Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 39 of 39 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access  
Polymers and Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal  
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cellular Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
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Polymers and Polymer Composites
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0967-3911 - ISSN (Online) 1478-2391
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • The influence of reduced graphene oxide on the polyamide 6 nanocomposite
           characteristics

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      Authors: Maziyar Sabet, Hassan Soleimani
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polyamide 6 (PA6) nanocomposites with high electrical and thermal conductive were formulated via melt processing of PA6 and different inclusion of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). These nanocomposites showed small percolation thresholds, and the optimum formation of conductive links occurred with 0.5 wt% and ̴3.0 wt% of RGO respectively. RGO is effective in terms of thermal stability, causing a char of 6.8% with only 2.0 wt% RGO content. The presence of 3.0 wt% RGO enhanced thermal conductivity by 62% and reduces the peak-heat release rate to 588 and 545 kW/m2 with RGO inclusions of 1.0 and 2.0 wt%, respectively. Crystallization examination confirmed that RGO enabled the crystallization of PA6 structure mostly through speeding up the formation of crystal nuclei, reaching a maximum and smallest crystal grain extent with RGO inclusion up to 2.0 wt% that improved the generation of the most unflawed crystalline matrix. With the dynamic rheological testing, frequency-independence of G′ and abruptly decreased phase angle at the small-frequency area via RGO content of 2.0 wt% signify an alteration from liquid-state to solid-state rheological performance and validate the development of percolation link structure with RGO in the function of a crosslinking factor. Enhancement of fire-retardant characteristics of PA6 was attained due to the inclusion of RGO owing to the improvement in the PA6 structure. Morphological research showed that RGO was spread uniformly in the PA6 structure. These tests show substantial capacity for the bulk manufacture of electrically conductive polymer/RGO nanocomposites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T07:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221104488
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force, temperature and hole
           quality of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: Khurshid Malik, Faiz Ahmad, Woo Tze Keong, Ebru Gunister
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper presents an investigation of the drilling performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite based on the thrust force, temperature, and delamination factor (at entry and exit of the hole). High-speed steel (HSS), solid carbide (SC), and solid carbide Balinit® Helica coated (SCBH) twist tools were used for the drilling process. Other drilling parameters were high spindle speeds (12,000, 15,000, and 18,000 rpm), feed rate (300, 500, and 700 mm/min), and laminate thickness (3, 5, and 7 mm). ANOVA and response surface methodology were developed to examine the drilling process based on input and output parameters. Results showed that delamination was observed in the form of matrix debonding, uncut fibers, and fiber pull-out. The best drilling performance was achieved by the SC and SCBH tool at a low feed rate (300 rpm) and high speed (18,000 rpm), and high laminate thickness (7 mm).
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T01:38:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221131113
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanisms for combining polyamide and epoxy and their effects on
           mechanical performance—A review

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      Authors: Diana G Heflin, Jan-Anders E Mansson
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper provides an in-depth study in the various methods for toughening epoxy (EP) resin with polyamide (PA) across a range of length scales—from the atomic to the macroscopic. This allows for a fundamental understanding of the EP-PA system, as many of the atomic interactions and their kinetics inform the macroscopic mechanical properties. The kinetics of the EP-PA reaction prove that covalent bonding is energetically favorable, enabling chemical crosslinking between EP and PA. The two polymers can then mechanically interlock under a number of different processing conditions including forming a homogeneous mixture of the two, incorporating the PA into the EP in the form of fine particles, or adding the PA to an EP-fiber composite. Though each of these methods allows for the tailoring of processing conditions and final structures to an individual use, the literature shows that the underlying physical and chemical interactions can be applied to all EP-PA systems. Thus, lessons learned through the study of one EP-PA structure can be valuable in predicting the behavior of different EP-PA blends and material form combinations.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T07:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221130120
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Experimental study on axial compressive properties and failure mechanism
           of unidirectional covered carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: Ruan Fangtao, Xia Chenglong, Wang He, Wang Hongjie, Zuo Hongmei, Xu Zhenzhen
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Axial compression performance is one of the main factors considered in the structural design of fiber-reinforced composites. However, the properties of the fibers in such composites are poor because of their orientation structures. Here, filament fibers were covered with reinforced fiber bundles to improve the axial compressive properties of the composites, and the effects of fiber covering on the axial compressive properties and failure modes of the composites were studied. The experimental results show that the covering can shorten the buckling wavelength of carbon fiber under compressive load, which can effectively improve the axial compression ability of the composite. A lower modulus of the covered filament reduced the potential to improve the compressive strength of the samples, and damage occurred primarily by splitting and shearing. With an increase in the covering density, the compressive strength and modulus gradually increased, and the damage mode changed from flexural instability to kinking damage.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-18T05:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221129088
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite material
           at different temperatures: Experimental and model assessment

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      Authors: Getahun Tefera, Sarp Adali, Glen Bright
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the present study, temperature and frequency effects are studied involving carbon fibre reinforced polymeric materials with unidirectional fibers. Before testing, laminates were preserved in a deep freezer at −80, −20, 0, and 25°C for 60 days. Compressive, tensile, and stiffness behaviors of the laminates were assessed. The results confirmed that the compressive strength, tensile strength, and tensile modulus of laminates severely deteriorate at high temperatures. This might happen because of the weakening of the fibre/matrix interface, resulting in the load-carrying capacity of the carbon fibre being severely reduced. Lower temperatures did not significantly affect the mechanical performance of the laminates. This is due to minor deformation of the frozen laminates and closely compacted epoxy chain segments. The effects of temperature and vibration on the storage modulus, loss modulus, and damping behaviour of laminates are discussed. The results confirm that a reduction in mechanical performance is a strongly temperature-dependent phenomenon. Laminate damping properties are also evaluated. According to the results of the experiments, −80°C has the greatest permanence. Finally, the accuracy of the results on storage modulus was compared with empirical models. The model suggested by Gibson et al. provided the most accurate estimates for the storage modulus of the laminates. Other models were less accurate and gave non-conservative estimates.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T04:05:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221125072
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • An experimental and finite element analysis of 3D printed honeycomb
           structures under axial compression

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      Authors: Serdar Kaveloglu, Semsettin Temiz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The present study focuses on maximum compressive force of honeycomb structures produced from polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene filament using an Ultimaker hot plate 3D printer. A honeycomb structure with an equal surface area and three different cell sizes and wall thickness was designed. The samples were produced with a cell width (d) of 6 mm, 9 mm, 12 mm, a cell wall thickness (t) of 0.8 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and a cell height (h) of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm for each cell width, respectively. The produced samples were weighed in order to calculate their porosity percentages. During the compression test, the highest compressive force was obtained from the samples produced from PLA filament with a cell height of 10 mm, a width of 12 mm and a wall thickness of 1.6 mm. Similarly, a detailed finite elements analysis of three structures with different cell widths and thicknesses using ANSYS® software yielded results similar to the experimental study. ANSYS® results were reliable in the range of approximately 81–98%. Thus, although the cell width in honeycomb structures with an equal surface area was increased using both experimental and finite elements method, it was observed that the wall thickness was directly proportional to a higher maximum compressive force.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T03:23:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221122333
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of electrical resistance and dielectric constant of Boron
           Nitride and Banana fiber reinforced epoxy polymer matrix composite

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      Authors: Dinesh R Salunke, Venkatachalam Gopalan
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Nowadays, high thermal conductive and good electrical insulating materials gain attention for compact and sustainable design in power electronics instruments like transformers, switches, cables. To cater for these needs, Boron Nitride (BN)/Banana Fiber (BF)/Epoxy based polymer composite is proposed which exhibits good electrical resistance and low dielectric constant. Banana fiber is chosen as it contains few lumens among the fillers and offers good mechanical strength. Boron Nitride and Banana fiber are reinforced with epoxy resin to form highly insulating polymer matrix composite material. Various samples are fabricated, containing 1/3/5 μm BN particle size, 1/3/5 wt % of BN and 0/2/4 wt % of BF derived from Response surface methodology based Box Behnken Design model using design of experiments approach. Further, Analysis of Variance is performed to obtain optimized levels of parameters using regression equation in MINITAB software. Also, experimental results and optimized results are compared leading to error analysis. High resistance of 346.68 Giga-ohms (86.67 ×109 Ω-m resistivity) and minimum dielectric constant of 1.143 are obtained for combination of 3 wt % of BN, 2 wt % of BF and particle size of 3 μm which is considerable for good insulation purpose.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T02:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221122328
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The effect of BN/Al2O3 in-situ self-assembling on thermal conductivity of
           polypropylene composites

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      Authors: Fengmei Ren, Jian Wu, Haihong Ma, Zhengfa Zhou, Weibing Xu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (KH550) and γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxy silane (KH560) were used to modify BN and Al2O3, and described as KH550-BN and KH560-Al2O3 with amino and epoxy group on surface, respectively. KH550-BN and KH560-Al2O3 were filled in polypropylene (PP) matrix by twin-screw extruder. The thermal conductivity of composites increased with increasing catalyst dosage, material residence time in barrel and homogenization section temperature of twin-screw extruder. Hybrid fillers with semi core-shell structure were formed by KH550-BN in-situ reacting with KH560-Al2O3 though amino and epoxy group. KH550-BN and KH560-Al2O3 were pre-assembled in toluene and filled into PP to prepare composites, which thermal conductivity increased with increasing pre-assembling time. The experimental results show that KH550-BN and KH560-Al2O3 do in-situ self-assemble in PP melt. The thermal conductivity of composites with in-situ self-assembling had 21.6% improvement than that of composites with no assembling. A low-cost, simple and efficient method for preparing thermally conductive and insulating composites is realized.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-08-14T01:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221119665
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical and dynamic responses of unidirectional/woven carbon fiber
           reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites after low velocity
           impact

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      Authors: Melihcan Kayaaslan, Taner Coskun, Omer Sinan Sahin, Ulac M Unlu, Ferhat Kadioglu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      It is highly important to determine how mechanical and dynamic properties of composite materials will change after impact loads considering the coupled effects of composite design parameters. For these reasons, three-point bending and vibration tests have been carried out for the carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites with various stacking sequences before and after low velocity impact, and it is expected that these results achieved from the current study will be beneficial for applications where high damping and impact resistance are demanded together. In this context, vibration tests were carried out under free-free boundary conditions, and their natural frequencies, flexural moduli and structural damping were obtained. Furthermore, three-point tests were conducted in the elastic region with 1 mm/min crosshead speed using a universal test machine, and thus flexural moduli of the composite specimens were obtained. The results were validated by comparing the flexural moduli obtained from the both vibration and three-point bending tests, found to be reliable and comparable. As a result of the current study, it was concluded that woven fabric reinforced composite specimens exhibited 50% higher specific damping capacity (SDC) but 70% lower flexural modulus than unidirectional specimens thanks to biaxially fiber alignment. On the other hand, specific damping capacities of the thermoset and thermoplastic composites with different stacking sequences have been examined, and it was observed that thermoset specimens exhibited unexpectedly 192% higher SDC compared to the thermoplastics. This was interpreted as even though thermoplastics are normally expected to exhibit more damping than thermosets, stacking sequence being more effective on damping responses. Apart from that, although there were slight changes in material properties due to degradation in structural integrity after 2 m/s and 3 m/s low-velocity impacts, it was not found to be significantly effective due to the limited damage areas.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T06:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221119669
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Constructing a two-level computational model of cross-ply
           fiberglass-reinforced plastic from micromechanical testing

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      Authors: Alexander Smirnov, Evgeniya Smirnova, Yulia Khudorozhkova
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper deals with solving the problem of constructing two-level computational models relating the stress-strain state at the microscale to the stress-strain state of the structural component at the macroscale for layered polymer composite materials with unidirectional fiber stacking in a monolayer. The paper presents a two-level computational mechanical model of a ten-layer cross-ply fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite with (0/90) laying patterns. The model is based on microindentation data. The model is constructed using the finite element method. The constructed model has allowed us to predict the elastic properties of the composite and to calculate stresses at the microscale and macroscale levels of a specimen prior to fracture under tensile conditions. The elastic properties of the polymer composite material predicted by the computational model are compared with the properties obtained from real experiments. Calculated for fiberglass, the elasticity modulus and Poisson’s ratio are 31 GPa and 0.11, respectively. Similar elastic properties obtained from real experiments are 28 GPa and 0.10. The technique used in the paper can be applied to computational experiments with an actual structural component made of a multilayer polymer composite in order to determine the stress-strain state at the micro- and macroscale under external mechanical impact on the structure.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221112414
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Vibrations of composite structures: Finite element and analytical
           investigation

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      Authors: Ashkan Farazin, Chunwei Zhang, Azher M Abed
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this examination, the free vibrations of complete composite shells with rectangular openings based on first-order shear deformation theory have been studied. The equations are generally written in such a way that they can be converted to any of Donnell, Love, or Sanders theories. To study the shell with the opening of the problem-solving space, it is elementalized in such a way that the boundary conditions and loading are uniform at the edges of each element. For each element, the governing equations, the boundary conditions of the edges, and the compatibility conditions at the common boundary of the adjacent elements are discretized by the generalized differential quadrature method in the longitudinal and peripheral directions, and by assembling them, a system of algebraic equations is formed. Finally, the natural frequency of the structure is calculated using the solution of the eigenvalue. To validate this method, the results are compared with the results of some articles as well as the results of Abaqus finite element software. After ensuring the efficiency of the present method, it has been used to study the effect of different parameters on the vibrational behavior of shells with and without apertures. These studies show that relatively small openings (c/L
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T04:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221112956
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Correction factors for in-plane shear strength and stiffness testing of
           flat angle-ply composite laminates with high Poisson’s ratios

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      Authors: Stefan Sieberer, Martin Schagerl
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this paper, a method to obtain correction factors for in-plane shear properties in fibre-reinforced polymers with high Poisson’s ratio under biaxial load conditions and at high loads is presented. Experimental testing shows the deviations from classical laminate theory for such cases. The transverse deformation ratio is a general form of Poisson’s ratio and, for a ±45° angle-ply laminate, increases with strain. This effect is shown to exist for long and short test specimens, where significant biaxiality in the stress state is present. Reasons for this include fibre rotation at higher loads in tensile load conditions, and matrix plasticity and damage initiation. Test results show that the expanded formulas compensate errors in shear strength calculation of angle-ply laminates which arise from using nominal parameters with standard formulas. The results are also applicable to structures under biaxial load and when transverse contraction is inhibited, e.g. in shear panels. Further potential uses are in the presence of high shear strains and to detect the onset of damage under shear loading.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T08:49:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221114593
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Fabrication and properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide
           reinforced Poly(Vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films for packaging
           applications

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      Authors: Hazal Yilmaz Dogan, Yasin Altin, Ayşe Çelik Bedeloğlu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Petroleum-based polymers have a wide range of uses in the packaging industry, including films, food packaging, rigid containers, foamed containers, medical products, etc. This study focuses on improving the properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based material systems, one of the most popular water-soluble biopolymers, to reduce the waste of petroleum-based plastics, which are widely used. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite films containing low concentrations (0.05–1%) of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were produced via the solution casting method. When electrical properties of nanocomposite films were evaluated, the addition of 1 wt% GO and rGO resulted in a 36% and 45% decrease in the volumetric resistance of the films as well as a decrease in surface resistance of 24.5% and 34.9%, respectively. The maximum tensile strength of 1% GO and rGO-reinforced PVA nanocomposites was found to be ∼59 MPa and ∼68 MPa with an increase of 20% and 38% compared to neat PVA films, respectively. The average Young’s modulus of 1% GO and rGO-reinforced PVA nanocomposites also increased from 2561 MPa to 3515 MPa and 4219 MPa with an increase of 37% and 65%, respectively. As a result, the electrical conductivity, Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength, thermal properties, and optical absorption of nanocomposite films increased by adding GO and rGO to PVA. The results show that the produced nanocomposite film may be a promising material for packaging applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T08:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221113328
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Fatigue and impact load: Experimental investigation on mechanical behavior
           of high modulus polyethylene yarns

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      Authors: Eduarda da Silva Belloni, Antonio Henrique Monteiro da Fonseca Thomé da Silva, Fernanda Mazuco Clain, Carlos Eduardo Marcos Guilherme
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Synthetic ropes have been used as alternatives for wire ropes owing to their low specific weight and excellent mechanical characteristics. They are essential for offshore mooring in deep water because, at these depths, the weight of steel cables and chains would exceed the forces supported by the platform structure. In addition, they are used in several applications, such as robotics, mountain climbing, fire rescue and lifting loads, sternum closure after medical surgery. They are even used as artificial muscles and active endoscopes because of their high flexibility. These applications are typically characterized by the presence of dynamic loads. Thus, this study aims to experimentally investigate the mechanical behavior of high-modulus polyethylene yarns, supplied by three different manufacturers. The yarns were analyzed after being subjected to impact load and after experiencing fatigue. The interaction between impact load and fatigue was also studied. First, the force, strain, and energy absorbed after the impact load were verified. Subsequently, the influence of the impact load on the fatigue life of the materials was analyzed. Finally, thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) and chemical analysis (FTIR, DRX, and EDS) were performed to compare the materials. It was observed that the mechanical and thermal behaviors of the three materials differed, and there was a reduction in fatigue life, which depended on the impact load due to yarn degradation. Finally, it is concluded that properties such as tensile strength should not be used as the sole parameter for dimensioning polymeric materials, because they exhibit different material properties in several tests despite possessing similar tensile strength.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103934
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • High-performance family of polymeric particles prepared from
           poly(phenylene oxide)-poly(hexyl isocyanate) liquid crystal block
           copolymer: synthesis and properties study

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      Authors: Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh, Arezoo Sh Dadkhah, Alireza sabzevari
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The poly (phenylene oxide)-block-poly (hexyl isocyanate) copolymers (PPO-b-PHIC)s were synthesized in various ratios of blocks using the organotitanium coordination method at room temperature. The copolymer particles were prepared by precipitation of concentrated solution of the copolymers in non-solvent under stirring. The synthesized copolymers and their particles were characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of block ratio on the anisotropic-isotropic transition and liquid crystal texture of copolymers as a function of temperature and concentration of the solution was investigated. The polymeric particles tend to be aligned along the fibrillar direction by increasing the block ratio of amide in the copolymer.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T02:36:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221104678
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Tuning the bandgap and absorption behaviour of the newly-fabricated
           Ultrahigh Molecular weight Polyethylene Oxide- Polyvinyl Alcohol/ Graphene
           Oxide hybrid nanocomposites

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      Authors: Nisreen R Aldulaimi, Ehssan Al-Bermany
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Graphene nanosheets are promising nanofillers to the tunable structure, properties of materials, and optical bandgap. This search focuses on investigating the new nanocomposites of Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (UHMWPEO) with different loading ratios of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) by applying the modified solution-sonication-casting method. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows strong interfacial interaction between the blended polymers and GO nanosheets in the nanocomposites. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a significant shifting in the PEO and reduction in the crystallinity. Optical microscopy (OM) images exhibit fine homogeneity of the polymer in the matrix with excellent dispersal of GO in nanocomposites as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Attractively, the samples with a higher ratio of UHMWPEO exhibit better optical behavior, and great improvements were presented after the contribution of GO. UV-visible spectroscopy has characterized the absorption, absorption coefficient, real and imaginary, bandgap, and other parameters. The allowed bandgap was significantly enhanced by reducing up to 80%, whereas the forbidden bandgap was improved by up to 160% of the nanocomposites. Additionally, nanocomposites exhibited significant adsorption of radiation-ray, especially after the contribution of GO. The findings are promising as various applications could come to the fore: radiation protection, spectroscopy devices, and other applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T06:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221112196
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Improved thermal conductivity of epoxy composites via linked boron nitride
           nanosheets with in-situ generated silver nanoparticles

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      Authors: Liyi Yang, Minmin Zheng, Fan Ge, Hui Ma, Wei Wang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Thermal management plays an important role in electrical and electronic systems. Owing to both excellent thermal conduction and electrical insulation, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are particularly attractive as fillers in polymer composites. While the thermal properties rely on the connection of BNNSs in polymer matrices significantly. Herein, BNNSs absorbed with silver acetate and 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (Ag (2E4MI)2Ac) complex were prepared as thermal conductive fillers for epoxy resin. During the cure of matrix, nano silver ions were in-situ reduced, sintered and bridged individual BNNSs together. Therefore, thermal contact resistance between BNNSs decreased and thermal conducting networks were effectively constructed. The thermal conductivity increased from 1.26 W/mK for the composites only with BNNSs to 2.35 W/mK for the composites with BNNS/[Ag (2E4MI)2Ac] hybrids at 20 vol% BNNSs content. Fitting the measured thermal conductivity results indicated that the thermal contact resistance between fillers decreased with the connections by sintered silver. In addition, the electrically insulating properties of the composites were well preserved and the tensile strength of the composites containing sintered silver interconnects was obviously improved.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T05:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221110143
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Polyurethane and its composites derived from bio-sources: Synthesis,
           characterization and adsorption studies

