Subjects -> JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (Total: 219 journals)
    - JOURNALISM (31 journals)
    - JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (148 journals)
    - NEW AGE PUBLICATIONS (8 journals)
    - PUBLISHING AND BOOK TRADE (32 journals)

JOURNALISM (31 journals)

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Convergence The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Critical Studies in Media Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journalism Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journalism Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journalism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
New Writing The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journalism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Publizistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Media Practice and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Technical Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journalism Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
MATRIZes : Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação da Universidade de São Paulo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electronic News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambitos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Periodical Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journalism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.366
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1464-8849 - ISSN (Online) 1741-3001
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Coverage of Taliban’s takeover of Afghanistan in the international
           press: A perspective on indexing theory

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      Authors: Shabir Hussain, Ayesha Jehangir
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article tests the key arguments of indexing theory by analysing how the press of seven countries reported Taliban’s takeover of Afghanistan in 2021. The seven countries represent a mix of democratic (US, UK, India and Pakistan) and authoritarian governments (Russia, China and Iran). In a marked similarity, we found that press of the two types of political systems mainly supported their governments’ policy towards the Taliban. Though the democratic press showed some critical coverage, it was of tactical nature. Moreover, most political and security events in Afghanistan were reported in neutral way, suggesting the democratic press compromised on their critical agenda to hold their governments responsible for their actions. In terms of news sources, the press of US and UK involved more foreign sources as compared to other countries. The findings suggest the security nature of events is an important determinant of whether official indexing will prevail or confronted in press coverage of international conflicts.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T08:05:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849231153727
       
  • Book review: Philip Seib information at war

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      Authors: Michael Tasseron
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T11:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849231154415
       
  • Disinformation and weaponized communication: The spread of ideological
           hate about the Macedonian name in Greece

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      Authors: Minos-Athanasios Karyotakis
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The study examined through ideological discourse analysis (IDA) 38 widely spread disinformation-laced news stories (or “fake news”) regarding the Macedonian Name Dispute (MND) and the “Prespes Agreement” in the years 2018 and 2019. The paper explores the ideological narratives and constructions disseminated through the disinformation-laced news stories during these 2 years. Therefore, the study expands the relevant literature regarding democracy, disinformation, and hate campaigns by examining the ideological narratives and constructions disseminated through the disinformation-laced news stories during that two-years-period. The findings showed that those news stories were successfully weaponized and resulted in empowering identity characteristics and ideological narratives through the distancing method (us vs them), the alienation with elements of dramatization (e.g. territorial loss of the Greek Macedonia due to the “Prespes Agreement”), and the sense of victimization and dehumanization that demanded emergency actions to protect the ingroup (Greece) from the outgroup (North Macedonia and its Greek assistants).
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T11:56:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849231152362
       
  • Information flows from local to national: Evidence from 21 major US cities

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      Authors: Lei Guo, Yiyan Zhang
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Local journalism is in decline in the United States. As one way to assess the state of local journalism, this study examines the information flows between local and national media in the online media ecosystem. Focusing on metropolitan journalism, this paper empirically investigates whether and when a city’s local news coverage can influence national news portrayal of the city. This research draws from intermedia agenda setting (IAS) theory and examines a large news data set related to the most populated 21 US cities. The results suggest that local media are not more likely to transfer the salience of their urban issues to the national media agenda than reversely. In addition, a city’s economic power and the scale of its local journalistic infrastructure, especially the traditional media sector, are significantly correlated with its local media’s power to determine how the city is portrayed in the national media.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T09:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849231152364
       
  • “Voices from the Island”: Informational annexation of Crimea and
           transformations of journalistic practices

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      Authors: Ksenia Ermoshina
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      After the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the peninsula experienced a progressive transition of telecommunication and broadcasting infrastructure under Russian influence, followed by a wave of repression of Ukrainian media. Between 2014 and 2015, dozens of Ukrainian media organizations and independent journalists left the peninsula to continue working in exile. This paper explores the phenomenon of informational annexation using a mixed methods approach consisting of in-depth interviews with media and IT professionals as well as digital ethnography and network measurements. It argues that, besides pressure from pro-Russian authorities, journalistic work in the area is challenged by legal and infrastructural factors such as the absence of legal and financial protections for Ukrainian journalists traveling to Crimea, lack of holistic digital security within media organizations, and increased Internet censorship in Crimea. By analyzing the risk perceptions and digital security practices of exiled and Crimean civic journalists, this paper explores how informational annexation challenges journalistic work on the infrastructural and organizational level, enabling the rise of civic journalism, and how it affects journalists' individual digital security practices. In the context of the current Russian invasion of Ukraine, this research provides insights into some of the informational annexation tactics used by Russians in the occupied Ukrainian territories.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-16T04:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849231152359
       
  • Do media systems matter' A comparative study of editorials on the
           migration crisis in the UK, German and Greek traditional press

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      Authors: Theodora A Maniou, Michalis Moutselos
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study compares the editorial coverage of the 2015 migration crisis in major centre-left and centre-right newspapers in three European countries affected (the UK, Germany and Greece). We test the empirical validity of the ‘national media-system’ hypothesis, and in particular the hypothesised characteristics of the different media systems these countries represent through a systematic content analysis of all editorials referring to the issue of migration/asylum for the period 2015–2016. For the purposes of data collection, we develop an original coding scheme that combines concepts and categories from the extant literature on media systems, as well as the literature on migration-related news frames. Our findings largely confirm the relevance of media-system characteristics in the coverage of the crisis, although UK editorials are markedly more polarised than expected. We also find that there was no consensus-based editorial coverage in the initial phase of the crisis.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T11:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221148319
       
  • Discourse culture(s) of journalism: Newswriting in Dutch and Iranian
           handbooks

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      Authors: Afrooz Rafiee, Wilbert Spooren, José Sanders
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Ten handbooks of journalism most-used in Dutch and Iranian (applied) universities were content-analyzed and compared for their instructions on (crime) newswriting and assumptions behind the given instructions. While Dutch handbooks consider ‘informing’ the optimal function of journalism and news, Iranian handbooks put emphasis on ‘increasing awareness’. Consequently, Dutch handbooks consider news as event and value information on facts, while Iranian handbooks aim for reporting the truth and consider news as on-going process. Specifically, as Iranian journalism handbooks value flexibility and creativity, they view storytelling style in news reports as the preferred journalistic genre and approach crime news as a special genre which should fulfill an educative function.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T11:08:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221149557
       
  • Monitoring the infection rate: Explaining the meaning of metrics in
           pandemic news experiences

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      Authors: John Magnus R. Dahl, Brita Ytre-Arne
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has brought forward questions of what citizens need and want from journalism in a global crisis. In this article, we analyse one particular aspect of pandemic news experiences: Preoccupation with monitoring metrics for COVID-19 infection cases, hospitalisations, and deaths, widely disseminated through journalistic news outlets. We ask why close monitoring of such metrics appeared meaningful to news users, and what these experiences can tell us about the role of journalism in the pandemic information environment. Our analysis draws on qualitative research conducted in Norway in 2020, finding users particularly devoted to monitoring metrics, both in early lockdown and during the second wave of COVID-19. To contextualize our findings, we draw on scholarship on emotional responses to data in the everyday, and on the social role of journalism. We argue that monitoring of infection rates is an expression of trust in the media as a provider of factual information, also expressed by those who are cynical towards other aspects of journalism, and we conceptualise this monitoring practice as a coping strategy to deal with the pandemic as an unknown and uncontrollable threat, involving difficult emotions of uncertainty and fear.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T03:02:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221149599
       
  • A field theory approach to international journalism: The case of Indian
           journalists in the middle east

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      Authors: Subin Paul
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Interest in Bourdieu’s field theory has been steadily growing within the field of journalism studies. Today the application of this theory is not limited to the Global North; journalism studies scholars employ it—rather unreservedly—to study news practices even in the Global South. This leads to the fundamental question whether “Western” media theories have universal relevance. Contributing to this longstanding debate, this article demonstrates one possible way in which journalism studies scholars can “provincialize” or translate Western theories for contexts outside the occidental world: by opening them up to critical ideas from and interdisciplinary scholarship on the Global South. The article operationalizes this approach by using field theory to analyze non-Western journalism cultures. It examines the range of negotiations that Indian journalists in the Middle East undertake to produce vernacular news, revealing the need to not only interrogate conventional media practices but also scholarly lenses that often guide our understanding of mediated processes.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-24T07:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221148017
       
