Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PLASTICS (42 journals)

Showing 1 - 32 of 32 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
International Journal of Biobased Plastics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access  
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Plastics Engineering     Partially Free  
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science, Series A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
SPE Polymers     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Polymer Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.299
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0730-6679 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2329
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • On the Network Strength of Meta-Aramid Fiber Suspension and Its
           Relationship to Formation

    • Abstract: Because of poor surface hydrophilicity, meta-aramid fibers readily form flocs by intertwining or interlacing, and this severely affects the uniformity of meta-aramid paper. To investigate the flocculation mechanism of meta-aramid fiber suspensions, the critical flocculant concentration, shear, and compressive network strength of meta-aramid fiber suspensions were examined. A hand sheet former was used to study the influence of the yielding properties of suspensions on the uniformity of meta-aramid paper, and the relationship between the formation index and rheological properties was determined. The results showed that the critical gel concentration ranged from 0.37 to 0.68 g/L, which was much lower than that of plant fiber suspensions. In addition, the compressive yield stress () and shear yield stress () of the meta-aramid fiber suspensions were found to increase linearly and exponentially, respectively, with an increasing concentration, and the uniformity index of the paper sheets was found to depend on a power of . This provides an effective method for predicting paper sheet uniformity.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 05:35:01 +000
  • Highly Effective Crosslinker for Redox-Sensitive Gene Carriers

    • Abstract: Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been extensively used as a common gene carrier due to its high gene transfection efficiency. PEI1.8k shows significantly lower cytotoxicity than its high molecular weight counterparts. However, it also has the problem of low gene transfection efficiency. To address the dilemma, a highly effective crosslinker (DTME) was synthesized to react with PEI1.8k to obtain CS-PEI1.8k. The reaction showed several advantages, such as a fast process in room temperature within nine hours with the product which can directly complex with DNA after removing the solvent. The ability of CS-PEI1.8k to agglomerate with DNA was proven by particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assays. The cytotoxic in vitro transfection ability and cell internalization capacity of CS-PEI1.8k were tested to verify the transfection capacity of CS-PEI1.8k. Moreover, we also studied the mechanism of the relatively high level of gene transfection by this binary complex compared with PEI25k.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 07:05:01 +000
  • Facile Production of Graphene/Polypropylene Composites with Enhanced
           Electrical and Thermal Properties through In Situ Artificial Latex

    • Abstract: In order to obtain the unique properties of graphene-based composites, to realize homogeneous dispersion of graphene throughout the polymer matrix remains the key challenge. In this work, edge-oxidized graphene/polypropylene (EOGr/PP) composites with well-dispersed EOGr in PP matrix, synchronously exhibiting high electrical conductivity and thermal property, were simply fabricated for the first time using a novel strategy by in situ artificial PP latex preparation in the presence of EOGr based on solution-emulsification technique. The good dispersion state of EOGr in the PP matrix was demonstrated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A blue shift in Raman G peak of the EOGr nanosheets was observed in the EOGr/PP composites, indicating the strong interactions between the EOGr nanosheets and the PP matrix. The onset crystallization and crystallization peak temperatures increased as the EOGr loading increases due to its good nucleating ability. An improved thermal stability of EOGr/PP composites was observed as evaluated by TGA. The EOGr/PP composites showed an insulator-to-conductor percolation transition in between that of 1 and 2 wt% EOGr content. Such strategy provides a very effective pathway to fabricate high-performance nonpolar polymer/graphene composites with excellent dispersion state of graphene.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Dec 2021 07:05:02 +000
  • Effect of Lanthanum Cerium Cysteine on Cure Characteristics, Mechanical
           Properties, and Thermooxidative Aging for Natural Rubber

    • Abstract: In this work, a novel additive lanthanum cerium cysteine (LC-Cys), with the molecular formula La0.35Ce0.65(Cys)3Cl3·3H2O, was successfully synthesized through complex decomposition reaction of L-Cysteine and chlorinated rare earths. The effects of additive LC-Cys on cure characteristics, mechanical properties, and thermooxidative aging were investigated. LC-Cys as a multifunctional additive was applied to increase the curing rate and reduce the content of zinc oxide in the presence of the sulfur vulcanization system. It was found that the vulcanizates filled with (5ZnO/2LC-Cys) exhibited the highest modulus, which indirectly indicated the high crosslink and stiffness of the vulcanizates. Moreover, the vulcanizates with LC-Cys showed excellent mechanical properties and resistance to thermooxidative aging. Compared to NR composites filled with normal ZnO, LC-Cys even enhanced the mechanical strength and thermooxidative aging properties with 40% lower ZnO addition.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:35:00 +000
  • Predicting the Swelling Behavior of Acrylic Superabsorbent Polymers Used
           in Diapers

