Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 41 of 41 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Current Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access  
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Journal of Cellular Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Plasmas and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polymers and Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Polymers from Renewable Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
SPE Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1829-6971 - ISSN (Online) 2460-4461
Published by Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastics Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Acknowledgement

    • Authors: Iwan Pahlawan
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6285
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Acknowledgement

    • Authors: Iwan Pahlawan
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5891
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The blending of NBR/EPDM with montmorillonite as compatibilizer: The
           effect of different accelerator

    • Authors: Hesty Eka Mayasari, Agung Wirapraja, Ike Setyorini
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: The rubber blend is widely used in industry because of its excellent properties. In this study, Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) was blended with Ethylene Butadiene Monomer Rubber (EPDM) using montmorillonite as the compatibilizer. Various kinds of accelerators from different accelerator group (DPG, MBT, CBS, TMTD, and ZDEC) were employed into this blend. This research aimed to study the effect of the different accelerators on the curing characteristic, mechanical, and swelling properties of the NBR/EPDM blends. The result findings showed that DPG gives the longest scorch and optimum curing time. DPG also gave the lowest torque differences, cure rate index, and also the rate constant. While TMTD gave the fastest optimum curing time and also the highest torque differences, cure rate index, and rate constant. The other accelerator gave the curing characteristics among them. The MBT gave the highest tensile, elongation, and tear strength. Based on this research, the TMTD as secondary accelerator was the suitable accelerator for improving the curing characteristic properties and MBT as primary accelerator for improving the mechanical properties of NBR/EPDM.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.5951
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Seleksi resin dan rubber processing oil (RPO) dalam pembuatan cushion gum
           sebagai perekat ban vulkanisir

    • Authors: Santi Puspitasari, Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Adi Cifriadi, Arief Ramadhan, Zahra Krishna Hadi, Novita Putri Wahyuni, Mochamad Chalid
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Cushion gum merupakan salah satu material penting dalam industri ban vulkanisir. Cushion gum berfungsi sebagai perekat yang digunakan pada ban vulkanisir untuk melekatkan bagian karet casing ban lama dengan karet telapak yang baru. Kualitas cushion gum tergantung pada komposisi bahan penyusunnya yang utamanya terdiri dari polimer, resin tackifier, dan plasticizer Rubber Processing Oil (RPO). Riset ini dimaksudkan untuk mempelajari kualitas cushion gum yang dibuat dengan memformulasikan berbagai jenis dan dosis resin tackifier serta plasticizer RPO. Resin (R1-R3) yang digunakan terdiri dari resin coumarone, resorsinol, dan resin turunan hidrokarbon pada dosis 5 phr. Sementara jenis plasticizer RPO (P1-P3) yang dipelajari dalam riset meliputi minyak parafin, minyak pine tar, dan minyak aromatik pada dosis 20 phr. Variasi dosis RPO hanya dibatasi untuk jenis minyak pine tar, yaitu pada 12 dan 20 phr. Pembuatan kompon dilakukan dalam mesin giling terbuka skala laboratorium. Selanjutnya kompon cushion gum dicetak dalam mesin cetak hidrolik pada suhu 150 °C dan tekanan 100 kg/cm2. Vulkanisat cushion gum kemudian diuji sifat mekanis dan kekuatan rekat. Hasil pengujian dievaluasi dan digunakan sebagai dasar dalam menentukan jenis dan dosis resin tackifier dan plasticizer RPO yang terbaik dalam pembuatan cushion gum. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa variasi jenis dan dosis resin tackifier dan plasticizer RPO berpengaruh terhadap karakteristik pematangan kompon, sifat mekanis dan kekuatan rekat vulkanisat cushion gum. Formula karet cushion gum paling optimum diperoleh dari perpaduan resin tackifier jenis coumarone sebesar 5 phr dan plasticizer RPO jenis minyak pine tar sebesar 20 phr.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6105
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Effect of Bi2O3 on the properties of linier low density polyethylene
           (LLDPE)/natural rubber compound (NRC) composites