  • Book review: Journalism in the Data Age

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      Authors: Carolyne Mande Lunga
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-22T08:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221149845
       
  • “You suck it up and you deal with it”: Blind spots in investigative
           reporting and how to overcome them

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      Authors: Jessica Kunert, Michael Brüggemann, Jannis Frech, Volker Lilienthal, Wiebke Loosen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Investigative journalism is about uncovering what shall not be covered, yet, blind spots remain. This paper explores what topics investigative journalists consider to be neglected in different regions of the world, why these topics are not covered, and how journalists strive to report them in spite of difficulties. We theorize the blind spots by drawing on the Hierarchy of Influences Model, meaning that blind spots in investigative reporting are deeply rooted in these influences. We explore these issues in a global comparative approach and conducted qualitative face-to-face interviews at the Global Investigative Journalism Conference 2019 with 90 investigative journalists from 60 countries. Our findings show that many topics can’t be worked on due to repercussions from four levels of the Hierarchy of Influences Model (esp. from the wider social system), leading to self-censorship. The journalists overcome these obstacles with resourceful individual actions (e.g. publishing from abroad) since their media outlets and organizations are often not fit to help them due to resource constraints. Thus, journalists may defy the hierarchy and see it as their mission to persist, also and especially in countries in the Global South. However, obstacles are found globally and directly affect the nuts and bolts of journalism, such as access to information and sources.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-17T12:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221146929
       
  • Stated professional orientation, identity, and technical proficiency of
           journalists as predictors of the success of journalism crowdfunding
           campaigns

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      Authors: Niv Mor, Roei Davidson, Yariv Tsfati
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In the journalism community’s constant search for alternative funding sources, Crowdfunding emerged as a promising mechanism that possibly allows new voices and approaches to secure funding for journalism. In this study, we content analyzed 627 journalistic crowdfunding pitches as a form of metajournalistic discourse and the funding public’s reaction to them as expressed in their funding decisions. Drawing on the journalism studies literature, we consider whether the stated journalistic orientation of the proposed project, the occupational and demographic identity of the campaign creator, and the technical proficiency of the crowdfunding pitch can predict funding success. We find that although technical aspects related to how the pitch was crafted and promoted are the strongest predictors of success, certain journalistic orientations, such as promising to conduct investigative journalism, can contribute somewhat to a project’s success. Data show that while self-identification as journalists, nonprofits, and the location of the proposed projects were strongly associated with crowdfunding success, creators’ gender and ethnic identity were not associated with success.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T02:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221146076
       
  • Small world sampling: Qualitative sample reliability and validity for
           efficient and effective recruitment of journalists as research
           participants

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      Authors: Amira Firdaus, Iffat Ali Aksar, Jiankun Gong
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      One primary concern in researching journalistic practice and media production is the difficulty of gaining research access to media organizations and their media professionals. This paper theorizes Small World Sampling method for identifying and recruiting participants for qualitative research. Based on an ethnographic interview study involving 32 journalists at six different international news organizations, our Small World Sampling method created a direct research path into journalists’ professional occupational networks without having to negotiate indirect access through their non-journalist organizational gatekeepers (e.g. PR executives, HR department, managers). Small World Sampling allows the participant selection process to be guided by media practitioners’ expert and in-group knowledge of their professional network of media colleagues and acquaintances. More methodologically important, our Small World Sampling protocol offers a novel technique for demonstrating the qualitative reliability of the sampling process and for establishing the qualitative validity of the sample under study. Additionally, the paper introduces the concept of ‘contextual case studies’ offering additional nuance and insights enriching the conclusions drawn from the project’s main case studies. Beyond media and journalism research, we propose that Small World Sampling may also prove useful for other fields to facilitate research access into closed organizations, elite networks, and hidden communities.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-10T09:49:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221124997
       
  • The role of German media and the (European) public sphere: Framing biases
           of the press using the example of the Italian sovereign debt crisis 2018

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      Authors: Victoria Sophie Teschendorf
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      During times of crisis, the press plays a crucial role in communicating and negotiating the crisis. Considering Germany’s strong economic role in the EU, the German (media) perspective on European economic policy issues has a major influence on Europe. In 2018, Italy’s debt crisis posed the risk of a new euro crisis and a domino effect on other countries. Contrasting views of how to resolve economic crises opposed each other, with the Maastricht criteria at the center. Despite high debt, the Italian government pursued a Keynesian policy by increasing the deficit to stimulate economic growth. The European Commission, however, insisted on neoliberal policies and compliance with the criteria. This study discusses the (non)emergence of a European public sphere through the economic policy framing of the Italian sovereign debt crisis. Using quantitative content analysis, the relative prevalence of frames rooted in competing economic policy paradigms (neoliberal/Keynesian) in press coverage is examined. The results show that the neoliberal paradigm and the call for austerity dominate coverage, indicating a possible European public sphere. However, the biased media framing in favor of the European Commission’s and German government’s interests partly contributes to strengthening the nationalistic perspective on this European issue. Overall, the press failed to present the issue in a solution-oriented and pluralistic manner.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-08T10:23:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221145225
       
  • Journalistic knowledge production during a social crisis: How journalists
           claimed professional authority during the Chilean social uprising

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      Authors: Ximena Orchard, Mario Fergnani
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we problematize protest coverage as an epistemological challenge for journalists, based on the case of the 2019 social uprising in Chile, in which the authority of professional journalists as narrators of events was questioned by audiences. The study aims at identifying the main dimensions of news production that become altered in an extended social crisis, as well as the main repertoires of practice and justifications deployed from the journalistic field to face them. The paper is based on the analysis of episodic narrative interviews (n = 32), with journalists who participated in the coverage of the uprising in different capacities, in TV, radio, print and digital only media outlets. In our findings, we identify disruptions of epistemic consequence for news production during the coverage of the protests and riots, such as safety issues, and the relationship of journalists with space, time and the evidence recognized as appropriate for journalistic content, an issue that became particularly problematic around episodes of violence. We then identify four epistemic modes (approaches to knowledge-production) activated during the protests: detached narrator, conflict deflector, conflict mediator and involved narrator. These modes reveal differentiated responses to protest coverage inside professional journalism, which are in turn based on complementary claims of legitimacy for journalistic practice.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-06T05:26:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221142722
       
  • Functional interlopers: Lifestyle journalists' discursive construction of
           boundaries against digital lifestyle influencers

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      Authors: Lydia Cheng, Matthew Chew
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Guided by boundary work (Carlson, 2015; Carlson & Lewis, 2019), this study aims to better understand where lifestyle journalists situate digital lifestyle influencers within the field of lifestyle journalism, and what types of boundary-making strategies these journalists employ in reaction to such influencers. Through 37 interviews with lifestyle journalists from Singapore, the findings show that the journalists view the influencers as functional interlopers, and have an uneasy “frenemy” relationship with them. The interviewees engage in expansion, expulsion, and protection of autonomy boundary strategies (Carlson, 2015; Carlson & Lewis, 2019), but these are enacted at different times in response to different aspects of influencers. Overall, this study lends insight into how lifestyle journalists discursively construct the boundaries of their field against the incursion of digital lifestyle influencers.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T08:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221143875
       
  • The Şalom newspaper in Turkey since its 1984 language transformation from
           Ladino to Turkish and the Turkish Jewish community

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      Authors: Umut Uzer
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The linguistic Turkification of the dwindling Turkish Jewish community during the period of the Republic extended to its media outlets. The Şalom newspaper, published in Turkey since 1947, changed its language from Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) to Turkish in 1984. This article takes that change as the starting point for an examination of the place of the publication within the political framework of a nationalizing secular state as well as its recent Islamification. The paper’s content is reviewed through its archives and interviews with columnists. Thus, the recent history of a Jewish newspaper in a secular Muslim country has been meticulously researched and analyzed so as to unpack the relationship between language and identity.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T03:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221139677
       
  • Book reviews

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      Authors: Julian Petley
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T09:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221143858
       
  • The up-down-up pandemic news experience: A mixed-method approach to its
           negative and positive effects on psychological wellbeing