    • Abstract: Acrylic polymer is a superabsorbent for water and widely used in diapers, in which its swelling behavior can be significantly affected by several factors, i.e., the time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration, and thus the product performance in the applications. In this work, the water absorption behavior of acrylic superabsorbent polymers by each of these individual factors was investigated. The results showed that the water absorbency increases with the pH in the range of 2 to ~7 and decreases when the pH continues to increase. However, it decreases with the increases in NaCl concentration in the solution. Moreover, more water can be absorbed by the acrylic polymers at the higher temperature. Based on a previously developed kinetic swelling model and the information from the above investigations, a semiempirical model for predicting the swelling behavior of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) under different conditions has been developed. Data showed that the model can predict (with a relative error of
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 10:35:00 +000
  • Apparent Molecular Weight Distributions for Investigating Aging in
           Polymer-Modified Bitumen

    • Abstract: The oxidative aging of bituminous binders affects the performance and durability of pavements. In the case of polymer-modified binders, aging involves both bitumen and polymers and has a strong impact on the whole architecture of the material. Rheology may help in understanding these structural changes, and interesting information may be obtained by analysing the evolution of apparent molecular weight distributions. This was demonstrated with a bituminous binder modified with a poly(styrene-butadiene) block copolymer and subjected to prolonged artificial aging. Isothermal frequency sweep tests were used to construct master curves of the phase angle and magnitude of the complex modulus. The master curves were then used to calculate relaxation spectra and apparent molecular weight distributions of the binders, as well as simulated temperature sweep tests. A comparison of the behaviour of the base and modified bitumen highlighted the role of the polymer in aging. Polymer degradation significantly damages the elastomeric network, yet the residual polymer chains still interact with the bitumen molecules and reduce their oxidative aging. The apparent molecular weight distributions were deconvoluted to create an aging index specifically developed for polymer-modified bitumen.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 11:05:00 +000
  • Antialgal Synergistic Polystyrene Blended with Polyethylene Glycol and
           Silver Sulfadiazine for Healthcare Applications

    • Abstract: Polystyrene (PS) was blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulfadiazine (SS) with different weight proportions to form polymeric blends. These synthesized blends were preliminary characterized in terms of functional groups through the FTIR technique. All compositions were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis for studying thermal transition and were founded thermally stable even at 280°C. The zeta potential and average diameter of algal strains of Dictyosphaerium sp. (DHM1), Dictyosphaerium sp. (DHM2), and Pectinodesmus sp. (PHM3) were measured to be -32.7 mV, -33.0 mV, and -25.7 mV and 179.6 nm, 102.6 nm, and 70.4 nm, respectively. Upon incorporation of PEG and SS into PS blends, contact angles were decreased while hydrophilicity and surface energy were increased. However, increase of surface energy did not led to decrease of antialgal activities. This has indicated that biofilm adhesion is not a major antialgal factor in these blended materials. The synergetic effect of PEG and SS in PS blends has exhibited significant antialgal activity via the agar disk diffusion method. The PSPS10 composition with 10 PEG and 10 SS has exhibited highest inhibition zones 10.8 mm, 10.8 mm, and 11.3 mm against algal strains DHM1, DHM2, and DHM3, respectively. This thermally stable polystyrene blends with improved antialgal properties have potential for a wide range of applications including marine coatings.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Nov 2021 06:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Sepiolite-Loaded Fe2O3 on Flame Retardancy of Waterborne

    • Abstract: In this study, a kind of inorganic composite flame retardant (Sep@Fe2O3) was prepared by combining solution deposition and calcination methods using sepiolite microfiber material as carrier. This inorganic compound flame retardant was combined with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) through layer-by-layer method to prepare WPU composites. The SEM and EDS, TEM, and XRD were used to characterize the microscopic morphology and crystal structure of WPU composites. Thermogravimetric analysis tests confirmed the good thermal stability of WPU/Sep@Fe2O3 composites; at the temperature of 600°C, the carbon residual percentage of WPU/Sep, WPU/Fe2O3, and WPU/Sep@Fe2O3 composites is 7.3%, 12.2%, and 13.4%, respectively, higher than that of WPU (1.4%). Vertical combustion tests proved better flame-retardant property of WPU/Sep@Fe2O3 composite-coated cotton than noncoated cotton. The microcalorimeter test proved that the PHRR of WPU/Sep@Fe2O3 composites decreased by 61% compared with that of WPU. In addition, after combining with Sep@Fe2O3, the breaking strength of WPU increased by 35%.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Nov 2021 06:35:00 +000
  • Continuous Differential Microemulsion Polymerization to Prepare Nanosized
           Polymer Latices in Microreactors

