Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1478 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (700 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (358 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (112 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)

Showing 1 - 18 of 18 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Disaster Recovery Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Emergency Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Health Care Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Korean Journal of Defense Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Strategic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Conflict & Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Emergency Services
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.201
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 2047-0894 - ISSN (Online) 2047-0908
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Green supply chain management and SMEs environmental performance: green
           HRM practices as antecedent from service sector of emerging economy

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      Authors: Raghad Aldaas , Rosmah Mohamed , Mass Hareeza Ali , Noor Azlin Ismail
      Abstract: The research aimed to study the influence of green human resources management practices (GHRMPs) on green supply chain management (GSCM) and environmental performance while examining how those green practices affect environmental performance. The study investigated 314 cases (responses) from the small and medium-sized enterprises belonging to the service sector from an emergent economy (i.e. Oman). The study model was developed based on the theory of resource-based view and the theory of ability, motivation and opportunity. The structural equation modeling was used for hypotheses testing using SmartPLS 3 software. Based on the findings, green hiring and green training and innovation have a positive and significant effect on GSCM, while both of them have no effect on environmental performance. Further, green performance management and compensation positively influenced the environmental performance but not GSCM. Furthermore, GSCM significantly and positively influenced environmental performance. GHRMPs and GSCM can enhance environmental performance. Organizations should consider this interesting finding if they aim to reduce their negative environmental effect, conserve energy, prevent pollution and recycle garbage. Despite the fact that the present environment-friendly culture is still in its infancy, it adds uniqueness to this research by investigating the phenomenon's importance.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How ambulance commanders manage a mass casualty incident

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      Authors: Alan Slater
      Abstract: Mass casualty incidents are characterised by an immediate, unforeseen and unquantifiable surge in demand for ambulance services which soon becomes apparent and will exceed any “local” resources available. Casualties require the correct treatment, promptly, at an appropriate resource without incurring any further harm. In the absence of firm operational guidelines, this paper provides templates for ambulance commanders both at call centre and on-site to approach the management of mass casualty incidents. Desk research indicated that there were both guidelines on how various elements of the emergency services should work together plus academic papers on techniques to adopt in mass casualty situations. Standing orders or written protocols for ambulance commanders, however, provide little or no specific guidance or an outline plan upon how they should command in a mass casualty situation. Following analysis of relevant public enquiry reports and discussions with ambulance commanders and using the materials from desk research, a four-stage approach was devised for testing using retrospective analysis from field and desktop exercises. To have confidence, each commander needs simple digital real-time templates from which they understand their role and how the overall plan defines priorities with the greatest need. A plan should cover call-centre and on-site operations including a basic operational checklist from start to finish; resource structure and inter-relationships; sources and availability of resources plus information and control procedures to impose limited quality control procedures. The design and implementation of digital templates to provide minute-by-minute visibility to all commanders which have not been recorded before. Such templates give commanders confidence to determine, locate and call forward relevant resources to attend casualties in order of priority of need. Time-lapsed records are useful not just in the minute-by-minute decision processes but also for critical organisational learning and in any post-event review by either a coroner or lawyers at a public enquiry.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2021-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • “The problem hasn't changed, but you're no longer left to deal with it
           on your own” – the role of informal peer support in helping
           firefighters cope with critical incidents

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      Authors: Karin Dangermond , Ricardo Weewer , Joachim Duyndam , Anja Machielse
      Abstract: How firefighters cope with critical incidents is partly influenced by the culture of the fire brigade. The purpose of this study is to better understand how informal peer support helps firefighters cope with critical incidents. An ethnographic field study of explorative nature was conducted. Data were collected by means of 20 participating observations and 72 interviews with Dutch firefighters from 37 different fire brigades. The analysis was an iterative process alternating data collection, analysis and theory formation processes. Firefighters will turn to informal peer support to cope with critical incidents provided that facilitating circumstances are present and there is adherence to certain implicit rules. The collective sharing of memories, whether immediately post-incident or after the passage of time, helps firefighters process critical incidents and serves to promote unit cohesion. Most firefighters reported these informal debriefings to be preferable to the formal sessions. By comparison, a minority of firefighters reported that they did not benefit at all from the informal interactions. This study only focused on the informal peer support given by colleagues. Future research should focus on: (1) The possible differences between men and women as to what extent informal peer support is experienced after critical incidents, (2) Commanding officers: how do they, given their hierarchical position, experience coming to terms with critical incidents, (3) Premeditated critical incidents and the role of informal peer support, (4) Similarities and differences between career and non-career firefighters in experiencing and coping critical incidents. Firefighters are an under-researched group in academic literature, that would benefit from mental health counsellors having a better understanding of their unique work culture and the complexity of the firefighting profession. More knowledge about the role of informal peer support is necessary to tailor help and aftercare more effectively to their needs. Most studies confirm the importance of informal peer support when coping with critical incidents. This study provides initial, in-depth evidence of the role of informal peer support in helping firefighters cope with critical incidents.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-02-2021-0007
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Coping strategies and social support are associated with post-traumatic
           stress disorder symptoms in Saudi paramedics

