhen Leng
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Considering the application scenarios of rubber granules from waste tires in the bitumen modification process (wet or dry process), both aerobic and anaerobic aging of rubber may occur. The current study aims to investigate the thermal aging behavior of waste tire rubber samples using nanoindentation and environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) tests. Both aerobic and anaerobic aging tests with different durations were conducted on rubber samples. The complex moduli of aged rubber samples were measured by nanoindentation tests. The surface morphology and elemental composition of aged samples were obtained by ESEM tests together with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Results have shown that for both aerobic and anaerobic aging, the equilibrium modulus derived from the complex modulus curve first increases and then decreases with aging time. However, the time needed for the aerobically aged sample to reach the maximum equilibrium modulus is shorter than the anaerobic case. Aging results in crack propagation and an increase of sulfur content on the rubber surface until it reaches the peak. The degree of crosslinking reflected by sulfur content for anaerobic aging is higher than aerobic aging. The morphological change and elemental change of rubber correlate well with the change of mechanical properties. The aging of rubber from the waste truck tire at 180°C can generally be separated into two stages: crosslinking dominant stage and chain scission dominant stage.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-03T09:06:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211038951
       
  • Enhancing cellular structure, mechanical properties, thermal stability and
           flame retardation of EVA/NR blend nanocomposite foams by silicon
           dioxide-based flame retardant

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      Authors: Alif Walong, Bencha Thongnuanchan, Nattapon Uthaipan, Tadamoto Sakai, Natinee Lopattananon
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Flame retardant rubber foams of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/natural rubber (NR)/layered silicate blends filled with silicon dioxide (SiO2) were prepared by using azodicarbonamide (ADC) as a blowing agent. Specifically, SiO2 was added in EVA/NR blend nanocomposites to produce good flame retardant foams. The properties of EVA/NR blend nanocomposite foams with different SiO2 loading (0, 20, 30, 40 parts per hundred rubber, phr) were investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rheological property test, mechanical property measurement, flammability tests, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Pyrolysis-GC-MS). Compared with the simple EVA/NR blend nanocomposite, the added SiO2 increased the blend compatibility between EVA and NR phases and melt strength/viscosity of the EVA/NR blend nanocomposites, thus promoting cellular structure of the EVA/NR nanocomposite foams. Increasing SiO2 loading resulted in higher cell density, smaller cell size, and lower volume of void. These improvements caused higher strength and elastomeric recovery. The LOI test results showed that flame retardancy of the EVA/NR blend nanocomposite foams increased at higher SiO2 loading as a result of formation of insulation silicon dioxide-based char. TGA and pyrolysis-GC-MS analyses also validated the finding that the silicon dioxide-based char in the foamed samples containing higher SiO2 loading was more effective on improving thermal stability, which was responsible for lower material combustibility and better flame retardancy. Based on our finding, it was concluded that a good flame retardant EVA/NR blend nanocomposite foam with the best improvement in strength and elastomeric recovery was achieved when combined with 40 phr SiO2.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T09:39:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211042028
       
  • Ground tire rubber/polyamide 6 thermoplastic elastomers produced by dry
           blending and compression molding

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      Authors: Roberto C Vázquez Fletes, Erick O Cisneros López, Pedro Ortega Gudiño, Eduardo Mendizábal, Rubén González Núñez, Denis Rodrigue
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the addition of ground tire rubber (GTR) into virgin polyamide 6 (PA6) to produce thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) blends. In particular, a wide range of GTR concentration (0–100% wt.) was possible by using a simple dry blending technique of the materials in a powder form followed by compression molding. The molded samples were characterized in terms of morphological (scanning electron microscopy), physical (density and hardness) and mechanical (tension, flexion and impact) properties. The results showed a decrease in tensile and flexural moduli and strengths with GTR due to its elastomeric nature. However, significant increases were observed on the tensile elongation at break (up to 167%) and impact strength (up to 131%) compared to the neat PA6 matrix. Based on the results obtained, an optimum GTR content around 75% wt. was observed which represents a balance between high recycled rubber content and a sufficient amount of matrix to recover all the particles. These results represent a first step showing that a simple processing method can be used to produce low cost PA6/GTR compounds with a wide range of physical and mechanical properties.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T09:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211038956
       
  • Ultraviolet light exposure degradation effect on the properties of
           nanocrystalline cellulose-reinforced polyvinyl alcohol composite film