    • Authors: Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Umi Reza Lestari, Ike Setyorini
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: The use of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) has spread for many applications such as in footwear, hoses, seals, and automobiles. This increase is in line with the environmental awareness to produce materials that can be recycled. In this paper, the making of TPNR for car floor mat was studied. Bi2O3 filler was added to modify the performance of TPNR for car floor mat. In this study, the effects of Bi2O3 filler on the properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/natural rubber (NR) composites had been investigated. The weight ratio of LLDPE/NR was varied at 90/10; 80/20; 75/25; and 70/30. Bi2O3 filler loading was varied at 0; 20; 40; and 50 phr. The increase in NR and Bi2O3 filler reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear resistance, but increased the hardness and density of the composites. Compared to similar imported products, the samples prepared in this study showed higher values for all mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, tear resistance) but lower values in density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of LLDPE/NR 75/25 composites either with or without the addition of 20 phr Bi2O3 filler displayed homogeneity of the mixture.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6128
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Adsorpsi limbah krom tanning dengan adsorben karbon aktif dari palm kernel
           cake (PKC)

    • Authors: Ageng Priatni, Rihastiwi Setiya Murti, Dona Rahmawati
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Proses penyamakan kulit sangat kompleks dan melalui banyak tahapan, dimana setiap tahapan diperlukan air serta bahan-bahan kimia dalam jumlah besar yang berpotensi menyebabkan terjadinya pencemaran lingkungan. Penggunaan karbon aktif berbahan baku Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) diharapkan mampu mengadsorpsi senyawa-senyawa yang menjadi sumber pencemar seperti menurunkan kadar krom total dan BOD serta meningkatkan nilai pH dan warna dari limbah penyamakan kulit khususnya krom tanning. Adsoprsi dilakukan pada suhu 40 °C, 50 °C, dan 60 °C selama 30 menit dengan berat karbon aktif masing-masing 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g, dan 5 g. Limbah tanning yang telah diadsoprsi kemudian didiamkan selama 24 jam dan selanjutnya disaring. Pada filtrat yang diperoleh kemudian dilakukan pengamatan terhadap warna, pH, BOD serta kadar krom total. Kesimpulan diperoleh bahwa karbon aktif mampu menaikkan pH menjadi 6,6, menurunkan kandungan BOD menjadi 50,7 mg/L dengan efisiensi sebesar 87,03%, kadar krom total menjadi 1,03 mg/L dengan efisiensi penurunan sebesar 99,87% serta warna limbah yang semula berwarna biru tua menjadi tidak berwarna. Kondisi optimal untuk adsoprsi limbah krom tanning adalah suhu 50 °C dan karbon aktif seberat 4 gram.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6098
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Kemampuan hidrogel komposit berbasis produk samping industri penyamakan
           kulit dalam menyerap air dan larutan garam

    • Authors: Sugihartono Sugihartono, Dona Rahmawati, Ageng Priatni
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan hidrogel komposit berbasis produk samping industri penyamakan kulit dalam menyerap air dan larutan garam. Gelatin, dari potongan kulit pikel domba, sebagai bahan dasar hidrogel komposit diproses secara basa. Hidrogel komposit dibuat dengan enam variasi perlakuan. Pengaruh methylene-bis-acrylamide dan kaolin diamati berdasarkan swelling property. Daya serap terhadap air dan larutan garam dari hidrogel perlakuan methylene-bis-acrylamide 0,6 g lebih rendah dari perlakuan methylene-bis-acrylamide 1,0 g. Daya serap air hidrogel juga dipengaruhi oleh jumlah kaolin yang ditambahkan. Daya serap air meningkat pada penambahan kaolin sebanyak 8 g, kemudian menurun pada penambahan berikutnya. Daya serap terhadap air dan larutan garam dari hidrogel komposit yang tertinggi masing-masing adalah 26,29 g/g dan 10,97 g/g diperoleh dari perlakuan methylene-bis-acrylamide 1,0 g dan kaolin 8 g. Hasil pengukuran FTIR menunjukkan telah terjadi reaksi cangkok silang antara gelatin-g-asam akrilat dan kaolin yang ditandai bergesernya beberapa puncak serapan.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6097
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Aplikasi asetaldehida melalui teknik perendaman terhadap karakteristik
           mutu teknis karet alam