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      Authors: Jyothy G Vijayan, Akshatha Chandrashekar, Jineesh AG, T Niranjana Prabhu, Prashantha Kalappa
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polyols from chaulmoogra seed oil and grape seed oil were prepared by epoxidation and ring opening of oxirane ring using lactic acid in nitrogen atmosphere with a control over their functionality. Nanocellulose was derived from Desmostachya Bipinnata grass leaves and further surface functionalized. Modified nanocellulose was used as filler to prepare porous flexible bio-based polyurethane nanocomposites via in-situ polymerization. Adsorption of malachite green (MG) dye from wastewater using the prepared polyurethane composites was carried out. The effect of varying factors such as weight percentage of filers (modified nanocellulose), dosage of the adsorbent, pH, temperature and time on the MG adsorption have been studied experimentally. Material characterization for prepared materials was carried out using FTIR, NMR, TGA, DSC, and SEM along with other physical and chemical methods. FTIR results indicated the presence of peaks at 1704 cm−1 for –C=O stretching vibrations from urethane groups, 1531 cm−1 for –NH bending, 1232 cm−1 for –C–N stretching and 1105 cm−1 for –C–O stretching in the urethane group (–NHCOO–) thus, indicating the formation of urethane linkage in the polyurethane. Polyols with functionality around 2.8 were obtained from the oils, which has contributed to forming flexible polyurethanes. Morphological studies indicate the nano fibrillation of cellulose and closed-cell porosity in polyurethane and its composites. The flexible porous PU and its nanocellulose composites displayed improved thermal stability from 256.3°C to 270.5°C. Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array have been applied for experimental design and optimization and the results were analyzed using ANOVA for raw and S/N ratio. It was found that pH is the most influential factor for adsorption lead by quantity of nanocellulose, time, dosage of the adsorbent and temperature.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T01:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221110347
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Curing mechanism of resole phenolic resin based on variable temperature
           FTIR spectra and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry

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      Authors: Honglin Hu, Wei Wang, Liqin Jiang, Liang Liu, Ying Zhang, Yunhua Yang, Jinming Wang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      To solve the problem that the curing mechanism evolution of phenolic resin catalyzed by Ba(OH)2 remained unclear, the p-p methylene index, o-p methylene index, o-o methylene index, hydroxymethyl index, and ether index were introduced to quantitatively investigate the chemical structure of resin in the curing temperature range of 90–230°C. The chemical structures were investigated by variable temperature FT-IR. The gas products released with the increase of curing temperature were characterized by Thermogravimetry-Mass Spectrometry. The curing mechanism from 90°C to 230°C was concluded finally. The results show that the main reaction is the formation of the p-p methylene group in the range of 90–120°C. It is difficult to form the o-p methylene bridge at this stage. In the range of 120–160°C, the main reaction is the formation of the p-p methylene group. From 160°C to 190°C, the main reactions are the breaking of the ether bond, the formation of the carbonyl group and the propyl bridge. Above 190°C, the main reactions are polycondensation reaction among phenolic hydroxyl groups, and the formation reaction of carbonyl groups. The ether bond breaks completely above 230°C. This work provides a new method to investigate the curing mechanism. It is a benefit for the rational design of the curing process of phenolic resin-based composites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:47:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221102114
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Potential applications of granite waste powder as an add-value polymer
           composite product

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      Authors: Magda E Tawfik, Samir B Eskander, Nivin M Ahmed
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The objective of the present study is to formulate added value polymer granite composite (PGC) based on granite (G) waste scraps as filler and unsaturated polyester (UP) obtained from chemically recycled post-consumed poly (ethyleneterephthalate) wastes (PET) as a matrix to be used in different candidate applications. Both wastes were collected from local dumping sites. Factors affecting the properties of the acquired PGC products e.g. polymer constitutions, granite/styrenated polyester ratios were studied systematically. The reached polymer granite composite has many advantages e.g. low density, very small water absorption percentage, short curing and hardening time, acceptable compressive strength values and significant thermal stability. Moreover, the environmental reward due to the utilisation of accumulation of the two problematic solid wastes is certainly a gain.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T05:00:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221110138
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Flexural after impact behaviour of carbon/epoxy and carbon/vinyl-ester
           composite laminates at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: R Bhoominathan, Arumugam V, Ashok Thompson, J J Andrew, Hom Dhakal
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The Flexural After Impact (FAI) behaviour of epoxy and vinyl-ester based carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates was investigated at elevated temperatures. Carbon/Epoxy (CE) and Carbon/Vinyl-ester (CV) laminates with cross-ply configuration (0/90/90/0)3S were manufactured via a compression moulding technique and subjected to Low-Velocity Impact (LVI) s at ∼1.5 and ∼2.5 m/s under temperatures 30, 60 and 90°C. The flexural behaviour of composite laminates was investigated via three-point bending tests. The non-impacted and impacted CE and CV samples' failure profile during the flexural tests was examined using the real-time Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring technique via peak frequency analysis of AE events. Flexural after impact strength of CE samples at both the velocities were higher than that of the CV ones. For CE and CV samples, the flexural after impact strength increases at 60°C, and decreases when approaching 90°C. At 90°C, flexural strength degradation was considerably higher in the CE ones because the Co-efficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the epoxy matrix occurs at a much higher rate than the vinyl-ester, which generates higher residual stress at the carbon fiber-epoxy interfaces. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring allowed to capture the interface among the fiber and matrix due to the exposure temperature and impact velocity.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T12:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221110338
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Agglomerated carbon nanotubes effects on buckling behavior of fiber metal
           laminated nanocomposite shells

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      Authors: Mahdi Soleymani, Ahmad Reza Ghasemi, Behzad Moslemi-Abyaneh
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this research, the influence of carbon nanotubes agglomeration on the buckling behavior of multi-phase CNTs/fiber/polymer/metal composite laminates cylindrical shells under hydrostatic pressure was investigated. Governing equations were derived according to the Kirchhoff-Love’s first approximation shell theory and solved by a combination of the Galerkin and Fourier series expansion methods. Equivalent elastic properties of multi-phase CNTs/fiber/polymer/metal laminated (CNTFPML) cylindrical shell were obtained using the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach, considering the dispersion and agglomeration effects. Primarily, CNTs were added to the polymer matrix and afterwards, this new matrix was reinforced by carbon or glass fiber materials. Finally, the composite layer was joined with metal layers and a hybrid shell prepared. The accuracy of the applied method was validated with the finite element method and experimental tests on carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composite cylinders under hydrostatic pressure. The results indicate that the CNTs agglomeration, weight and volume fraction of CNTs and type of fiber materials, have a key role on the critical buckling capacity of multi-phase composite shells.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T09:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221108743
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effects of organification degree of mordenite on swelling behaviors of
           starch-g-poly (acrylic acid) /organo-mordenite superabsorbent composites

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      Authors: Yan Zhang, Jianxiong Wei, Rui Wang, Pingqiang Gao
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Starch-g-poly(acrylic acid)/organo-mordenite (St-g-PAA/OMOR) superabsorbent composites were prepared via inverse suspension polymerizationutilizing potassium persulfate as an initiator and N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. Different dosages of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used to obtain organo-mordenite (OMOR) samples with different organification degrees. The effects of the organification degree of OMOR on the water absorbency, swelling behavior, and reswelling properties of St-g-PAA/OMOR were studied. The results from both FTIR and XRD analyses indicate that the Si–OH group of OMOR was involved in the formation of the St-g-PAA/OMOR composite. SEM analyses showed that the organification degree of OMOR influenced the morphology of the St-g-PAA/OMOR composite. The water absorption absorbency, swelling rate, and reswelling capability of the St-g-PAA/OMOR composite prepared using the OMOR with the optimal organification degree were superior to those of the St-g-PAA/mordenite composite. The swelling behaviors of the St-g-PAA/OMOR composites, which were measured in distilled water, obeyed Schott’s second-order kinetics model. The St-g-PAA/OMOR composite prepared using the OMOR with the 8 wt.% organification degree had the highest water absorption capacity and the highest swelling rate. Moreover, after five swelling–shrinking cycles, the composite retained its excellent water absorption capacity.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T07:22:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221107451
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Extraction, characterization, and kinetics of N-deacetylation of chitin
           obtained from mud crab shells

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      Authors: Nur Alimatul Hakimah Narudin, Nurul ‘Aqilah Rosman, Ensan Waatriah ES Shahrin, Nofrijon Sofyan, Abdul Hanif Mahadi, Eny Kusrini, Jonathan Hobley, Anwar Usman
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study focuses on the isolation, chemical and crystalline structures, and the kinetics of heterogeneous deacetylation of chitin from mud crab shells (Scylla serrata). The independent variables in this work are temperature, NaOH concentration, and reaction time. The degree of deacetylation (DD) of the resulting chitosan was determined for different reaction times. It was found that the DD increases nonlinearly with the reaction time. The deacetylation of the chitin followed pseudo first-order kinetics and it occurred in two stages, which are respectively attributed to the reaction of acetamide groups in the amorphous region on the external layer, and in the crystalline region inside the chitin particles. The rate constants for the latter stage of the deacetylation at 35°C, 75°C, and 105°C were 4.67×10−4 min−1, 3.00×10−3 min−1, and 4.61×10−3 min−1, respectively. Based on this temperature-dependent rate constant, the activation energy of the slow deacetylation stage was estimated to be 32.6 kJ mol−1.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T01:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221109611
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of electrospun nanofiber membrane from
           polyvinyl alcohol loaded with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract

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      Authors: Md Abdus Shahid, Md Shablu Khan
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study was designed to form an electrospun nanofiber membrane generated from different ratio of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) extract. The electrospinning process was used to fabricate the nanofiber membrane using maximum amount of licorice extract solution. 90% licorice extract solution was successfully electrospun to fabricate nano membrane with 10% PVA solution. Antibacterial, cytotoxicity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) test were performed on resulted sample. The outstanding performance against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by forming inhibition zone of 15 mm was observed. On the vero cell line, cell cytotoxicity was found, with only a few numbers of cells (less than 5%) surviving after exposure to the material. SEM investigation reveals fiber production with a diameter of (245.54 ± 55.19) nm on average. Moreover, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and moisture management test were performed. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the presence of licorice components in the membrane. Moisture analysis proved it as a better absorbing material. Since the fabricated membrane were proven to have bacteriostatic activity, it can be employed as wound healing.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T01:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221109422
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Tensile properties and fracture behavior of carbon nanotube-sheets/carbon
           fibers epoxy-impregnated bundle composites

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      Authors: Kimiyoshi Naito, Chiemi Nagai, Keiichi Shirasu, Yoshinobu Shimamura, Yoku Inoue
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      An interesting technique for modifying carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is through hybridization with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Carbon nanotubes sheets/carbon fibers offer potential benefits of nanoscale reinforcement to the well-established fibrous composites by creating multiscale hybrid micro-nano composites. In this study, the tensile properties of high tensile strength polyacrylonitrile (PAN)- and high modulus pitch-based carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites incorporating CNT sheets (CNT-sh/CFs/Ep-H: CNT sheets/carbon fibers/epoxy hybrid composites) were investigated. To fabricate CNT sheets, CNT was vertically grown on a quartz glass plate by chemical vapor deposition. A solid-state drawing and winding technique was applied to transform the vertically aligned CNT array into horizontally aligned CNT sheets. The tensile modulus of the CNT-sh/CFs/Ep-H was higher than that of the composite in the as-received state (CFs/Ep: carbon fibers/epoxy bundle composite). The tensile strength of the CNT-sh/PAN-based CF/Ep-H was lower than that of the PAN-based CF/Ep, whereas the tensile strength of the CNT-sh/pitch-based CF/Ep-H was higher than that of the pitch-based CF/Ep.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T10:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221109436
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Fabrication of thiolated chitosan based biodegradable nanoparticles of
           ticagrelor and their pharmacokinetics

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      Authors: Nariman Shahid, Alia Erum, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Omer Iqbal, Romana Riaz, Ruqia Tulain, Tousif Hussain, Muhammad W Amjad, Maria AG Raja, Umer Farooq, Waqar Aman
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The current study was aimed to design a thiolated chitosan (TC) based mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation for enhancing the oral bioavailability of an anti-coagulant, Ticagrelor (TG). Nanoparticles (NPs) containing naturally occurring biodegradable polymers have been revealed as promising carriers for the controlled delivery of various therapeutic agents through the oral route. Ionic gelation technique was adopted to prepare thiolated chitosan nanoparticles of TG (TCNPs/TG) and chitosan (CH) nanoparticles of TG (CHNPs/TG) by varying the concentration of polymers with respect to TG and cross-linker i.e. tripolyphosphate (TPP). The prepared CHNPs/TG and TCNPs/TG were subjected to assessment for their particle size, the zeta potential, shape and morphology along with loading capacity (LC) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Formed TCNPs/TG showed a particle size of 190.3 nm, zeta potential of 16 mv along with the polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.375 as compared to CHNPs/TG, displaying particle size of 147.3 nm, zeta potential of 22.6 mv and PDI of 0.364. Likewise, during Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the emergence of a characteristic peak at 2495 cm−1 in TC, has confirmed the successful modification of CH. Moreover, in-vitro drug release studies have disclosed a good sustained release behavior of the drug, both from CHNPs/TG and TCNPs/TG. However, the in-vivo pharmacokinetics have illustrated the superiority (p < .05) of the TCNPs/TG (494.96 ng/mL) over the CHNPs/TG (438.73 ng/mL) in terms of bioavailability. Ultimately, the findings have indicated that TCNPs/TG might help to improve the oral bioavailability of TG and hence, its therapeutic effects.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T04:52:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221108742
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the use of açaí seed residue as reinforcement in
           polymeric composite

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      Authors: Andrezza de Melo Barbosa, Gabrielle Machado dos Santos, Gabriel Messias Medeiros de Melo, Hannah Alagoas Litaiff, Lucieta Guerreiro Martorano, Virgínia Mansanares Giacon
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is an important economic source in the north region of Brazil for agro-industry. However, it generates a huge amount of seed residue as agro-waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of this residue as reinforcement in particleboards. The medium-density particleboards were manufactured according to the experimental design (22 + 1), considering the parameters with two factors: “Granulometry”, for different açaí seed sizes (2.38, 1.19, 0.29, 0.15 and 0.07 mm) and “%Resin”, for different resin weight fractions (10%, 12.5% and 15%), both applied in the manufacturing of the composites. Measurements for the Apparent Density Thickness Swelling and Water Absorption (WA) of the particleboards were performed. Mechanical properties of particleboards were analyzed through top and surface Screw Withdrawal and Internal Bonding test. In addition, the morphology of surface from particleboards was evaluated through Scanning Electron Microscopy The results of TS for 24 h, WA for 2 and 24 h, and IB showed that the particle size was a significant factor (p < .05). These results established that the highest particle sizes provided lower percentages of absorption. The results of Screw Withdrawal did not achieve the requirements established by NBR 14810–2:2018 standard. Besides that, the results presented statistical difference, considering the particle size and the interaction between parameters (“%Resin” and “Granulometry”), which resulted in a p-value < .05. For the Internal Bonding test, the composite with highest particle size exhibited the best performance compared to the other ones.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T01:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221108307
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Morphology and physico-mechanical properties of poly (methyl
           methacrylate)/polystyrene/polypropylene ternary polymer blend and its
           nanocomposites with organoclay: The effect of nature of organoclay and
           method of preparation

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      Authors: Amir Rostami, Mehdi Vahdati, Mohsen Nowrouzi, Mohammadreza Karimpour, Amir Babaei
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This work presents the role of organoclay type (hydrophilic C30B vs hydrophobic C15A) and feeding mode (sequential vs. simultaneous) on a model ternary blend system poly (methyl methacrylate)/polystyrene/polypropylene (PMMA/PS/PP, 80/05/15). The rheological and thermal properties of these nanocomposites are linked to their morphology, which is mainly controlled by the preparation method and the nature of the organoclays. Using oscillatory shear rheology and dynamic mechanical analyses, both organoclays were shown to be mainly localized in the PMMA matrix. However, the more polar C30B showed a greater affinity toward the matrix. Studying the morphology using electron microscopy revealed that at 1 wt% of the organoclays, the original core-shell morphology of the blend was retained regardless of the feeding sequence. At 3 wt% of the organoclays, however, the core-shell morphology was only retained in the case of C30B-based nanocomposites prepared using sequential feeding mode. In the other cases, the increased solid-like behavior of the PS phase prevented the formation of a shell. Overall, it was shown that the feeding sequence and the affinity of organoclays towards different blend components determined their localization and therefore the eventual morphology of the nanocomposite.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T12:16:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221107811
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Acrylate polymers of triazine containing chalcone moiety: Synthesis,
           characterization, reactivity ratio and photocrosslinking studies

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      Authors: Jayaseelan Suresh, Araichimani Arun
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Acrylate monomer ((4-(3-(4-((4-(4-(3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)phenoxy)-6-((4-nitrophenyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)oxy)phenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)phenyl acrylate (DTCP) is prepared and used to prepare poly (DTCP) and its copolymer poly (DTCP-co-HEA) and poly (DTCP-co-S) using 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), styrene (S) by solution polymerization technique. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton Nucleharmar Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR), and UV-Visible techniques are used to identify the synthesized polymers. Gel permeation chromatography method is used to determine the polymer’s weight average molecular weight, which is found to be around 10000 g/mol. According to the Thermo Gravimetric Analysis study, the synthesized polymers go through single stage decomposition centered at 340°C. The polymer reactivity ratio is found using well known Finemann-Ross (F-R), Kelen-Tudos (K-T), and extended Kelen-Tudos (ex.K-T) methods. The reactivity of the commercial monomers (HEA or S) is found to be higher than that of synthesized monomer, according to our findings. The photocrosslinking rate of the synthesized polymers is determined using a UV visible spectroscopic method and found to be high for polymer having HEA unit.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T03:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221107447
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of hybridization of novel African teff and snake grass fibers
           reinforced epoxy composites with bio castor seed shell filler:
           Experimental investigation

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      Authors: Manickaraj K, Ramamoorthi R, Sathish S, Makeshkumar M
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The main aim of this research was to fabricate novel African teff and snake grass fibers reinforced hybrid epoxy composites with bio castor seed shell powder as filler using compression molding method as a function of varying fiber weight fraction from 5 to 25 wt%. The African teff and snake grass fibers were chemically treated with 5% NaOH to enhance fiber outer surface by removing hemicellulose, lignin, wax, and oil contents. The tensile, flexural, impact, interlaminar shear strength, and hardness of the alkaline treated hybrid composites were determined as per ASTM standards to evaluate the effect of fiber weight fraction on the developed composites. The chemical bonding between the treated fiber and NaOH agents was verified through Fourier transform infrared analysis. The adhesion between the treated fiber and matrix was analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope. The results of the investigation indicated that the mechanical properties improved with the increase in African teff fiber up to 20 wt. % and deteriorated thereafter. It was also observed that the combined influence of bio castor seed shell powder along with natural fibers over the mechanical properties was higher.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T09:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221102288
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Enhancement of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy-based cylindrical
           composites by toughening with single-walled carbon nanotubes