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      Authors: Khalid Alshahrani , Judith Johnson , Daryl B. O’Connor
      Abstract: Three main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To estimate the prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disordered (PTSD) symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (2) To investigate which types of coping strategies were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (3) To explore which sources of social support were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics. Data were collected from 217 paramedics working in the Saudi Red Crescent Authority from September to December 2019. Participants completed questionnaires measuring PTSD symptoms (the Screen of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders; SPTSD), passive and active coping strategies (Brief COPE Scale; BC), and three forms of social support: support from friends, family and organizational support. Associations between coping strategies, social support and PTSD symptoms were investigated using correlational analyses, hierarchical linear regression and binary logistic regression. 46% of participants experienced one or more PTSD symptom, 28.6% scored above the cut-off for partial PTSD and 17.5% scored above the cut-off for full PTSD. PTSD symptoms were significantly positively correlated with passive coping and negatively associated with both family and friends support. Passive coping was positively associated with a greater risk of meeting criteria for PTSD. The current findings suggest that interventions to help reduce PTSD in Saudi paramedics should include strategies to reduce passive coping. Future research is urgently required to help understand the psychological, social and work-related factors that contribute to these high levels of PTSD.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2021-0056
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on renewable
           and non-renewable energy in Bangladesh: does the global climate change
           emergencies required'

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      Authors: Mohamed Elheddad , Abdelrahman J.K. Alfar , Radi Haloub , Neetu Sharma , Patrick Gomes
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of MNCs measured by the foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on the promotion of renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy in Bangladesh. It is an emergency issue these days and makes some policy suggestions. Based on the literature review, the study sets a time series models to empirically test FDI degrades the environmental quality in Bangladesh, using the parametric (GMM, IV estimations) and non-parametric approaches (quantile regression). The main findings drawn from the empirical analysis are as follows. First, the FDI inflows lead to more CO2 emissions in the Bangladeshi economy. In other words, the MNCs promote the usages of non-renewable energy which causes an increase in pollution. Second, the FDI inwards discourage renewable energy consumption and in terms of magnitude, the negative impacts of FDI on renewable energy are higher than the positive effect of FDI on CO2 emissions. This makes the situation worse. This study is limited to Bangladesh and explores the total impact of FDI on the environment. For further investigation, it would be better to do a detailed investigation on the FDI-renewable and nonrenewable energy relationship. For instance, one could test which type of FDI promotes green energy consumption and which one is dirtier. So, the sectorial FDI effects on pollution. Most past studies parametric techniques and did not compare the effects of FDI on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, Unlike the previous empirical studies, this paper uses GMM and IV estimations for the parametric approach and quantile regression (QR) as a robustness check. Also, it is the first study that approves the crowding-out effect of non-renewable using the FDI channel.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2021-0083
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effects of empowerment at multiple leadership levels in the fire
           service: a moderated mediation model

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      Authors: David Huntsman , Alex Greer , Haley Murphy , Xiangyu (Dale) Li
      Abstract: While uncertainty during emergency response operations necessitates adaptive performance, emergency response organizations, such as the fire service, tend to constrain adaptive behaviors due to their highly formalized bureaucratic structures. Structural theories suggest that leaders can empower employees to bypass these constraints. Using survey data from four US fire departments, this research tests whether mid-level supervisors can empower firefighters by increasing their ability to improvise during complex emergency response operations, and whether this enhances department adaptive performance. Moderated mediation is also performed to assess whether senior leaders must also be effective, empowering leaders in order to achieve heightened levels of empowerment and subsequent adaptive performance, as many senior leaders in the fire service are criticized for being overly bureaucratic, risk averse, and resistant to change. The findings support compensatory effects and show how immediate supervisors are key to overcoming senior leader deficiencies and producing adaptive performance during conditions of high uncertainty and complexity. The lack of response organizations’ success during complex incidents is often attributed to senior leaders who are risk averse, overly bureaucratic, and resistant to change (Wankhade and Patnaik, 2020). This study is the first to show how empowering leadership can help overcome these constraints to enhance adaptive performance under complex conditions in the fire service.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An exploration of alcohol and drug related fire injuries