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      Authors: NA Sri Aprilia, Abdul Khalil HPS, NG Olaiya, Amri Amin, CK Abdullah, Suraiya Kamarazaman, Zuhra Zuhra, Khairul Rahmah, Fitriani Fitriani, Deepu A Gopakumar
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      PVA used in packaging applications has been faced with a UV light degradation challenge, which often reduces its durability while in use. The UV light stability enhancement effect of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) reinforcement in PVA was studied. Polyvinyl alcohol composite film was reinforced with NCC from palm oil waste (PVA-NCC film) and exposed to UV light (22 W, SUV-16 254 nm) for different time duration to study the material durability enhancement. The percentage weight loss of the samples was measured to observe the UV light degradation effect. Furthermore, the samples’ structural, morphological, and tensile properties were studied before and after exposure to UV light with FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile test. The results showed physical degradation, morphological and tensile properties enhancement of PVA with NCC’s addition. The addition of NCC to the PVA matrix reduced the degradation rate under UV light significantly. Also, the percentage of weight loss was observed to change with the exposure time to UV light.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T09:58:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211038957
       
  • Waste cooking oils as processing aids for eco-sustainable elastomeric
           compounding

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      Authors: Valeria Cherubini, Francesca Romana Lamastra, Mario Bragaglia, Francesca Nanni
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This work focuses on the replacement of mineral oils with bio-based waste cooking oils in rubber compounding. Two different waste cooking oils from potatoes and chicken frying process were analyzed by means of chemical and rheological tests to evaluate the chemical composition, the oxidative stability and the viscosity. Waste oils have been introduced in elastomeric compounds as substitute for typical processing aids (i.e. lubricants). Cure kinetics of rubber compounds was studied by rheological characterization. Mechanical properties of vulcanized samples were determined by means of tensile tests, hardness tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The waste oils showed a rheological behavior very similar to the mineral oils conventionally employed in rubber manufacturing leading to almost the same processability of the resulting compound. The waste oils did not significantly affect the vulcanization kinetics of the rubber compound, as expected for conventional lubricants. Waste cooking oils and mineral oil show analogous influence on mechanical properties of cured compounds. At increasing oil content, the elongation at break and the tensile strength increased whereas the values of Elastic Modulus at 100% strain, the Storage Modulus and Shore A Hardness decreased with respect to the oil-free sample. These results are very promising, confirming the possibility to replace the mineral oils, in a good practice of circular economy.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211028982
       
  • Study of the insulation and mechanical properties of hair-reinforced epoxy

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      Authors: Rana Mahdi Salih, Ahmed Sattar Jabbar Al-Zubaydi
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research reports the study of epoxy reinforced with human hair as a potential building material for the purpose of acoustic and thermal insulation for building industry. The sound insulation and thermal conductivity were studied for an epoxy composite reinforced with 15% human hair, together with a set of mechanical properties (tensile strength and flexural strength). The sound insulation results proved that the addition of hair led to about 75% loss of the sound intensity compared to the sound intensity noticed for the unreinforced specimen. Thermal conductivity decreased by about 20% with reinforcement. Mechanical properties show a significant improvement, such that flexural strength increased by 25%. The tensile test results showed a higher Young’s modulus and tensile strength for the reinforced specimen by about 50% and 27% respectively. Finally, flexural strength also showed an increase by about 20% after reinforcement.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T06:29:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1477760620958944
       
  • Catalytic pyrolysis of recycled HDPE, LDPE, and PP

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      Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Balakrishnan Subeshan, Waseem S Khan, Eylem Asmatulu
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Plastic waste has been growing every year, and as a result, environmental concern has been a topic of much attention. Many properties of plastics, such as their lightweight, durability, and versatility, are significant factors in achieving sustainable development. The exponential increase of plastic production produces every year approximately 100 million tons of waste plastic, which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels by employing a process appropriately called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis, which is thermal or catalytical, can be performed under different experimental conditions that affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. In this study, magnesium silicate (MgO3Si) and Cloisite 30B were used as catalysts for the decomposition of different plastics, and the results were compared with the zeolite catalyst. In the case of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), the oil yield with a zeolite catalyst was found to be 71%, whereas with MgO3Si and Cloisite 30B, this was 68% and 67%, respectively. Zeolite produced better results in the decomposition of polypropylene (PP) compared to MgO3Si and Cloisite 30B. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas chromatography (GC) were conducted in this work. The spectra results for all samples were consistent and in the fuel range.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T09:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019414
       