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      Authors: Zeynep Ay Solak, Osman Kartav, Metin Tanoglu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, the effect of incorporating nano-sized fillers (noncovalently functionalized with ethoxylated alcohol chemical-vapor-deposition-grown SWCNTs) within an epoxy resin on the performance of filament wound glass fiber (GF)-based cylindrical composites (GFCCs) was investigated. For this purpose, SWCNTs were dispersed with the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 weight percent (wt.%) within an epoxy resin using mechanical stirring and calendaring (3-roll-milling) techniques. The rheological behavior of the SWCNT incorporated epoxy mixture was characterized to determine the suitability of blends for the filament winding process. It was revealed that the viscosity value of the resin was not significantly affected by the addition of SWCNTs in given concentrations. Moreover, contact angle measurements were also performed on the SWCNT/epoxy blends dropped on the GF for the evaluation of the wettability behavior of the GF in the presence of the SWCNTs in relevant concentrations. Eventually, it was observed that the wettability behavior of GF was not reasonably affected by the presence of the SWCNTs. The double cantilever beam (DCB), flexural, and short beam shear (SBS) tests were performed on the reference and SWCNT-modified GFCC specimens to evaluate the effects of the SWCNT presence on the interlaminar fracture toughness and out-of-plane properties of GFCCs. The fractured surfaces after the DCB and SBS tests were analyzed under the scanning electron microscopy to reveal the toughening mechanisms and the filler morphologies. Consequently, although SWCNT incorporation was on the outermost layer of GFCCs, it was found that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values and Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness values of the curved composite samples were improved up to 22 and 216%, respectively, due to the presence of the SWCNTs.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T03:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221086718
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of antibacterial chitosan nanocomposites
           loaded with cellulose/chitosan nanofibers and essential oils

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      Authors: Neda Sadat Aghayan, Javad Seyfi, Mohammad Javad Asadollahzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Davachi, Maryam Hasani
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Multi-component nanocomposites based on chitosan, cellulose/chitosan nanofibers, and essential oils were developed in this study through solution casting technique. Both surface and structural properties of the nanocomposites were characterized. Surface morphology results revealed that the chitosan nanofibers were more localized at the films’ surface than the cellulose nanofibers, leading to enhanced hydrophobicity (contact angle = 95°). Moreover, the essential oils were distributed as micrometer-scale oil domains at the films’ surfaces, making them heterogeneous, leading to a much more hydrophilic character (contact angle = 30–36°). X-ray diffraction results revealed the disrupting role of nanofibers on the crystalline structure of chitosan; however, upon the addition of essential oils, the crystalline network was less affected than the pure chitosan film. The enhanced stiffness of the films in the presence of nanofibers was demonstrated by dynamic mechanical analysis. In contrast, the addition of essential oils highly reduced the stiffness, making the films much more flexible, which could benefit food packaging applications. Antibacterial properties were highly increased in the presence of essential oils, and the barrier properties were also improved, especially by the use of chitosan nanofibers. In conclusion, the developed nanofiber-loaded chitosan films could be considered innovative packaging to promote food conservation.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T08:42:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221098732
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • A critical review on damage modeling and failure analysis of pin joints in
           fiber reinforced composite laminates

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      Authors: Akash Gupta, Manjeet Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Fiber-reinforced composite material plays a vital role in structural engineering due to its lightweight and high strength ratio which becomes a key material in a mechanically fastened pin joint. Recent review articles in this area were restricted to the numerical and experimental approaches which are used for strength prediction of pin joints in polymer matrix composites. The present study begins with an extensive analysis of relevant studies in the provided structurally clamped joint region using numerous numerical approaches and theories of failure. Numerous experimental and numerical approaches are available nowadays and have been cited by the researchers in their respective research to foretell the damage initiation and failure mode in the composite joint. The study gives the review of different numerical analyses of composite joints by utilizing interactive criteria for failure analysis, viz. Tsai-Wu, Tsai-Hill, Yamada Sun’s theory predicts failure using higher-order polynomial equations that comprise all stress or strain components, whereas limit stress criteria i.e. Maximum stress criterion which uses linear equations for finding the solution. Progressive Damage Analysis (PDA) quantifies matrix and fiber failure using the material depletion rule preceded by Hashin’s theory which offers a good interpretation irrespective of the types of composite material. In the end, various parameters are discussed which enhance joint performance under different loading conditions.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T07:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221099764
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Design and synthesis of high-performance poly(amide-imide) for
           multifunctional electromagnetic interference shielding films

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      Authors: Changlong Zhuang, Yanbin Wang, Chengbi Chang, Zicheng Fan, Shuhan Hou, Chen Zhou, Hao Dong, Leier Xia, Zhonglin Luo, Biaobing Wang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The exploration of flexible, transparent, anti-corrosion and thermally stable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials is still a huge challenge and urgently demanded in the civil and military fields. Herein, two novel high-performance poly (amide-imide)s (PAIs) were designed and used to fabricate sandwich structure EMI shielding films through simple layer-by-layer casting method. Combining advantages of PAI and silver nanowires (Ag NWs), PAI/Ag NWs composite films showed a shielding effectiveness (SE) of 35 dB and simultaneously possessed an optical transmittance of beyond 80%. More encouragingly, the composite films remained more than 92% EMI SE with random deformations (>5000 times). Furthermore, benefitting from the excellent properties of PAI matrix and sandwich structure of EMI shielding films, the EMI SE was almost unchanged even when they were exposed to air for 30 min at 160°C. On the other hand, the PAI/Ag NWs composite films still exhibited EMI SE of more than 30 dB when they were dipped into aqueous solution for 1 h by varying pH values from 2 to 13. These results demonstrated that PAI and Ag NWs was a good combination to prepare EMI shielding materials with excellent comprehensive performances.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T03:47:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221107292
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effects of blowing agents and curing temperatures on physical and
           mechanical properties of natural rubber foam for laminated floor tiles

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      Authors: Theerawat Petdee, Thanwit Naemsai, Ekkawit Pianhanuruk, Worapong Boonchouytan, Chatree Homkhiew
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Falling on the floor has been one of the most common causes of breaking a bone. Falls in senior homes and care facilities can lead to immobility symptoms and treatments. Rubber flooring is a great alternative for fall protection. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of organic blowing agents (dinitroso pentamethylene tetramine and azodicarbonamide) on the physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber foam used for laminated floor tiles. The curing temperatures were also examined in the range of 140–160 oC. From the experimental results, the blowing agent was an important component added to the rubber foam layer at various contents and temperatures. The compression set increased when curing temperatures and adding blowing agent increased. With an increase in the curing temperature, the elongation at break decreased. The findings indicated that the mechanical properties of natural rubber foam were significantly affected by the kind of blowing agent and the curing temperature. Finally, an optimal energy absorption was found in the dinitroso pentamethylene tetramine condition with 3 phr and the curing temperature of 160°C, which offers the maximum energy absorption value of 110 J.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T02:45:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221106684
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic mechanical behaviour of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride
           reinforced carbon-kevlar, hybrid fabric-based epoxy nanocomposites

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      Authors: Srivatsava Madarvoni, Sreekanth PS Rama
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      An emphasis on the development of lightweight structures in multitudes of engineering applications has broadened the scope for the continual development of fiber-reinforced composites due to their lightweight and superior strength. The current work is aimed to investigate the influence of fillers graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on carbon, Kevlar, and hybrid fabric when they form fiber-reinforced composites. In particular, the properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, damping factor, and glass transition temperature were determined for various composites to understand the influence of fillers, fabric combinations, and their interaction in synergy. The unique contribution of this work also lies in the inter-correlation of Full width-half Maximum (FWHM) of loss modulus (E”) plots to understand the phenomena of abrasive wear. An inhomogeneity factor based on the Cole-Cole plots termed as circularity index was also calculated by using Full Maximum (F.M.) and the FWHM. Carbon, Kevlar, and hybrid fabric mat reinforced epoxy composites, with 0.1, 0.3 & 0.5 wt% loadings of graphene and h-BN were prepared using the hand layup technique. The Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was performed under temperature sweep (30–200°C). The results were analysed to understand the choice of h-BN with Kevlar fabric for applications needing high damping while graphene with carbon fabric for applications needing high tenacity. A hybrid fabric mat offers a balance of damping and tenacity. It was observed that the GC2 composite showed a 49% increment in storage modulus (E’), and GK2 composites showed a 38% increment in loss modulus (E”) compared to GC0 and GK0 composites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T02:24:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221107289
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Free radical polymerization of allylamine in different acidic media

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      Authors: Amir Sepehrianazar, Olgun Güven
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The complex formation between allylamine and mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4) and their stabilities were investigated by Uv-Vis, DSC and TGA analyses. Free radical polymerization of allylamine salts was achieved by using 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropanediamine)dihydrochloride at 50oC under N2 atmosphere in water. PAlAm synthesized in the presence of H2SO4 and H3PO4 were insoluble in water due to physical crosslinking of chains. They were converted to water soluble PAlAm.HCl by HCl treatment for further characterization. The structures of polymers obtained were elucidated by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C, and Cosy NMR spectroscopies. Thermal stability and glass transition behaviors were investigated by TGA and DSC. Tg was found to be 225°C for poly (AlAm.HCl) whereas 23°C for poly (AlAm). The poly (AlAm) showed very high heat stability with no weight loss until 440°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The molecular weight of PAlAm.HCl was determined by 1H NMR and viscosimetry to be 16,000 and 12,000 respectively.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T06:11:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103599
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of anticorrosion properties of epoxy GO nanocomposites spin
           coated Aluminum Alloy 7075

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      Authors: Mulayam S Gaur, Rajesh K Raghav, Rohan Sagar, R.K. Tiwari
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether-polyaminoamide (epoxy resin)–graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites have been prepared by chemical methods. The aim of this study is to produce epoxy –GO coatings on Aluminum Alloy 7075 and study the anticorrosion properties. Thin films have been characterized by scanning electron microscope – Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectroscopy (EDX) and Raman spectra. Raman spectra show the successful bonding of GO functional groups with epoxy. The composition of epoxy and GO is characterized by EDX. The Tafel plots were undertaken for analysis of corrosion of coating material. Therefore, the reduction of corrosion current of epoxy–GO nanocomposites coated Al alloy 7075 show its superior corrosion resistance properties. This is further confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. The very high value of low frequency impedance modulus (i.e. 1010 Ω cm2) shows surprising anticorrosive effect on coating. The epoxy–GO spin coating in Al Alloy 7075 is significantly reduces the corrosion current density (Icorr) and corrosion rate due to anticorrosion properties of GO.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T06:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221106047
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • 3D printing of continuous fiber reinforced composites: A review of the
           processing, pre- and post-processing effects on mechanical properties

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      Authors: Faraz Safari, Abdolvahed Kami, Vahid Abedini
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The main objective of this study is to review existing research on the application of fused deposition modeling (FDM) for 3D printing of continuous fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs). An overview of additive manufacturing technology production techniques is provided first, followed by a look into FDM technology. The articles on CFRC printing were then summarized. The type of reinforcing material and matrix utilized, the studied parameters, the mechanical tests, and their results, are all listed. Various pre-processing, processing, and post-processing conditions, as well as their impact on CFRC mechanical properties, were also discussed. Finally, several study gaps were identified and suggestions for further research were presented.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T01:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221098734
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Epoxy-based composites with enhanced thermal properties through collective
           effect of different particle size fillers

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      Authors: Xiaoyang Zeng, Zhengguo Zhang, Yaoqi Pan, Yongle Zhang, Linxi Hou
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Taking advantages of excellent adhesion and insulating properties, polymer-based thermal interface materials have been widely used in electrical and electronic industry. However, applications was limited due to the existence of high interfacial resistance and poor mechanical properties resulted from poor dispersion and weak interfacial adhesion of thermal conductive fillers in the polymer matrix. Herein, different sizes of aluminum oxide microparticle was used as thermal conductive fillers to fabricate a series of high thermal conductive epoxy composites, and the effect of fillers loading ratio on the properties of thermal conductive, mechanical, thermal stability was further analyzed. The optimum composite exhibits a high thermal conductivity (1.91 ± 0.02 W·m−1·K−1) at a loading ratio of 1: 2 (20-μm: 70-μm, mass ratio), which is equivalent to a thermal conductivity enhancement of 950% in comparison with pure epoxy resin. The outstanding properties of the as-prepared composite is mainly attributed to the effective conductive network formed by different size fillers that the smaller particles act as a bridge to connect the larger one. This work has proved by Agari model that combining different sizes Al2O3 as fillers is a workable way to obtain composite with high thermal conductivity and it is expected to provide a reliable route for the preparation of thermally conductive composites with different particle sizes.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:51:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221106686
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Barrier properties, migration into the food simulants and antimicrobial
           activity of paper-based materials with functionalized surface

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      Authors: Anca Peter, Leonard M Cozmuta, Camelia Nicula, Anca M Cozmuta, Robert Apjok, Catalina M Talasman, Goran Drazic, Antonio Peñas, Antonio J Calahorro, Franks Kamgang Nzekoue, Xiaohui Huang, Gianni Sagratini, Stefania Silvi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The study investigates four paper-based materials designed for short-time wrapping of meat products by determining morpho-structure, capillary-hydroscopic, barrier and antibacterial properties, wettability and migration into food simulants. The paper-based materials are coded as RO, SP, IT and SLO. RO and SLO samples exhibit the best barrier properties against water vapors. The low solubility and contact angles of RO, IT and SLO in A simulant (distilled water) make them suitable for aqueous food storage. The extremely high solubility of SP and SLO in simulant B (acetic acid) shows that wax and hydrophobized starch, respectively are carried by the acidic media, thus these agents are unlikely to coat the paper designed to package acidic food. SLO inhibits E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fluorescens. Polyethylene coated on RO and IT surface and wax impregnated on SP have a lower antimicrobial activity in comparison with hydrophobized starch coated on SLO.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T11:13:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221106347
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Polyaniline–calcium titanate perovskite hybrid composites: Structural,
           morphological, dielectric and electric modulus analysis

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      Authors: Ariba Bibi, Abdul Shakoor, Niaz Ahmad Niaz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper reports hybrid composites based on polyaniline (PANI) and calcium titanate (CaTiO3) perovskite as a nanofiller synthesized by in-situ polymerization technique. Their structure and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the addition of CaTiO3 in polyaniline reduced the amorphous structure of polyaniline transforming it into semi-crystalline nature, which agrees well with the higher conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy of composites showed a more compact and homogenous structure with uniform distribution of CaTiO3 in the polymer matrix. Dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, loss factor, and dielectric loss, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus were measured and evaluated as a function of frequency and temperature as well. The variation of dielectric properties and ac conductivity reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization. The observed ac conductivity behavior of polyaniline in the presence of calcium titanate was discussed in the framework of Jonscher’s power law. The result showed that ac conductivity increases with the rise of the frequency of applied field and temperature analogous to the semiconducting behavior of composites. Temperature-dependent behavior of frequency exponent seems to obey correlated barrier hopping conduction mechanism. The relaxation behavior of the synthesized samples was analyzed by the electric field modulus and was found to decrease with temperature and CaTiO3 content and increase with frequency.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T07:08:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221102287
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Thermoplastic composites of polypropylene/biopolymer blends and wood
           flour: Parameter optimization with fuzzy-grey relational analysis

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      Authors: Orhan Kelleci, Deniz Aydemir, Ertuğrul Altuntas, Ahmet Oztel, Rıfat Kurt, Hüseyin Yorur, Abdullah Istek
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, blends of polypropylene (PP) with polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymers and wood flour were prepared, and Fuzzy and Grey Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) methods were used to determine the blends with the best properties. The physical, mechanical, thermal, structural, and morphological properties of the composites were determined. The obtained results showed that PLA and wood flour generally improved the mechanical properties of the PP composites. However, wood flour did not exhibit a homogeneous distribution in the matrix. The density of the composites generally increased with the addition of both PLA and PHB. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystallinity index of the composites generally decreased due to the low crystallinity of biopolymers. Thermal stability did not change with the addition of PLA and PHB, but the addition of wood increased thermal stability. According to the MCDM analysis, both Fuzzy and Grey results were similar.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T05:06:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221100968
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Enhanced electromechanical properties of natural rubber using
           mussel-inspired modification of calcium titanate particles with
           supercapacitive property

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      Authors: Dandan Guo, Naiqiang Liu, Qixiang Jia, Mengnan Ruan, Zhifeng Liu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) has broad application prospects because of their excellent properties. However, the need for high operating electric field limits their practical application. The natural rubber (NR) elastomer composite with excellent properties was obtained through the addition of high-dielectric-constant calcium titanate (CCTO) particles with modification by the deposition of poly(catechol/polyamine) (PCPA) and the graft of silane γ-(2,3-expoxypropoxy)-propytrimethoxysilane (KH560). The interaction and polarization were significantly enhanced at the interface of CCTO and NR matrix due to the participation for epoxy groups of KH560 in vulcanization reaction. In this paper, the 50 parts per hundred rubber (phr) CCTO-PCPA-KH560/NR composite revealed the largest actuated strain (11.38%), which was ∼4.48 times higher than that of pure NR composite (2.54%). And the CCTO-PCPA-KH560/NR composite revealed reinforced mechanical, dielectric, and electromechanical properties. In summary, this proposed approach is feasible, low cost, and helpful for the wide application of high-performance DEA.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T03:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221076678
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of physical and thermal behaviour of chitosan-based
           biocomposites reinforced with leaf and stem extract of Tectona grandis

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      Authors: Lutfor Rahman, Jutika Goswami, Devasish Choudhury
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Chitosan (Ch) has been incorporated with Tectona grandis leaf extract and stem extract at different compositions (5%, 10% and 15% v/v) to study the physicochemical properties of the biocomposites. The thin-film composites were prepared by the solution casting method to investigate the removal of chromium (VI) from water at varied pH conditions. The results showed that incorporation of the plant extracts improved the mechanical and UV barrier properties of the TFCs. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the degradation temperature of the films containing the extracts improved only slightly in comparison to the control film. Adsorption studies showed that for maximum Cr (VI) removal, Ch-L5 and Ch-L10 films were efficient. These eco-friendly prepared films are cost-effective and can also be a suitable material for food packaging.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T03:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221076305
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • A method of improving the dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets in
           cellulose acetate based composite

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      Authors: Qipeng Hu, Han Gu, Chao Wang, Yajun Ding, Sanjiu Ying
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The application of cellulose acetate (CA) in various industrial areas is strongly influenced by thermal stability. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as a highly thermal conductive filler is a promising choice to modify the stability of CA, while the practical effect falls short of the expectations associated with the promise of individually dispersed graphene owing to poor dispersion. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is favorable to nanoparticles dispersion. Thus, the method, introducing SC-CO2 into the CA/GNPs system during extrusion process, was proposed to modify GNPs dispersion in CA matrix. As three main process parameters, it was researched that the effects of injection flowrate, temperature and screw rotation-rate on GNPs dispersion in CA matrix. The dispersion quality of GNPs was enhanced with the rising of injection flowrate, and the average visible GNPs count of sample G1.25C0.5T37R9 decreased 74.79%, compared with sample G1.25C0.1T37R9. The dispersion quality of GNPs was enhanced with the rising of temperature, and the average visible GNPs count of sample G1.25C0.3T41R9 decreased 63.63%, compared with sample G1.25C0.3T33R9. The dispersion quality of GNPs decreased with the rising of screw rotation-rate, and the average visible GNPs count of sample G1.25C0.3T37R5 decreased 77.71%, compared with sample G1.25C0.3T37R13. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that a better GNPs dispersion is beneficial to CA stability even at an extremely low level. The maximum-weight-loss rate of the first weight-loss-stage of samples G1.25C0.5T37R9, G1.25C0.3T41R9 and G1.25C0.3T37R5 appeared at 212, 224 and 225°C, while that of samples G1.25C0.1T37R9, G1.25C0.3T33R9 and G1.25C0.3T37R13 appeared at 207, 219 and 219°C, with an increment of 5, 5 and 6°C, when the content of introduced GNPs is merely 1.25‰.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T10:48:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103419
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Sisal fiber reinforced polyethylene terephthalate composites; Fabrication,
           characterization and possible application

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      Authors: Adane Dagnaw Gudayu, Leif Steuernagel, Dieter Meiners, Ambachew Maru Woubou
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The use of thermoplastics (TPs) for natural fiber composites is restricted to commodity ones like polypropylene and polyethylene However, using engineered TPs such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) will benefit from its technical and economic advantages. The research aims to characterize injection molded PET composites reinforced with sisal fibers treated differently. Polyethylene terephthalate composites containing 40 wt.% of untreated, alkaline-treated, and alkali/acetylation treated sisal fibers were prepared using compounding and injection molding processes and then characterized. It has been found that production of sisal-PET composites by compounding and injection molding has been shown to be possible. Thermal damage to sisal fiber was noticed during composite production. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis analysis, a net weight loss (excluding water loss) of 11.1%–14.0% was observed at the operating temperatures of the two processes. The addition of 40 wt.% of sisal to the PET matrix improved the tensile modulus by 137%. Further improvement by 179% was observed when alkali-treated sisal fiber was used. The combined alkali/acetylation treatment of sisal yields more enhancement by 233%. This is a significant advancement because modulus is the most influential parameter during the design and service of an engineering product. Generally, compared to the raw sisal composite (RSC) the interfacial, mechanical, thermal, and water absorption properties of the alkali treated sisal composite (Al-SC) and alkali/acetylated sisal composite (Al-ASC) specimens recorded an improvement. Relative to the natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites that were commercialized in the automotive industry, the produced sisal–PET composites resulted in a considerable improvement of 66.6%–190% in flexural strength and by 110.5%–410.0% in flexural modulus, depending on sisal fiber treatment and the composite to be compared. Thus, the studied composites can be recommended for various parts of automobiles.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T07:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103317
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Experimental studies of mechanical behavior and damage mechanisms of
           recycled flax/Elium thermoplastic composite