    • Authors: Afrizal Vachlepi
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Bahan baku untuk produksi karet SIR 20 sebagian besar berasal dari kebun petani sehingga pabrik ban mulai mensubstitusi dengan karet viskositas mantap yang lebih efisien. Produksi karet viskositas mantap memerlukan bahan aditif seperti asetaldehida. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan mempelajari karakteristik mutu teknis karet alam yang diproduksi menggunakan bahan olah karet (bokar) dengan berbagai jenis koagulan dan waktu perendaman dalam bahan pemantap asetaldehida menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan berbagai jenis koagulan dan waktu perendaman dalam larutan asetaldehida berpengaruh secara signifikan pada parameter mutu P0, PRI, viskositas Mooney dan kadar abu, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap SVI dan kadar zat menguap. Mutu karet alam yang dihasilkan dari berbagai perlakuan sesuai dengan persyaratan mutu SIR 20 berdasarkan SNI 06-1903-2000. Hanya karet alam dengan koagulan asap cair yang memenuhi persyaratan mutu untuk karet alam CV-70 dimana viskositas Mooney karet alam tersebut sebesar 75-76.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5038
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Penerapan sistem penyamakan kombinasi krom pada kulit ikan kakap merah
           (Lutjanus sp.) untuk bahan kulit atasan sepatu wanita

    • Authors: Rihastiwi Setiya Murti, Heru Budi Susanto, Asri Dwi Pratiwi
      Pages: 45 - 56
      Abstract: Telah dilakukan penerapan sistem penyamakan kombinasi krom pada kulit ikan kakap merah (Lutjanus sp.) untuk shoe upper sepatu wanita. Kulit ikan kakap merah merupakan limbah dari industri filet ikan kakap yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk bahan baku industri penyamakan kulit. Kulit ikan kakap merah mempunyai rajah yang unik, menarik, dan eksotis, sehingga memungkinkan untuk dibuat menjadi kerajinan maupun sepatu wanita. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kombinasi yang optimum antara bahan penyamak krom, nabati, dan glutaraldehid untuk shoe upper sepatu wanita. Terdapat 3 variasi kombinasi penyamakan yaitu kombinasi krom-krom, kombinasi krom-glutaraldehid, dan kombinasi krom-mimosa. Sifat-sifat mekanis, parameter ekolabel, identifikasi gugus fungsional, morfologi permukaan, dan distribusi unsur-unsur dalam kulit ikan kakap merah tersamak telah diuji. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa sistem penyamakan kombinasi krom-mimosa merupakan formula yang optimum untuk bahan kulit atasan sepatu wanita. Seluruh variasi penyamakan memenuhi persyaratan kriteria ekolabel SNI 19-7188.3.1-2006.
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6215
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Degradation of surfactant waste of leather tanning using Fe2O3/activated
           carbon catalyst

    • Authors: Shinta Amelia, Witri Rahmadani, Laeli Rizki Amalia, Zahrul Mufrodi
      Pages: 49 - 54
      Abstract: The development of the tannery industry in addition to being beneficial for the economic growth of the community also has a negative impact on the environment due to the disposal of waste produced. Components of waste produced from the leather tanning industry include residual protein and fat, surfactants, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, coloring and tanning agents. One component that is found in surfactants and often pollutes waters is alkyl benzene sulfonate and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate surfactants. Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) is an anionic surfactant that has a very long and branched carbon chain that is difficult to degrade by microorganisms in nature. Characterization and testing of the activity of porous/activated carbon catalysts will be carried out. The type of porous activated carbon used is coconut shell carbon with microspores character. The stages of this research consisted of the process of impregnation of iron oxide on porous carbon, the surfactant waste degradation process and the characterization of the catalysts produced. Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that the catalyst Fe2O3/coconut shell activated carbon is very effective to be applied for the degradation of surfactant waste. The degradation capacity of surfactant wastes increases with increasing concentration of active site Fe. The capacity of the surfactant waste degradation reaction using coconut shell catalyst at t = 3 hours for variations in the concentration of Fe 2%, 4% and 6% respectively 6.77 mmol/gram catalyst, 3.18 mmol/gram catalyst and 1.61 mmol/gram catalyst. The data show that the surfactant waste degradation reaction capacity increases with the increase in the composition of iron oxide added to the surface of the porous carbon support.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5607
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Application of Tegeran (Maclura cochinchinensis) bark as natural tanning
           agent for the quality of tilapia fish skin