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      Authors: Mark Taylor , Deb Appleton , John Fielding , Gary Oakford
      Abstract: The study examines alcohol and drug related accidental dwelling fire injuries during 2006–2016 in Merseyside in England. The study carries out an examination of alcohol and drug related fire injuries from 2006 to 2016 in Merseyside, including analysis of injuries by age group, gender, level of deprivation and housing type. Deprivation was a significant factor in alcohol and drug related fire injuries over the period studied, with 70% of such injuries occurring in areas with the highest level of deprivation. Males appeared roughly twice as likely to be injured in an alcohol and drug related fire incident than females. The majority of those injured were in the age range 35–59. There were limitations on the generalizability of the research findings to other fire and rescue services, as Merseyside has some of the highest levels of alcohol consumption and deprivation in UK. An understanding of those vulnerable to alcohol and drug related fire risks can support more targeted fire prevention strategies and aid referrals to partner health agencies to help to reduce underlying alcohol and drug misuse issues. The study provides a detailed analysis of the circumstances associated with alcohol and drug related fire injuries over a ten-year period covered by a UK fire and rescue service, in particular, in terms alcohol and drug related fire injury risk differences between different groups.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dispatch information affects diagnosis in paramedics: an experimental
           study of applied dual-process theory

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      Authors: Toby Keene , Kristen Pammer , Bill Lord , Carol Shipp
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that paramedics form intuitive impressions based on limited “pre-arrival” dispatch information and this subsequently affects their diagnosis. However, this observation has never been experimentally studied. This was an experimental study of 83 Australian undergraduate paramedics and 65 Australian paramedics with median 14 years' experience (Range: 1–32 years). Participants responded to written vignettes in two parts that aimed to induce an intuitive impression by placing participants under time pressure and with a secondary task, followed by a diagnosis made without distraction or time pressure. The vignettes varied the likelihood of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and measured self-reports of typicality and confidence. Answer fluency, which is the ease with which the answer comes to mind, was also measured. More participants exposed to the likely pre-arrival vignette recorded a final diagnosis of ACS, than those exposed to unlikely pre-arrival information (0.85 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.90] vs 0.74 [95%CI: 0.66, 0.81]; p = 0.03). This effect was greater in paramedics with more than 14 years' experience (0.94 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.99] vs 0.67 [95%CI: 0.48, 0.81]; p = 0.01). Answer fluency and confidence were associated with the impression, while the impression and confidence were associated with final diagnosis. The authors have experimentally shown that pre-arrival information can affect subsequent diagnosis. The most experienced paramedics were more likely to be affected. This is the first experimental study of diagnostic decision-making in paramedics and paramedic students.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-06-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Time-efficiency factors in road tunnel rescue as perceived by Swedish
           operative personnel – an interview study

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Johan Hylander , Britt-Inger Saveman , Ulf Björnstig , Lina Gyllencreutz , Anton Westman
      Abstract: Major incidents in road tunnels remain a collaborative challenge for the emergency services (fire and rescue service, police and ambulance), emergency dispatch centres (EDCs) and infrastructure owners. The aim of this paper is to investigate how collaborative partners to the ambulance services perceive the rescue effort and to identify factors that may influence its efficiency. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with 19 participants who were infrastructure owners or had operational or tactical responsibilities with the emergency services or EDCs in two regions in Sweden with multiple road tunnels. The collected data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main categories described efficiency factors during and after an incident: (1) coordinating the initial information (using a shared terminology), (2) achieving situational awareness (identifying those persons in need) and (3) lessons (not) learnt (lack of joint tactical plans and exercises). The emerging theme was access, assess and evaluate. The findings suggest that establishing national policies and collaborative forums might yield more efficiently managed rescue efforts in road tunnel incidents in Sweden and other countries with similar organisational structures. This study offers new insights on interoperability during responses to complex underground incidents.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2021-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • At the front of the front-line: Ontario paramedics' experiences of
           occupational safety, risk and communication during the 2020 COVID-19
           pandemic