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      Authors: An Nguyen, Antje Glück, Daniel Jackson
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research has documented the dynamics of increased news consumption alongside – paradoxically – increased news avoidance during the Covid-19 pandemic, highlighting its adverse effects on mental health and emotional wellbeing. However, for methodological and theoretical reasons, research still lacks specifics on what types of negative psychological responses were directly triggered by pandemic news, how prevalent they were in the population, how they manifested in daily life, and what could be the alternatives to them. Further, the almost exclusive focus on negative effects has led to a relative negligence of the positive sides of pandemic news. This study takes a mixed-method approach to address these gaps, combining 59 interviews and a follow-up survey with a representative sample of 2,015 adults across the UK. We found that pandemic news consumption, driven primarily by the need for personalised surveillance in an uncertain situation, oscillated in parallel with its severity and associated lockdown restrictions. The influx of repetitive bad news triggered many negative feelings besides general pandemic anxiety – namely fear, despair and moral outage (anger and disgust). This led to various alterations of daily routines, including news avoidance. Such adverse effects were offset by the reassurance, happiness and hope that the news did, at least occasionally, brought to audiences during the pandemic. Participants suggested several potential “good news” categories that point to the need for constructive news forms that not only inform but also inspire, motivate and/or empower people in personal or collective ways.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T02:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221135137
       
  • The quality oriented, the audience engagers, the transparent: Types of
           editorial trust-building in German news outlets

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      Authors: Bernadette Uth
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Trust in journalism is highly relevant for society. Within the past years, especially during the COVID19-pandemic, trust in journalism became a recurring subject of public debate in Germany: Journalism is often vilified as ‘lying press’ and the legitimacy of traditional media is increasingly questioned. While in Germany, unlike other countries, we do not see a crisis in media trust, there nonetheless is a certain share of the population being skeptical towards traditional journalism. News outlets therefore need to ask themselves how to win back these sections of their audience and strengthen trust in their work. So far, research on media trust has largely focused on the audience – the journalistic perspective has hardly been examined. By conducting 29 interviews with German journalists, this paper aims to analyze which strategies news outlets pursue to cultivate trust in their work. Three main approaches to trust-building can be identified: The quality oriented, the audience engagers and the transparent. The results enable us to get a clearer overview on how news outlets try to regain and build their audience’s trust – which presents starting points for both journalism practice and research.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T02:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221141522
       
  • Exploring the link between media concentration and news content diversity
           using automated text analysis

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      Authors: Jonathan Hendrickx, Annelien Van Remoortere
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we explore the relationship between increased media market concentration and its effects on the diversity of news content. We assemble a dataset of 1,419,479 print and online ‘hard news’ articles published between 2018 and 2021 by the four largest newspapers in Flanders (Belgium). These include two popular and two quality titles owned by two rival media companies, which only emerged in recent years after a string of mergers and takeovers which fundamentally changed ownership diversity in the small yet increasingly concentrated Flemish media market. In our analysis, we compare articles for their similarity between titles belonging to the same company using automated text comparisons. We find that content is growing increasingly similar and expand the existing body of research on the link between media concentration and news (content) diversity in Flanders as well as beyond.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T07:00:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221136946
       
  • Personalisation in Journalism: Ethical insights and blindspots in Finnish
           legacy media

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      Authors: Henrik Rydenfelt, Lauri Haapanen, Jesse Haapoja, Tuukka Lehtiniemi
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The algorithmic personalisation and recommendation of media content has resulted in considerable discussion on related ethical, epistemic and societal concerns. While technologies of personalisation are widely employed by social media platforms, they are currently also being instituted in journalistic media. The objective of this study is to explore how concerns about algorithms are articulated and addressed when technologies of personalisation meet with long-standing journalistic values, norms and publicist missions. It first distinguishes five normative concerns related to personalisation: autonomy, opacity, privacy, selective exposure and discrimination. It then traces the ways that these issues are navigated in the context of journalistic media in Finland where the implications of algorithmic media technologies have received considerable attention. The results indicate that personalisation challenges traditional notions of journalism, including those of choosing what is important and relevant and providing the same content to everyone. However, aspects of personalisation also have a long history within journalistic practices, and new technologies of personalisation are being adapted to accord with journalistic norms and aims. Based on these results, ethical blindspots concerning privacy and discrimination are also identified.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T11:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221138424
       
  • Managing and resisting workplace reorganization: Labor-management
           relations in a pre-digital media corporation

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      Authors: Errol Salamon
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how newsworkers resisted workplace reorganization in the pre-digital news industry. It analyzes how and why the Thomson Corporation reorganized the workplace and unions resisted workplace change from 1994 to 1995 as a case study of corporate control and worker resistance. Developing the concept of alternative communication resistance practices, it conducts a thematic analysis of untapped archival documents: union, company, legal, and news content. This concept articulates historically-contingent institutional conditions that facilitate corporate strategies to reorganize the workplace and union resistance practices. This article contributes an original relational framework to understand what is distinct about workplace reorganization at a particular setting. It considers workplace actors’ heterogeneous resistance practices within a specific workplace context and how communication practices express and constitute resistance. The article outlines five propositions of this framework that could be tested and potentially refined beyond a single case study in future (digital) journalism research.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T11:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221138727
       
  • Parasitic news: Adoption and adaption of journalistic conventions in
           hybrid political communication

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      Authors: Mattias Ekman, Andreas Widholm
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how political parties and individual politicians in Sweden communicate strategically in an online environment where the close relationship between news and journalistic institutions no longer can be taken for granted. We define the adoption and adaption of journalistic conventions in political communication as a particular communication style, conceptualized as “parasitic news”. The article presents an analytical framework that explicates the role of parasitic news across five dimensions: ideological transparency/position, alternativeness, news genres, individual vs. collective media practices, and social media affordances. An analysis of three news projects, representing right-wing populist, liberal/conservative, and left-wing/green ideological positions, reveals that parasitic news is a flexible communication style that blurs the boundaries of politics and media in online spaces. Moreover, parasitic news challenges the relevance of established terms such as alternative, hyper-partisan, and fake news, pointing to the need of a renewed conceptual vocabulary in journalism, media and political communication research.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T11:14:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221136940
       
  • Origin stories of local journalism entrepreneurs

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      Authors: Karin Wahl-Jorgensen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the origin stories of local journalism entrepreneurs in the UK, based on 57 in-depth interviews and a survey of 116 practitioners, carried out in 2020–2021. In doing so, it focuses on the motivations and identities of editors of what are variably known as community journalism outlets and hyperlocals. These outlets represent a growing sector which has filled the gap left behind by the closure and consolidation of local and regional newspapers. Many have been established over the past decade, frequently by journalists previously working for traditional media organisations. Drawing on insights from the field of social enterprise, the article shows that, like other social entrepreneurs, community journalists are driven by a range of motivations: Their decisions to start up new outlets are frequently informed by economic conditions, including gaps in the local news market. But more importantly, they also tend to be strongly influenced by normative ideals, including the desire to improve their communities through news provision. The distinctive articulation of these normative ideals demonstrates that local journalism entrepreneurs embody distinctive professional identities associated with conceptions of what constitutes “good” local journalism. These are tied to the provision of news which authentically captures the experience of the local community. Editors’ origin stories reveal an emphasis on authority grounded in knowledge of, and a passionate attachment to, the local community.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T08:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221115223
       
  • Taking to the streets: The effects of in-the-field harassment against
           journalists covering protests

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      Authors: Kaitlin C Miller, Samantha Kocan
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Since 2017, 518 journalists have been attacked while covering protests (U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, 2021) which is one of the most dangerous places to be as a journalist in the United States (Sterne & Peters, 2017). Despite the volatile climate around journalists as they cover increasingly dangerous protests (Luqiu, 2020), there is minimal understanding as to the effect of these events on them (Talabi, et al., 2021). Furthermore, there is a gap in the hostility literature examining harassment that journalists face in the field. Through a survey of U.S. journalists, this study finds that covering protests causes journalists mental and emotional health concerns, which influences how they view their journalistic roles. Furthermore, the effects of positive and negative encounters at protests affected journalists personally, depending on who the perpetrator was (protestor or law enforcement)—influencing everything from PTSD and anxiety to intentions to leave journalism. The paper ultimately underscores the need for news organizations to make sure journalists not only are safe, but also feel safe, when reporting in the field.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T08:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221138429
       
  • A topic among others—examining the attention dynamics of the COVID-19
           pandemic through interviews with Finnish journalists