  • Mechanochemical devulcanization of waste tire rubber in high pressure
           water jet pulverization

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      Authors: Zefeng Wang, Yutao Jiang, Chao Pan
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The resource reclamation of waste tire rubber (WTR) is regarded as the most suitable strategy for these solid wastes. Water jet pulverization (WJPul) is a sustainable reclamation technique for WTR, since both size reduction and rubber devulcanization can be achieved. Aiming at understanding the mechanisms related with pulverization and devulcanization of WTR, this work detailed the interactions between WTR and high pressure water jet (HPWJ). The results show that WJPul can be defined as a mechanochemical process for WTR. The compressive shear failure of rubber mainly induces rubber devulcanization and results in fine ground tire rubber (GTR) particles, HPWJ erosion mainly intensifies rubber depolymerization and results in coarse GTR particles. Chemical reactions can be detected between the devulcanized GTR from WJPul and asphalts, thus resulting in better modification performances of GTR from WJPul in asphalt. The results can help better understand the WJPul mechanisms and provide guidelines for WJPul application.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:09:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019428
       
  • Reactive compatibilization of biodegradable PLA/TPU blends via hybrid
           nanoparticle

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      Authors: Nilay Tuccar Kilic, Buse Nur Can, Mehmet Kodal, Güralp Özkoç
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the compatibilization effects of triglycidylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (TEpPOSS) on biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blends were investigated. All blends were prepared via melt blending and PLA/TPU (80/20, 70/30, 50/50 wt%) ratio was selected as the experimental parameter. In order to predict the selective localization of TEpPOSS thermodynamically, wetting coefficient were determined by means of surface energy measurements. Morphological analyses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, rheological, mechanical, thermomechanical and thermal properties of the blends were performed via rheometer, universal tensile tester, dynamic mechanic analyses and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. Morphological test results revealed that TEpPOSSs were mostly located at the interfaces of the PLA and TPU phases. According to the rheological studies, the interfacial interactions between PLA and TPU were improved with the addition of TEpPOSS, which resulted from the potential reactions between epoxy-carboxylic acid and/or epoxy-hydroxyl functional groups. The addition of TEpPOSS enhanced the mechanical properties of PLA/TPU blends. DSC test results revealed a decrease in the glass transition temperatures of PLA in the presence of TEpPOSS, which was an another indication of improved compatibility between PLA and TPU.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T09:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019423
       
  • Recycling of crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar panel waste to
           modified composite products

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      Authors: S Ram Kokul, Shantanu Bhowmik
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This investigation highlights effective technology to convert crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar panel waste to composite products. The main problem with recycling photovoltaic modules is to economically separate and extract the materials in the laminated structure. This investigation was attempted to recycle c-Si photovoltaic modules using an unconventional method in which the cumbersome process of separating the materials in the module is avoided altogether. The aluminium frame, outer glass and junction box are removed mechanically and the rest of the c-Si PV module waste is powdered and blended with recycled polypropylene (PP) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) each to make compression moulded tiles. A total of six compression moulded tiles were made. Three tiles from each base material blended in three blend ratios (0%, 10% and 20%) with the powdered PV module waste. The tensile strengths of the tiles were tested and compared. The results prove that tiles made with recycled PP as a base material show very low tensile strength. However, recycled tiles made by blending with LDPE show appreciable tensile strength of more than 8 MPa. These tiles may be used to make furniture.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T09:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019416
       
  • Production and properties of natural rubber glove using sustainable benign
           accelerator

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      Authors: Vishantini Tangavaloo, Nor Yuliana Yuhana, Yu Lih Jiun
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In natural polyisoprene glove manufacturing industries, the selection of accelerators in the curing system is mainly determined by the curing characteristics, maturation time required, cross-link density and mechanical properties of gloves. In this study, a new accelerator replacing conventional ones in a typical glove manufacturing process, was studied in order to produce free carcinogen dipped article. The glove properties and performance prepared by using both conventional and new proposed accelerators were studied and compared. The use of a conventional accelerator tends to release carcinogenic chemicals namely N-nitrosamine and N-nitrosatable substances. These chemicals are restrained on dipped articles under the requirement of EN 71-12:2013. Xanthogen accelerators promote the reduction of carcinogenic chemicals, but they are associated with prolonged maturation hour, which is unfavourable in the manufacturing industry. This study used a mixture of a benign accelerator, namely, diisononyldithiocarbamate and diisopropyl xanthogen polysulfide, to substitute the usage of conventional accelerators zinc dibutyl dithiocarbamate and zinc diethyl dithiocarbamate. The effects of benign accelerator loading in latex compounds were studied by focusing on the swelling index, maturation hour, carcinogenic chemical released and mechanical properties, thermal degradation and stability. Results showed no presence of N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances in the final dipped products by using 0.3 and 0.5 phr of benign accelerator. This study showed that 0.5 phr of benign accelerator achieved a moderate pre-vulcanising rate and improved the pre-ageing tensile strength and elongation by 11% and 7.0%, respectively. Moreover, its thermal stability was higher and discolouration intensity was lower as compared with the conventional accelerator.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T09:46:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019419
       