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      Authors: Sami Allagui, Abderrahim El Mahi, Jean-Luc Rebiere, Moez Beyaoui, Anas Bouguecha, Mohamed Haddar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of recycling on the mechanical properties of Elium resin reinforced by flax fibers. A thermocompression recycling process is investigated and applied to production waste of thermoplastic composites. Five recycling operations are carried out on the initial material. Specimens are tested under static and fatigue tensile tests. In addition, the acoustic emission technique is used to identify damage mechanisms evolution during mechanical tests. Recorded events are post processed by the k-means unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm. The classes of acoustic emissions obtained are correlated with scanning electron microscopy observations to justify the existence of damage mechanisms detected. Results of static tests show that the ultimate tensile properties of the composites studied decrease with recycling operations. However, an increase in the elastic modulus is reported. In the fatigue tests, results show that stiffness, hysteresis loop and loss factor are affected by recycling operations. Also, a decrease in the life time with reprocessing conditions is observed. In acoustic tests, depending on the recycling operations, two or three classes of events are detected. The acoustic characteristics of these classes are compared. Then, a correlation between these AE classes of events and damage mechanisms observed is proposed.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T10:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221090048
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Change of thermophysical parameters of polypropylene-metal oxide
           nanocomposite (polypropylene + ZrO2) after electric field influence

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      Authors: Hijran S Ibrahimova, Habiba A. Shirinova, Rovnag M Rzayev, Konul E Rahimova, Esmira M Mustafayeva
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, the influence of an electric field on thermophysical properties of the PP+ZrO2 nanocomposites has been investigated. Changes in thermograms before and after applying an electric field (EFI) have been studied depending on the filler percentage in the polymer matrix. After EFI a new, weak maximum at the temperature range of 100–130°С of the thermograms for all concentrations of the filler was observed. Thermophysical parameters of the nanocomposite sample have been calculated for different values of electric field strengths that were applied are calculated depending on the effect of the ETP.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T09:37:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221104484
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • A review on the enhancement of composite’s interface properties through
           biological treatment of natural fibre/lignocellulosic material

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      Authors: Jet Yin Boey, Siti Baidurah Yusoff, Guan Seng Tay
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Natural fibre or lignocellulosic fibres have aroused the attention of scientists in the polymer industry, given their eco-friendly, low density, and biodegradability. Nevertheless, the major obstacle to wide commercial applications is the incompatibility between polar natural plant fibres with non-polar polymer matrix due to different chemical constitutions. Therefore, surface treatment of natural fibres before they are implemented to prepare fibre-reinforced composites is considered. Chemical and physical treatments are not preferred as it involves hazardous chemicals and high energy consumption. This review article provides an overview of various environmentally friendly approaches, such as introducing bacterial nanocellulose, pre-treatment with bacterial cellulase, fungal treatment, and enzymatic treatments aimed to treat natural fibres. The implications of working mechanisms on the characteristics of fibre itself and polymer composites with reinforcement are reviewed. The application of treated fibres reinforced composites and comparison of biological treatment with other treatments are discussed in this article. It is evidenced that fibre that undergoes biological modifications facilitates better fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion, has stronger mechanical bonding with the matrix, along with the reduction of water uptake of the composites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103600
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Flexural Properties of 3D-printed hierarchical-sinusoidal corrugated core
           sandwich panels with natural fiber reinforced skins

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      Authors: Mahvash Shahkarami, Afshin Zeinedini
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of printed hierarchical-sinusoidal corrugated core patterns and the load direction on the flexural properties of the cotton/epoxy composites sandwich panels. For the cores, six sinusoidal corrugated structures were considered. Besides, possible arrangements (transvers or longitudinal wave, arch downward or upward) of the sinusoidal corrugated cores with respect to the loading direction were considered. Totally, 72 cores were fabricated using a 3D printer and poly lactic acid material. It was observed that for the transverse arrangement, the flexural strength of sandwich panels is significantly improved by changing the pattern from the simple form to the hierarchical patterns. In contrast, for the longitudinal pattern, improvement in the flexural properties was not obtained by changing the core pattern. It was also manifested that corrugated core arrangement has remarkable effect on the mechanical properties of the sandwich panels. For the transverse pattern core panel, the maximum values of normalized face-sheet bending strength (FBS), core shear ultimate strength (CSUS) and energy absorption were obtained as 7.17 MPa/kg, 223.91 MPa/kg and 114.56 J/kg, respectively. Besides, for the longitudinal pattern core panel, the maximum values of FBS, CSUS and energy absorption were obtained as 7.86 MPa/kg, 245.78 MPa/kg and 330.75 J/kg, respectively. Comparing the obtained results with the available data in the literature manifested that the flexural properties of the corrugated core sandwich structures are significantly improved by changing its core system from the other materials to the printed material.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:00:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221101299
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Review of carbon fiber-reinforced sandwich structures

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      Authors: Tidong Zhao, Jing Yang, Jinxiang Chen, Sujun Guan
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper first reviews the research progress of carbon fiber-reinforced sandwich plates with grid cores, truss cores, and foam cores, and the results can be summarized in the following four points. 1) The load-bearing capacity and energy absorption capacity of grid-core and foam-core structures under bending loads have been improved by toughening with short fibers and Z-pinned fibers. 2) The progressive buckling mode of the core layer under compressive loading can significantly improve the energy absorption capacity of a sandwich structure. 3) The compressive failure of a truss-core sandwich structure is closely related to the strength at the nodes. 4) Following a literature review, this paper discusses the existing problems in sandwich structures and the corresponding countermeasures, and the results can be summarized in the following two points. 1) After implementing the current toughening measures, the debonding is improved to a certain extent; however, this approach does not prevent debonding. 2) No method has been presented that can increase the strength of the end nodes in truss-core members. Therefore, it is encouraging that a trabeculae/honeycomb-core sandwich structure composed of fiber-reinforced proteins—mimicking the biological structure found in a beetle forewing—can effectively solve the abovementioned problems.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:05:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221098729
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Biodegradation behaviour of green composite sandwich made of flax and
           agglomerated cork

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      Authors: S. Prabhakaran, V. Krishnaraj, Hemashree Golla, M. Senthilkumar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Material experts are striving to use natural resources as skin and core in composite sandwiches to achieve light weight, biodegradability, and cost benefits. This paper reports one such newly developed green composite sandwich and its biodegradable behavior. The skin and core of newly developed sandwich are flax fiber and agglomerated cork respectively. This composite sandwich is manufactured by vacuum bagging technique in order to get higher volume fraction of fiber. The biodegradability testing of the composite sandwich has been executed by soil burial test. The verification of the same has been done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and Thermoanalytical test. The test results portray the percentage of weight loss in the specimens and that, it increases with burial time. It also depicts that the newly developed Green Composite Sandwich (GCS) has 82% higher degradation than the Synthetic Composite Sandwich (SCS) taken for the comparison. SEM images show that the green composite sandwiches have lost their fibrous structure and cell wall surface due to the degradation. FTIR and Thermoanalytical tests also confirm the biodegradability of the developed green composite sandwich.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T02:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221103602
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of the mechanical properties of chopped glass, carbon, and
           aramid fiber reinforced polypropylene

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      Authors: Ali Ari, Ali Bayram, Mehmet Karahan, Seçgin Karagöz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, a comparative assessment of the mechanical properties of chopped glass-carbon-aramid fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites was carried out. Reinforcement and matrix materials were mixed with the extrusion method, and then composite materials were produced in the form of plates with the press molding technique. The composites' tensile, 3-point bending, and drop weight tests were carried out and the surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The tests’ results indicate that the mechanical properties increase significantly in the presence of fiber. On the other hand, it is observed that the effect in percentage decreases as the fiber content increases. Moreover, It was observed that some of the fiber materials were pulled out from the matrix as a result of stress. ANOVA analysis using S/N values, and F-Test were performed to observe the effectiveness of each test factor (fiber type, and fiber additive content) on the test results. Finally, an optimization study was carried out to obtain the mathematical expression by fitting the experimental data.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T06:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221098570
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis of chitosan graft poly (acrylic
           acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid)/graphite oxide
           composite hydrogel and the study of its adsorption

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      Authors: Linhui Zhu, Yu Liu, Yangwenyi L; Yaoji Tang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Chitosan graft poly (acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid)/graphite oxide (CTS-g-P(AA-co-AMPS)/GO) composite hydrogel is synthesized and used to remove rhodamine 6G (R6G) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions by adsorption. The composite is characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the adsorption conditions, including the amount of graphite oxide (GO), the initial concentration of dye solutions, the adsorption time, ionic strength, and the mass of the composite, on the adsorption capacities has been studied in detail. It can be seen that small amount of GO can improve the adsorption capacities of both dyes. It is found that the adsorption capacities of R6G and MV can be increased by 57.26% and 26.39%, respectively, compared with CTS-g-P(AA-co-AMPS graft copolymer. The maximal adsorption capacity of R6G and MV is 625.3 and 326.4 mg/g, respectively. The interaction between GO and dye molecules are speculated. GO acts as crosslinking points and combine with the CTS-g-P(AA-co-AMPS) graft copolymer through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic actions. The adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics are discussed. The Gibbs free energy of R6G and MV is that △GR6GӨ = −2.478 KJ/mol and △GMVӨ = −2.577 KJ/mol and it indicates that the adsorption of R6G and MV on CTS-g-P(AA-co-AMPS)/GO is spontaneous and satisfied the Redlich-Peterson equation. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption is in accordance with the Lagergren pseudo first-order kinetic model.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T10:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221086164
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Comprehensive review on polymer composites as electromagnetic interference
           shielding materials

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      Authors: Kiran Shahapurkar, Mengistu Gelaw, Vineet Tirth, Manzoore Elahi M Soudagar, Pavan Shahapurkar, MA Mujtaba, Kiran MC, Gulam Mohammed Sayeed Ahmed
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Modern electronic devices need effective shielding from external Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to function correctly. The Electromagnetic (EM) waves emerging from communication systems and medical devices must be isolated to safeguard humans from exposure. The mechanics of EMI shielding as well as several characterization methods are discussed in this paper. Existing trends and practices of designing, fabrication and use of polymer matrix composites for EMI shielding applications are covered. Several approaches and new solutions for fabricating composites either by modification of filler or matrix are discussed and prominent features of EMI shielding material are also discussed. Conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene make them adept for EMI shielding applications. An assessment of the different factors affecting the performance of EMI shielding materials is also presented.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221102127
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Observations of fatigue damage development in woven glass fiber-reinforced
           polymer composite using transmission light photography technique

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      Authors: Md Touhid A Ansari, Kalyan K Singh, Mohammad S Azam
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Fatigue behaviour is an important aspect for consideration while handling glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A combination of (0°/90°) and (±45°) plies are gaining practical interest in engineering applications due to their excellent mechanical properties. Properties of individual above-stated plies primarily influence the behaviour of laminates. Fatigue behaviour of on-axis (0°/90°) and off-axis (±45°) fiber orientated woven GFRP laminates was investigated. Tensile and tension-tension fatigue tests were performed on the prepared test coupons according to the ASTM standard. Fatigue test was conducted until failure at maximum applied stress of 90%, 70%, and 50% of the respective ultimate strength. Damage growth was monitored in the term of debond zones by employing the transmission light photography technique. Testing process was recorded by using a digital camera. The results were established in terms of the stress-strain curve, Wöhler curve, debond zones and dynamic stiffness. The fatigue strength of off-axis laminates was much lower than the on-axis laminates. Global damage has occurred in (0°/90°) laminates while (±45°) laminate witnessed localized damage. At higher stress levels, samples were failed at shorter lifespan with aggressive damage; however, on-axis specimens survived with longer fatigue life.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T09:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221101300
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Enhanced energy storage performance of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based
           polymer blends via post-treatments

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      Authors: Zhong Yang, Jing Wang, Yiliang Hu, Chaoyong Deng, Kongjun Zhu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polymer-based dielectric composite films with large energy density are urgently demanded for various applications. Compared with the ones with inorganic fillers, polymer blends exhibit the advantage of mechanical matching as well as the interfacial compatibility. Herein, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite films with various volume fractions of methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS) were prepared via the solution casting. The maximum energy density of 6.4 J/cm3 at 390 MV/m was obtained by optimizing the content of 12 vol% MBS in MBS/PVDF composite films. The energy density of the optimized composite films was further improved with the help of post-treatments including quenching and/or hot-pressing. At last, the composite films display the enhanced energy density of 8.7 J/cm3 at 500 MV/m with the efficiency of 67.4% via the comprehensive post-treatments. This work provides a paradigm to improve the energy storage performance of PVDF-based composite films for dielectric electrostatic capacitors.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:35:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221099775
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of silver self-metallization on polyimide

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      Authors: Aseel A Kareem
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, silver (Ag) self-metallization on a polyimide (PI) film was prepared through autocatalytic plating. PI films were prepared through the solution casting method, followed by etching with potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, sensitization with tin chloride (SnCl2), and the use of palladium chloride (PdCl2) to activate the surface of PI. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed the highest peak in the (Ag) region and confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.2°, 44.5°, 64.6°, and 78.2° represented the 111, 200, 220, and 311 planes of Ag, respectively. The FT–IR analysis for Ag-metalized PI showed that the =C-O-C= stretching absorption bands at 1735 cm−1 had no changes in position, only a significant difference in peak size at the deposition time increase. The formation of new bands (N–H stretching absorption band and N–C stretching band) assigned at 2325 and 955 cm−1 indicated strong coordination between N atoms and silver nanoparticles. The C–C stretching and = C–H plane vibration band at 1488 and 1117 cm−1 are shifted to 1413 and 1112 cm−1, indicating the silver nanoparticles' interaction with the polymer backbone. The thermal stability of PI- and Ag-metalized PI films at various deposition times (5, 10, and 15 min) was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). For PI, T0, T5, T10, and Tmax were observed to be 388°C, 402°C, 414°C, and 515°C, respectively. When the deposition time increased, the thermal stability increased. As a function of the deposition, the thickness and surface morphology of the copper layer on the PI films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T06:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221101698
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Improved ablation resistance and thermal insulation performances of
           polyimide composites by introducing albite/glass powder composition

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      Authors: Qinging Xu, Yunhui Li, Fanming Zeng, Yifan Zhang, Pengyang Deng, Zhongmin Su
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polyimide is a class of resins with high heat resistance, and their composites have a wide range of applications in military and civilian. However, the application of polyimides as an ablation and thermal insulation material has always been a challenge due to their low char yield during ablation in the air. Herein, we described the first application of polyimide composites—albite/glass powder doped polyimide hybrid materials - as an ablation and thermal insulation material. The key to the success of this case is that the process of the ceramization of albite/glass powder can greatly reduce the carbon loss of polyimide during the ablation process in the air. Moreover, the mechanical properties, thermal stability, ablation and thermal insulation properties of these polyimide hybrid materials have been studied systematically. This work not only opens up a new application for polyimide, but also provides a new idea for the design of novel ablation and thermal insulation material.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087806
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of surface roughness of electroplating chromium coated steel on
           bonding strength of polymer coated steel

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      Authors: Qingdong Zhang, Mingyang Yu, Boyang Zhang, Hao Li
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The effect of surface roughness of electroplating chromium coated steel on bonding strength of polymer coated steel has been investigated in this paper. The experimental results have shown that the electroplating chromium coated steel with different surface roughness could be obtained through the substrate surface treatment before the electroplating process. The peeling test results have shown that the peeling force of the polymer coated steel would increase with the increase of surface roughness of the electroplating chromium coated steel, but the increase rate would become slow gradually. With the increase of surface roughness of electroplating chromium coated steel, the PET film would be damaged locally and some polymer residues would remain on the electroplating chromium coated steel; when the bonding force is large enough, the plating shedding would occur on the electroplating chromium coated steel. With the appearance of the polymer residues and the occurrence of plating shedding, the failure mode of polymer coated steel would transform from adhesion failure mode to the mixed failure mode.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T11:06:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221102128
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • An experimental and finite element simulation study of moisture absorption
           in an ordered PVAF-reinforced thermoplastic starch composite film

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      Authors: Hongpeng Ma, Xin Zhang, Bin Guo, Panxin Li
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A two-dimensional (2D) model was established by the finite element method to study the transient hygroscopic process and moisture-induced stress to better understand the moisture absorption microscopic process of ordered polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVAF)-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) composite films and the corresponding moisture-induced stress. The Mises stress contour of moisture distribution at five time points (36, 68, 100, 176, and 348 h) under four relative humidities (RH=57%, 75%, 84%, 98%) is demonstrated. The variation in moisture content along the two paths of width (AB) and thickness (CD) in the 2D model and the moisture-induced stress were also studied in detail. The results show that when the time t is 348 h, the saturated moisture contents along CD are 5.27, 17.22, 30.58, and 59.14%, and along AB are 5.27, 17.19, 30.57, and 59.07%. In addition, the change in moisture content, regardless of whether the path was AB or CD, mainly occurred before 176 h. The simulation results of moisture absorption are in good agreement with the experimental results. The ultimate moisture-induced stress is the largest in the fiber surroundings, which are 0.398, 1.30, 2.31, and 4.48 MPa at four RHs, respectively, and the internal moisture stress of 4.48 MPa was within the tensile strength (2–6 MPa) of PVAF/TPS (PVAF
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T08:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221099925
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Impact on Poly(Vinyl chloride) of trimethoprim schiff bases as stabilizers

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      Authors: Emaad TB Al-Tikrity, Anaheed A Yaseen, Emad Yousif, Dina S Ahmed, Mohammed H Al-Mashhadani
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Poly(vinyl chloride) PVC materials are used in many industrial and household outdoor applications which exposed to sunlight ultraviolet. This exposure motivates photo-degradation of the PVC and hence, reduces its life time and leads to undesirable physical properties. Herein, three new Schiff bases containing a trimethoprim moiety were investigated as photo-stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) against photo-decomposition. Merely 0.5% by weight of these Schiff bases was mixed with the polymer to form blend films with thickness of (40 µm). The films were irradiated for a period of time from 0 to 300 h and the irradiation impact on the PVC stabilization was monitored every 50 h. The efficiency of these additives as photo-stabilizers was investigated as a function of different parameters during the course of irradiation, such as weight loss, growing carbonyl and alkene groups as well as the surface morphology of the prepared films. The changes during irradiation were obvious for the blank films in comparison to the films containing the new additives. Therefore, these Schiff bases were found to act as photo-degradation inhibitors through reducing the elimination of hydrogen chloride molecules and as free radical scavengers or peroxide decomposers.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T08:05:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221094020
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Enhanced mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of polymer
           

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      Authors: Uwa Orji Uyor, Patricia Abimbola Popoola, Olawale M Popoola
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study presents functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with functionalized barium titanate (BT) (denoted as BT@CNTs) via hydrothermal and self-assembly methods to improve dispersion in polypropylene (PP) matrix with enhanced thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical properties. The CNTs, BT, and BT@CNTs with the addition of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMA) compatibilizer were used in the fabrication of the PP based nanocomposites for this study via solution mixing and melt compounding. FTIR, TEM, and SEM analyses, respectively revealed that the nanoparticles were successfully functionalized, CNTs decorated with BT, and well dispersion in the PP matrix. PP/BT@CNTs-based nanocomposite showed optimal tensile strength, modulus, heat deflection, and thermal stability of about 16.8%, 26.5%, 20.1%, and 30oC higher than that obtained for the pure PP. These properties were also respectively 10.6%, 17.6%, 19.0%, and 5.0oC higher than PP/3CNTs nanocomposite when compared to PP/3BT@CNTs. The PP/BT@CNTs based nanocomposites also revealed enhanced dynamic mechanical properties. The better performance in the measured properties of PP/BT@CNTs compared to pure PP and PP/CNTs were attributed to their uniform microstructures, effective interlocking of the PP matrix due to the presence of BT on CNTs surfaces.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T07:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221100160
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The properties of starch/cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol composite as
           hydrodegradable film