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      Authors: Allyson Oliphant , Cathy Faulds , Samara Bengall , Elysée Nouvet
      Abstract: The study aimed to (1) determine on what bases paramedics in this context have defined themselves as feeling safe or at risk while serving on the front lines and (2) develop recommendations to support paramedics in their critical public health emergency response role. This qualitative study consisted of 21 semi-structured interviews with primary care paramedics (PCPs), advanced care paramedics (ACPs) and critical care paramedics (CCPs) with first-hand experience responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario. Qualitative research is best suited to the research objectives of gaining detailed and nuanced understandings of paramedics' experiences during this public health emergency, and identifying in paramedics' accounts what changes to policy and practice might strengthen their sense of safety in future infectious disease outbreaks (Bowling, 2002; Chafe, 2017). Data collection occurred over the course of 3.5 months, from June 2020 until September 2020. Participants described several factors that heightened their feeling exposed to risk particular to working on the front lines of the COVID-19 public health response. These factors include stress connected to personal protective equipment (PPE) and equipment access, risks of infection to self and family, communications and feelings of being systematically under-considered. Recommendations from this research include, but are not limited to, ensuring a more equitable distribution of protective equipment to paramedics across unevenly funded services, and recognizing paramedics face unique and additional stressors in public health emergencies. A key limitation of this study was the relatively small sample, with 50% of potential participants deciding not to engage in an interview. The authors suspect this is likely a result of timing, as this was conducting during significant periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario. The study identifies and begins to shed light on the way in which feelings of compromised safety and specific stressors in a public health emergency context connect to one another and potentially increase risks of burnout for this healthcare provider group. This study's documentation of paramedics feeling uncertainty about their own and their family's safety, combined with feeling occupational pressure, decisional pressure within constrained frameworks of care delivery, a lack of autonomy and a lack of consideration within their healthcare system in general and within its pandemic response in particular, is important in and of itself. These stressors can have serious implications for the ability of paramedics to sustain their integral role in public health emergency response. A series of pandemic-specific and generalizable recommendations emerged from this research and in collaboration with community-based medical leadership. (1) Consult paramedics on effectiveness of screening questions and equipment. Be sure to illicit and respond to paramedic feedback in a timely manner. (2) Implement operational changes during pandemics in the form of donning and doffing stations, disposable gowns, decontamination teams at hospitals, infectious disease paramedic (IDP) truck, anti-fog sprays for goggles, and safe and controlled areas for eating and taking breaks. (3) Develop an emergency pandemic plan that is resourced and maintained as part of EMS strategic planning. Involve EMS in decisions related to health system emergency planning and sustainability of EMS practice. (4) Establish equitable distribution of resources, such as ensuring PPE is distributed equitably and applying pandemic pay equally to all essential workers. (5) Validate and respect EMS, as they are essential workers. Recognize the expertise of paramedics and community healthcare providers. Finally, an overarching recommendation at the core of this research is the consideration for paramedic knowledge as expertise given their role as critical front line healthcare specialists and the protection of this crucial human resource as it relates to their resilience and mental wellbeing. Evidence-based awareness and improved understanding of paramedic stress during the pandemic is a first step to developing strategies to reduce that stress. This is essential in ensuring access to this essential service during emergencies and the safety of the communities they serve. Findings from this study can inform development of supports to sustain paramedic wellbeing during public health emergencies, during the ongoing pandemic, in Ontario and beyond.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development and validation of moral distress scale in pre-hospital
           emergency service providers

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      Authors: Mojtaba Jafari , Abbas Ebadi , Hamid Reza Khankeh , Sadat Seyed Bagher Maddah , MohammadAli Hosseini
      Abstract: The uniqueness of the pre-hospital setting and the need for quick decision-making confronts pre-hospital emergency personnel with various moral conflicts that can lead to moral distress (MD) in them. This study aimed to design a valid scale for the assessment of MD in emergency medical service (EMS) staff. This exploratory mixed-method study was conducted among the EMS provider's community. In the qualitative section, data were gathered and analyzed with semi-structured interviews and conventional content analysis, respectively. The initial pool of items was formed and the primary scale was designed. In the quantitative section, a methodological study was carried out to determine the psychometric properties of the scale including qualitative-quantitative face validity, qualitative-quantitative content validity with content validity ratio and index (CVR/CVI), construct validity by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and convergent validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha/ Omega McDonald's/ floor and ceiling effect) and stability with intra-class correlation (ICC). After interviews with 14 emergency technicians, the initial scale was designed with 60 items. Of the total items, 17 poor items were dropped during face and qualitative content validity. In the content validity phase, the items with CVR > 0.62, modified Kappa > 0.74 were retained, which eliminated 23 items. EFA was conducted with 20 items and lead to the 5 factors. The floor and ceiling effect for the whole scale was zero. Finally, the reliability of the scale was confirmed (a = 0.83, O = 0.86, ICC = 0.95). The developed 20-item scale is a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of the MD in EMS providers.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0028
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring the structure and characteristics of the Anglo-American
           paramedic system in developed countries: a scoping review