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      Authors: Timo Harjuniemi
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Media research has shown that media attention to pandemics is largely driven by rising case numbers, policy responses and scientific breakthroughs. However, less is known about the issue attention dynamics that feed a decline in the media attention to pandemics. By building on the literature on issue attention and on 18 semi-structured interviews with Finnish journalists, this article explores the issue attention dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. The article identifies three factors that lead to a decrease in the attention that a pandemic receives. First, issue fatigue diminishes the amount of attention while issue competition replaces the pandemic with other issues on the news agenda. Second, changes in the course of the pandemic—such as the introduction of vaccines— affect media attention. Third, this article illustrates how news media organisations try to balance informing the public of the risks related to the pandemic and not overreacting to the threat it poses.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T01:37:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221138431
       
  • Examining audience perspectives on local newspaper futures

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      Authors: Kristy Hess, Lisa Waller, Jerry Lai
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      When it comes to examining innovation and small-town newspapers, audience expectations and perspectives have received less focus than newsroom practices and processes. This article presents the findings of Australia’s most comprehensive national survey of local newspaper audiences (n = 4116), which engaged with readers of more than 170 independently owned, small-town newspapers across the nation. The survey was underpinned by a ‘geo-social’ methodology, which provides a multidimensional framework for understanding the ‘place’ of newspapers in the digital age within their specific geographic context, in this case rural Australia. It used ordinal, nominal and qualitative questions to explore respondents’ experiences, histories, expectations and perspectives related to their local newspaper. Respondents were asked about their preferences for reading and receiving local news, what their newspaper can do better, and the policy debates and interventions shaping the sector. Results indicate a continued desire for the printed product, a passion for localness in terms of both production and content, and a greater say for local news audiences on the policies shaping the future of news in non-metropolitan settings.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-21T11:55:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221134008
       
  • Motivated by political beliefs, not only by language: How Russian speakers
           in Germany compose their transnational news repertoires

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      Authors: Anna Ryzhova
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Extant research in media and migration has been largely apolitical, focusing on how migrants use media to culturally connect with their homeland and keep their family ties. However, in times of increasing international conflicts and polarisation, such as the years leading up to the Russia's war against Ukraine in 2022, migrant audiences find themselves in a situation when the coverage of national and international politics in the homeland and host country media can differ dramatically. Against this backdrop, this study investigated how Russian speakers living in Germany create and navigate their transnational news repertoires. Grounded in 42 semi-structured interviews with the Russian speakers of the 1 and 1.5 generations in Germany, conducted between May and October 2021, this article identifies three types of transnational news repertoires: (1) politically-motivated news repertoire, (2) truth seeking-motivated news repertoire and (3) situation-motivated news repertoire. The results show that all the news repertoires of all participants are transnational. I argue that in the context of international conflict, not only language but also the participants' political beliefs play an essential role in their news choice. Future research on migrants in political communication should distinguish research not only along with the language of the media outlets but also along with the political ideologies that they project.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T02:50:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221130557
       
  • Framing migration in the Greek press; An analysis of the ‘evros
           events’ in left, liberal, and far-right newspapers

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      Authors: Christos Kostopoulos, Yiannis Mylonas
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In this article we focus on one important event related to the Greek dimensions of the so called refugee crisis in Europe. This event took place during late February and March 2020 and is known as the Evros events that occurred when Turkey decided to open its European borders to the refugees. Greece responded by closing its land borders with Turkey, and by halting the asylum application process. The area surrounding the Evros River in Greece became heavily policed by the Greek police and the EU’s Frontex border police, further aided by various citizen militias consisting of Greek and other EU nationals. This research analyzes the newsmedia coverage of the specific incident through a qualitative frame analysis on news articles written by five Greek newspapers that have different political affiliations. The analysis then answers a two-fold research question: how did the Greek press frame the Evros events, and how did these frames contribute to the public debate around migration in the country.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T01:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221134000
       
  • An Asian version of data journalism': Uncovering “Asian values” in
           data stories produced across Asia

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      Authors: Shangyuan Wu
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Data journalism in Western-centric research has been lauded for its investigative qualities, capable of bringing to light previously concealed information and enabling the press to play its watchdog function. That said, journalism outside the liberal West may operate within vastly different contexts, shaped by different historical experiences, political cultures, and philosophical traditions, thereby creating a different brand of data journalism. This paper examines data journalism practice in Asia specifically, a region known to be home to collaborative press systems that adhere to a set of “Asian values” pertaining to collectivism, social harmony, norm conformity and deference to authority. By examining 210 data stories produced by news outlets in six Asian countries, this study finds that Asian values are displayed in a vast majority of data stories produced in the region, most of which are news stories pertaining to the home country of these news outlets. Continued reliance on government sources for information and a lack of stories that reveal previously hidden information or scrutinize a powerful entity also suggest no strong push to leverage on the investigative qualities of data journalism to produce more “watchdog” journalism; focus is instead placed on the “civic” role of informing the public.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T11:50:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221133298
       
  • The effects of transparency cues on news source credibility online: An
           investigation of ‘opinion labels’

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      Authors: Andrew Otis
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Unlabeled opinionated content on search engines and social media can potentially affect news consumers’ perceptions of the credibility of news sources. This paper explores the effects of ‘opinion labels’ on news previews (known as ‘story cards’) on readers’ perceptions of news source credibility. Participants (N = 389) in a 3x2x2 study were presented with a feed containing biased and unbiased content from one news source. Labeling opinionated content on story cards significantly increased the perceived credibility of the news source (p < 0.01), supporting the role of opinion segmentation on credibility. The findings have socio-political implications as they indicate that design choices such as labeling content can significantly impact credibility and trust in news media.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T06:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221129001
       
  • The fourth estate operating by means of silencing

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      Authors: Ejvind Hansen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The traditional foundation of the placed reserved for the Fourth Estate in democratic practice is under pressure. To revitalize this idea, a focus upon how journalists handle silence professionally is suggested. It is argued that it is important to bring out how the handling of silence is carried out, and to understand that silence is not only something to be avoided. Silence is of foundational importance for communicative significance to emerge. In a reading of Deleuze, Heidegger and Derrida, we argue for a model in which silence is necessary for significant communicative exchanges. We avoid thoughtlessness by allotting a function to silence; for communication requires not just information but a channel of silence, so to speak. It is, finally, argued that it is important not to expect the revealed forms of silence to be problematic. It is demonstrated that certain forms of silence can be analysed as democracy enhancing because they permit less heated exchanges that make room for thoughtful contemplation.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T10:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221132601
       
  • Performing journalism. Making sense of ethical practice within local
           interloper media

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      Authors: Jaana Hujanen, Juho Ruotsalainen, Viljami Vaarala, Katja Lehtisaari, Mikko Grönlund
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the blurring boundaries between local journalism, strategic and marketing communications and civic information. The study at hand produces new knowledge regarding the conceptions and practices that are emerging in the middle ground between local journalism and communications. The data consist of 10 thematic in-depth interviews with writers, owners and other key personnel from Finnish local communications operations applying journalistic practices in their content production, conceptualised here as interloper media practitioners. By applying the concept of boundary work, the study sheds light on the discursive contest over the forms and vocabulary of journalism and news media. The study also explores the ethical guidelines interloper media apply and how their representatives reflect on their ethical code of practice. The results are condensed into five rationales the practitioners use to justify the legitimacy of the interloper media outlets and the use of journalistic methods in strategic or commercial communications and civic information. The practitioners experience the boundaries between journalism and various types of communications as blurring. They borrow and apply journalistic styles and ethical guidelines selectively to lend their media attractivity and credibility. They face ethical conflicts in their work particularly regarding their relationship to power holders and decision-makers. Yet a culture of profound ethical reflection is markedly absent from their accounts.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T04:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221131626
       
  • The struggle for authority and legitimacy: Lifestyle and political
           journalists’ discursive boundary work