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      Authors: Mieow-Kee Chan, Tung-Hao Tang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Hydrodegradable material as the replacement for plastic could be a better option than biodegradable material due to its solubility in water, which could extend the landfill’s lifespan. On the other hand, biodegradable material requires tightly controlled waste management and proper facilities for degradation purposes. The starch film is highly soluble in water, exhibiting poor mechanical strength. This study aims to improve the strength of starch film by adding cellulose, which was isolated from rice husk and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Results showed that Type 1 – cellulose was extracted from rice husk. With the addition of PVA to the starch/cellulose film, the homogeneity of the mixture improved, as illustrated in FESEM images. The mechanical strength of film also greatly improved from 2 MPa to 4.2 MPa when 3 g of PVA was used. The film showed the sign of degradation after being immersed in water for 24 h due to its high-water uptake property (∼89%). This starch/cellulose/starch film could be used as an edible wrap and single-use material for varied applications such as disposable plates.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T03:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221100353
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and properties of 4-aminobenzoic acid-modified polyvinyl
           chloride/titanium dioxide and PVC/TiO2 based nanocomposites membranes

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      Authors: Nafees Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (4ABA) modified PVC and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending method. TiO2 was added to PVC (0.5 g) at 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1 g. PVC matrix was modified using 4-aminobenzoic acid (4ABA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the modification of PVC with 4ABA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images depicted homogeneous morphology of modified PVC/TiO2 nanocomposites. XRD results confirmed the formation of PVC/TiO2 nanocomposites. Moreover, the thermal decomposition temperature T10 (10 Wt. % weight loss) of non-modified PVC was 189°C however, modified PVC nanocomposites membranes had 196°C with similar TiO2 content. Furthermore, modified PVC-TiO2 with 0.05 g loading showed homogenous morphology with higher hydrophilicity as determined by porosity, solvent content, and shrinkage ratio. Modified PVC/TiO2 membrane with a lower contact angle (32°) could be used for water purification purposes. These studies suggest that optimum modifier concentration improved the interaction between PVC and TiO2.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T11:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221099301
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Interactions and performance analysis of epoxidized palm oil/unsaturated
           polyester resin: Mechanical, thermal, and thermo-mechanical properties

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      Authors: Siti Noor Hidayah Mustapha, Abdul Razak Rahmat, Rohani Mustapha
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, an alternative of bio-thermoset resin for composite applications was synthesized using unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) and epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the dependency on petroleum and improve the toughness properties of UPE by partially introduced renewable source triglyceride, EPO in the UPE chain. The UPE resin blends with 10, 20, and 30 wt% EPO oil were synthesized by using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The samples were cured in an oven at 100°C and 160°C for 4 h. The interaction of the blend was studied by the FTIR test supported by the SEM test. The effects of EPO loadings in UPE on the mechanical, thermal, and thermo-mechanical properties were also being studied. The addition of EPO physically interacted in the system and acted as a lubricant. The higher the addition of EPO in UPE has increased the elongation at break and impact strength of the UPE resin, which indicated an increase in mobility and toughness of the UPE chain. The developed UPE/EPO blends resin also exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat UPE, thereby showing potential to be used in a wide range of composite applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T08:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221095704
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of esterified lignin
           modified polypropylene composites filled with chitosan fibers

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      Authors: Faisal A Tanjung, Retna A Kuswardani, Christopher I Idumah, Januar P Siregar, Abdul Karim
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A comparative study was performed on the use of esterified alkaline lignin (AAL) and esterified organosolv lignin (AOSL) as the interfacial modifying agent to improve the properties of polypropylene-chitosan composites. Chitosan was chemically modified through a reaction with the esterified lignin in an alcohol medium. The composites were prepared using an internal mixer and hot-pressed method. Both modified chitosan showed a different chemical structure upon modification with the esterified lignins as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra. With a lower molecular weight, the AOSL attachment on the chitosan surface resulted in more efficiency in decreasing hydrophilic characters. Tensile tests showed the increased tensile strength by 32.15% and 26.43% for AOSL-modified composites and AAL-modified composites as compared with the unmodified composites. Overall, the AOSL was superior in improving the mechanical strength and thermal stability of the composites, while the AAL exhibited the most apparent enhancement in ductility and crystallization.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T06:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221082482
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of melamine cyanurate on thermal and flame-retardant behaviour of
           chopped glass fibre reinforced polyphenylene ether/polystyrene/nylon-6

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      Authors: Prakash Hadimani, HN Narasimha Murthy, Rajalakshmi Mudbidre, Gangadhar Angadi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper deals with the effect of melamine cyanurate on the thermal and fire retardant behaviour of chopped glass fibre (40 wt.%) reinforced polyphenylene ether/polystyrene/nylon-6 (40/40/20 wt. %) which are processed in a twin screw co-rotating extruder. The composite specimens were fabricated by injection moulding. Addition of melamine cyanurate decreased the amount of toxic gases and organic volatile compounds, crystallinity, crystalline temperature and melt temperature but the same fire-retardant increased glass transition temperature and heat distortion temperature of the ternary alloy. Flame retardancy with V0 and V2 rating along with Limiting Oxygen Index 35% was observed in UL94 test for 5 wt. % and 10 wt. % addition of melamine cyanurate, respectively. Addition of melamine cyanurate increased tensile modulus and elongation at break but decreased the melt flow rate and the moisture content of the ternary alloy.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T01:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221093165
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Growth of complex crystal on biopolymer surface: Synthesis and
           characterization

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      Authors: Leonardo Sobreira Rodrigues, Adenilson Oliveira dos Santos, Fernando Mendes, Ana Angélica Mathias Macêdo
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Although the physical properties of polymers already have been modified by changing different synthetic parameters, the effect of the crystallization by the doping is still rarely explored. In this work, a facile synthesis of composite chitosan film with copper L-valinate crystal (CHLVCu) was investigate. Composite films were prepared by the addition of copper II L‐valine crystals (LVCu) in concentrations of 0.05, and 0.1 in 0.2% chitosan solution. The composite film of LVCu crystal dispersed in CH solution has been successfully obtained by the technique of solvent slow evaporation at low temperature. CHLVCu composite films are crystalline stabilizing the trans-LVCu phase. Homogeneity and low thermal stability have been proven by thermal measurements. The crystal growth takes place in the polymer surface. In addition, it is noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge, crystals complex of the LVCu has not been used as incorporate chitosan film and study has reported changes in physical properties composite film. The future this film can be application in area biomedical and technological.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T04:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221089817
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Synergistic effect of montmorillonite and nano-Sb2O3/brominated
           polystyrene on the flame retardancy of polypropylene matrix composites

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      Authors: Jianlin Xu, Xiaoqi Liu, Shibo Ren, Chenghu Kang, Lei Niu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Sb2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Sb2O3), montmorillonite (MMT) and brominated polystyrene (BPS) were used to enhance flame retardancy of polypropylene (PP) in the work, in which nano-Sb2O3 was modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol and MMT was modified by silane coupling agent. PP matrix flame retardant composites were prepared by melt blending after pre-mixing by high energy ball milling technique. Then, the flame retardancy, thermal stability behaviour, crystallization performance and tensile strength of PP matrix composites (nano-Sb2O3/MMT/BPS-PP, nano-Sb2O3/BPS-PP) were investigated. The results show that MMT can significantly improve the thermal stability and flame retardancy of PP matrix due to improving the strength of char layer and forming barrier effect. Compared with 3.5%nano-Sb2O3/8%BPS-PP composites, the limiting oxygen index of 3.5%nano-Sb2O3/3%MMT/8%BPS-PP composites was increased from 26.9% to 29.0% and its UL94 grade was achieved to V-0 level. Moreover, MMT and nano-Sb2O3 can increase the crystallinity and tensile strength of PP matrix composites because of the heterogeneous nucleation effect of MMT and nano-Sb2O3 particles on the crystallization of PP matrix.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T06:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221083769
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation of osteoinductive – Antimicrobial nanocomposite scaffolds
           based on poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) modified with copper – Doped
           bioactive glass nanoparticles

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      Authors: Cristian Covarrubias, Julián Bejarano, Miguel Maureira, Cecilia Tapia, Mario Díaz, Juan P Rodríguez, Humberto Palza, Fernando Lund, Alfredo Von Marttens, Pablo Caviedes, Mehrdad Yazdani-Pedram
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The aim of this study was to explore the preparation of porous nanocomposite scaffolds with simultaneous osteogenic – antibacterial properties by incorporating copper – doped bioactive glass nanoparticles into Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) lactide:glycolide. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were synthesized by using sol–gel technique from the SiO2 – P2O5 – CaO – Na2O – CuO system. Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) lactide:glycolide nanocomposite scaffolds with different nanoparticle contents were prepared by combined lyophilization/salt leaching. The in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed in simulated body fluid, and cell viability and osteogenic differentiation assays were performed with stem cells. Antibacterial activity of the materials was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus. Copper – dopped bioactive glass nanoparticles particles with ∼70 nm in size and relatively crystalline structure were synthesized. Porous nanocomposite scaffolds prepared with the copper – doped nanoparticles are cytocompatible, promoted the mineralization of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, and stimulated the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells as judged by an increased activity the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. The antibacterial activity exhibited by the nanocomposite scaffolds was not statistically superior to that of the neat polymer scaffold. Development of greater antibacterial activity in these nanocomposites would requires further research primarily related to the synthesis of more amorphous and soluble copper – dopped bioactive glass nanoparticles.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:05:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221098231
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of bio-film composite based on high
           density polyethylene and oil palm trunk fiber

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      Authors: Waham Ashaier Laftah, Rohah A Majid, Akos N Ibrahim
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The effect of oil palm trunk (OPT) natural fibers used as reinforcement in High density polyethylene on the mechanical, biodegradation and water absorption properties of polyethylene films were investigated. The composites were formulated and prepared using twin-screw extruder while the hot compression molding machine was used to prepare the bio-films. The results showed that the incorporation of OPT fiber into the film enhanced the tensile modulus of the matrix while the tensile strength and elasticity reduced. The Young’s modulus of the composites reached 4450 MPa at 20% OPT fiber load while tensile strength and elongation at break reached its lowest at 7.11 MPa and 2.13% respectively at the same fiber load. Water absorption and biodegradability of the composites improved when OPT fibers were added. The composite film with 20% fiber load showed the highest fungal growth.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T05:48:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221095988
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Combined hygrothermal aging and mechanical loading effect on
           unidirectional glass/epoxy composites

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      Authors: Clarissa C Angrizani, Branca F de Oliveira, Natalia P Lorandi, Heitor L Ornaghi, Sandro C Amico
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Composites are subjected to different use conditions. Hence, the mechanical properties under different aging conditions are crucial in the composite field. This study aims to investigate the aging effect of a glass/epoxy unidirectional composite in three distinct conditions: mechanical, hygrothermal (hot water), and combined (mechanical and hygrothermal) aging. The composites in the longitudinal [0°] and transversal [90°] directions were molded by RTM with a 37% volume fraction. The aging effects on tensile, compressive, shear, short-beam properties, and dynamic-mechanical characteristics, in 0° and 90° fiber direction, were studied. The aging conditions are affected differently, depending on the property analyzed. Comparing aged and non-aged composites, the tensile (from 380 GPa to 140 GPa and from 80 GPa to 40 GPa for non-aged and combined aging in 0° and 90° directions, respectively) and compressive strength (from 250 MPa to 50 MPa and from 100 MPa to 25 MPa for non-aged and combined aging in 0° and 90° directions, respectively) showed greater relative drop than the elastic modulus (a decrease of 3–4 GPa for all aging analyzed compared to the no-aged composites) due to a deleterious effect on the interface and the chemical aging present in the polymeric matrix attenuates the deleterious effect on it. Besides, the properties measured in the 0° direction were more affected than in the 90° direction with the combined aging the most affected property.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T08:43:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221095261
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Surface modified polyacrylonitrile/polyamide nanofibre composite for air
           filtration

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      Authors: N Gobi, V Priyanka, G Monnisha
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Polyamide (PA)-6 based nanofibrous composite were prepared for air filtration application. PAN was electrospun on spun-bonded non-woven polypropylene which acts as a collector and the samples were coated with PA-6. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to design the experimental plan. As per the experimental plan, PA-6 coated samples were treated with different concentrations of an alkali solution (NaOH) (2%, 5% and 8%) and treatment temperature (60oC, 80oC and 100oC) to enhance the surface properties. As prepared nanofibrous composite was tested for its various properties such as surface morphology, particle filtration efficiency and air permeability. Fourier transform infra-red analysis and scanning electron microscope were performed to analyze the functional groups and morphology of the nanofibrous composite respectively. The air permeability of the control and treated samples was analyzed as per the standard procedure and the permeation level varies from 52.5 to 60 cm3/cm2/s for control samples, 65–195 cm3/cm2/s for treated samples. The overall filtration efficiency for treated samples varies from 36.54% to 78.56%. The sample which is treated with 5% NaOH at 60oC has a higher overall filtration efficiency of 78.56%.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221095998
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Thermal studies of hydrogels based on poly(acrylic acid) and its
           copolymers by differential scanning calorimetry: A systematic literature
           review

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      Authors: Ahmad Sofyan Sulaeman, Permono Adi Putro, Siti Nikmatin
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This systematic literature review aims to study the thermal properties (TP) of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA) by differential scanning calorimetry. The data sources were obtained from Google Scholar via Publish or Perish software from 2018 to 2020. The synthesis results show that most of the analysis of TP in PAA-based hydrogel consists of glass transition temperature ([math]), melting temperature ([math]), and enthalpy ([math]). The subsequent thermal properties analysis is important for a new development and depth study in the future application.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T01:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221094022
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The influence of polymer concentration on the morphology and mechanical
           properties of asymmetric polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane for O2/N2
           separation

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      Authors: Syed Shujaat Karim, Sarah Farrukh, Arshad Hussain, Mohammad Younas, Tayyaba Noor
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The polymeric based membrane technology has been an attractive alternative option among other gas separation technologies due to its ease of operation, good efficiency and low operational cost. However, a few concerns have been expressed about the polymeric based membrane technology for GS applications, such as the permeability-selectivity trade-off, mechanical stability and its environmental impacts. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of polymer concentration on a biopolymer-PVA asymmetric membrane morphology, its mechanical properties and gas transport behaviour in order to optimize it for O2/N2 separation using the non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique. For this purpose, initially, a theoretical solubility model and cloud point phase diagram analysis were conducted to study the solubility and demixing behaviour of the PVA/Water/THF ternary system. Afterwards, these membranes were prepared at different polymeric concentrations from 10 to 14 weight percent (wt.%) and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity measurement test, universal testing machine (UTM) and gas permeation test to analyse their physical structure, mechanical properties and GS performance. The analysis results showed that a lower polymer concentration of 10 wt.% facilitated larger pore sizes of 2.486 ± 1.2 μm with a higher porosity of 77.73 ± 15.26% having higher O2 permeance but lower O2/N2 selectivity and mechanical properties. Whereas, a higher polymer concentration of 12 wt.% promoted smaller pore sizes of 2.096 ± 0.5 μm with a porosity of 56.31 ± 3.6%, having better O2/N2 separation performance and higher mechanical properties. However, increasing the polymeric concentration to 14 wt.% resulted in a densified membrane structure having voids and small pore sizes of 1.447 ± 0.9 μm, with a porosity of 31.35 ± 11.98%, and lower elasticity causing membrane rigidified, making it unsuitable for GS applications. Therefore, the intermediate concentration of 12 wt.% PVA asymmetric membrane represents the most optimum morphology and mechanical properties for better O2/N2 separation.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T04:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221090053
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of flexural properties of epoxy composite by utilizing
           graphene nanofillers and natural hemp fibre reinforcement

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      Authors: Shankar A Hallad, Sharanabasava V Ganachari, Manzoore Elahi M Soudagar, NR Banapurmath, Anand M Hunashyal, Islam MR Fattah, Fayaz Hussain, Muhammad A Mujtaba, Asif Afzal, Mohammad S Kabir, Ashraf Elfasakhany
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study aims to determine the optimum reinforcement required to attain the best combination of flexural strength of modified green composites (graphene oxide + hemp fibre reinforced epoxy composites) for potential use in structural applications. An attempt was also made for the combination of graphene and hemp fibres to enhance load-bearing ability. The infusion of hemp and graphene was made by the weight of the base matrix (epoxy composite). Results showed that graphene reinforcement at 0.4 wt.% of matrix showed load-sustaining capacity of 0.76 kN or 760 MPa. In the case of hemp fibre reinforcement at 0.2 wt.% of the matrix, infusion showed enhanced load-bearing ability (0.79 kN or 790 MPa). However, the combination of graphene (0.1 wt.% graphene nanofillers) and hemp (5 wt.% hemp fibre) indicated a load-sustaining ability of 0.425 kN or 425 MPa, whereas maximum deflection was observed for specimen with hemp 7.5 % + graphene 0.2 % with 1.9 mm. Graphene addition to the modified composites in combination with natural fibres showed promising results in enhancing the mechanical properties under study. Moreover, graphene-modified composites exhibited higher thermal resistance compared to natural fibre reinforced composites. However, when nanofiller reinforcement exceeded a threshold value, the composites exhibited reduced flexural strength as a result of nanofiller agglomeration.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:07:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221093646
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse superparamagnetic
           (Fe3O4/Poly(methyl methacrylate))-SiO2 nanoparticles with raspberry-like
           morphology

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      Authors: Roxana Moaref, Saeed Pourmahdian, Farzad Zahedi, Mohammad Mehdi Tehranchi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Uniform and nearly monodisperse superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Poly(methyl methacrylate) (core)/SiO2 (shell) nanoparticles with raspberry-like morphology and high saturation magnetization were prepared in three different steps. At first, a facile, one-shot procedure to synthesize hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles through a modified co-precipitation method was implemented. Based on the hydrophobic interactions, these nanoparticles were used directly in a mini-emulsion polymerization resulting in encapsulation with PMMA. Then, for the covering with a silica shell, the surfaces of the Fe3O4/PMMA nanospheres were hydrolyzed in alkaline media and became hydrophilic through hydrolyzation. In the last step shell deposition of the Fe3O4/PMMA nanospheres through a modified Stober method was implemented. The surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the core-shell structure and the prepared products’ diameters were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); the size of the magnetic nanospheres was approximately 83 nm. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) showed high magnetic saturation and superparamagnetic characteristics of the particles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used as a supplementary test and, based on the mass loss at high temperature (600°C), the magnetic (Fe3O4) and non-magnetic content (PMMA) of the Fe3O4/PMMA nanospheres was measured as 81 and 19%, respectively. The narrow polydispersity of the nanospheres, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was approximately 0.101. In every preparation step, the synthesized products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Our study focused on designing two-layered magnetic nanoparticles with drug delivery potential using two-layer encapsulation based on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface characteristics of the PMMA core and silica shells, respectively.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T05:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221092296
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Graft polymerization of lauryl methacrylate onto bamboo fiber—A
           potential material for oil spills

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      Authors: Nguyen Thanh Tung, Nguyen Trung Duc, Pham Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Van Khoi, Ninh The Son
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, the co-polymer BF-g-LMA was successfully synthesized by grafting monomer lauryl methacrylate (LMA) onto bamboo fibers (BFs) using 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The grafting process was controlled by the monomer and AIBN concentrations, the reaction time and the temperature, and the optimal conditions were found to be [AIBN] = 0.04 mol/L, [LMA] = 1.0 mol/L, 180 min, and 75oC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the characteristics of the BF-g-LMA product. The oil sorption capacity of the graft co-polymer was shown to be about 20.0 g oil/g sorbent.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221093160
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Thermally and organomodified montmorillonite as effective regulators of
           the structure formation process in polypropylene/polystyrene blends