    • Authors: Gresy Griyanitasari, Iwan Fajar Pahlawan, Umi Reza Lestari
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Chrome is a tanning material that is very harmful to the environment hence its role is being replaced with vegetable tanning materials. One of the natural ingredients that contain tannin is Tegeran (M. cochinchinensis) wood. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of M. cochinchinensis as natural tanning agent for tilapia fish skin. Tannin contained in the M. cochinchinensis was being extracted using three solvents: water, ethanol, and water-ethanol (1:1). The composition of the material and the solvent was 1:4. It was heated in the waterbath at temperature 70 °C for 3 hours. The results showed that the use of M. cochinchinensis as natural tanning agent could at once gave unique color to the tanned fish skin. The average of shrinkage temperature was 78.11°C. Leather tanned with M. cochinchinensis that was extracted with water showed higher value of tensile strength and tear strength than those with ethanol and water-ethanol.

      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5503
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Karakteristik Marshall dari aspal termodifikasi crepe rubber

    • Authors: Bahruddin Bahruddin, Arya Wiranata, Alfian Malik, Robby Kumar
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Karet alam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai aditif aspal, baik dalam bentuk lateks, cup lump, dan karet padat (crumb rubber, block skim rubber, dan lain-lain). Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh penambahan crepe rubber dan antioksidan 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-quinoline (TMQ) terhadap karakteristik Marshall. Karet alam mentah dalam bentuk cup lump digiling menggunakan creeper hingga didapatkan crepe rubber dengan dry rubber content >95%, lalu dimastikasi menggunakan open mill. Selanjutnya, crepe rubber dilelehkan pada 200 °C sebelum dicampur dengan aspal pada 165 °C. Kadar crepe rubber dalam campuran aspal bervariasi, yaitu 8, 10, dan 12% (b/b). Selama proses pencampuran ditambahkan antioksidan TMQ dengan kadar 1%, 2%, 3% (b/b). Sampel aspal karet diuji karakteristik Marshall sesuai ASTM D6927. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan penambahan crepe rubber meningkatkan stabilitas aspal dalam menahan beban. Hasil optimum diperoleh dengan perlakuan 10% crepe rubber, 2% TMQ, dan 5,50% aspal, dimana memiliki stabilitas Marshall 1.403,96 kg, VFA 75,90%, VIM 3,07%, VMA 15,34%, flow 3,370 mm, dan MQ 416,605 kg/mm.
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6108
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The preparation of dual-functional hydrogel as the surface coating of
           plastics in biomedical applications

    • Authors: Nan Zhao, Bidhari Pidhatika
      Pages: 63 - 74
      Abstract: Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOXA) is among polymers that have been reported to show anti-adhesive (bio-passive) behavior in numerous biomaterial applications. This work aimed to develop dual-functional hydrogel coatings, with PEOXA as hydrophilic polymer and benzophenone as cross-linker. PEOXA was partially hydrolyzed in acidic conditions to form PEOXA-m% EI that contains ethyleneimine (EI) groups. The EI groups were used as conjugation sites for incorporation of benzophenone (BP) molecules to PEOXA chains to form PEOXA-m% EIBP. Thin films of surface-attached polymer networks were generated from PEOXA-m% EIBP copolymers composed of PEOXA as platform and benzophenone as crosslinker units. The polymer became crosslinked through benzophenone units and forms a hydrogel as biopassive platform during irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Laminin was incorporated into biopassive polymer network to allow for preparation of dual-functional hydrogel. NMR spectra indicated successful control of PEOXA partial hydrolysis and conjugation of benzophenone molecules to PEOXA chains. Ellipsometry and ATR-FTIR results showed that wavelength of UV light during C, H-insertion reaction influences stability of polymer network (hydrogel) on the substrate surface. XPS spectra verified that a stable film could be generated using suitable UV light during preparation of polymer network. Cell culture study on laminin/PEOXA-coated PMAA plastics showed dual-functional properties.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5604
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Karakteristik plastik biodegradable dari limbah polipropilena dan pati
           tandan kosong kelapa sawit melalui metode pencampuran kering