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      Authors: Timothy Makrides , Linda Ross , Cameron Gosling , Joseph Acker , Peter O'Meara
      Abstract: This study aims to map and examine the existing evidence to provide an overview of what is known about the structure and characteristics of the Anglo-American paramedic system in developed countries. The review includes results examining the structure and characteristics of the Anglo-American paramedic system in English-speaking developed countries. Databases, including Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Epistemonikos, were searched from the inception of the databases. A grey literature search strategy was conducted to identify non-indexed relevant literature along with forward and backward searching of citations and references of included studies. Two reviewers undertook title and abstract screening, followed by full-text screening. Finally, data extraction was performed using a customised instrument. Included studies were summarised using narrative synthesis structured around broad themes exploring the structure and characteristics of the Anglo-American paramedic system. The synthesis of information shows that varying models (or subsystems) exist within the Anglo-American paramedic system. The use of metaphorical models based on philosophical underpinnings are used to describe two novel subsystems within the Anglo-American paramedic system. These are the professionally autonomous and directive paramedic systems, with the directive model being further categorised into the rescue and hospital-managed submodels. This study is the first of its kind to explore the modern subcategorisation of the Anglo-American paramedic system using a realist lens as the basis for its approach.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Can ambulance dispatch categories discriminate traffic incidents that
           do/do not require a lights and sirens response'

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      Authors: Ellen Ceklic , Hideo Tohira , Judith Finn , Deon Brink , Paul Bailey , Austin Whiteside , Elizabeth Brown , Rudolph Brits , Stephen Ball
      Abstract: Traffic incidents vary considerably in their severity, and the dispatch categories assigned during emergency ambulance calls aim to identify those incidents in greatest need of a lights and sirens (L&S) response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dispatch categories could discriminate between those traffic incidents that do/do not require an L&S response. A retrospective cohort study of ambulance records was conducted. The predictor variable was the Traffic/Transportation dispatch categories assigned by call-takers. The outcome variable was whether each incident required an L&S response. Possible thresholds for identifying dispatch categories that require an L&S response were developed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each threshold. There were 17,099 patients in 13,325 traffic incidents dispatched as Traffic/Transportation over the study period. “Possible death at scene” ‘had the highest odds (OR 22.07, 95% CI 1.06–461.46) and “no injuries” the lowest odds (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.14–0.58) of requiring an L&S response compared to the referent group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.65, 95% CI [0.64, 0.67]. It was found that Traffic/Transportation dispatch categories allocated during emergency ambulance calls had limited ability to discriminate those incidents that do/do not require an L&S response to the scene of a crash. This research makes a unique contribution, as it considers traffic incidents not as a single entity but rather as a number of dispatch categories which has practical implications for those emergency medical services dispatching ambulances to the scene.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of the fatigue and shift working risk
           management strategy for UK home office police forces: a pilot study

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      Authors: Lois James , Stephen James , Ian Hesketh
      Abstract: To evaluate the effectiveness of a fatigue-management training and sleep health promotion intervention in a sample of officers from UK Home Office Police Forces. Using a pre- and post-design we exposed 50 officers from selected UK police forces to a fatigue-management training intervention. Pre- and post-intervention data collection included wrist actigraphy, a physiological and objective measure of sleep quantity and quality, as well as surveys including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) instrument, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5). We found the training significantly increased sleep quantity by 25 min per 24-h period, from 6.9 h to 7.3 h (f = 9.2; df = 519; p = 0.003), and improved sleep quality scores from 84% before the intervention, to 87% after the training (f = 10.6; df = 519; p = 0.001). Continued research is necessary to guide nationwide implementation of fatigue-management and sleep health promotion programs. Our findings show that a fatigue-management training resulted in a significant and meaningful increase in sleep among police officers. This is the first piece of research to emerge from a full population survey (response rate 16.6%) of the UK police service exploring issues of sleep and fatigue.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Mental health patterns during COVID-19 in emergency medical services (EMS)