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      Authors: Yurii Budash, Natalia Rezanova, Viktoriia Plavan, Viktoriia Rezanova
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The influence of the concentration of thermally and organomodified montmorillonite on the processes of structure formation in a blend of polypropylene/polystyrene (PP/PS) was studied. It is established that in nanofilled compositions, as well as in the original, is formed a microfibrillar structure, the dimensional characteristics of which depend on the content of the additive and the method of its modification. The investigated clays by content (0.2–2.0) wt. % by weight of polypropylene have a compatibilizing effect in the blend of PP/PS, which reduces the average diameter of microfibers by 1.6 times and increases the homogeneity of their distribution by diameter: statistical indicators decrease (standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation). The modifying effect of thermally modified clay is higher—the improvement of the dimensional characteristics of PP microfibers is achieved at its minimum content in the blend (0.2 wt. %). The formation of anisotropic PP structures in the PS matrix and the relaxation of the accumulated stresses at the exit of the molding hole is the main factor that causes high values of the coefficient of swelling of the extrudates (4.0–7.7). The change in the microstructure of the extrudates of nanofilled systems during spinning depends on the composition of the blend and the method of modification of montmorillonite. The average diameters of microfibers decrease from 2.2 μm (in the original blend) to (1.3–2.0) μm (in three-component) depending on the content of additives. The ability to regulate the microstructure of incompatible polymer blends by introducing additives of thermally and organomodified montmorillonite will contribute to the creation of nanocomposites with controlled morphology, as well as new fine-fiber materials with improved filtering characteristics.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T08:53:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221093991
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Fabrication of highly efficient nano core–shell structure for the
           development of super-hydrophobic polymeric coating on mild steel

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      Authors: Jaya Verma, Deepak Kumar, BS Sikarwar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This research work deals with the development of a polymeric super-hydrophobic surface involving nano silica–titania core–shell particles. This core–shell structure enhanced the properties of two different materials in a single nanoparticle in an outstanding manner; polymeric coatings containing core silica and shell titania have improved the mechanical behavior and hydrophobicity of coating surfaces, respectively. This nano core–shell was synthesized through two different methodologies which were prepared at high and low processing temperature separately, that is, called sol–gel and peptization synthesis. Further surface properties of the prepared nanoparticles were investigated individually in solvent-based emulsions and water-based emulsions. Nanocoating formulations were developed on mild steel substrate for analysis on the mechanical behavior of the coating and contact angle measurement. In the coating formulation, nano core–shell concentrations ranged from 1% (wt) to 6% (wt), and used nanoparticles were functionalized with methyl trimethoxy silane for better surface properties. Based on the results of the experiment, core–shell nanocoatings have been found mechanically robust and superhydrophobic (∼145.1° ± 2°) coating.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T03:06:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087835
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Lightweight knitted fabric nap-core sandwich: A comprehensive comparison
           between single sided structure and double sided structure

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      Authors: Giap X Ha, Manfred W Zehn
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Nap-core sandwich, which is lightweight and characterized by many remarkable properties, comes from an extraordinary combination of sandwich-structured composites and textile materials. However, the application of it in industries is still limited due to a lack of understanding its mechanical properties and behaviors. Several studies based on experimentation or numerical simulation have been conducted to fulfill the shortage, and this study is in the mainstream of exploring how the sandwich composite performs when geometries or materials of the nap-core vary. Namely, the comparison of double sided structure and single sided structure used for the nap-core will be presented in this article. The inquiry derives from the fact that a nap-core can take either of the two structures, but the advantages and disadvantages of each have not been identified yet while manufacturers hardly own costly molds for both. Since only the double sided nap-core is actually available, a modeling method is being deployed in Abaqus engineering software to compare it with an equivalent single sided nap-core that is simulated having the same materials and boundary dimensions. Before that, the Representative Volume Element homogenization method was employed to effectively determine engineering constants of the nap-core’s knitted fabric. The final results reveal that the single sided nap-core has better strength than the double sided nap-core in typical loading cases, but it assumes less smooth stress distribution.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T11:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221086106
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of three nanofilled resin-based dental composites:
           Cytotoxicity, surface roughness, and flexural properties

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      Authors: Shiva Jafarnia, Alireza Valanezhad, Tetsurou Odatsu, Mahdis Nesabi, Sirus Safaee, Shigeaki Abe, Mohammad Khodaei, Sima Shahabi, Ikuya Watanabe
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The clinical performance of dental composite restoration and its overall success are the result of physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the filling materials. The present study aimed to evaluate surface roughness, flexural properties, and cytotoxicity of two nanohybrids, namely, MI Gracefil and Herculite Ultra, and one nanoceramic dental resin composite DiamondLite. The surface roughness was assessed in two different grinding conditions. Flexural properties were measured by, the three-point bending test and the specimens’ fractured surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Weibull analysis was performed on the flexural strength data to determine the composites’ reliability. The cytotoxicity test was conducted on MC3T3-E1 cells by the MTS assay. The results showed that grinding conditions had a significant effect on all nanocomposites' surface roughness (p < .05). Herculite Ultra had a significantly higher flexural strength (125.8 MPa) and flexural modulus (9.8 GPa) as compared to other two nanocomposites (p < .05). Further, cytotoxicity results indicated that DiamondLite had the lowest cell viability during the incubation period (p < .05). The current study, therefore, concluded that the evaluated nanocomposites showed satisfactory surface roughness. Herculite Ultra flexural properties and Weibull modulus results make it a reliable choice for direct restorations. The cell viability results also showed that all three nanocomposites had moderate cytotoxicity, making them acceptable for direct application in the mouth.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T03:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087586
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Radiation synthesis of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone\chitosan\itaconic
           acid\ZnO) nanocomposite hydrogel for antimicrobial activity and controlled
           release of amoxicillin

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      Authors: Faten I. Abou El Fadl, Ashraf M. Abdel Ghaffar, Naeem M. El-Sawy
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      High swellable and biocompatible hydrogel composed of optimized composition of N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), chitosan (CS), and itaconic acid (ITA) was prepared by the aid of gamma radiation. Certain optimized composition of the terpolymer hydrogel was used as a precursor for the preparation of its ZnO nanocomposite. The terpolymer hydrogel was characterized by various techniques FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM to evaluate the physical, chemical properties and morphology of the prepared hydrogels. FTIR proved the high interaction between the components of the terpolymer crosslinked hydrogel. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) confirmed the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles in the nanoscale with average particle size of 12.3 nm in the terpolymer matrix which is higher than the particle size of as prepared bare ZnO NPs. The gelability, crosslinking density, and high swellability of the prepared terpolymer hydrogel make it promising and suitable for application as wound dressing materials. In this respect, the NVP/ITA/CS terpolymer hydrogel first examined for controlled release of amoxicillin and second, the antibacterial test showed that neither Staphylococcus aureus nor Escherichia coli passed through the terpolymer nanocomposite hydrogel dressing; NVP/ITA/CS/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel dressing could be considered a good blockade against bacteria. All results indicate that the nanocomposite hydrogel has great potential for biomedical applications, especially for wound dressings.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T01:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087813
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Improvement of sound absorption coefficient of glass fiber fabric epoxy
           composite inherently without deterioration of main mechanical properties

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      Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, the sound absorption behaviour of glass fiber fabric epoxy composite (GFFEC) is aimed to be increased without reduction in main mechanical properties and density. The effect of polystyrene (PS) and silica aerogel (SA) on sound absorption, density, tensile, and flexural properties along with drop impact performance of GFFEC were investigated. Both PS and SA was added into epoxy resin. Vacuum infusion method was applied to manufacture GFFEC’s. Both PS and SA addition resulted with enhanced sound absorption coefficient (SAC) of GFFEC. Breaking stress and elongation enhanced with either PS or SA addition. Increased absorbed energies during drop impact tests were observed in both PS and SA incorporated GFFEC’s compared to reference GFFEC. Density of reference composite (lightness) has improved by addition of SA and PS. Additionally, use of SA improved the SAC of GFFEC. On the other hand, maximum SAC was achieved with use of PS rather than SA.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T09:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221086711
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Quantifying the role of nanocarbon fillers on dielectric properties of
           poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix

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      Authors: Shivanand M Chougule, Anna Twinkle, Riya Thomas, Manoj Balachandran
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Development of polymers with excellent dielectric properties is a challenge for advanced electronic devices. Impregnating conducting fillers like carbon nanoparticles can enhance the dielectric constant, retaining low loss due to its compatibility and favorable polarization within the polymer matrix. The multifunctional characteristics of coal-derived nanocarbon can improve permittivity and facilitate large-scale production at a lower cost. The incorporation of coal-based nanocarbon in the polymer matrix and its dielectric response is seldom investigated. In this work, different ratios (10:90, 50:50, 90:10 by weight) of nanocarbon/PVDF composite are prepared via a simple solution casting technique. The dielectric measurements show that nanofillers’ addition significantly augments the dielectric constant value, which is ∼3 times (50:50 composite) higher than pure PVDF. The uniform distribution of 50% filler within the polymer matrix impeded the seepage of charge at the interface and enhanced the permittivity via polarization of accumulated charges. The composite also exhibited balanced dielectric loss that is essential for energy storage applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T10:07:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087597
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Comparative study on the properties of starch-based bioplastics
           incorporated with palm oil and epoxidized palm oil

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      Authors: Jianlei Yang, Yern Chee Ching, Sabariah Julai J, Cheng Hock Chuah, Dai Hai Nguyen, Pai-Chen Lin
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study aimed to modify the starch-based bioplastics with acceptable mechanical and water resistance properties using palm oil (PO) and epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The structural, thermal, mechanical and water resistance properties of the resulted bio-composites were evaluated. EPO had better compatibility within the starch matrix than PO. The bioplastics with PO and EPO exhibited different melting behaviors. Low concentrations of oils (
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T10:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087595
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Hybrid nanocomposites—An efficient representative volume element
           formulation with interface properties

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      Authors: Suhail Hyder Vattathurvalappil, Mahmoodul Haq, Saratchandra Kundurthi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Reinforcement of polymers with multiple inclusions of varying length scales and morphologies enable enhancement and tailorability of thermo-mechanical properties in resulting polymers. Computational material models can eliminate the trial-and-error approach of developing these hybrid reinforced polymers, enable prediction of interphase properties, and allow virtual exploration of design space. In this work, computational models, specifically representative volume elements were developed for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer reinforced with nanoscale iron oxide particles and micro-scale short carbon fibers. These representative volume elements were used to predict the tensile modulus of resulting polymer nanocomposite with varying particle concentrations, orientations, interphases, and clustering to realistically replicate the actual material as observed in optical and electron microscopy. The interphase elastic modulus was obtained through established analytical formulations and incorporated into the representative volume elements by defining an interphase region around the reinforcements. The tensile modulus estimated using representative volume elements agreed well with the experiments, evidently showing that the effective tensile modulus of the polymer nanocomposite increased with increase in interphase thickness, aspect ratio, and particle content. Clustering was only observed in Fe3O4 nanoparticles but its size did not have any effect on the effective tensile modulus. The developed computational modeling framework and the resultant prediction of tensile modulus offers a design path which can be extended to other polymer nanocomposites containing multiple inclusions.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T09:12:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221084651
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Novel polyurethane foams with titanium powder and collagen for medical
           uses

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      Authors: Elif Alyamaç, Erdoğan Teke, Cansu İ Kuru, Mehmet Özgür Seydibeyoğlu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, we aimed to develop a novel soy-based polyurethane (PU) foam material reinforced with titanium powder and collagen for use in bone tissue engineering. In this context, soy polyol-based PU foams having different (5, 10, 20 wt%) concentrations of recycled titanium powders and hydrolyzed collagen (1 wt%) were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurement, and compression tests. Biocompatibility was determined by cytotoxicity analysis. It was observed that PU foams with different titanium and collagen concentrations can have optimized mechanical strength, biocompatibility, chemical composition, and morphology that resemble porous bone texture-like structure. The compressive strength of PU foam increased by 72.6% with the inclusion of 20 wt% titanium powder and slightly decreased by 9.4% with 1 wt% collagen. Cytotoxicity results revealed that PU foam with the synergistic combination of titanium powder and collagen had higher biocompatibility compared to control sample. To our knowledge, this novel biocomposite material, developed the first time in literature by incorporation of medical grade titanium powder and hydrolyzed collagen into soy-based PU matrix, has many advantages such as tunable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, low cost, and easy processability.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T12:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221082348
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical behavior of polymer-based composites using fused filament
           fabrication under monotonic and fatigue loadings

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      Authors: Mohammad Ahmadifar, Khaled Benfriha, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Joseph Fitoussi, Abbas Tcharkhtchi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The use of additive manufacturing has been widely developed in the industry due to its ability to make complex shapes. The use of reinforcing fibers has provided a wider design capability in this field. Due to the effect of the number of fibers reinforced used on the mechanical properties, the study of the obtained mechanical properties is of great importance. This paper presents the experimental findings of tensile loading and three points bending fatigue tests performed on polymer-based composites (Onyx (which is CF-PA6) and reinforced Onyx with continuous glass fiber (CF-PA6 + GF) using Fused Filament Fabrication. Tensile properties of various types of printing conditions (Solid, Triangular, Rectangular, and Hexagonal fill patterns) have been compared. The coupled frequency amplitude affects the nature of the overall fatigue response which can be controlled by the damage mechanisms accumulation and/or by the self-heating. For fatigue loading, self-heating has been observed and yielded a temperature rise to about 60°C which is more than the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Multi-scale damage analysis of the sample in fatigue showed that the first observed damage phenomenon corresponds to the debonding of the filaments which leads to the propagation of transverse cracks.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T04:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221082480
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Processing, thermal and mechanical properties of composite laminates with
           natural fibers prepregs

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      Authors: Vilson Dalla Libera Junior, Linconl Araujo Teixeira, Sandro Campos Amico, Sandra Maria da Luz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This work manufactured prepregs by impregnating discontinuous curaua fibers with B-stage epoxy resin. The prepreg layers were then stacked to produce laminates by hot compression. Alkaline treatments were previously applied to the curaua fibers to improve their interface with the polymer matrix. Then, the prepregs and the final composites were studied regarding their thermal, dynamic mechanical, mechanical, and morphological behavior. The treatments promoted defibrillation by removing lignin and hemicellulose from the fibers, which allowed better impregnation of the treated fibers with epoxy resin. In general, laminates that used treated fibers exhibited the largest storage modulus in the glassy region. The mechanical results showed the laminates produced with treated fibers prepregs presented a highest tensile and flexural resistance than those manufactured with untreated fibers and neat epoxy resin. The NaOH-treated curaua/epoxy laminate exhibited high tensile strength (56.2 MPa) and modulus (3.3 GPa). Overall, fracture morphology indicated better fiber adhesion for the treated fiber composites. The results demonstrate that natural fibers prepregs can be successfully produced and present proper physical and mechanical behavior in components.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T10:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221087591
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Tensile fatigue behaviour and life distribution model of the pultruded
           fibre reinforced composites

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      Authors: Qian Zhang, Jianlin Liu, Wenchun Jiang
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Pultruded fibre reinforced composite (PFRC) can be used in oil drilling because of the corrosion resistance and energy conservation. The studies of fatigue behaviour and life distribution model are essential to the design and application of PFRC. In this paper, the tensile fatigue behaviour of PFRC was studied by the experiment combining with the acoustic emission technology, and the fatigue life distribution model is established to explore the distribution characteristics of fatigue life. The results show that, the fatigue load level has little effect on the failure modes of PFRC, and the matrix damage occurred firstly followed by the appearance of the delamination and the fibre damage. The proposed fatigue life distribution model can accurately describe the three stages of the fatigue life curve, and can well predict the fatigue life under different survival rates.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T09:40:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221083775
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Hydrophobic modification of water-borne poly(vinyl alcohol) electrospun
           nonwovens for advanced applications

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      Authors: Priyanka Bhattacharyya
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A new approach for surface modification of hydrophilic and water-soluble polymeric nonwovens has been investigated. Here, the challenge was to prepare a highly water repelling material from a water-based system. This paradox was resolved by a novel concept of coating chemically reactive water soluble polymers with fluorinated silyl ethers, which was probed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers. Key for getting high water repellence was the discovery that PVA had to be preheated to 180°C prior to silanization before coating with a mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS): n-decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS): ethanol: H2O: HCl. As a result of this surface modification and additional annealing of electrospun PVA nanofibers, highly water repelling nonwovens were obtained which also showed very low roll angles and consequently high dimensional integrity upon contact with water. The nonwovens were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis, wide angle x-ray analysis, electron microscopy, capillary flow porometry, contact angle measurement, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to gain in-depth insight into the mechanism of the surface transformation.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T08:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221080526
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis characterization and application of hexafunctional epoxy resin
           and comparison against commercial epoxy resin

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      Authors: Mahendrasinh Raj, Jaykumar Maheta, Lata Raj
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Current study compares the various analytical results of hexafunctional epoxy resins based on bisphenol-A with conventional epoxy resins. Reaction of bisphenol-A, formaldehyde, and epichlorohydrin produces hexafunctional epoxy resin. The curing properties of commercial epoxy resin and hexafunctional epoxy resin were determined using a variety of hardeners, including diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, phenalkamine, polyamido amines, and polyamides. The epoxy equivalent weight (EEW), hydrolyzable chlorine content, volatile content, Brookfield viscosity, weight average molecular weight, elemental analysis (C, H, N, O analysis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the hexafunctional resin (FT-IR). Jute and glass reinforced composites were also prepared by using hexafunctional epoxy resins and commercial epoxy resins. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, flexural strength, Izod impact strength, and Rockwell hardness), thermal properties, and chemical resistance were determined for each composite. Hexafunctional epoxy resin-based composites exhibited superior mechanical characteristics, thermal resistance, and chemical resistance properties than commercial epoxy resin-based composites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T09:41:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221076721
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of the feasibility of the reuse of polyamide 11 rejected in the
           manufacturing process of thermoplastic hoses of umbilicals

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      Authors: Karine C M Menezes, Bianca M Knieling, José Roberto M d’Almeida
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Thermoplastic hoses are composed of thermoplastic liner, synthetic fiber reinforcement, and thermoplastic sheath. Pilot liner batches, generally polyamide 11 (PA 11), are produced for checking the extruder calibration. Pilot batches out of specification are discarded and considered production waste. The objective of this work was to study the possibility of reusing this rejected material, in the sheath manufactured of PA 11 with carbon black (PA 11 Black). Initially, a comparative analysis was performed using FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformed), TGA (thermogravimetry analysis) and DSC (differential exploratory calorimetry) characterization techniques between the rejected material and PA 11 in pellets, in order to verify possible degradation during the extrusion process and the similarity of materials. The characterization showed that the rejected PA 11 is similar to pellet. Thus, specimens with different percentages of PA 11 and PA 11 Black were manufactured to analyze the effects that the decrease in carbon black concentration would cause on materials when subjected to ultra violet (UV) aging. PA 11, PA 11 Black, and their blends were aged by UV for 720 h and then thermal, spectroscopic, and mechanical tensile tests were performed. All the mixtures showed similar thermal behavior of PA 11 Black. The FT-IR analysis showed a tendency for the appearance of bonds representative of degradation in the blends with higher percentage of PA 11. The tensile test showed that PA 11 Black as well as all blends became more brittle after aging by UV due to the appearance of unsaturation along the chain. There is no evidence that the insertion of PA 11 impacted the mechanical properties.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T12:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221074842
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Modeling the degradation of polyamide-12 by biocompatible fuels using
           artificial neural networks

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      Authors: Hamid Yazdani, Saeid Samiei, Hossein Akbari Nasab, Delaram Afshar, Nayereh Sadat Mousavi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the first stage of this work, the degradation temperature of polyamide-12 was investigated using biocompatible fuels as a reference with different temperatures by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) test. Those fuels were containing 20% and 85% ethanol as well as ethanol-free. In the second stage, the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network and radial basis function neural network (RBF) were designed to predict the degradation temperature of polyamide-12. Fuel temperature, ethanol percentage, and the time of placing samples in the fuel were selected as input and polymer degradation temperature was defined as network output. The results obtained from the modeling were compared with the results obtained from the test TGA. The results obtained from neural networks MLP and RBF showed slight differences with the experimental results that can be used as an efficient and low-cost tool to predict the degradation temperature of polymers.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T12:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221082349
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Physico-mechanical characterization of poly (butylene succinate) and date
           palm fiber-based biodegradable composites

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      Authors: Mohamed Khlif, Rania Chaari, Chedly Bradai
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The main objective of this research was to study the influence of an enzymatic treatment process of date palm fibers on their chemical and morphological properties as well as the physical and mechanical characteristics of composites filled with raw and treated fibers. To this end, three extraction approaches were considered (a combination of xylanase and pectinase enzymes, xylanase enzymes followed by a pectinase one and pectinase enzyme followed by xylanase). Chemical and morphological analyses were performed on raw and treated fibers. The tensile test of the manufactured composites was achieved, using extrusion and injection molding process. These composites were also subjected to water absorption tests. The results showed that non-cellulosic components decreased after enzymatic treatments while the cellulose content increased significantly. The scanning electron microscope morphological analyses showed that the extraction with the combination of these enzymes is very effective as a fibrillation phenomenon. Composites with high rigidity were observed in the case of enzymatically treated fibers. These composites reveal a better moisture resistance compared to the untreated fibers.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221080157
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Probing thermal conductivity of interphase in epoxy alumina nanocomposites

