Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)

Showing 1 - 18 of 18 Journals sorted by number of followers
Studies in Conflict & Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Emergency Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Strategic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Care Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Korean Journal of Defense Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2050-6201
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [425 journals]
  • Host–gut microbiota interactions during pregnancy

    • Pages: 7 - 23
      Abstract: AbstractMammalian pregnancy is characterized by a well-known suite of physiological changes that support fetal growth and development, thereby positively affecting both maternal and offspring fitness. However, mothers also experience trade-offs between current and future maternal reproductive success, and maternal responses to these trade-offs can result in mother–offspring fitness conflicts. Knowledge of the mechanisms through which these trade-offs operate, as well as the contexts in which they operate, is critical for understanding the evolution of reproduction. Historically, hormonal changes during pregnancy have been thought to play a pivotal role in these conflicts since they directly and indirectly influence maternal metabolism, immunity, fetal growth and other aspects of offspring development. However, recent research suggests that gut microbiota may also play an important role. Here, we create a foundation for exploring this role by constructing a mechanistic model linking changes in maternal hormones, immunity and metabolism during pregnancy to changes in the gut microbiota. We posit that marked changes in hormones alter maternal gut microbiome composition and function both directly and indirectly via impacts on the immune system. The gut microbiota then feeds back to influence maternal immunity and metabolism. We posit that these dynamics are likely to be involved in mediating maternal and offspring fitness as well as trade-offs in different aspects of maternal and offspring health and fitness during pregnancy. We also predict that the interactions we describe are likely to vary across populations in response to maternal environments. Moving forward, empirical studies that combine microbial functional data and maternal physiological data with health and fitness outcomes for both mothers and infants will allow us to test the evolutionary and fitness implications of the gestational microbiota, enriching our understanding of the ecology and evolution of reproductive physiology.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoae001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Evolutionary and empirical perspectives on ‘demand’ breastfeedingThe
           baby in the driver’s seat or the back seat'

    • Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: AbstractBackground/ObjectivesThe concept of ‘demand’ breastfeeding is central in public health. A key feature of the concept is that the infant is the locus of control in the breastfeeding process; when the breast is demanded by the infant, it is given the opportunity to feed. This study questions this notion of the infant as the locus of control in demand breastfeeding for empirical and theoretical reasons. From an evolutionary perspective, infants are expected to seek maximal investment and, against this backdrop of maximal investment-seeking, parents decide how much investment to put into offspring.MethodologyFocal follows were conducted among 113 mother–infant dyads in Papua New Guinea. During these follows, response times and types of responses, including breastfeeding to offspring fussing and crying, were recorded.ResultsInfants were breastfed an average of 3.6 times/hour for just over 2 min/feed. Fussing and crying were responded to quickly, with most response times under 1 min. When the mother responded, she breastfed the child approximately 52% of the time. The other 48% of the time, mothers responded to infants with other forms of pacification. Mothers were significantly less likely to respond to infants by breastfeeding if the child had been breastfed within the past 59–76 min.Conclusion/ImplicationsAs predicted by evolutionary parental investment theory, infants make frequent demands on their parents for investment, but mothers are ultimately the locus of control in the investment process. The mother decides whether and how frequently to breastfeed her offspring against this backdrop of near-continuous investment demands.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoae003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Could care giving have altered the evolution of human immune
           strategies'

    • Pages: 33 - 49
      Abstract: AbstractLife history theory indicates that individuals/species with a slow pace of life invest more in acquired than innate immunity. Factors that decrease the pace of life and predict greater investment in acquired immunity include increased nutritional resources, increased pathogen exposure and decreased risk of extrinsic mortality. Common care behaviors given to sick individuals produce exactly these effects: provisioning increases nutritional resources; hygiene assistance increases disease exposure of carers; and protection can reduce the risk of extrinsic mortality to sick individuals. This study, therefore, investigated under what conditions care giving behaviors might impact immune strategy and pace of life. The study employed an agent-based model approach that simulated populations with varying levels of care giving, disease mortality, disease transmissibility, and extrinsic mortality, enabling measurements of how the immune strategy and age structure of the populations changed over evolutionary time. We used multiple regressions to examine the effects of these variables on immune strategy and the age structure of the population. The findings supported our predictions that care was selected for an acquired immunity. However, the pace of life did not slow as expected. Instead, the population shifted to a faster, but also more cost-intensive reproductive strategy in which care improved child survival by subsidizing the development of acquired immune responses.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoae004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Reconsidering the developmental origins of adult disease paradigmThe
           ‘metabolic coordination of childbirth’ hypothesis

    • Pages: 50 - 66
      Abstract: AbstractIn uncomplicated pregnancies, birthweight is inversely associated with adult non-communicable disease (NCD) risk. One proposed mechanism is maternal malnutrition during pregnancy. Another explanation is that shared genes link birthweight with NCDs. Both hypotheses are supported, but evolutionary perspectives address only the environmental pathway. We propose that genetic and environmental associations of birthweight with NCD risk reflect coordinated regulatory systems between mother and foetus, that evolved to reduce risks of obstructed labour. First, the foetus must tailor its growth to maternal metabolic signals, as it cannot predict the size of the birth canal from its own genome. Second, we predict that maternal alleles that promote placental nutrient supply have been selected to constrain foetal growth and gestation length when fetally expressed. Conversely, maternal alleles that increase birth canal size have been selected to promote foetal growth and gestation when fetally expressed. Evidence supports these hypotheses. These regulatory mechanisms may have undergone powerful selection as hominin neonates evolved larger size and encephalisation, since every mother is at risk of gestating a baby excessively for her pelvis. Our perspective can explain the inverse association of birthweight with NCD risk across most of the birthweight range: any constraint of birthweight, through plastic or genetic mechanisms, may reduce the capacity for homeostasis and increase NCD susceptibility. However, maternal obesity and diabetes can overwhelm this coordination system, challenging vaginal delivery while increasing offspring NCD risk. We argue that selection on viable vaginal delivery played an over-arching role in shaping the association of birthweight with NCD risk.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoae002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sperm intrusion into the implantation-stage blastocyst and its potential
           biological significance

    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: AbstractThe human embryo derives from fusion of oocyte and sperm, undergoes growth and differentiation, resulting in a blastocyst. To initiate implantation, the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, allowing access from external inputs. Modelling of uterine sperm distribution indicates that 200–5000 sperm cells may reach the implantation-stage blastocyst following natural coitus. We show ultrastructural evidence of sperm cells intruding into trophectoderm cells of zona-free blastocysts obtained from the uterus of rhesus monkeys. Interaction between additional sperm and zona-free blastocyst could be an evolutionary feature yielding adaptive processes influencing the developmental fate of embryos. This process bears potential implications in pregnancy success, sperm competition and human health.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoad043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1464 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (686 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)

Showing 1 - 18 of 18 Journals sorted by number of followers
Studies in Conflict & Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Emergency Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Strategic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Care Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Korean Journal of Defense Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.220.62.183
 
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