    • Abstract: Microreactors are a promising platform for continuous synthesis of polymer latices when combined with emulsion polymerization. However, this application has long been haunted by fouling and clogging problems. In this work, we proposed the strategy of conducting differential microemulsion polymerization in microreactors within a biphasic slug flow and achieved rapid and stable preparation of nanosized PMMA latices (polymeric content as high as 15.7% with average particle size smaller than 20 nm). We started by exploring the temperature thresholds with thermal and redox initiation, the effect of initiator concentration, and the kinetic characteristics of microemulsion polymerization at different temperatures. Then, as for the differential microemulsion polymerization, extensive investigation was made into the effects of the volumetric flow ratio, the prepolymerization time, the initiator concentration, and the solid content of the initial microemulsion. Finally, we compared the differential microemulsion polymerization with the soap-free emulsion polymerization in the slug flow. The striking advantages in the polymerization rate, the average particle diameter, and the size distribution reflected higher density of particle nuclei, larger specific surface area of particles, and the pivotal effect of the persistent particle nucleation in the microemulsion polymerization.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Nov 2021 07:35:01 +000
  • Effects of the Interfacial Bonding Behavior on the Mechanical Properties
           of E-Glass Fiber/Nanographite Reinforced Hybrid Composites

    • Abstract: The nanoparticles are incorporated into the composite to mark their unique properties. This work investigates the hybrid epoxy nanocomposite and the impact of nanographite reinforcement. The composite was prepared by using a mechanical stirring technique. The amount of nanographite was added in different volumes, i.e., 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt.%. Results of mechanical and dynamic loading properties were analyzed in accordance to the quantity of nano-G. The fiber and matrix interfacial bonding enrichments were evident in high-resolution SEM images-tensile fracture surface. Finally, the optimum content of nanoparticle which impacts the sample greatly was found to be 1.5 wt.%.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Nov 2021 11:05:01 +000
  • Electrospinning and Catalytic Properties of Cyclodextrin Functionalized
           Polyoxymethylene (POM) Nanofibers Supported by Silver Nanoparticles

    • Abstract: A series of novel composite microfibers composed of β-cyclodextrin (β-CDs) functionalized POM (polyoxymethylene) were prepared using electrospining technology with a mixture of hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The concentration of β-CDs with respect to the POM was varied from 0 to 50 wt.%. The effect of β-CDs content on the morphology of POM/β-CD composite microfiber was investigated. The results showed that the introduction of β-CDs reduced the surface roughness and porosity of the microfibers, and the morphology of the fibers was changed. The increase of β-CDs content from 10% to 50% has led to increased average diameter of POM/β-CD composite fiber from 2.1 μm to 6.4 μm. The mechanical properties of the blend fiber mats were further investigated. In addition, silver nanoparticles were introduced to the POM/β-CD composite microfiber matrices during electrospinning. The POM/β-CD composite fiber allows CDs to form host–guest complexes with various small molecules and macromolecules. The TEM, SEM, XRD, and XPS were utilized to characterize the prepared samples. The data suggest that Ag nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed within the POM/β-CD fibers, and no aggregation was observed. The catalytic activity of Ag nanoparticles was tracked by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy which showed excellent catalytic degradation performance of organic dyes in the presence of NaBH4. The Ag/POM/β-CD mats are promising for use in waste treatment, molecular recognition, catalysis, and so on.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Nov 2021 07:35:01 +000
  • Supramolecular Assembly and Reversible Transition and of Chitosan
           Fluorescent Micelles by Noncovalent Modulation