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      Authors: Sílvia Monteiro Fonseca , Sara Faria , Sónia Cunha , Márcio Silva , M. Joaquina Ramos , Guilherme Azevedo , Rui Campos , António Ruão Barbosa , Cristina Queirós
      Abstract: This study aims to explore patterns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel's mental health, regarding their levels of anxiety, depression, stress, COVID-19 anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and well-being; and to explore variables that contribute to these patterns, among sociodemographic/professional and COVID-19 experience variables. Participants were 214 EMS personnel, who answered the Patient-Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, COVID-19 Anxiety Scale, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Well-Being Questionnaire and COVID-19 related questions. EMS personnel showed an adequate psychological adjustment during COVID-19. Two clusters/patterns were found: the poorly (34%) and the well (66%) psychologically-adjusted. Personnel's age, COVID-19 fear and workplace security measures' adequacy contributed to which pattern they were more likely to belong to. Despite being cross-sectional and not controlling for pre-COVID-19 data, this study adds to the COVID-19 literature. Findings call for the need to explore: other COVID-19 fears; how personnel perceive workplace security measures; COVID-19 valid instruments; pre-COVID-19 data; and mental health patterns with different rescuers. Findings explored EMS personnel's patterns of mental health during the COVID-19, as well as its covariates. Results allow to better prepare emergency management, which can develop prevention strategies focused on older professionals, COVID-19 related fears and how personnel assess security measures. This study contributes to the scarce literature focused on COVID-19 mental health patterns instead of focussing on isolated mental health variables, as well as what contributes to these patterns. Moreover, it is one of the few studies that focused on EMS personnel rather than hospital staff.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2020-0052
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Selecting the field hospital location for earthquakes: an application for
           Ankara Province in Turkey

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      Authors: Inanç Barutcu , Yusuf Tansel Ic
      Abstract: The authors present a location selection model for the field hospital to build after a possible earthquake in Ankara, Turkey using the VIKOR method. Companies or governments that make location selection decisions to improve their performance in new investment decisions for different service industries. On the other hand, disasters, especially earthquakes, force the governments to evaluate their existing potentialities and develop action plans to improve their middle and long-term preparations. This paper proposes a VIKOR method-based location selection model for the field hospital to build after a possible earthquake. Also, the authors present a methodology using the VIKOR method that how government agencies take action for the field hospital's location selection process via VIKOR methodology. The modeling and application results show that the field hospital's location selection decision-making process improves considerably using the VIKOR model. This paper shows that the proposed VIKOR-based model can rank alternatives suitability at various criteria targeting to minimize the possible earthquake's impact and obtains a single overall ranking score to select the best alternative. The study does not consider the uncertain nature of the field hospital selection problem. The application part is restricted to the Ankara case. But the proposed model can easily extend for different locations in the world. This paper presents the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) framework study of the establishment of field hospitals and demonstrates its importance when criteria diversity is restricted.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-12-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-04-2021-0022
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Determining response time factors of emergency medical services during the
           COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Nur Budi Mulyono , Noorhan Firdaus Pambudi , Lukni Burhanuddin Ahmad , Akbar Adhiutama
      Abstract: The lack of studies about the response time of emergency medical service during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in a dense city of a developing country has triggered this study to explore the factors contributing to a high response time of ambulance service to reach patients in need. An evaluation of contributing factors to the response time is necessary to guide decision-makers in keeping a high service level of emergency medical service. This research employed an agent-based modeling approach with input parameters from interviews with emergency medical service staff in Bandung city, Indonesia. The agent-based model is established to evaluate the relevant contribution of the factors to response time reduction using several scenarios. According to agent-based simulation, four factors contribute to the response time: the process of preparing crew and ambulance during the pandemic, coverage area, traffic density and crew responsiveness. Among these factors, the preparation process during the pandemic and coverage area significantly contributed to the response time, while the traffic density and crew responsiveness were less significant. The preparation process is closely related to the safety procedure in handling patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and normal time. The recommended coverage area for maintaining a low response time is 5 km, equivalent to six local subdistricts. This study has explored the factors contributing to emergency medical response time. The insignificant contribution of the traffic density showed that citizens, in general, have high awareness and compliance to traffic priority regulation, so crew responsiveness in handling ambulances is an irrelevant factor. This study might have different contributing factors for less dense population areas and focuses on public emergency medical services provided by the local government. The local government must provide additional funding to cover additional investment for ambulance, crew and administration for the new emergency service deployment point. Exercising an efficient process in ambulance and crew preparation is mandatory for each emergency deployment point. This study evaluates the contributing factors of emergency medical response time in the pandemic and normal situation by qualitative analysis and agent-based simulation. The performance comparison in terms of medical response time before and after COVID-19 through agent-based simulation is valuable for decision-makers to reduce the impact of COVID-19.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2020-0071
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hiring schedule optimization at the Surrey fire department