  • Melt elasticity and flow properties of polypropylene impact
           copolymer/polyolefin elastomer blends subjected to varied capillary
           extrusion conditions

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      Authors: Vishal Das, AK Pandey, DN Tripathi, NE Prasad
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In present study, rheological properties of polypropylene impact copolymer (PPcp) and polyolefin elastomer (POE) blend melts were evaluated on a capillary rheometer under shear and elongational flows. The flow and melt elastic properties (die swell and first normal stress difference) studied at varied extrusion conditions were correlated with blend morphology and elastomer content by means of image analysis and theoretical models. Dispersed particle break-up and coalescence were observed to be influenced by POE content and the viscosities of the constituent polymers which were in turn affected by the capillary extrusion conditions (shear rate in particular). The blend melts demonstrated typical pseudoplastic behavior obeying Cross model under shear flow. The elongational flow also corroborated well with the shear flow behavior. All the blends illustrated prominent dependence of melt elastic properties on POE content and the capillary extrusion conditions. The melt elastic properties were also found to critically rely on the inter-particle distance of the POE phase.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T09:05:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019415
       
  • Technical possibilities for recycling plastics from agribusiness

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      Authors: Francisco Cadena, María Belén Aldás, Alex Darío Aguilar, Allyson Inga, Daniel Cando
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Plastic waste generated by the Ecuadorian agro-industrial sector represents one of the main environmental impacts, particularly in floricultural and banana production, as a result of its use as a greenhouse cover and as a protective element for the fruit cluster, respectively. The situation become more complicated because of the level of degradation caused by environmental exposure and the degree of contamination due to the use of agrochemicals that plastics present once their useful life has expired. The current research was divided into two stages: characterization of plastic waste and conditioning prior to reprocessing. The results revealed the plastic waste of the floricultural and banana sector, whose predominant material corresponds to LDPE and HDPE, respectively, presents a level of contamination that allows them to be considered as “non-hazardous” waste, which allows them to be recycled, but their processes must be properly controlled and carried out by qualified people. The level of degradation in the exposed banana bags showed losses of mechanical properties of tensile less than 50%, which means that the material is not degraded and it is feasible to recycle it directly. Additionally, the FTIR-ATR spectra on both sides of the film in the samples did not register representative bands of oxidation. On the other hand, in the greenhouse waste, the losses of mechanical properties of tensile strength above 50% as well as the noticeable formation of carbonyl groups in the structure of the material showed the degradation of the plastic. Therefore, the feasibility of recycling will depend on the incorporation of virgin material. The conditioning of the waste for subsequent recycling revealed the need of a washing process consisting of four stages: initial cleaning, pre-wash, washing, and air-drying.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T09:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019420
       
  • The effect of clay organophilization on wood plastic composite (WPC) based
           on recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and coir fiber

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      Authors: Mário B S Nunes, Ana Flávia F Farias, Eliton S Medeiros, Juliano E Oliveira, Ieda M G Santos, Laura H Carvalho, Amélia S F Santos
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      One way to optimize composite mechanical properties is through hybridization with small amounts of reinforcing fillers. Thus, this study investigates the effect of incorporation of 3 wt% of clay (BT) and organoclay (OBT) on the properties of a recycled wood plastic composite (WPC) based on HDPE and 20 wt% of coir fiber compounded with 5 wt% of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA), as coupling agent, and 5 wt% of Struktol TPW 113, as lubricating agent. Raw materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Coir fiber was characterized by optical microscopy and TGA. Wood plastic formulations (with clay and organoclay) were prepared in an internal mixer coupled to a torque rheometer operating at 190°C, 60 rpm for 10 min. Then, the mixtures were compression molded. Formulations were characterized by SEM, TGA, DSC, tensile and water absorption tests. FTIR analysis showed the characteristic bands of organophilic clay. XRD showed an increment in the interplanar distance of the clay, after the incorporation of quaternary ammonium salt (distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, Praepagen® WB), confirming the organoclay formation. Organophilization decreases the clay hydrophilic character and reduces the water uptake of WPC-BT. Despite the fact that BT incorporation led to WPC nanocomposite with intercalated structure, this WPC-clay composition did not show a significant increase in tensile strength and elongation at break. The poor interfacial adhesion between the raw materials and the polymer matrix, the low aspect ratio provided by coir fibers and also, the partially intercalated structure of composites have contributed to this behavior.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T09:47:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019404
       