    • Abstract: Chitosan-based intelligent artificial systems have been of increasing interest for their biocompatibility, multifunctionality, biological activity, and low cost. Herein, we report the fabrication of supramolecular nanoparticles based on water-soluble chitosan (WCS) and 1,1,1,1-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzene-4,1-diyl) tetrakis(azanediyl)tetraacetic acid (TPE-(N-COOH)4), which is capable of reversible transition between polyion complexes (PICs) and hydrogen bonding complexes (HBCs) with tunable aggregation-induced emission driven by pH value. The PIC micelles could be formed via electrostatic interaction between ammonium cations and carboxylate anions under mild alkaline conditions. The formation of the micelles dramatically blocks the nonradiative pathway and enhances the fluorescence of TPE moieties, and the maximum fluorescence intensity was achieved near the isoelectric point due to the restriction of intramolecular motion. In addition, the fluorescence intensity and size of the PIC micelles exhibited a temperature response in the range from 20 to 80°C. Upon adjusting the solution pH to 2, the PIC micelles were reconstructed into hydrogen-bonding complexes while the hydrogen bonding interaction between the protonated carboxyl groups of TPE-(N-COOH)4 and chitosan. Moreover, the size of the micelles underwent a remarkable decrease, whereas the fluorescence emission was further enhanced by ~6.25-fold. The pH actuated micellar transition from PIC to HBC with tunable fluorescence performance is fully reversible. This study provides novel multifunctional materials that are of great importance for their potential application in the fields of optoelectronic devices and chemical and biomedical sensors.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Nov 2021 05:05:01 +000
  • Effects of POE and Carbon Black on the PTC Performance and Flexibility of
           High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    • Abstract: High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon black (CB) is widely used in positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composites. In order to expand its applications to fields that need good flexibility, polyolefin elastomer (POE) was incorporated into HDPE/CB composites as a secondary thermoplastic elastomer phase to provide flexibility. The effects of POE and CB content on the PTC performance and flexibility were investigated. Micro morphology and crystallization behavior are closely related to PTC properties. SEM was conducted to reveal phase morphology and filler dispersion, and DSC was conducted to research crystallization behavior. The results show that the incorporation of 18 wt.% POE can decrease the percolation threshold of conductive carbon black from 22.5 wt.% to 16 wt.%. When the CB content is 30 wt.%, the room temperature resistivity gradually increases with the increasing content of POE because of the barrier effect of POE phase, and the PTC intensity is gradually enhanced. Meanwhile, the PTC switching temperature shifts down to a lower temperature. The incorporation of 18 wt.% POE significantly increases the elongation at break, reaching an ultrahigh value of 980 wt.%, which means great flexibility has been achieved in HDPE/POE/CB composites. This work provides a new method of fabricating PTC composites with balanced electrical and mechanical properties.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Nov 2021 08:35:00 +000
  • Advanced Application of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Fibers for Seed
           Germination Activity

    • Abstract: The increasing intensity of coronavirus (COVID-19) spreading emphasizes the significant development in home food production to reduce the incoming socioeconomic impact from soaring food prices, supply chain fragility, and severe economic crisis. This preliminary study was initiated to demonstrate the possibility of using electrospun fibers as a potential substrate in the application of seed germination activity. The drive of this preliminary study was to integrate the electrospun nanofiber-based material in exploring the current surge in home food production via seed germination in order to introduce cheap source of food without being distracted by the pandemic impact in general. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) was chosen as it is easy and fast to sprout. Four samples of poly (ε-caprolactone)- (PCL-) based fibers were prepared by means of electrospinning technique, with the optimized flow rate between 0.05 and 0.20 ml/min at a fixed distance of 10 cm needle tip to collector. Mung bean seeds were allowed to germinate on the fabricated electrospun PCL fibers for 96 hours. Our observations include germination percentage, seedling weight, radicle length, and plumule growth. The highest radicle length and plumule length of seedlings were 27.8 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively. There were no inhibitory effects on seed germination and minimal structural fragmentation of smaller diameter electrospun fibers as revealed by FESEM. These results show that the seeds were able to germinate on electrospun PCL fiber substrate, owing to the properties of high surface area and excellent fluid water uptake of PCL fibers.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 03:35:01 +000
  • Experimental Study on Reducing the Heat of Curing Reaction of Polyurethane
           Polymer Grouting Material

    • Abstract: Polyurethane polymer grouting material has been effectively applied and promoted in the repair of road damages in nonfrozen areas. However, this material undergoes an exothermic reaction in the curing stage, which can cause a thermal disturbance in the frozen soil subgrade. To minimize the influence of the thermal disturbance of the polyurethane polymer grouting material in the repair of the frozen soil subgrade, an experiment was conducted to reduce the heat of the curing reaction under the influence of different proportions of a foaming agent, high-boiling point solvent, catalyst, and prepolymer. According to these test results, a proportioning scheme for the low exothermic polymer grouting material was formulated. The results indicated that the curing reaction temperature threshold of the polyurethane polymer grouting material was negatively related to the proportion of physical foaming agent (HCFC-141b) and high-boiling point solvent and positively related to the proportion of water weight. In the three stages of rapid temperature rise, slow temperature rise, and constant temperature, the rate of the temperature rise of the low exothermic polymer grouting material was lower than that of the common polymer, and the curing temperature threshold was 30.34% lower at a value of 101°C. At a density of 80 kg/m3, the compressive strength and tensile strength of the low heat release polymer grouting material were lower than those of the common polymer grouting material, thereby ensuring the excellent performance of polyurethane foam and providing a theoretical reference for the rapid repair of frozen soil roadbed diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Oct 2021 03:05:00 +000
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Structure and Dielectric Permittivity of
           BaTiO3/PVDF Composites

    • Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to investigate the structure and dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride)- (PVDF-) based composites with different contents of barium titanate (BT). The β-phase PVDF model with 100 structural units and the spherical BT particle model with a radius of 0.495 nm were built and applied in the initial models with three PVDF macromolecular chains and BT particles for the MD simulations of the BT/PVDF composites. The influences of BT content on the morphological structure, the free volume fraction, and glass transition temperature of the composites were explored according to the simulated results and the experimental ones of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A model was proposed to predict the static dielectric permittivity of the composites, the results of which were compared with the Cole-Cole fitting results of dielectric spectroscopy. Attempts were made to reveal the structure evolution and the micropolarization mechanism with the increasing content of BT.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Sep 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Minireview on Self-Healing Polymers: Versatility, Application, and

    • Abstract: Nature is blessed with self-healing properties. Mimicking nature is a traditional practice to innovate new classes of materials for researchers. In this practice, researchers made a revolutionary approach to innovate self-healing polymer (SHP) that can be used to treat damage-related losses. Different SHPs with various properties have been developed for a wide range of applications. SHPs unlocked the key to the taste of real life through their application and versatility in the sectors close to our day-by-day life of this age and the near future. In this study, we reviewed the scopes and prospects of the application of SHPs owing to different properties. Varieties of amazing properties made SHPs fit in different sectors such as construction, paint and coat, electronics, healthcare, textile, and automotive and aerospace. Similarly, due to having suitable functionality, SHPs can also be used in different industries. Therefore, it is high time to generalize the production of SHPs by suitable research and make sure the easy application for the welfare of human civilization and other living creatures.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Sep 2021 02:20:01 +000
  • Film Properties, Water Retention, and Growth Promotion of Derivative
           Carboxymethyl Cellulose Materials from Cotton Straw

    • Abstract: Three kinds of derivative carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) materials, CMC-Na, CMC-K, and CMC-NH4, were prepared from cotton straw fiber. Their chemical structure, film morphology, water retention, biodegradability, and growth promotion were investigated with infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and field experiments. The results showed that the infrared absorption peaks of the three materials were similar. It was observed that the DCMC materials could form films after being sprayed at the amount of 4.00 g/m2 and 12.00 g/m2, and the film thickness was showed in the order of CMC-K, CMC-NH4, and CMC-Na. The largest water holding capacity increased significantly after DCMC was sprayed on the soil. The water retention of CMC-Na, CMC-K, and CMC-NH4 increased by 47.74%, 72.85%, and 61.40% severally while sprayed with 12.00 g/m2 compared to the control group (CK), and the water retention rate increased with 6.93, 9.75, and 8.67 times, respectively, on the seventh day. The total number of soil microorganisms increased with the DCMC materials being sprayed; the number in the upper layer increased by 92.31%, 123.08%, and 138.46%, respectively, compared with CK. When the three materials were used to the cornfield at the amount of 100.00 kg/hm2, the corn yield increased by 33.11%, 70.93%, and 50.60%, respectively. The DCMC materials, as the sole carbon source, could be degraded by soil microorganisms. The nutrient elements such as NH4+ in the materials could further promote the growth of microorganisms and crops. This study might provide a new way to apply straw-based DCMC in soil water retention, soil amendment, and high value-added transformation of straws in arid areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Sep 2021 02:35:01 +000
  • Degradation of PVDF-Coated Fabrics after Engineering Applications:
           Correlations between Surface Microstructure, Physical Properties, and
           Mechanical Properties Based on Statistical Analysis

    • Abstract: Material degradation has marked impact on the long-term properties and service life of membrane structures. This study is aimed at assessing and understanding the deterioration in visual aspect, surface microstructure, and mechanical properties of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer after engineering applications. Three groups of PVDF-coated fabrics were removed from different membrane structures in China, which have been used for 15, 16, and 19 years, respectively. Firstly, spectrocolorimetry tests were carried out to determine the evolution of chromaticity and lightness. Other methods such as contact angle and thickness measurements were used to characterize the physical properties. Then, surface morphology was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) technology. Moreover, a series of uniaxial tensile tests and tearing tests were performed to obtain the mechanical indicators including uniaxial tensile strength, strain at break, tearing strength, and uniaxial elastic modulus. In order to further study the degradation mechanism, infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the molecular structure of aged fabrics. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) provided a comprehensive description of correlations between surface microstructure, physical properties, and mechanical properties. This paper offers a further understanding of the design, qualification, and durability evaluation of membrane structures.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Sep 2021 01:50:01 +000
  • Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Particles with Different Microstructure for
           Improving the Toughness of Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Resin