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      Authors: Manohar Singh, Jeewan Chandra Pandey
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The objective of this research is to determine the thermal conductivity of the interphase in epoxy alumina nanocomposites. First, TPS 500 measures the thermal conductivity of epoxy alumina nanocomposite samples. Following that, a numerical model based on the finite element method was developed to estimate the effective thermal conductivity of epoxy alumina nanocomposites over a range of assumed interphase thermal conductivity values. Finally, an algorithm is devised to extract the interphase’s thermal conductivity by combining simulation and experiment results. Interphase was found to have significantly higher thermal conductivity than the base polymer. A comprehensive analysis is presented to shed light on the observed increase in interphase thermal conductivity. The findings of this study will be critical for further investigation of heat transfer in epoxy alumina nanocomposites via modeling and simulation studies.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T04:44:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221077489
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Thermal and mechanical characterization of alumina modified
           multifunctional novolac epoxy nanocomposites

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      Authors: Archana Mishra, Moksh Shukla, Manoj K Shukla, Deepak Srivastava, Arun K Nagpal
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The multifunctional novolac epoxy/Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated by high-speed mechanical mixing of epoxy resin with varying concentration of nano Al2O3 (0–5 wt%) of particle size 13 nm for 30 min, followed by curing with triethylenetetramine (TETA) at 110°C for 1 h and post-curing at 80°C for 5 h. The fabricated nanocomposite samples were characterized for mechanical properties (viz., tensile strength, elongation-at-break, impact strength, toughness, and hardness shore D), thermal stability, and fire retardancy. It was observed that the 3 wt% nano-Al2O3 containing sample showed significant enhancement in the tensile strength, elongation-at-break, impact strength, hardness shore D, thermal stability, and fire retardancy compared to the neat epoxy sample. The Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the 3-D curing reaction between TETA and nano-alumina modified epoxy and neat epoxy samples. The reactivity effect of alumina towards resin was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological studies of nanocomposite samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to justify the enhancement of mechanical properties via dispersion of nanoparticles.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T01:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221081827
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of hydric aging on the static and vibration behavior of 3D printed
           bio-based flax fiber reinforced poly-lactic acid composites

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      Authors: Zeineb Kesentini, Abderrahim El Mahi, Jean-Luc Rebiere, Rachid El Guerjouma, Moez Beyaoui, Mohamed Haddar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Moisture accumulation and life span in a hydric setting are major concerns for natural fibers used for the reinforcement of bio-based composites. This article discusses the effect of water aging on the mechanical properties of poly-lactic acid composites reinforced with flax fibers produced by 3D printing. Water absorption of composites is measured and it was observed that the bio-based composite seems to be Fick’s model with a percentage of absorption at saturation equal to 1.2%. To determine the effect of water absorption on static and vibration mechanical properties, various immersion periods are chosen. Water aging obviously influences the stiffness and tensile failure; so, a decline in the Young’s modulus from 2.2 to 1.7 GPa and in strength from 36 to 30.5 MPa is seen. Nevertheless, the damping factor shows an increase by about 16% as a function of the immersion period. These results could be explained by the plasticizing effect of water on bio-based composites, stimulated by moisture absorption.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T12:36:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221081826
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • “UV-curing of novel tri-functional melamine-phosphate oligomer: An
           effect of coating with polyurethane acrylate toward mechanical, thermal,
           and flame retardant properties”

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      Authors: Pundalik Mali, Narendra Sonawane, Nilesh Pawar, Vikas Patil
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A novel melamine-phosphate tri-functional acrylate (MPTO) was successfully synthesized via cyclization reaction of hexamethylolmelamine (HMM) with phosphorous oxychloride (POCl3) followed by addition reaction of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA). The molecular structure of MPTO was identified by FTIR and 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectra. The synthesized MPTO oligomer was impregnated with polyurethane acrylate to make various formulations and UV cured on wood and galvanized steel panels. The results of UV cured films from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) exhibited increase in thermal stability and highest char yield of 18.4% at 800°C. The diffused diffraction peak appearing around 2ϴ = 16–22° corresponds to an amorphous structure which leads to irregular arrangement with formation of strong cross-linking polymer network. Furthermore, all coating films show prominent flame retardancy with UL-94 V-0 rating and maximum limiting index (LOI) values of 34.8%. The polyurethane acrylate (PU) coatings cured with MPTO that exhibited excellent mechanical properties were estimated using various tests such as adhesion, pencil hardness, solvent resistance, flexibility, and corrosion test. The coating performance revealed that MPTO can improve the mechanical, thermal, and flame retardant properties because of its unique structure identity of melamine-phosphate moiety and long aliphatic segment of an acrylate ester.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T02:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221079116
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of sisal fiber on retrogradation and structural characteristics of
           thermoplastic cassava starch

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      Authors: Yuxin Liu, Zesheng Liang, Liangyan Liao, Junmei Xiong
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPS)/sisal fiber (SF) composites were prepared by the melting method. The effect of SF on the retrogradation kinetics, morphology and size of spherulites, molecular interactions, short-range molecular structure, and crystal type of TPS was investigated. The results indicate that the retrogradation degree and rate of TPS increase with the addition of SF, and the spherulites become clearer and denser. The neat TPS sample forms an A-type crystal through double helix structure and a V-type crystal through single helix structure. After the addition of SF, the A-type crystal of the TPS/SF composite decreases and the V-type crystal increases. With the further increase of SF content, the TPS/SF composite mainly presents the V-type crystal. The TPS/SF composite has higher crystallinity, but smaller crystal size and interplanar spacing. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature (Tg) of TPS get enhanced with the addition of SF.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-27T10:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221080363
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The effect of UV additives on thermo-oxidative and color stability of
           pistachio shell reinforced polypropylene composites

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      Authors: Mithat CELEBI, Muslum ALTUN, Sabih OVALI
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, pistachio shell-polypropylene copolymer (PPc) biocomposites were prepared by using the melt compounding technique. Treated pistachio shell (TPS) (30%wt) was employed to increase mechanical and thermal properties of biocomposites. Maleation and filler pre-treatment processes improved the mechanical strength of the PPc-TPS composites. The UV additives, Chimassorb 944 (CHI) stabilizer, and the UV absorber Irganox 1010 (IRGV) were used to enhance oxidative and color stability of biocomposites after they were subjected to accelerated UV irradiation for 600 h. The mechanical properties of the UV additive containing composites were less affected after UV exposure. The oxidative induction time and discoloration analysis revealed that CHI and IRGV additives can be utilized in applications that require higher color stability while the former showed better performance for oxidative stability.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:29:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221081700
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • New blends of acrylamide/chitosan and potato peel waste as improved water
           absorbing polymers for diaper applications

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      Authors: Mahmoud Moustafa, M. A. Abu-Saied, Tarek H. Taha, Mohamed Elnouby, EA El Desouky, Saad Alamri, Sulaiman Alrumman, Ali Shati, Mohmed Al-Khatani, Huda Alghamdii, Rahmah Al-Qthanin, Ahmed Al-Emam
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Valorization of environmental wastes into beneficial products is a global direction that is recently adopted. Potato peels are one of these wastes that are daily released to the environment in tremendous amounts. The current research is concerning by the extraction of starch polymer from potato peels waste and depending on its water uptake capacity to be used as a blending material in the currently applied diapers. Starch has been blended in different percentages with poly acrylamide (PAAM) and chitosan (CTS) polymers to increase their overall water capacity. The blended polymers were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy which confirmed the corresponding interaction among the three polymers depending on the detected functional groups. The thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the addition of starch to PAAM-CTS membrane increased the thermal stability and reduces the weight loss from 53.86% to 7.9%. The results of surface roughness were increased from 0.19 to 0.28 μm after the addition of starch which were highly matched with SEM images and suggesting the increasing of the swelling kinetics of the prepared membranes. Moreover, water uptake test as a physicochemical characterization revealed that the swelling ratio of PAAM-CTS membrane was around 48% which has been elevated to 92% after starch amendment. These results indicate that the addition of starch to polyacrylamide and chitosan blend can approximately duplicate their water-holding capacity which can repurpose it it to be widely applied in diapers applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221077559
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of soybean oil/polydimethylsiloxane
           hybrid bioepoxy resin and its application in antitermite coating

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      Authors: Vipul Kusumkar, Pratiksha Singh, Omprakash Yemul
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A soybean oil and polydimethylsiloxane-based hybrid bioepoxy resin (HSB) has been prepared by reacting epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and epoxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (EPDMS). The two components were crosslinked using citric acid in solution. The prepared hybrid (HSB) was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX); thermal behavior of neat bioepoxy was explored using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The blend (HSB) was examined for their anti-termite activity. The possible applications of this hybrid material were tested by coating on paper as well as wooden plates, and their coating properties were studied.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T08:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221078482
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Synergistic effect of organic clay fillers based on cetyltrimethylammonium
           bromide in the synthesis of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
           nanocomposites

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      Authors: Lahouari Mrah
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A detailed study was conducted on the synthesis, characterizations, and properties of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Mag-CTA nanocomposites. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanocomposites were developed from a natural clay called Maghnite by improving the dispersion of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) matrices in organic clay sheets. However, the PEDOT/Mag-CTA nanocomposites have been characterized by different physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and give the name of atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results of the (XRD), (TEM) and (SEM) analysis confirm that the PEDOT has been inserted into the Mag-CTA interlayer, and the presence of clay in the polymer matrix results in a desired increase in thermal stability. Electrical conductivity measurements show a decrease in conductivity with increasing load ratio
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:53:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221080302
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel based on polyacrylic
           acid/shellac using gamma irradiation for adsorption removal of malachite
           green dye

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      Authors: Mohamed A Elhady, Issa M Mousaa, Rehab M Attia
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The objective of this study is to prepare a super absorbent hydrogel based on polyacrylic acid and an environmentally friendly material such as shellac to remove malachite green dye from aqueous solution using gamma radiation. The adsorption of malachite green (MG) dyes using polyacrylic acid (PAA)/shellac (SH) hydrogels was studied. These hydrogels were prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of PAA and SH at differing molecular ratios (10%, 20%, and 30% SH content in the final reaction mixture) and varying doses of gamma radiation (10–50 kGy). The water absorption by the PAA/SH hydrogels prepared at a 30-kGy radiation dose increased with an increase in the SH content. The removal of the MG dyes from an aqueous solution using PAA and PAA/SH hydrogels was investigated at different values for selected parameters, such as pH, contact time, SH concentration, and adsorbent dosage. The highest MG adsorption percentage (95.5%) was obtained for the PAA/SH hydrogel with the highest SH content (30%). As the adsorbent dosage increased, the dye adsorption capacity increased, accordingly. The combination of SH and gamma radiation caused the PAA to undergo structural changes verified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphology of the PAA/SH hydrogel and revealed that the SH belonging to the PAA matrixes exhibited a homogeneous dispersion. The thermal stability of the hydrogels was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The amount of dye adsorbed by the PAA/SH hydrogel was calculated by subtraction based on the ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy determination of the concentration of leftover dye in solution using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T12:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221074435
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of polyurethane
           rubber/polypropylene-based thermoplastics vulcanizates nanocomposites with
           succinic anhydride intercalated layered double hydroxide

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      Authors: Ali Moshkriz, Reza Darvishi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Herein, a novel polypropylene/polyurethane rubber (PP/PUR) was prepared based on thermoplastics vulcanizates (TPV)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite in the presence of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylsuccinic anhydride (SSA) intercalated LDH (SSA-LDH). The effect of SSA-LDH was explored on thermo-mechanical, thermal, morphological, rheological, and mechanical properties as well as gel content, compression set, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and cross-linking density (CLD) of TPV based on PP/PUR with the weight ratio of 40/60. It was found that the crystallization, tensile strength, gel content, cross-linking density, young’s modulus, elongation at break, melting point, and damping factor significantly changed with increasing SSA-LDH content in PUR/PP TPVs. The reasons could be attributed to cross-linking induced by SSA-LDH and curing agent Bis-(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (also called (Si-69)) that grafted onto PUR chains, resulting in good dispersion of fine PUR vulcanized particles into PP matrix. This claim was confirmed by studying the rheological properties through Rheometeric mechanical spectroscopy and dynamic-mechanical analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscope images confirmed the improved compatibility between PUR and PP by adding SSA-LDH. The gel content and CLD of TPV samples without SSA-LDH were 20% and 2.75 mol/mL, respectively, which showed a significant increment to 25.5% and 4.5 mol/L upon adding 5 wt. % SSA-LDH. The highest elongation at break, tensile strength, and young’s modulus were 525%, 16.5 MPa, and 210 MPa, respectively which were observed for TPV5.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:39:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221079126
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • A micromechanical approach to the mechanical characterization of
           3D-printed composites

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      Authors: Alireza Sayyidmousavi, Zouheir Fawaz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Aiming for the development of experimentally validated computational models to predict the mechanical properties of 3D-printed composites, the present study proposes a micromechanical approach by using a simplified unit cell model to characterize the material properties and behavior of 3D-printed composites manufactured through fused deposition modeling. The effective properties of the voided polymer matrix phase of the material are computed by calculating the void density as a tensorial meso-structural variable. These effective properties along with those of the fiber are input into a simplified micromechanical model to predict the material properties of the 3D-printed composite. The predictions are seen to be in very good agreement with the experimental values. The present approach is much simpler and less computationally costly compared to the finite element homogenization method. In addition, the present approach has the potential to simulate the response of the 3D-printed composite under different loading conditions.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:35:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221078481
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Significantly improving mechanical properties of epoxy resin-based carbon
           fiber-reinforced plastic composites via introducing oxazolidinone segments
           

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      Authors: Ye Yiwen, Liu Beijun, Peng Li
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Herein, the oxazolidinone (OX) segments have been successfully introduced into carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites via the bulk polymerization of the isocyanate and epoxy (EP) groups to significantly promote the mechanical properties. Through the bulk polymerization, the OX segments in epoxy resin (OX epoxy resin) have been formed, verified via the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Afterward, in order to obtain the cured OX epoxies, the as-prepared OX epoxy resin has been mixed with the pure EP resin for further curing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) have shown that the cured OX epoxies have exhibited improved thermal resistance and higher Tg than the cured neat epoxies. After introducing OX segments, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength of the cured OX epoxies have been promoted by 30.1%, 12.1%, and 82.9%, respectively. Moreover, the mechanical properties of CFRP composites, fabricated from OX epoxy resin and T1100 carbon fibers, have been improved as well and in particular, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, interlaminar shear strength, and compressive strength after the impact of the composites have been improved by 25.9%, 8.4%, 23.6%, 35.5%, and 23.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the impact damage of the composite laminates has been analyzed via Ultrasonic C-scan.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T12:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211065196
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Polyurethane polystyrene based smart interpenetrating network with quick
           shape recovery through thermal actuation

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      Authors: Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Nisar Ahmed, Fatima Iftikhar, Saad Nauman, Basit Niaz
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polyurethane (PU), designed with pre-polymer method involving polyol as cross-linker, has been utilized for shape memory applications. Neat PU or PU-PS (polystyrene) interpenetrating network (IPN) samples have been prepared. Functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) have been utilized as reinforcements. PU composites have been studied for shape recovery time and found better than neat PU. 1wt% incorporation of FMWCNTs in PU has reduced shape recovery time to 22 s for 100% shape recovery, in comparison to neat PU with 62 s of 100% shape recovery. PU-PS IPN has reduced 100% shape recovery time to 17s. Superior hydrogen bonding in neat PU has been suggested as per longer shape recovery time against thermal actuation, in comparison to PU composite and IPNs with FMWCNTs. Decreased thermal stability has been observed with FMWCNTs incorporation, indicating enhanced heat dissipation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the difference of morphologies in neat PU, PU composite, and IPNs. A distinctive filler-matrix interaction in IPNs has been observed. XRD confirmed the presence of amorphous component. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis have been utilized for analyses. Shape recovery study has been made by a simple experimental set up prepared in lab.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T03:26:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221076847
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Physico-mechanical characterization and thermal property evaluation of
           polyester composites filled with walnut shell powder

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      Authors: Priyabrat Pradhan, Alok Satapathy
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper reports on the processing and overall characterization of walnut shell powder (WSP) filled polyester composite. The effects of this filler on the properties of polyester resin are studied by conducting various characterization tests under controlled laboratory conditions. The composite formation mechanism has been explained by the interpretation of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The study reveals that the incorporation of WSP particles modifies the density and porosity of the composites along with their tensile, compressive, flexural, and impact strengths. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is done on the samples to get an insight into their thermal stability. Measurement of thermal conductivity is carried out on samples of different compositions, and it is found that the inclusion of walnut shell powder leads to significant improvement in the thermal insulation capability of polyester resin. It is recorded that with an increase in the WSP content from 0 to 20 wt. % in polyester, the value of the effective thermal conductivity (Keff) drops by about 42%. It is further seen that with the incorporation of WSP, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polyester is substantially lowered.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T06:51:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221077808
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The effect of nanocomposite synthesis and the drying procedure of graphene
           oxide dispersion on the polycaprolactone/graphene oxide nanocomposite
           properties

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      Authors: Jaroslav Minář, Jan Doležal, Jiří Brožek
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, we compare how the properties of polycaprolactone (PCLO) nanocomposites are affected by the method of nanocomposite synthesis and the differences in graphene oxide (GO) properties. PCLO nanocomposites with freeze-dried or hot-dried graphene oxide (FGO/HGO) were synthesized by in situ polymerization and melt mixing. The PCLO molar masses remained constant during melt mixing, but they were significantly reduced with increasing amount of GOs during in situ polymerization. Despite this fact, the in situ polymerized nanocomposites showed enhancement in Young modulus up to 45%, compared to only 10% modulus increase of melt-mixed nanocomposites. This was attributed to the higher crystallinity and the higher level of nanofiller dispersion and exfoliation in in situ polymerized nanocomposites. When comparing the effect of FGO and HGO on nanocomposites properties, the improved dispersion and ameliorated mechanical properties were observed for the former one.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T12:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211068923
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of structural integrity of needle punched banana fiber
           reinforced industrial safety helmets

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      Authors: Jack J Kenned, C. Suresh Kumar, K. Sankaranarayanasamy
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The purpose of this work is to fabricate and analyse a light weight, recyclable, and non-toxic natural fiber reinforced industrial safety helmet. The fibers were extracted from agro-waste pseudostem of nendran variety banana plant. A facile needle punching technique was employed on banana fibers to produce a needle punched non-woven banana fiber fabric of enhanced mechanical properties without any chemical treatment. Subsequently, the needle punched banana fibers were impregnated with general purpose helmet grade polyester resin in an ISI (Indian standards Institute) endorsed mold to fabricate a needle punched banana fiber helmet (NPBFH). Similarly, 30 mm random banana fiber helmet (RBFH) and glass fiber reinforced helmets (RGFH) were fabricated. The fabricated helmets of 10–50 wt. % fiber content were tested as per ISI standards. The results show that the better properties were achieved at 40 wt. % of fiber content for all varieties of helmets. Significantly, the results revealed that the shock absorption, penetration resistance, and water absorption of NPBFH are 245 kgf, 4.75 mm, and 0.61%, respectively, which is much better than RBFH and comparable with RGFH. This study concluded that the NPBFH (40 wt. %) can be a potential replacement of synthetic fiber reinforced helmets for industrial applications.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T07:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221074889
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical properties and morphology of HDPE/PA12 blends compatibilized
           with HDPE-alt-MAH