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      Authors: Sandra Banjac, Folker Hanusch
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarship has pointed to an artificial hierarchy between political and lifestyle journalism that is rooted in norms and values stemming from Western-liberal thought. Within this distinction, lifestyle journalism has been subordinated as occupying a marginal or peripheral position in the field. Yet, how journalists perceive this distinction has rarely been studied empirically. This study draws on concepts of ‘boundary work’ and ‘othering’ to examine how political and lifestyle journalists discursively reinforce and contest boundaries and hierarchies. Through semi-structured interviews with 22 lifestyle and 26 political journalists and editors in South Africa, we show that political and lifestyle journalists engaged in both intra-field (self-)expansion, and (self-)expulsion and (self-)othering, by evoking several boundary markers. Boundaries were reinforced through gendered discourses, autonomy ideals, claims to specialization and accessibility in news beats and presentation, beliefs about political journalism’s preservation of humanity, and greater risks to safety of political journalists. Boundaries were challenged by politicizing lifestyle journalism and popularizing political journalism, providing a counter-narrative to political journalism’s negativity, and treating lifestyle journalism as economically beneficial.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T03:32:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221125702
       
  • Future conceptual challenges of cross-border journalism

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      Authors: Lea Hellmueller, Peter Berglez
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In this study we argue that we are entering a period with increasingly complex and dialectical relations between cross-continental and national sentiments and actions. This situation—characterized by multiple centers of political power and conflicts—requires journalism studies to sharpen its skills when examining cross-border journalism using concepts such as foreign, international, global, and transnational journalism, and to be analytically sensitive to their differences and their potentially dynamic relations. This article examines the theoretical definitions and practical use of these four cross-border journalism concepts during the period 2010–2020 in a selected number of academic journals. We critically discuss their potential contribution to future research on global challenges occurring in a paradoxical world where globalization appears to be moving forward and backward simultaneously.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T02:16:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221125535
       
  • Time to Pass the Mic: Gender and race in Scotland’s news

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      Authors: Karen Boyle, Melody House, Talat Yaqoob
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Pass the Mic is a project focusing on women of colour in Scottish news, established by Talat Yaqoob. In 2020, funding from the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust enabled us to undertake original research to investigate the representation of women of colour in Scottish news, providing baseline evidence for Pass the Mic’s ongoing work with media partners and women-of-colour writers. Focusing on media produced in Scotland with a national audience, we conducted two periods of media monitoring (November 2020, May 2021) to investigate where and how women of colour are represented in Scottish news. Situating this study relative to existing media monitoring projects, we discuss the methodological challenges of codifying gender and race in news. Whilst our finding that women of colour are under-represented in Scottish news is not surprising, in considering how women of colour are represented we point to the tensions of visibility for women of colour, the limited construction of their expertise, and the marginalisation of women of colour’s opinions within stories about Scotland, including when these stories explicitly address racial in/equality.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T02:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221128212
       
  • Anger and the investigative journalist

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      Authors: Richard Stupart
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      What is the place of anger in the work of journalism' Based on a discourse analysis of investigative journalists’ reflections on the role of anger in their work, this paper explores common understandings of the utility and ‘proper place’ of anger in journalism. I argue that anger can be usefully theorised by drawing on P.F. Strawson’s account of anger as a reactive attitude and Amia Srinivsasan’s account of anger having dimensions of aptness and prudence. In contrast to existing work arguing for a norm proscribing emotion in journalistic texts, anger forms a valued component in the work of investigative journalists, albeit one with important norms around its control and management.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T12:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221125980
       
  • Is news for men': Effects of women’s participation in news-making on
           audience perceptions and behaviors

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      Authors: Mingxiao Sui, Newly Paul, Caley Hewitt, Jessica Maki, Kathleen Searles
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      News avoidance, particularly among women, raises potential challenges for democracy. While research shows audiences don’t penalize women reporters or the outlets that employ them, we don’t know whether the presence of women in the newsroom affects such avoidance behaviors, particularly for women audiences. Additionally, the news may communicate gender to the audience in other ways beyond ascriptive characteristics of the reporter. We ask, do reporter gender, source gender, and gender of issues affect readers’ engagements with news, attitudes toward news avoidance, or perceptions about gender bias in journalism' Results from a survey experiment show that newsroom diversity affects “news-is-for-men” perceptions. Upon reading a masculine-issue story, respondents—both men and women—were more willing to read and seek stories from the same news outlet. News stories from male reporters also caused a stronger belief that the newsroom was dominated by men, which boosted “news-is-for-men” perceptions. As such, though reporter gender may not always impact readers directly, its influence is more pervasive than can be directly captured.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T11:37:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221125412
       
  • “It’s a matter of age”: Four dimensions of youths’
           news consumption

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      Authors: Nadine Klopfenstein Frei, Valery Wyss, Aleksandra Gnach, Wibke Weber
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      News media in Switzerland are confronted with the challenge of not reaching young people, as youth-specific news platforms and formats are not used by the target group. Our study aims to determine how and where young people can be reached with news. It uses a mixed methods approach to analyze the expectations of young people towards news content and formats and to determine their news consumption patterns. The results show that young people’s news consumption is characterized by four dimensions: 1. duration and times of consumption, 2. news consumption habits and behavior, 3. restrictions, 4. media literacy. The significance of these dimensions varies between three age groups determined through the study. The news consumption of the 12-to-14 year-olds is strongly restricted by parents and school. This group consumes news mainly through media available at home. In the group of 15- to-17 year-olds, parental influence and restrictions decrease, while peer influence increases. This age group spends a lot of time on social media platforms where young people stumble upon news rather accidentally. Between 18 and 20 years of age, news consumption stabilizes, and individual patterns emerge. This age group accesses news via selected apps and social media channels. Young people in Switzerland prefer visual formats like pictures, videos, and memes. When scrolling through social media platforms, they come across news content which arouses their interest in certain information and leads them to search for it on media websites. Swiss Youth wants to be informed about relevant news or topics that are “in vogue”.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T07:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221123385
       
  • Disentangling time-spaces of migration: Chronotopes and racist
           subjectivities in ‘identity journalism’ in Poland and Czechia

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      Authors: Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius, Ilana Hartikainen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the use of time and space in ‘identity journalism’ in Poland and Czechia. ‘Identity journalism’ is an emic term that valorises the construction of identities as journalism’s prerogative and enacts this by supplying news that amplifies views around which conservative communities coalesce. This article focuses on how identity journalism’s discourse on migration manufactures racist subjectivities. Theoretically, it employs the notion of a ‘chronotope’: a discursive construct that fuses time and space and, in so doing, produces subjectivities. By bringing together spatialities implied in the concept of ‘domopolitics’ with the ‘racialised temporalities’ of critical race theory, the article conceptualises three distinct chronotopes of migration: the ‘homeland’, the ‘extended home’, and the ‘(racialised) outside’. Empirically, it studies how these chronotopes figure in a corpus extracted from two online identity-journalistic media: the Polish wPolityce.pl (110 articles) and the Czech ParlamentniListy.cz (189 articles). The results of a Foucauldian discourse analysis reveal, firstly, that by defining the ‘homeland’ as a spatially fixed entity that persists through time, identity journalism reinforces racist subjectivities by limiting the community of ‘us’ mainly to those who share the same past and, therefore, ethno-racial characteristics. Secondly, by projecting the spatially fixed but demographically diverse ‘extended home’ into the dystopian future, identity journalism buttresses the racist presumption of incompatibility between ‘us’ and ‘them’. Finally, by casting the ‘(racialised) outside’ as spatially mobile but temporally affixed to the uncivilised past, it feeds into the view of racialised migrants as barbaric and threatening.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T01:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221126093
       
  • User information processing mechanisms for news quality judgment
           conformity to professional standards: Comparing combinations of news
           content/formal cue processing

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      Authors: Sujin Choi
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      It is more difficult to judge news quality on digital news platforms because editorial cues (such as size and placement of news articles that signal the quality of articles in the traditional news environment) are far less obvious. Without these editorial cues, how do users process news cues to judge news quality in conformity to professional standards' Relying on dual information processing literature, this study investigates five combinations of news content/formal cue processing to identify user information processing mechanisms for news quality judgment conformity to professional standards. A total of 88 news articles were evaluated by 3547 survey respondents and two professional editors. Based on the partial-least-squares structural equation modeling, we found that the joint functioning of content/formal cue processing better explains news quality judgment conformity than other combinations (such as the independent functioning of each cue processing and the biased functioning of content cue processing affected by formal cue processing). The large, negative effect of joint functioning suggests that the less the respondents relied on formal cues, the greater they achieved news quality judgment conformity as they elaborated more on content cues. Elaboration on a given article’s believability/depth as a content cue and heuristics regarding its number of quotes as a formal cue had greater impact on judgment conformity. These results imply how the elaborative and heuristic routes of news processing interact and in what ways news cues can be processed to identify quality news which is necessary for democratic decision making.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T02:11:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221124528
       