    • Abstract: Herein, acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA) particles with different microstructure were synthesized by emulsion polymerization and then used for toughening poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) resin. The structure of ASA particles was confirmed by FTIR. TEM results demonstrated that the particles with different morphologies of multilobe shape, complete core-shell and dumbbell shape were obtained depending on the cross-linker amount. It was found that the toughening efficiency reached the highest when the ASA particles had complete core-shell structure and the shell composition was close to that of the SAN matrix. It was ascribed to the fact that the complete shell layer and similar shell composition provided sufficient interfacial adhesion and transferred stress to induce larger matrix deformation, so that the notched impact strength increased accordingly. Moreover, the notched impact strength of SAN/ASA blend was improved without significantly sacrificing tensile strength when adding 30 wt% ASA particles with the size of around 400 nm. SEM results of the impact-fractured surfaces revealed that irregular fluctuation and numerous microvoids occurred. It was deduced that the toughening mechanism was attributed to the crazings and cavitation of particles. Therefore, this study paved a way of toughening the resin by adjusting the microstructure of the particles including morphology, composition, and size.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Sep 2021 05:20:01 +000
  • Formulation, In Vitro Evaluation, and Toxicity Studies of A.
           vulgaris-co-AAm Carrier for Vildagliptin

    • Abstract: This study investigated the use of Artemisia vulgaris L. seed mucilage as a new excipient for sustained delivery of Vildagliptin. Copolymeric carrier of A. vulgaris seed mucilage-co-AAm was devised by using acrylamide (AAm) as a monomer, methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker, and potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator through free radical polymerization. Different formulations of A. vulgaris-co-AAm were devised by varying contents of polymer, monomer, crosslinking agent, initiator, and reaction temperature. Copolymeric structures were characterized through XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, TGA and DSC analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Porosity, gel fraction, and Vildagliptin loading capacity of copolymers were also established. Swelling and in vitro drug release studies were conducted. XRD evaluation showed the alteration of the crystalline structure of Vildagliptin into an amorphous form. FTIR analysis confirmed the successful grafting of AAm to A. vulgaris seed mucilage backbone. Porosity was increased with increasing polymer concentration and reaction temperature while it was decreased with an increasing amount of AAm, MBA, and KPS. Gel content was decreased with increasing polymer concentration and reaction temperature while it was increased with an increasing amount of AAm, MBA, and KPS. Acute oral toxicity of copolymeric network was done in animal models to evaluate the safety. Copolymers showed the same swelling behavior at all pH 1.2, 4.5, 6.8, and 7.4. Vildagliptin release from copolymer showed a cumulative trend by increasing polymer content and reaction temperature, while a declining trend was observed with increasing contents of monomer, crosslinking agent, and initiator. Sustained release of Vildagliptin was observed from copolymers and release followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. From the acute oral toxicity studies, it is evident that newly synthesized copolymeric carriers are potentially safe for eyes, skin, and vital organs.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jul 2021 04:50:01 +000
  • Introduction to the New Copolymer of Chloroprene and Acrylonitrile with
           Differentiated Properties

    • Abstract: The random copolymer of chloroprene and acrylonitrile is a newly developed rubber whose features and value propositions are not scientifically explored yet. This article focuses on the basic characterizations and properties of acrylonitrile-chloroprene rubber. Qualitative analyses through infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra confirm the presence of both the -Cl and -CN groups in the new rubber. As evidenced through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), the single glass transition temperature of acrylonitrile-chloroprene rubber reflects its monophasic random microstructure. While compared against commercial grades of chloroprene rubber (CR) and nitrile rubber (NBR), the new rubber provides a distinctive combination of properties that are not available with either of the elastomer alone. Acrylonitrile-chloroprene rubber demonstrates slightly lower specific gravity, an improved low-temperature compression set, higher flex-fatigue resistance, and lower volume swelling in IRM 903 and Fuel C to chloroprene rubber. As compared to nitrile rubber, the new copolymer shows appreciably better heat aging and ozone resistance. Good abrasion resistance, low heat buildup, and remarkably high flex-fatigue resistance indicate excellent durability of the acrylonitrile-chloroprene rubber under dynamic loading. Based on the preliminary results, it is apparent that the new copolymer can be a candidate elastomer for various industrial applications which demand good fluid resistance, high heat and low-temperature tolerances, good weatherability, and durability under static and dynamic conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jul 2021 07:20:02 +000
  • Corrosion Resistance Synergistic Appraisal of Titanium-Impregnated
           Bisphenol A-Type Epoxy Duplex Coating System in Stimulated and Natural
           Marine Environments of Southeastern Coastal Area of China–Pakistan
           Economic Corridor