    • Authors: Elda Pelita, Tengku Rachmi Hidayani, Risma Sari, Irfan Rusmar, Trisna Yuniarti
      Pages: 65 - 72
      Abstract: Pemanfaatan limbah plastik polipropilena dan tandan kosong kelapa sawit dilakukan dengan cara mengolah serta menggabungkan limbah plastik polipropilena dengan pati tandan kosong sawit menjadi plastik biodegradable yang mudah terurai di alam. Modifikasi komposisi yang digunakan pada pembuatan plastik biodegradable adalah limbah plastik dan pati tandan kosong sawit adalah (80:20; 70:30; 60:40). Metode pencetakan plastik biodegradable adalah dengan metode kempa tekan panas. Hasil karakterisasi plastik biodegradable dengan komposisi optimum yaitu pada perbandingan 60:40 menunjukkan harga kekuatan tarik 6,54 N/m2 dan kemuluran 2,42%. Hasil analisa sifat biodegradable-nya didapatkan penurunan massa yang telah ditanam selama 1 bulan yaitu pada tanah sampah sebesar 6,78% dan analisa dengan FT-IR ditemukan bilangan gelombang 1165 cm-1 yang menunjukkan gugus fungsi C-O bending yang khas untuk menunjukkan ikatan antara limbah plastik polipropilena ter-grafting maleat anhidrida dan pati yang didukung dengan bilangan gelombang 1590-1560 cm-1 yang menunjukkan gugus fungsi C=C pada maleat anhidrida dan polipropilena yang terikat silang.
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.5841
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Utilization of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L and Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
           extracts as natural dyes for sheepskins leather with different mordants

    • Authors: Dona Rahmawati, Umi Reza Lestari, Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Natural dye, as dyeing material, delivers beautiful and distinctive color, synthetic chemical free, easy to get, easy to degrade, and produces non-toxic liquid waste. Natural dyes require mordant to attach the dye molecules into the leather fibers. This study aimed to determine the effect of mordant in the leather dyeing process using natural dyes extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam wood and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. flowers. The treatment was using three kinds of mordant, i.e. alum, citric acid, and zinc sulfate, with pre-mordanting method, 3% by weight of the sheepskins crust leather tanned with chrome and syntan. The result of the dry rub fastness was excellent (score 5). The wet rub fastness of dyed leather with citric acid mordant was good (score 4 - 4/5), while for alum mordant was quite good (score 3/4). Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam wood extract produced better wet rub fastness compared to Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. flowers extract. Citric acid mordant produced colors with the highest brightness level for both natural dyes extracts compared to alum and zinc sulfate. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam wood extract produced a brighter color compared to Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. flowers extract with the same mordant. The visual result of the dyeing process was brownish-yellow.
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6410
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The effect of PVC’s resin K-value on the mechanical properties of
           the artificial leather

    • Authors: Muh. Wahyu Syabani, Cynthia Devi, Indri Hermiyati, Andreas D Angkasa
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Artificial leather offer wide variety of application thus the demand is increased over time. The variation of the product needs different properties that can be achieved using resin with suitable k-value.This works reports the influence of the resin k-value on the mechanical properties of the artificial leather. The combination of various resin with different k-value (66, 68, 72, 74, and 76)is used and the tensile strength and elongation at break of the product were evaluated. The results show that blending the PVC resin with different k-value can be used to adjust the easier processing of the lower k-value and better mechanical properties of the higher k-value. Larger k-value differences between two resin make more difficulties of resin blending thus give more defect. For the blending of two resin, the tensile strength and elongation value would be between both of the resin initial properties. The final properties will be closer to the resin with a higher percentage in the resin blending.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5639
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Characteristics of organic fertilizer derived from fleshing waste with
           teak (Tectona grandis) wood scrap