  • Where exactly between utopia and dystopia' A framing analysis of AI
           and automation in US newspapers

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      Authors: Hannes Cools, Baldwin Van Gorp, Michael Opgenhaffen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last 60 years, media outlets have been covering emerging technologies like artificial intelligence (AI) and automation. This countrylevel study wants to give a nuanced overview of how these technologies were covered in US newspapers. First, a Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling was conducted on articles on AI and automation in The New York Times and The Washington Post between 1985 and 2020. Second, an inductive manual framing analysis was conducted to distinguish the frames that both newspapers applied over time. Results from the topic modeling show that articles on AI and automation are most prominent within ‘Work’, ‘Art’, and ‘Education’. Concerning the manual framing analysis, the coverage has been more optimistic than pessimistic over time. However, when dystopian frames are considered, the results show that there has been more attention in the corpus on the impact of AI and automation on ethical conundrums involved with these technologies.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T04:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221122647
       
  • Blind spots and diversity in a local media landscape

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      Authors: Lisbeth Morlandstø, Birgit Røe Mathisen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Local journalism has received increasing attention and recognition from scholars as well as in public and political debate. However, challenges and downsizing in media businesses raise concerns about blind spots, with possible impacts on diversity, local democracy and civic engagement. This article discusses the concept of blind spots and diversity, investigating trends and patterns in local and regional journalism based on a content analysis of 24 local and regional media sources in Norway.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T02:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221119603
       
  • Unpacking public animosity toward professional journalism: A qualitative
           analysis of the differences between media distrust and cynicism

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      Authors: Čedomir Markov, Young Min
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Amidst a widely discussed crisis in audience-media relations, this study argues for the importance of a more nuanced understanding of audience animosity toward professional journalism. Based on 20 in-depth interviews with diverse news audiences in Serbia, we explored how media distrust and cynicism can be empirically distinguished. While both perceptions entail negative expectations from journalism, our findings indicate that they diverge with respect to interviewees’ views on journalistic ideals and integrity, differentiation between media actors, and receptivity to journalistic performance. In the interviews, cynicism emerged as the deterministic and process-oriented perception that journalism serves no other purposes than financial profit and audience manipulation. In contrast, distrust was a more nuanced, probing, and outcome-oriented perception that may be open to correction in the presence of counter-evidence. These findings can help media researchers and educators to better diagnose and address negative media perceptions.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T01:07:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221122064
       
  • Media crisis and its effects on digital journalism careers in Canada

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      Authors: Fábio Henrique Pereira
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses how the evolution of media industry in Canada affects the construction of identities and careers in digital journalism. It is based on 17 in-depth interviews with professionals working in Canadian Anglophone and Francophone media. Based on an interactionist theoretical approach, this article underlines how journalists negotiate their career project in a scenario of precariousness and deterioration of the job market in Canadian journalism. In this regard it highlights the strategies of resistance and resilience adopted by some interviewees in contrast to the international discourses that aim to restructure their practices and identities. This results in a conservative approach to adapting to the professional identity in digital journalism – which in fact translates into segmentation and diversification of the status that comes with this profession.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T10:32:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221116186
       
  • Similar citizen portrayals' Converging media-based othering in
           tabloids and broadsheets

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      Authors: Stefanie Walter, Zoltán Fazekas
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Political communication researchers studying the news media coverage often distinguish between broadsheets and tabloids when sampling relevant news outlets. But recent work has pointed towards a ‘tabloidization’ of news coverage, complicating the empirical distinction between the two. Computational methods for text analysis can help us better understand how distinct the news coverage between these two types of news outlets is. We take the Brexit referendum as a case study illustrating various aspects in which broadsheets and tabloids cover an issue permeated by othering and divisive rhetoric. We focus on Brexit-related news coverage before and after the referendum (N = 32,946) and use word embeddings to analyze the portrayal of different groups of citizens that can generate an in- and outgroup divide. First, we document the presence of media-based othering in the form of overly similar migrant and European Union citizen representations that are, in turn, very dissimilar to the UK citizen representation. Second, we show partial convergence between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers, as differences in the degree and characteristics of media coverage are rather small and specific.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T06:52:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221116204
       
  • Audience understandings of disinformation: navigating news media through a
           prism of pragmatic scepticism

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      Authors: Maria Kyriakidou, Marina Morani, Stephen Cushion, Ceri Hughes
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The content and effects of disinformation have become a focal point in communication studies over recent years. But how media audiences themselves interpret the meaning of disinformation and mitigate the risks it poses to their understanding of the world have remained largely understudied. This article draws upon a UK-based focus group study that examines how people conceptualise disinformation, and the ways this informs their engagement with news media. Our findings revealed that common definitions of disinformation go beyond ‘fake news’ and conspiracy theories to include an array of phenomena, such as biased news, political spin and misrepresented information. Far from simply not trusting information sources or being passive recipients of disinformation, we argue that audiences have developed a pragmatic scepticism in their relationship with media across different platforms, which reflects a critical reading of news media both as texts and institutions.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T08:21:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221114244
       
  • Workplace well-being and support systems in journalism: Comparative
           analysis of Germany and the United Kingdom

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      Authors: Maja Šimunjak, Manuel Menke
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary thinking of journalism as a high emotional labour profession calls into question the systems that are, or should be, in place to support journalists with this labour and in this way mitigate any of its potentially negative consequences, such as those on well-being, mental and physical health, and job performance. By drawing on organisational and social support theories, this article examines the perceptions, expectations, and support needs of journalists in Germany and the United Kingdom, the two European countries with the biggest bodies of practising journalists. Qualitative interviews with 32 German and 34 British journalists reveal important similarities but also differences between the two countries. Specifically, in both countries journalists reported primarily relying on their psychological capital to deal with emotional labour, although many were unsure what exactly constitutes it or how it has been developed. In Germany the social and supervisor support were often mentioned as effective, while in the UK social support was at times found to be hindered by newsroom culture and supervisors’ lack of understanding of the job pressures. Finally, it has been suggested by journalists in both countries that organisational support could be improved by an offer of training in emotional literacy for both journalists and managers, establishment of a point of contact tasked with pastoral care, and fair, transparent and formal structures that encourage and enable journalists to effectively deal with emotional stressors in the job.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T07:22:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221115205
       
  • Public service media for better democracies: Testing the role of
           perceptual and structural variables in shaping citizens’ evaluations of
           public television

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      Authors: Marcela Campos-Rueda, Manuel Goyanes
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      As PSM change and adapt –with variable outcomes– to a digital and multiplatform environment, their roles and functions are overly under severe scrutiny. The normative expectations of PSM and their performance have been extensively discussed from a theoretical and regulatory approach, but studies from an audience perspective are still rather scarce. If PSM's primary stakeholder is to be considered the citizenship it serves, it is, therefore, vital to understand what is valuable to society and how citizens assess PSM's performance. Drawing upon representative survey data from Spain (N = 1717), this study examines the role played by structural and perceptual variables in accounting for the citizen's assessment of the national public broadcaster (TVE), considering six roles: watchdog, analysis, mobilization, public forum, social empathy, and information. Findings first indicate that perceptions of independence and citizens' evaluation of TVE's journalists are positively associated with all dimensions of TVE evaluations. However, when exploring the role of political knowledge, results indicate a negative association with some of PSM's most critical functions. All in all, our research illustrates that, despite all the changes in the media landscape, when it comes to delivering the news, citizens seem to stick to values traditionally associated with PSM: independent and qualified journalism trained for and committed to the public service of delivering accurate and unbiased information.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T10:58:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221114948
       
  • Niche climate news sites and the changing context of covering catastrophe

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      Authors: Adrienne Russell, Jarkko Kangas, Risto Kunelius, James Painter
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      One of the most significant and understudied changes in climate journalism in recent years, and the focus us this study, is the establishment of new niche sites. These sites, which are dedicated exclusively to covering climate-related issues, are now some of the most important sources of climate information. Drawing on interviews with site founders and editors, we explore the experiences and knowledge of these climate journalism innovators to glean their perspective on the state of climate coverage in general and changes to the field, including an emerging interplay between climate journalism and other actors in the broader information environment. Our conversations suggest that in response to changing circumstances—including heightened urgency due to the physical realities of the climate catastrophe and the hybridity of the media environment—journalists are reshaping how climate news is being produced as well as blurring institutional boundaries between journalism, science, and advocacy. In doing so, we argue, they are forging a path toward stronger public interest journalism.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T02:57:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221113119
       