    • Abstract: This research endeavor is aimed at developing a protective coating for marine service conditions of the southeastern coastal area of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor. Bisphenol A-type epoxy-based protective coatings were prepared by impregnating exotic titanium metal microparticles into two different proportions, i.e., 5% and 10% (). Film hardness measurement by pencil test, adhesion measurement by the crosshatch-tape test, chemical and heat resistance test, gloss measurement, natural exposure, and salt spray testing have demonstrated that Ti-enriched coatings have performed better than the virgin epoxy coating. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy has depicted more surface degradation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has indicated higher mass loss and chain scission in the virgin epoxy coating than the Ti-enriched coatings. In addition, these Ti microparticles have filled up the cavities/imperfections, reduced cracking, promoted crosslinking during the curing, and cordoned-off passage of corrodents and moisture, thus improving epoxy resin coating features. These results have widened the scope of Ti-embedded epoxy coatings against atmospheric corrosion for highly corrosive marine sites.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jul 2021 07:20:00 +000
  • Gamma Rays Induced Modification in Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    • Abstract: Modifications taking place in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films due to gamma ray radiation-induced and investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Films were irradiated in a vacuum at room temperature by a 1.25 MeV Co60 a source with doses ranging from 0 to 300 kGg. The optical, chemical, structural, and surface morphological properties of the irradiated and unirradiated UHMWPE films were investigated by UV-Visible, FTIR, XRD, and SEM, respectively. The band gap decreases with increasing radiation dose and coloration effects have been seen at higher doses. FTIR spectra show an oscillatory behavior in the transmittance intensities without affecting in their peak positions. Number of small absorption peaks can be seen clearly which may be due to the cross-linking of the polymeric chain. No significant change in crystalline peak has been found in the X-ray diffraction pattern indicating the structural stability of the polymer. The morphology of the smooth topography of the polymer samples to change rougher one polymeric sample shows the formation of microvoids on the surface of the polymeric materials with the increase of the doses from 0 to 300 kGy.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jun 2021 05:05:01 +000
  • Effects of Posttreatments on the Storage Stability of Reclaimed Rubber

    • Abstract: Reclaimed rubber should be considered a source of new material with an economic impact, so the recycling of waste rubber is especially important. In this paper, sulfur-cured waste tire rubber powder is successfully devulcanized in a normal-pressure continuous regeneration system under the application of an activator and aromatic oil. Then, the reclaimed rubber was subjected to further mechanical shearing using a two-roll mill, rubber extruder, and rubber strainer. The effects of the storage time at room temperature on the properties and structure of reclaimed rubber were examined by sol fraction measurement, Mooney viscosity measurement, crosslink density measurement, tensile property testing, and Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA) measurement. The results under the test conditions indicated that different postprocessing operations were not making much difference to the properties of the reclaimed rubber. But the effect of storage time is more significant; the Mooney viscosity value increased from 65 to 90 when the storage period increases to 60 days, the sol fraction decreased, and the crosslink and density storage modulus also increased with increasing storage time due to the slow recombination and aggregation of the molecular fragments with free radicals happening in the reclaimed rubber during the storage.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 May 2021 11:05:01 +000
  • Surface Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Polymer Brushes for
           Improving Thermal Properties of the Polymer Matrix

    • Abstract: In this work, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) with controlled structures would be grafted on graphene material. The hybrid materials were prepared by coating graphene oxide (GO) with polydopamine (PDA) as a reactive underlayer and reducing agent, subsequently, surface-initiated polymerization of monomers (methyl methacrylate, styrene) based on the activators regenerated electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) technique. The polymer brush-modified graphene materials were then incorporated into the PMMA or PS matrix to get polymer nanocomposites with better thermal properties. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that PMMA and PS chains were successfully anchored on the surfaces of functionalized GO sheets. The influence of the grafted polymer brush-modified GO on thermal stability of PMMA and PS was investigated by a simultaneous thermal analyzer. Thermal conductivity of the polymer nanocomposite was determined by a conductive calorimeter. The results showed that thermal stability, glass transition temperature (), and thermal conductivity of the polymer nanocomposites were obviously improved compared with pure PMMA or PS.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 May 2021 08:50:00 +000
  • Investigation of the Large-Scale Pallet by Recycled Polypropylene and the
           Sequential Valve Gate System during the Injection Molding