  • Study of effect of waste tire rubber which is a recycling material in
           production of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) boards

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      Authors: Kadir Özkaya, Taner Dizel, Hasan Özgür Imirzi
      First page: 412
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The amount of waste produced by people increases with the increasing population in the world. Especially non-recyclable wastes have become a major environmental problem. Waste tires that emerge as car demands of people increase are one of the non-recyclable wastes. In this study, the usage possibilities of powder rubbers obtained from waste car tires were examined in the production of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) boards, which are preferred as furniture and decoration material in the forest products industry. For this, three different tree species (Scotch Pine—Pinus silvestris L., Oriental Beech—Fagus orientalis L., Stinking Juniper—Juniperus foetidissima Wild.) and two different types of glue (UF and PVAc glues) were used. Waste tire rubbers (WTR) were mixed into the glue in different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%). Physical (full dry and equilibrium moisture density, contraction in the transversal and longitudinal direction) and mechanical tests (MoR, MoE, bonding resistance) were performed on the LVL samples prepared. According to the results obtained, it has been seen that the mixtures of 10% and 20% WTR increase the LVL resistance. An eco-friendly building material has been obtained by using WTR produced from waste car tires in production of LVL.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T09:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019408
       
  • Investigating the influence of carbon nanotube on the performance of
           asphalt binder

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      Authors: Peerzada Mosir Shah, Mohammad Shafi Mir
      First page: 422
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study aims at investigating the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT’s) on the properties of low viscosity grade asphalt binder. Asphalt binder with viscosity grade-10 is selected as the control binder and later it is modified with different percentages of MWCNT’s (0.5–2.5%). Penetration, softening point, ductility and rotational viscosity test were employed for evaluating the effect of MWCNT’s on basic physical properties of modified asphalt binder. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) is used for evaluating the rheological properties of the base and modified bitumen, for both aged and unaged bitumen. Based on the conventional and basic rheological tests, it was seen that the addition of MWCNT’s improved the high-temperature performance of modified bitumen. Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test results revealed that the addition of MWCNT’s improved the creep and recovery of modified binders for both stress intensities (0.1 kPa and 3.2 kPa) which confirms that the modified binder is more rut resistant. Moreover, it was observed that there was a significant improvement in the aging resistance of the asphalt binder due to addition of MWCNTs. However low temperature performance of MWCNTs was not encouraging. Also, MWCNTs addition to asphalt binder was found to be stable under high-temperature storage condition. Overall, there is a significant amount of improvement using MWCNTs in the base asphalt binder.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T08:51:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019413
       
  • Reusing ground tire rubber powder as thermoplastic elastomers with
           excellent superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning performance

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      Authors: Xingshuo Zhang, Ruotao Feng, Zhaobo Wang
      First page: 441
      Abstract: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A simple, effective and inexpensive method was proposed to reuse ground tire rubber (GTR) powder by preparing a superhydrophobic surface via a molding process. The obtained superhydrophobic surface was based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) / ground tire rubber (GTR) thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) where the styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was used as compatibilizer and series sandpapers were used as templates. The mechanical properties, hydrophobic properties, surface morphology and self-cleaning property were investigated systematically. The results showed that both of the mechanical properties and superhydrophobicity could be greatly improved with a certain amount of SBS. The superhydrophobic surface based on molded LDPE/SBS/GTR (weight ratio = 40/15/60) TPE exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity (with a contact angle of 164.6° ± 3.0° and a tilt angle of 4.4° ± 1.9°). Furthermore, abundant tearing microstructure could be found obviously by morphology observation. Optical images indicated the surface possessed of low adhesion force and self-cleaning property.
      Citation: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14777606211019422
       
 
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