  • Marketing coup or paradigm shift' Reflections on the Dutch media
           interpretations of the 2017 ‘Mata Hari: de mythe en het meisje’

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      Authors: Julie Wheelwright, Adriënne Ummels
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Following the major Fries Museum exhibition about Margaretha Zelle MacLeod aka Mata Hari (1876–1917), this article explores how Dutch arts journalism reflected its successful balance of commercial appeal, subject complexity, and contemporary relevance. The curators aimed to balance research with aestheticism to offer a more sympathetic view of this historically controversial subject. This article furthermore investigates how Dutch arts journalists shaped and responded to this new narrative through an analysis of relevant media reviews and reports. The resulting discourse reflected how the Fries Museum’s use of artefacts created a narrative of Mata Hari which could comment on the broader challenges for women in early twentieth century Europe. We argue that the exhibition and its reportage built upon and reflected advances in recent historiography to offer a fresh perspective on Mata Hari. Moreover, the review analysis suggests that the exhibition successfully balanced seemingly paradoxical needs, as set out in its prospectus, through the creation of such nuanced narratives.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T07:19:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221100921
       
  • Credibility and shareworthiness of negative news

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      Authors: Toni G.L.A. van der Meer, Anna Brosius
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Negativity in the news sells, but is such news also perceived as more credible and shareworthy' Given that negative information is more impactful and processed more easily, a positive-negative asymmetry might also exist in news processing. This negativity bias is explored in a two-part experiment (N = 696) where respondents rated (a) multiple positive and negative news items and (b) conflicting news on perceived credibility and shareworthiness. Results reveal no straightforward patterns: Audiences only hold a negativity bias in their credibility assessment under certain conditions, and even less so when it comes to sharing news. When confronted with conflicting information, audiences do not seem to use negativity as a cue to determine which news to believe or share.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T05:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221110283
       
  • Reciprocal journalism’s double-edged sword: How journalists resolve
           cognitive dissonance after experiencing harassment from audiences on
           social media

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      Authors: Danielle Deavours, Will Heath, Kaitlin Miller, Misha Viehouser, Sandra Palacios-Plugge, Ryan Broussard
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Reciprocal journalism is a daily practice for American journalists. Previous studies show it benefits journalists, newsrooms, and audiences (e.g. Coddington, Lewis & Holton, 2018). Conversely, journalists also experience harassment when interacting with audiences online, causing them to view audiences less favorably (Lewis, Zamith, & Coddington, 2020). Through in-depth interviews with 24 professional and former journalists, this study finds journalists experience cognitive dissonance after experiencing harassment during reciprocal journalism, but they are not likely to stop the practice due to organizational and individual benefits perceived as greater than the negatives. The study finds journalists feel personally responsible for resolving dissonance and often use unhealthy resolution techniques like normalization, victim blaming, or perspective-taking to deal with online abuse. The end result could mean dangerous consequences for individuals and the industry long-term. Results suggest a cultural shift in the industry would be necessary to significantly ease dissonant cognitions among individual journalists.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T09:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221109654
       
  • The ambivalence of recognition: How awarded journalists assess the value
           of journalism prizes

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      Authors: Daniel Nölleke, Folker Hanusch, Phoebe Maares
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In times of increasingly precarious media work, being recognized for one’s performance has become more and more important for journalists’ sense of well-being and can even constitute a competitive advantage in the journalistic field. As material forms of recognition, journalism awards decisively contribute to accumulated journalistic capital and work as an instrument of cultural hierarchy within the field. However, despite the growth in journalistic prizes and the added importance of recognition in times of crisis, we still have an incomplete understanding of how journalists themselves assess the meaning of awards for their position in the field. In this study, we therefore focus on journalists’ evaluations of awards. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with young awarded journalists we explore the meaning of prizes to better understand the relationship between recognition and capital. Our results indicate that from the perspective of awarded journalists receiving an award does not automatically contribute to prestige and hence the accumulation of journalistic capital. Instead, our study suggests that journalists consider prizes to be an ambiguous and ambivalent form of recognition. Whether an award is considered prestigious depends on aspects such as its scarcity, its sponsors, the composition of juries, the visibility of the award in the industry as well as the genre and category that is awarded.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T08:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221109657
       
  • An informed audience: The effects of constructive television news on
           emotions and knowledge

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      Authors: Nadia Swijtink, Tineke Prins, Liesbeth Hermans, Niek Hietbrink
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the way people process information after watching constructive news. In this regard, an experiment (N = 575, 18 – 90 years old) was conducted to investigate how constructive, compared to nonconstructive, news reporting affected information processing (i.e., factual and perceived knowledge) of television news, and whether emotions caused by the news mediated this relation. For this experiment the topics of two socially relevant issues were used; plastic waste in the ocean and the housing market. Results showed that constructive reporting elicited lower levels of negative emotions and higher levels of positive emotions compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, we found that the mediation of emotions was largely dependent on the topic of the news. While more negative feelings led to more factual knowledge of the housing market topic, an increase of positive emotions led to higher perceived knowledge scores on both the housing market and plastic waste topic. These results stress the importance for both researchers and journalists to balance constructive news elements in news reporting in order to optimize information processing of the audience.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T08:10:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221109333
       
  • Whistleblowing and the press: Complicating the standard account

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      Authors: Thomas Olesen
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Whistleblowers and journalists are key democratic actors who are both concerned with the exposure of wrongdoing in corporations, organizations, and governments. For that reason, they often collaborate to bring incriminating information to public knowledge. In the standard account, the whistleblower initiates the contact to journalists who eventually publish the story. Based on a sample of 16 whistleblower cases, the paper shows that the reality of this relationship is more complex than the standard account suggests. The empirical material documents four different trajectories through which whistleblower information reaches the public sphere, only one of which conforms to the standard account. The paper explains the variation based on a theoretical framework, which highlights the main similarities and differences between whistleblowers and journalists. Seen from the perspective of whistleblowers the relationship is double-sided. On the one hand, engaging with the press entails considerable asymmetry and uncertainty for whistleblowers who do not always know the exact motives of journalists just as they enter the relationship from a much more precarious and unstable position. Whistleblowers are also wary of collaborating with the press because it entails a radical loss of privacy as the story breaks in the public sphere. On the other hand, interacting with the press can offer vital legitimacy, protection, and professional resources for vulnerable whistleblowers. Existing work on this core relationship in democracy is surprisingly small and undertheorized. The paper contributes to the debate by offering a theoretically and empirically grounded typology of the whistleblower-journalism nexus.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T10:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221109046
       
  • Where are the missing girls' Gender inequality, job precarity, and
           journalism students’ career choices in China

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      Authors: Jingyi Guo, Kecheng Fang
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to explain the puzzling discrepancy between the large number of female journalism students and the comparatively fewer female journalists in the workforce in China today. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 graduates in journalism from the same class, we investigate the female students’ professional socialization process and analyze the external and internal factors that led most of them to choose a journalism major but not to join the journalism industry. Along the three significant phases in a funnel-shaped model—admission, college education and internship, and job market—we identify the combined influences of structural gender inequality and female students’ increasing gender awareness and agency. We further examine female students’ situation through the conceptual lens of precarity and discuss how it is manifested in ways that differ from those in the West. Our findings reveal a mixed picture of gender reality in Chinese journalism and in Chinese society.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T10:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221108768
       
  • The discourses of data journalism

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      Authors: Mrs Liz Hannaford
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Becoming a data literate, technologically competent journalist is represented as a desirable goal that will benefit the individual, the industry and society as a whole. Data journalism skills are increasingly being taught in journalism programmes around the world. This article applies Foucault’s distinctive conceptualisation of discourse to critically examine data journalism as constructed in the ‘talk’ of its most visible pioneers. The analysis is driven by three distinctive aspects of Foucault’s theory of discourse – power, knowledge and materiality. Using these tools, I investigate how data journalism knowledge is produced, the practices that reinforce it and the strategic power relations it conceals. I argue that data journalism draws on four discourses – journalism, technology, enterprise and citizenship – and wraps itself in the power relations embedded in these prestigious discourses. I argue that there is a political imperative for journalism educators to examine these power relations because material injustices along race, gender, class lines are built into them and have consequences for our students and society.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T04:06:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221107803
       