    • Abstract: Plastic pallets are essential devices for the transport of industrial products within containers and can be made from recycled plastics to be more environmentally friendly. However, numerous thin reinforcing ribs are required to mold such large-size pallets, thereby requiring a large-scale injection-molding machine. Many filling gates can reduce the welding lines to enhance the structural strength of the pallet to achieve injection molding using a lower locking force machine. This study simulated the production of recycled polypropylene plastic pellets using a 3500-ton super-large injection-molding machine and the Moldex3D package to derive the flow analysis of the moldability. The PTC Creo software is used to construct plastic pallets (), filled by twelve gates using a baffle cooling system. During the four-stage filling of the sequential valve gate system, the flow front spreads from the central gate to the four corners of the pallet, decreasing the number of welding lines, with an average filling pressure of 19.23 MPa by a sequential valve gate scheme which is approximately 65% of the concurrent valve gate opening scheme. The maximum clamping force by this sequential valve gate opening scheme in the molding of plastic pallet is 874.6 tons, only half of the one by concurrent valve gate opening scheme. The average welding angle was 85.7° in the concurrent valve gate opening scheme, with smaller angles than that of the sequential gates controlled scheme. The maximum temperatures during the filling by the two schemes with the concurrent valve gates opened and the sequential gates controlled were 230.5 and 232.5°C, respectively. The sequential valve gate opening scheme’s warpages are smaller than the ones by the concurrent valve gate opening scheme. The warpages of the pallet by the sequential valve gate system are smaller than the ones by the concurrent valve gate system. A higher temperature of the cooling channel and a medium level of cooling time result in lower warpage of the pallet.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Apr 2021 06:35:01 +000
  • The Effect of a Zinc-Containing Additive on the Properties of PVC

    • Abstract: Polymeric materials that undergo degradation under the influence of biological media have attracted widespread attention in recent decades. This is due to the ability to eliminate the negative impact on the environment, gradually reducing the scale of plastic waste pollution. At the same time, it remains relevant to ensure the necessary performance characteristics of products for a certain period of use. An important direction in the field of biodegradable composite compositions is the development of nontoxic additives in order to ensure their safe interaction with biological media. In this regard, a method has been developed for the joint production of a new nontoxic plasticizer decyl phenoxyethyl adipate and a biocidal additive of zinc decyl adipate. The effect of the obtained additives on the biodegradation of PVC film samples under natural conditions was studied. The period of biocidal action of zinc compound formed in situ in an amount of 0.3% in the composition of PVC films using the developed plasticizer was determined.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Apr 2021 10:35:00 +000
  • End-of-Life Options for (Bio)degradable Polymers in the Circular Economy

    • Abstract: End-of-life options for plastics include recycling and energy recovery (incineration). Taking into account the polymeric waste, recycling is the intentional action that is aimed at reducing the amount of waste deposited in landfills by industrial use of this waste to obtain raw materials and energy. The incineration of waste leads to recovery of the energy only. Recycling methods divide on mechanical (reuse of waste as a full-valuable raw material for further processing), chemical (feedstock recycling), and organic (composting and anaerobic digestion). The type of recycling is selected in terms of the polymeric material, origin of the waste, possible toxicity of the waste, and its flammability. The (bio)degradable polymers show the suitability for every recycling methods. But recycling method should be used in such a form that it is economically justified in a given case. Organic recycling in a circular economy is considered to be the most appropriate technology for the disposal of compostable waste. It is addressed for plastics capable for industrial composting such as cellulose films, starch blends, and polyesters. The biological treatment of organic waste leads also to a decrease of landfills and thereby reducing methane emissions from them. If we add to their biodegradability the absence of toxicity, we have a biotechnological product of great industrial interest. The paper presents the overview on end-of-life options useful for the (bio)degradable polymers. The principles of the circular economy and its today development were also discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 07:20:01 +000
  • Application of r-GO-MMT Hybrid Nanofillers for Improving Strength and
           Flame Retardancy of Epoxy/Glass Fibre Composites

    • Abstract: The application of nanomaterials as a strengthening agent in the fabrication of polymer nanocomposites has gained significant attention due to distinctive properties which can be utilised in structural applications. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay were used as filler materials to fabricate hybrid epoxy-based nanocomposites. The synergistic effect of nanomaterials on flammability and mechanical behaviour of nanocomposites were studied. Results revealed that the addition of nanofiller showcases 97% and 44.5% improvement in tensile and flexural strength. However, an increment in the percentage of filler material over 0.3% exhibits a decremental mechanical property trend. Likewise, the addition of nanofiller increases the nonignition timing of the glass-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites. Fracture surface morphology displays the occurrence of the ductile fracture mechanism owing to the presence of hybrid fillers.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Apr 2021 11:05:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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