    • Authors: Gresy Griyanitasari, Iwan Fajar Pahlawan
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: The processing of leather tanning industry wastes into useful products is a one way to solve the industrial problem. This research aimed to evaluate the characteristics of organic fertilizer after the composting process of skins/hides fleshing waste with the addition of teak wood scrap as rice husk substitution. The study was an initial research to analyze the organic fertilizer, quantitatively and qualitatively. The compliance of SNI 19-7030-2004, regarding the specification of compost from organic domestic wastes, was set as the reference. Rice husk, which is commonly added in the composting process, was used as a comparison. The materials used in this study were fleshing waste, rice bran, bio-activator, rice husk, and teak wood scraps. The results showed that the organic compound, moisture, C organic, carbon, and total N content of teak wood scraps and rice husk were similar. Thus, the resulted fleshing waste-based fertilizer has similar value of macro and micro element. Through comparing the parameter quality of organic waste in the Indonesian national standard of SNI 19-7030-2004, teak wood scrap can be used as an alternative to substitute rice husk in the composting process of fleshing waste to support the sustainability of the leather tannery.
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6393
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Aplikasi minyak sulfat dari minyak kelapa sawit (Elaeis guinensis JACQ)
           sebagai fatliquoring

    • Authors: Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Rihastiwi Setiya Murti, Tiyastiti Suraya, Sugihartono Sugihartono
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jumlah H2SO4 dan waktu sulfatasi terhadap kualitas kulit tersamak. Bahan baku yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah minyak kelapa sawit curah (tidak bermerek) dan bahan lain seperti H2SO4, NaCl, dan NaOH. Variabel yang diamati meliputi variasi jumlah H2SO4 dan waktu sulfatasi pada pembuatan minyak sulfat. Pengujian dilakukan terhadap minyak sulfat yang dihasilkan dan kulit jadi hasil aplikasi minyak sulfat pada kulit. Pengujian minyak sulfat meliputi uji kimia: kadar air, pH, kadar minyak, total alkalinitas, angka penyabunan, kadar abu, angka Iodine dan kadar SO3 terikat. Pengujian kulit meliputi pengamatan kulit hasil aplikasi minyak secara visual, uji fisis dan kimia (meliputi ketebalan, kekuatan sobek, kekuatan tarik, kemuluran, dan kadar minyak) dan uji SEM-EDX. Semua minyak sulfat hasil penelitian dapat diaplikasikan pada kulit dengan jumlah minyak 8% dan tidak timbul bercak-bercak lemak (fatty spew) pada permukaan kulit. Minyak sulfat yang optimal adalah minyak sulfat dengan jumlah H2SO4 sebesar 12,5% dan waktu sulfatasi 4 jam. Secara kimia minyak sulfat (12,5 – 4) memenuhi persyaratan IS: 6357-1971, spesifikasi minyak sulfat untuk kulit dengan nilai kadar air 5,16%; kadar abu 2,17%; total alkalinitas 0,79%; kadar lemak 88,42 %; pH 6,60; kadar SO3 terikat 6,49%. Jumlah H2SO4 (10 dan 12,5%) dan waktu sulfatasi (0, 1, 2, 3, dan 4 jam) berpengaruh terhadap kualitas kulit tersamak. Aplikasi 8% minyak sulfat (12,5 – 4) pada kulit merupakan perlakuan yang optimal dan memenuhi persyaratan SNI 0253:2009 Kulit bagian atas alas kaki – kulit kambing (BSN, 2009). Kualitas kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan yaitu dengan nilai kekuatan sobek 15,60 N/cm ; kekuatan tarik 16,77 N/mm2; kemuluran 48,36% dan kadar minyak 7,57% dan secara visual kulit hasil aplikasi minyak sulfat (12,5 – 4) tidak nampak adanya fatty spew.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5632
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Properties of microfibrillar cellulose filled thermoplastic natural
           rubber: Morphology, mechanical properties, and melt flow index