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      Authors: Bolong He , Snezana Mitrovic-Minic , Len Garis , Pierre Robinson , Tamon Stephen
      Abstract: The Surrey (British Columbia, Canada) fire department has an annual cycle for hiring full-time firefighters. This paper optimizes the timing of the annual hiring period. A key issue is handling workplace absences, which can be covered by overtime cost or full-time hires. Short-term and long-term absences patterns are analyzed according to season and age cohorts of the firefighters. These are then used in both an explanatory and time series model to predict future absences. The hiring schedule is optimized based on these predictions and additional constraints. The current practice fares well in the analysis. For the time period studied, moving to earlier hiring dates appears beneficial. This analysis is robust with respect to various assumptions. This is a case study where analytic techniques and machine learning are applied to an organizational practice that is not commonly analyzed. In this case, the previous method was not much worse than the optimized solution. The techniques used are quite general and can be applied to various organizational decision problems.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2019-0067
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effectiveness of travel time during evacuation in high-rise residential
           buildings: a case study in Selangor, Malaysia

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      Authors: Caleb Michealangelo Gian , Mohd Zahirasri Mohd Tohir , Mohamad Syazarudin Md Said , Ahmad Faiz Tharima , Nur Aliah Fatin Mohd Nizam Ong , Mohd Rashid Ramali
      Abstract: In recent years, the number of high-rise buildings in Malaysia has been increasing. Therefore, it is essential to take evacuation into consideration especially for emergency conditions such as fire, explosion and natural disasters. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the escape time in typical Malaysian high-rise residential buildings. This work comprises simulation on three buildings around the Selangor area in Malaysia. Quantitative methodology is adopted using Pathfinder software to simulate the evacuation process and time of the three typical Malaysian high-rise residential buildings. Four parameters were studied namely, the occupant load density, walking speed of first and last occupants, average of evacuation time per floor for the three buildings and effect of placement of emergency staircase on travel time. Findings show that 12 m2 which is double the allowable occupants' density in Malaysia increases evacuation time by 67.9% while the placement of the emergency staircase on the left and middle section of a building significantly affects the evacuation time by 21.2%. In conclusion, from the simulation studies, it is recognized that a higher occupant's density affects the evacuation time. This work could provide information on escape time for future construction of high-rise buildings in Malaysia. Hence, the specification and design of buildings could be reviewed based on the results obtained from this simulation. This information could be beneficial to the building regulators and developers thus enhancing the knowledge of building constructor and possible issues in the design of staircases, corridors and height of buildings.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-09-2020-0053
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Utilizing DMAIC method to optimize law enforcement official willingness to
           respond to disasters: an exploratory study

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      Authors: Erick B. Knezek , Thevu Vu , Jim Lee
      Abstract: The purpose of this case study is to develop a lean six sigma (LSS) define–measure–analyze–improve–control (DMAIC) procedure to optimize the willingness to respond (WTR) of Louisiana-based law enforcement officials (LEO) to disasters. Various LSS tools were used to implement DMAIC to clearly define the problem of WTR, measure the self-reported WTR through a survey, perform statistical analysis on the measured data to identify significant variables to WTR, brainstorm issues and improvements with stakeholders, develop mitigation strategies, implement a pilot solution survey and develop control measures. Louisiana LEO showed an average of 73.9% of WTR to all disasters. Seven significant variables influenced WTR, which are prior experience, transportation, duty to organization, risk to self, conflicting roles, training and incentive pay. The results from pilot solutions showed that utilizing incentive pay, adequate training and personal protective equipment (PPE) increased WTR from 0.5% up to 16%. This study developed and validated a unique procedure to improve LEO WTR to disasters, providing a set of DMAIC tools and concepts that can be used by other emergency response agencies. This research was performed during the COVID-19 pandemic and after Hurricane Laura impacted Louisiana.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-11-2020-0068
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Resilience levels in paramedic students: a cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Malek Safori , Zainab Alqudah , Brett Williams
      Abstract: Paramedics responding to emergencies have proven to have an impact on their mental health and well-being. Therefore, measuring and initiating resilience promotion and development during the educational process could promote health in this group. This study aims to cross-sectionally examine the self-reported resilience levels of bachelor paramedic students at a large Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of first-, second- and third-year bachelor paramedic students was used from a large Australian university. The student’s resilience was measured using the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) during 2019. Two-hundred and twenty-nine students participated in the study, of which 55% were females. The total mean score for the CD-RISC was 72.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 13.2). The CD-RISC mean score of the first-, second- and third-year levels were 75.3 (SD = 13.2), 70.5 (SD = 14.4) and 73.8 (SD = 10.4), respectively, with no significant statistical difference (p-value = 0.1) and of which the second year formed the major sample (44.5%). Additionally, our findings show no significant variation in the CD-RISC mean score between males [70.8 (SD = 12.9)] and females [74.1 (SD = 13.3)], with p-value = 0.09. The study findings suggest that paramedic students have moderate levels of self-reported resilience. These results, while specific to one university, provide essential data for the paramedic profession in addressing an important issue facing all paramedics around the world.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-09-2020-0056
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Humanitarian relief chain agility: identification and evaluation of
           enabling factors