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      Authors: Geovane de Almeida Santos da Silva, José Roberto Moraes d’Almeida
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The objective of this work is to study the effect of the addition of the compatibilizing agent poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (HDPE-alt-MAH) on the mechanical properties and morphology of HDPE/PA12 blends. The amounts of compatibilizer used were 0, 2, and 3 wt% and HDPE/PA12 blends were manufactured in three ratios, namely: 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75. It was observed that the blends with 2 wt% of HDPE-alt-MAH presented the best mechanical performance. As the proportion of PA12 in the blend increased, the mechanical strength and elongation at break also increased. The creep behavior of the blends was also evaluated, and it was verified that the steady-state creep rate decreases with the increase of PA12 showing the greater resistance to deformation of PA12 compared to HDPE. The viscoelastic behavior of the materials varied with the composition, but by creep compliance analysis, it was observed that the elastic behavior of the blends was similar. The rheology of the blends was analyzed, and it was concluded that the 75/25 HDPE/PA12 blend had the best processability. From the analysis of the microstructures of the blends, it was possible to correlate the phase dispersion with the mechanical and rheological properties.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T06:57:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211064049
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Multiwalled carbon nanotubes reinforced flexible blend nanocomposites
           membranes for pervaporation separation of aromatic-aliphatic mixtures

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      Authors: Saliney Thomas, Shaji Thomas, Sujit A Kadam, Thomasukutty Jose, Jiji Abraham, Soney C. George, Sabu Thomas
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced NR-NBR blend nanocomposite membranes were prepared and potentially employed for the pervaporation separation of aliphatic – aromatic mixtures. For a 50 wt% benzene feed, the blend nanocomposite membranes had a total flux of 1.265 kgm−2h−1 and separation factor of 1.59 at room temperature. The blend membranes exhibited aromatic selectivity for the separation of aromatic – aliphatic mixtures. 2 phr MWCNT/blend nanocomposite membranes exhibited similar trend for the separation of 10 wt% feed toluene mixture. Trasmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the blend nanocomposites revealed the well dispersion and distribution of MWCNT in the polymer matrix. The well dispersed MWCNT/blend membranes selectively separate aromatic components from aliphatic – aromatic mixtures.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T05:28:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211069009
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Nonlinear activity and long-term stability of thin polymer films based on
           poly(3,5,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone-8-sulfonic acid) sodium salt

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      Authors: Dmytro Mishurov, Andrii Voronkin, Alexander Roshal, Olga Vashchenko
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Cross-linked polymers with chromophore fragments built-in main chains can, depending on their structure and synthesis conditions, keep during a long time the orientation of chromophores that is necessary to create new organic polymer materials demonstrating nonlinear optical properties. The present work is devoted to cross-linked polymers on the basis of di-, tri-, and tetraglycidyl ethers of quercetin-8-sulfonic acid sodium salt (3,5,7,3′,4′-penthahydroxyflavon-8-sulfonic acid sodium salt) which were synthesized, and then, poled in electrical field of corona discharge. Study of thermal, optical, and nonlinear optical parameters of the polymer films was carried out. It was found that the polymers obtained from di- and triglycidyl ethers of quercetin-8-sulfonic acid sodium salt are characterized by the higher values of macroscopic quadratic susceptibilities comparing with such a value for polymer obtained from tetraglycidyl ether of quercetin-8-sulfonic acid sodium salt. However, the latter polymer demonstrates a minimal intensity of relaxation processes that evidence its highest long-term stability, and thus, could be used as a nonlinear optical material. It is supposed that the difference of the nonlinear optical properties is due to peculiarities of intermolecular interactions in physical network of the polymers, namely, to the difference between numbers of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl groups of chromophore fragments and number of hydrogen bonds linked of inter fragmental parts of the polymeric chains.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T10:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211072978
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effects of aluminum and silicon carbide on morphological and mechanical
           properties of epoxy hybrid composites

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      Authors: Shohel Rana, Mahbub Hasan, Md Rezaul Karim Sheikh, A Nayeem Faruqui
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The present research focuses on the effects of aluminum (Al) and silicon carbide (SiC) hybridization on mechanical and morphological properties of Al and SiC particles reinforced hybrid epoxy composites. Composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique at five levels of reinforcement loading (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt%). Aluminum powder and silicon carbide particles were utilized as reinforcement at a ratio of (1:1) during composite preparation. Microstructural analysis using a scanning electronic microscope and optical microscope was performed to observe the adhesiveness between the matrix and reinforcement. For mechanical characterization, tensile, flexural, impact, and hardness tests were performed. Tensile and flexural strength decreased, while Young’s modulus, flexural modulus, impact strength, and hardness increased with increase in aluminum and silicon carbide particle loading. Based on the particle loading, 50 wt% of particle-reinforced composite had the best set of mechanical properties among all prepared composites.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:37:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211068918
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of mechanical properties and free vibration behavior of
           graphene/basalt nano filler banana/sisal hybrid composite

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      Authors: Arunkumar Kuppuraj, Murugarajan Angamuthu
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This research work addresses the influence of graphene and basalt filler on mechanical properties and free vibration behavior of banana/sisal hybrid composite. Banana/sisal hybrid composites were prepared with three weight percentage (wt.%), 6 wt.% of graphene, and basalt filler by a compression molding process. The improvement in tensile strength of 24.8% and 30% was noticed for the basalt (6 wt.%) and graphene (6 wt.%) filler addition, respectively. Comparing with basalt addition, graphene addition provides an 1.5 times improvement in flexural strength. The tensile fractography was also carried out and studied the interfacial bonding of the composite. From the morphology, it was observed that there was a good interfacial adhesion between the fiber and the matrix which enhance the mechanical property of the hybrid composite. The free vibrational behavior of the hybrid composite has also been analyzed. The modal analysis shows the enhanced natural frequencies and modal damping for the addition of 6 wt.% of graphene filler in the hybrid composite.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T06:26:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211066719
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Development, characterization, and parametric analysis of dry sliding wear
           behavior of epoxy-short betel nut fiber composite using response surface
           method and neural computation

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      Authors: Purushottam Kumar Choudhary, Bishnu Prasad Nanda, Alok Satapathy
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This work reports on the mechanical and wear performance of epoxy composite reinforced with short betel nut fiber (SBF). Composite samples with different weight percentages (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wt%) of fiber content are fabricated through hand lay-up route. Mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strengths are evaluated by conducting tests as per appropriate ASTM standards. Sliding wear tests are performed on a pin-on-disc test apparatus as per ASTM G99 standard. A non-linear regression model is developed in accordance with face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). An artificial neural network (ANN) approach is applied to predict the wear rate of the composite and compared with the RSM predicted results. It is found that with the incorporation of short betel nut fiber both tensile and flexural strength of the composite shows an increasing trend. It is also observed that reinforcement of short betel nut fiber enhances the wear performance of epoxy. Surface morphologies of the worn samples have been studied to analyze the wear mechanism of the composite samples.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T08:33:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211066722
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical properties of an epoxy-based coating reinforced with silica
           aerogel and ammonium polyphosphate additives

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      Authors: Ramin Riahipour, Mohammad Saber Nemati, Mehdi Zadehmohamad, Mohammad reza Abadyan, Mehran Tehrani, Majid Baniassadi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Flame retardant (FR) additives may degrade polymers’ mechanical performance. In this work, FR epoxy composites fabricated based on two popular FR agents of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and silica aerogel (SAG) are investigated. Several mechanical properties of these composites, including compressive, micro-hardness, and Izod impact, were investigated for different filler loadings. Although the addition of 10 vol.% APP improved compressive modulus, yield strength, and micro-hardness, it degraded the impact strength. The incorporation of SAG made the composites more ductile, improved the impact strength, but deteriorated their compressive properties. Samples containing both SAG and APP demonstrated synergetic effects evident by their enhanced compressive properties and hardness. The findings of this study can guide the design of epoxies with both exceptional FR and mechanical performance.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T10:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211069019
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Effect of carbon nanotube surface modification on tensile properties of
           carbon fiber epoxy impregnated bundle composites

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      Authors: Kimiyoshi Naito, Chiemi Nagai
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the tensile properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber epoxy impregnated bundle composites was investigated. To grow CNTs on the carbon fibers, the following catalysts were selected: Ferrocene ([Fe(C5H5)2]) catalyst applied to the bundles using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate ([Fe(NO3)3•9H2O]) catalyst applied by dipping the bundles in ethanol solutions of different concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 M. For bundle composites with Fe(C5H5)2-catalyzed CNTs, the Weibull modulus was 29% higher than the as-received state, although the tensile strength is almost unchanged. The Weibull modulus is 9–39% higher than the as-received state for Fe(NO3)3•9H2O catalyst solutions in the range 0.01–0.3 M, while it decreases by 22–32% for 0.4–0.5 M solutions. The tensile strength is lower in both cases; 4–7% lower for 0.01–0.3 M solutions and 14–17% lower for 0.4–0.5 M solutions. Fe(NO3)3•9H2O catalysts 0.1 M solutions gives the best combination of tensile strength and Weibull modulus improvement. The results also show that for each type of CNT-grafted and as-received PAN-based carbon fibers, an almost linear relation between the Weibull modulus and average tensile strength on the log-log scale is observed. This relation indicates that Fe(C5H5)2 catalyst-grafting of CNTs gives better tensile strength and Weibull modulus results.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T07:39:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211067661
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Graphene/sol–gel modified polyurethane coating for wind turbine blade
           leading edge protection: Properties and performance

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      Authors: Arash Dashtkar, Nicolai Frost-Jensen Johansen, Leon Mishnaevsky, Neil A Williams, Shadi W Hasan, Vijay S Wadi, Alessio Silvello, Homayoun Hadavinia
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The development of two novel elastomeric erosion resistant coatings for the protection of wind turbine blades is presented. The coatings are prepared by modifying polyurethane (PU) with (i) hydroxyl functionalised graphene nanoparticles (f-GNP) and (ii) f-GNP and a hydrophobic silica-based sol–gel (SG). Tensile, monotonic and cyclic compression and tearing tests have been conducted on the neat PU and the two newly developed elastomeric PU nanocomposites (PU + GNP and PU + GNP + SG) to allow their properties to be compared. The test results showed that the mechanical properties of PU and the modified PUs have strong dependency on temperature, strain rate and nanoparticles loading and addition of GNP and SG to PU improved the mechanical properties. Compared to PU, Young’s modulus and modulus of toughness of PU + GNP + SG increased 95% and 124%, respectively. The PU + GNP nanocomposite displayed the highest tearing strength and the PU + GNP + SG nanocomposite showed the highest elongation at break. An investigation of the microstructures of the modified PUs by FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) are discussed. Hydrophobicity of the PU and developed PU nanocomposites are reported by measuring their water droplet contact angles and their free surface energies.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T03:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221074197
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of nanocomposites
           based on poly lactic acid/ polyolefin elastomer reinforced with
           multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene nanoplatelets

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      Authors: Sajjad Daneshpayeh, Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The mechanical properties of nanocomposites based on poly lactic acid/polyolefin elastomer (PLA/POE) were investigated. The compounds were made using an internal mixer. POE in two levels at 10–20 wt.% and nano fillers, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene nano-platelets (GnPs) in 1, 2, and 3 wt.% levels, were added to the PLA. Impact and tensile tests were conducted to extract the impact and tensile properties, respectively. The dispersion quality of the fillers was also studied by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images. The FESEM images demonstrated that the MWCNT at all levels were well distributed in different orientations, while the GnPs accumulated into the PLA/POE matrix. The simultaneous presence of nano fillers was dispersed with high quality in the matrix only in low loading. The tensile test results showed that by increasing the nano fillers individually and in a hybrid form in the presence of different loadings of POE, Young’s modulus and T-strength were improved, but impact strength and deformation at break were decreased. The addition of the POE to the PLA matrix significantly increased the impact strength and deformation at break by 128% and 75%, respectively, and the presence of POE reduced Young’s modulus and T-strength of the PLA matrix.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T11:31:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211060943
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • A novel practical approach for monitoring the crosslink density of an
           ethylene propylene diene monomer compound: Complementary scanning acoustic
           microscopy and FIB-SEM-EDS analyses

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      Authors: Nazlı Yazıcı, Ekin Opar, Mehmet Kodal, Bükem Tanören, Meltem Sezen, Güralp Özkoç
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Tuning of the crosslink density (CLD) in the rubber compounds is very crucial for optimizing the physical and mechanical properties of the ultimate rubber products. Conventionally, CLD can be measured via rheological methods such as moving die rheometer (MDR), via mechanical tests such as temperature scanning stress relaxation analysis (TSSR), or via direct swelling experiments using Flory–Rehner approach. In the current study, two novel techniques, focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) processing, with simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping analysis and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) were combined and correlated to conventional methods on a model recipe of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) compound having different sulphur contents. Depending on the applied technique, the increase in the crosslink density with sulphur content was found to be 1.7 fold for the Flory–Rehner approach and 1.2 fold for both TSSR and MDR. It is directly monitored from the FIB-SEM-EDS analysis that the sulphur distribution and agglomeration behavior increased in line with ZnO content, which is an indirect indication of the rise in crosslink density. The impedance maps of the crosslinked samples obtained through SAM analysis revealed that the impedance of the samples increased with the increasing sulphur content, which can be attributed to higher level of crosslink density. A quantified correlation was obtained between SAM images and the crosslink density of the samples. It was shown that SAM is a promising tool for practical and non-destructive analysis for determining the formation of crosslink density of the rubbers.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T02:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911221074193
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Static puncture resistance characteristics with various indenter nose
           shape geometry perforation of shear thickening fluid impregnated
           polypropylene fabric for soft armour application

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      Authors: Deepak SampathKumar, Thirumalaikumarasamy Duraisamy, Thirumal Pattabi, AshokKumar Mohankumar
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      At present, puncture resistance and rheological performance of shear thickening fluid (STF) is an essential design requirement for a soft armour material (target sample). The target sample is prepared with a dip and dry process of STF impregnated woven polypropylene (PP) fabric. These samples were tested and compared with neat PP fabric. The penetration depth of target samples is highly sensitive to the coefficient of friction between the indenter’s nose shape geometry and the target sample. The STF is prepared by mechanical dispersion of synthesized microsphere silica microparticles at a volume fraction of 57% in polyethylene glycol (400 g/mol). The rheological response indicates that the prepared concentration of silica microparticles in the STF suspension is observed to have a better shear thickening effect. The viscosity of suspension is highly sensitive to silica aspect ratio, volume fraction and particle size distribution in this work. Tensile tests along with puncture resistance with different indenter nose shapes geometry (hemispherical, elliptical, flat and conical) have been performed in the present study. Results indicate that the energy absorption is more with the hemispherical indenter and less with that of the conical indenter, which is attributed to the minimum surface area of contact as compared to all other indenters. A total of 16 number of fabricated target samples with various coating thicknesses of STF impregnated fabrics achieved the desired tensile strength, modulus and puncture resistance.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T05:16:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211063303
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Physico-chemical properties of irradiated poly (vinyl alcohol)–Ethylene
           glycol blend films by γ-rays and ion beam

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      Authors: SI Radwan Torab, MM Shehata, HH Saleh, ZI Ali
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Poly (vinyl alcohol) is blended with ethylene glycol by casting method to form PVA-EG blend films. These films were irradiated by both N2 ion beam extracted from dc ion source at different ion fluences and γ-rays with various irradiation doses. The effects of ion beam and γ-rays irradiation on the thermal, micro-hardness, and gel fraction properties of PVA-EG blend films were investigated. The gel fraction % and micro-hardness increase with increasing the γ-rays doses up to 150 kGy and then decreased, where they increased at all fluences of ion beam irradiation. The improvement in the gel fraction percentage and micro-hardness suggest that PVA-EG blend films exhibited a crosslink density. The thermal behavior was examined by thermogravimetric analysis and it shows different thermal patterns depending on the type and dose of radiation. The thermal stability parameters of γ-rays- and ion beam-irradiated PVA-EG samples were evaluated using the Ti, Ts, T0.5, Tf temperatures, and activation energy (Ea) values. The thermal stability parameters were dependent on both the type and extent of irradiation dose and fluence. Finally, there is a good agreement between the obtained results from different measurement techniques.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T05:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211063246
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of continuous Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre reinforced epoxy
           composites

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      Authors: Atik Mubarak Kazi, Ramasastry DVA
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The influence of fibre orientation on physical, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre composites has been studied. The composites with longitudinal (0°), transverse (90°) and inclined (45°) fibre orientation were prepared using the hand layup technique. ASTM standards were used for characterization of continuous Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre composites. The composite with longitudinally placed fibres yields improved mechanical characteristics. The addition of longitudinal (0°) oriented continuous Hibiscus sabdariffa fibres to the epoxy enhances tensile strength by 460%, flexural strength by 160% and impact strength by 603% compared to neat epoxy. The longitudinal (0°) fibre oriented composite offers higher resistance to water absorption and thickness swelling compared to other types of composites. All continuous Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre epoxy composites possess an improved storage modulus than the neat epoxy resin. The glass transition temperature of continuous Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre composites is 8%–31% lower than that of neat epoxy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirm the existence of voids in the matrix, fibre pullout and crack propagation near the fibre bundle, which indicates the stress transfer between fibre and matrix is non-uniform.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T05:12:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211060957
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • The effect of disbond on the efficiency and durability of a composite
           patch repair in mode I and mixed mode considering different patch
           materials

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      Authors: Sirvan Mohammadi
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this paper, considering different parameters and various patch materials, the effect of disbond on the efficiency and durability of a composite patch repair is investigated in mode I and mixed-mode. One of the most important aspects of the composite patch repair is the bond strength. Repair patch disbond may occur at the patch edges or the crack site. At first, the effect of different parameters such as repair patch material and Young’s modulus and thickness of the adhesive on the efficiency and durability of the patch is investigated. Then, the effect of the disbond site on the stress intensity factor (patch efficiency) and adhesive stress (patch durability) is analyzed in both modes I and II. The results show that disbond at the crack site leads to a further reduction in patch efficiency compared to the patch edge disbond, but when separation occurs at the patch edge, the adhesive stress and the disbond growth rate are higher. Also, when 15% of the patch is separated in the crack site, for the longitudinal and transverse disbond modes, the mean KI is increased by 8 and 4%, respectively, compared to the state without disbond. Thus, the longitudinal disbond mode is more critical.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T08:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211062759
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Fabrication, characterization, and optimization selection of ceramic
           particulate reinforced dental restorative composite materials

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      Authors: Ramkumar Yadav
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The objective of the article is to explore the fabrication of dental restorative composite materials and the ranking order using the preference selection index (PSI) as a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) technique under a set of conflict performance defining criteria (PDCs). The polymer matrix of the dental restorative composite was prepared using bisphenol a-glycidyl methacrylate (55 wt.%), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (44 wt.%), camphorquinone (0.3 wt.%), and ethyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (0.7 wt.%). Five different dental restorative composite material compositions were fabricated using hybrid nSiO2-TiO2 particulates with a variation of nSiO2 (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 wt.%) while TiO2 is constant (15 wt.%). The results revealed that an increasing trend has been found in compressive strength, flexural strength, Vickers hardness, etc., while a decreasing trend has been shown in depth of cure, polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion etc. The performance analysis of five dental composite formulations via the PSI method shows the following ranking order: nS4> nS6> nS2> nS0> nS8. The obtained experimental results are associated with the ranking order of the different sets of dental composite formulations. Hence, the preference selection index approach is one of the best techniques among MCDM techniques for ranking under different PDCs.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T08:07:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211062755
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
  • Preparation and application of poly (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)
           nanocomposite hydrogels containing iron oxide nanoparticles as wound
           dressing

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      Authors: Azin Paydayesh, Leyla Heleil, Arezoo Sh Dadkhah
      Abstract: Polymers and Polymer Composites, Volume 30, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In recent years, polymeric hydrogels are widespread in the field of biological materials such as wound dressing and wound care. In this work, we report for the first time the preparation and application of pHEMA nanocomposite hydrogels containing iron oxide nanoparticles as wound dressings. For this purpose, nanocomposite hydrogels based on poly (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and various amounts of 5, 10, and 15 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully prepared via radical polymerization. The structure and morphology of nanocomposite hydrogels were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), respectively. The results of gel fraction and the degree of swelling of hydrogels demonstrated that the gel percentage of pHEMA increased, and the degree of swelling decreased with increasing the percentage of nanoparticles. The WVRT and the porosity of hydrogels decreased by increasing the quantity of nanoparticles and were suitable for wound dressing applications. The effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite hydrogels was also studied using compression test and hardness shore A durometer. The results indicated that the compression strength, modulus, strain, and hardness are steadily increasing compared to pure hydrogel by adding nanoparticles. The maximum increase was obtained for a hydrogel sample with 15 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles. Antibacterial properties and biocompatibility were determined by the disk-diffusion and MTT assay methods, respectively. Based on the results, nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited higher percentages of cell survival and better antibacterial properties compared to pure pHEMA.
      Citation: Polymers and Polymer Composites
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T09:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09673911211063106
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2022)
       
 
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