    • Authors: Ihda Novia Indrajati, Indiah Ratna Dewi, Dwi Wahini Nurhajati
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) was derived from local pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) and employed as filler in thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR), that was a blend of natural rubber (NR) and polypropylene (PP). The blends were prepared by dynamic vulcanization. The performance of MFC-filled TPNR on morphology, mechanical properties, aging behavior, and melt flow index (MFI) were evaluated in this study. MFC was synthesized through several processing steps, including extraction, bleaching, acid hydrolysis, and ball-milling mechanical treatment. The blends were made in a fixed ratio of 60/40 (NR/PP) with various fiber concentration. The blending of NR/PP was performed by Rheomix internal mixer at 160 °C for 15 minutes with turning rotor of 90 rpm. The results showed that the particle size distribution of MFC was rather broad with some web-like agglomerates. An improvement in tensile strength was observed at low fiber loading. Fiber improved the tear strength, but decreased the elongation at break as expected. The hardness was independent to fiber loading. The morphology of fractured sample of TPNR showed fibrous structure indicating plastic deformation. MFC decreased the melt flow index of TPNR. The MFI value ranges between 3 – 5 g/10 min. One phr of MFC resulted in ultimate mechanical properties with considerable melt flow.
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6522
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Mechanical properties and crystallinity of linear low density polyethylene
           based biocomposite film

    • Authors: Dodi Irwanto, Bidhari Pidhatika, Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Syaiful Harjanto
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: Cassava starch filled linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films are made in order to make plastics which environmentally friendly. The use of compatibilizer ethylene - acrylic ester - maleic anhydride polymerized is needed to obtain a compatible mixture of starch which is hydrophilic and LLDPE which is hydrophobic. In this study LLDPE films obtained were tested for tensile strength and elongation before and after accelerated aging and density. Melt flow index (MFI) of the film was also measured to determine the rheological properties. Crystallinity has been done by an X-Ray diffraction. The results showed that the addition of thermoplastic starch tended to reduce the tensile strength, elongation, and MFI values but increase the density of LLDPE films. The aging process at a temperature of 70°C ± 2°C for 168 hours ± 2 hours tends to increase the tensile strength but decrease the extension of the break.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5624
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Pengaruh ukuran partikel arang dari limbah tutup botol plastik terhadap
           kualitas briket

    • Authors: Erlinda Ningsih, Kartika Udyani, Agus Budianto, Nur Hamidah, Siti Afifa
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Jumlah limbah plastik bertambah seiring peningkatan penggunaan plastik khususnya pada industri makanan. Limbah plastik merupakan limbah yang sangat sulit diurai dan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk terurai. Tutup botol plastik tergolong jenis plastik PP yang penggunaannya disarankan hanya sekali pakai. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ukuran partikel terhadap karakteristik briket dari botol plastik berdasarkan analisis proksimat. Analisis proksimat yang dilakukan adalah kadar air, kadar abu, kadar zat menguap, kadar karbon terikat, dan nilai kalor. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan yaitu suhu pembakaran 450 °C, waktu pembakaran 60 menit, dan ukuran partikel 40, 60, dan 100 mesh. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada ukuran partikel 40 mesh memiliki karakteristik terbaik yaitu kadar air 0,5±0,05%, kadar abu 2±0,25%, kadar zat menguap 15±0,51%, kadar karbon terikat 82,5±0,32%, dan nilai kalor sebesar 9.982,779±240,017 kal/gram. Berdasarkan hasil analisis proksimat dapat disimpulkan bahwa ukuran partikel 40 mesh dapat meningkatkan kualitas briket dibandingkan 100 mesh.
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v36i2.6140
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2020)
       
 
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