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      Authors: Mosayeb Dashtpeyma , Reza Ghodsi
      Abstract: This research paper aims to identify and evaluate the enabling factors of agility capability in humanitarian relief chain network. The research phases were implemented based on an integrated framework. First, a reference framework of the enablers has been constructed based on a literature review. Then, a hybrid evaluation approach is applied that combines fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP) to achieve reliable results. It provides a road map to identify and evaluate the interactions between the enabling factors and determines the weights correspond to their relative importance. This approach takes advantage of fuzzy set theory to deal with ambiguities, uncertainties and vagueness inherent in the evaluation process. Relief chain agility is a vital determinant of the effectiveness to succeed humanitarian missions during and after natural and unnatural disasters such as earthquakes, epidemics and terrorist attacks. Results shed light on the essential enabling factors, relationships among them, and their importance for developing humanitarian relief chain agility enhancing the overall performance quality. The integrated framework is implemented for the Red Crescent, a nongovernmental organization in Iran, which is trying to optimize the agility of their humanitarian relief chain network. In short, the findings are beneficial for identification and utilization of the essential prerequisites of agility in order to develop an agile humanitarian relief chain.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2020-0069
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Shifting patterns of emergency incidents during the COVID-19 pandemic in
           the City of Vaughan, Canada

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      Authors: Adriano O. Solis , Janithra Wimaladasa , Ali Asgary , Maryam Shafiei Sabet , Michael Ing
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed many facets of urban life and operations, including emergency incidents. This study examines how COVID-19 has brought about changes in, and shifting patterns of, emergency incidents in the City of Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. This study aims to derive insights that could potentially inform planning and decision-making of fire and rescue service operations as further stages of the pandemic unfold. Standard temporal analysis methods are applied to investigate the changes in the number and nature of emergency incidents, as recorded sequentially in the city's fire and rescue service incident report database, through various phases or waves of the pandemic and the associated public health measures that have been introduced. The study analyses show a decrease in the number of emergency calls compared to previous reference years. Vehicle-related incidents show the highest decline, and changes in daily and hourly pattens are consistent with public health measures in place during each stage of the pandemic. The study concludes that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on demand for emergency services provided by the fire department. The authors believe this is the first study applying temporal analysis on a city's emergency incident response data spanning various phases/waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis may be replicated for other municipal fire services, which can generate further insights that may apply to specific local conditions and states of the pandemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • London Fire Brigade's screen and treat approach to the Grenfell Tower
           incident

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      Authors: Craig Steel , Zoe Travers , Lynette Meredith , Deborah Lee , Michael Conti , Anne Scoging
      Abstract: The purpose is to report on the mental health response to the Grenfell incident within the London Fire Brigade (LFB). The LFB implemented screening for the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 28 days, 3 months and 6 months for all personnel directly involved in the incident. The prevalence of PTSD within frontline personnel was 13.4% at 28 days, falling to 7.6% at 6 months. The LFB's internal Counselling and Wellbeing Service offered treatment to those scoring above the cut-off for PTSD along with accepting self-referral and referrals from line managers and occupational health. There were 139 referrals within the 12-month period following the incident. The outcomes for those who engaged in treatment are broadly in line with other studies evaluating post-disaster interventions. Issues for consideration within national guidelines are discussed. The screen and treat approach adopted by LFB was shown to be a feasible approach to use within such a scenario. The current study reports on a screen and treat approach to one of the largest single incidents in the UK in recent years.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-07-2020-0036
      Issue No: Vol. 11 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • International Journal of Emergency Services

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