  • Telling stories from the New Silk Road: A news discourse analysis of
           BBC’s podcast episodes on the Belt and Road Initiative

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      Authors: Laksup Apirakvanalee, Yida Zhai
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Since its announcement in 2013, China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has drawn considerable international attention and remarkably influenced the global economy and politics. By employing the methodological framework of the Discursive News Values Analysis (DNVA), this study scrutinizes how the BBC World Service portrays the BRI. Using its podcast “Stories from the New Silk Road,” we analyzed its coverage of how ordinary people see the BRI. Through different episode elements, such as interviewees, presenters, images, and titles, the findings reveal how news values are shaped. The four episodes of the podcast share, with slight differences, a similar pattern in constructed news values as seen in the narratives of the interviewees and presenters. Economic and environmental issues are frequently discussed in the narratives of the BRI in the podcast episodes. While the news value of Positivity is prevalent in the episodes, it has been observed that the construction of Negativity is mostly in the foreground.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221107223
       
  • Agents of meta: Institutional actors in the journalism space and the
           innovation of local news

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      Authors: Wilson Lowrey, Danielle Deavours, William Singleton
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study sheds light on the increasingly important roles that meta-level organizations, a type of institutional actor, play in the processes of local journalism innovation. Examples of meta-level organizations in journalism include journalism professional associations, training and research centers, nonprofits, and trade publications. Definitionally, metalevel organizations embrace the functions of coordination, regulation, agenda-setting, information diffusion, and the boundary negotiation of an institutionalized space. This qualitative study uses in-depth interviews to explore the roles of meta-level organizations in relation to the troubles of local journalism, how these roles are enacted at professional association conferences, and how they are conceptualized by journalists and representatives of meta-level organizations. We found evidence of three traditional roles of meta-level organizations – information, interaction, existential roles – across different types of meta-level organizations. Respondents tended to view these roles through a lens of resource scarcity. We also found evidence of the role of self-maintenance—i.e., meta-level organizations have their own institutional spaces and an interest in self-preservation—as well as the role of conceptualization or theorization, of innovations, and an emergent role of translation. Translation involves adaptation of abstract ideas to local-level sites, as well as communication of results from local-level experimentation back to the field level, an increasingly important role in a resource-poor local journalism space that is inundated with a flood of new field-level initiatives.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T10:59:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221095898
       
  • Why the media gets it wrong when it comes to North Korea: Cases of
           ‘dead’ North Koreans in the Kim Jong-un era

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      Authors: Soomin Seo
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Journalists are more capable than ever of covering places they cannot visit in person. The same news environment that makes such reporting possible, however, can also facilitate a global cascade of journalistic errors. This article zooms in on the opportunities provided by a unique cluster of journalistic errors to understand factors influencing journalistic errors in international stories. It focuses on erroneous death reports of seven prominent North Koreans between 2012 and 2019. Existing research shows that domestic interests and ideology greatly influence international reporting, with journalists routinely relying heavily on elite sources. However, this article finds limited impact of national interests and political leanings, with the journalistic errors occurring across the ideological spectrum. News outlets developed a habit of quoting other – particularly international – sources without additional verification, citing lack of direct access to North Korea as a major reason. The clicks and revenue generated by salacious North Korea-related stories make them especially susceptible to distortion. Even after such stories were proven erroneous, corrections were rarely issued, with journalists conceding they do not think of North Korea as a subject worthy of clarification. This article thus concludes that in addition to national interest and the Cold War-era commercialization of fear, a culture of negative exceptionalism contributed to erroneous coverage, an idea that existing journalistic standards on ethics and fact-checking do not apply in dictatorial regimes like North Korea.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221105924
       
  • How organizational leadership and boundary spanners drive the
           transformation process of a local news media organization

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      Authors: Lotte Keij, Hans van Kranenburg
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Local news media organizations should not only focus on restructuring, but also on revitalization to maintain their vital function in local communities. Although organizational leaders do understand the need for a transformation, they do not always succeed in making the organizational transformation. Drawing on the literature of boundary spanning in combination with the organizational literature on leadership, this study aims to understand how organizational leaders can foster the organizational transformation. This study examines to what extent organizational leaders can empower and facilitate boundary spanners to overcome the institutional boundaries in the transformation process of a local news media organization. Evidence comes from in-dept interviews with journalists, non-journalists and managers from a regional news media organization in transformation in the Netherlands. Our findings show that the effectiveness of boundary spanners depends on how organizational leaders set organizational goals and organize the reward system. Furthermore, nominated boundary spanners with a coaching logic are more effective than spanners with an authoritarian logic to transform a hierarchical organization into an agile network organization. Another finding is that the introduced scrum methodology to improve organizational agility and innovativeness only works effectively with diverse teams.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T01:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221105721
       
  • The effects of constructive journalism techniques on mood, comprehension,
           and trust

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      Authors: Natasha van Antwerpen, Rachel A. Searston, Deborah Turnbull, Liesbeth Hermans, Petra Kovacevic
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The role of news media in the perpetuation of misinformation has faced increasing scrutiny. Concerns have been raised about news media’s negative influence on mental health, increasing news avoidance, and decreasing trust in news. Constructive journalism is proposed to increase engagement with and trust in news media, reduce the mental health impact of news consumption, and provide a more accurate view of the world. However, constructive journalism studies primarily investigate the inclusion of solutions and positive emotions in news stories, to the exclusion of other techniques. Additionally, few studies have investigated constructive journalism’s effects on trust and comprehension. We used a randomised-controlled repeated-measures experimental design to investigate the effects of a comprehensive set of constructive journalism techniques on mood, comprehension, and trust among 238 Australian participants. Participants who read constructive articles reported higher positive emotion, and lower negative emotion, compared to participants who read the same articles without constructive features. However, participants in the constructive condition demonstrated worse comprehension than participants in the control, an effect partially mediated by negative emotion but not effort. No significant differences in trust in journalism as an institution or in article content were present between groups. However, when accounting for interest, constructive journalism demonstrated a significant negative effect on trust in the information, though positive where it increased mood. Further research is needed to calibrate techniques which balance the positive effects of constructive journalism with its ability to convey information.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T01:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221105778
       
  • Ideological and economic influences on journalistic autonomy and cynicism:
           A moderating role of digital adaptation of news organizations

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      Authors: Bumsoo Kim, Borae Jin
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how ideological and economic aspects of news media are related to journalists’ autonomy and cynicism, and whether organizational adaptation to digital environments moderates the effects of those ideological and financial influences. Using secondary data from journalists (N = 1956) provided by the Korea Press Foundation, this study investigates the relationships among ideological differences between journalists and news organizations, advertising/public relations (ad/PR) work, journalists’ autonomy, and job cynicism. Findings suggest that both ideological incongruence and ad/PR work decreased journalistic autonomy, with the latter a stronger predictor than the former. Decreased autonomy, in turn, increased cynicism. Ad/PR work significantly predicted cynicism, but ideological incongruence did not influence cynicism. In addition, the more the news organization has adapted to the digital realm, the weaker the relations between ideological incongruence and autonomy and between autonomy and cynicism. However, as the adaptation level increased, the negative impact of ad/PR work on autonomy became stronger. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T01:32:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221095334
       
  • The (r)evolution of transsexuality in the news media: The case of the
           Spanish digital press (2000-2020)

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      Authors: Rubén Olveira-Araujo
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Media coverage of transsexuality has increased in different parts of the world. This increase reinforces its visibility, but it can also contribute to developing, reinforcing and legitimizing different attitudes, such as transphobia. In order to analyze the discursive patterns on transsexuality in the Spanish digital press during the period 2000-2020, this article has conducted a quantitative content analysis. Combining manual coding (n = 1095) with rule-based text classification (N = 9922), the media delegitimization to which transsexual people are subjected has been analyzed using logistic regression and multilevel analysis. The results confirm that the newsworthiness of transsexuality in Spain has increased significantly over the first two decades of the 21st century. They also indicate that the media delegitimization of transsexuality has been significantly reduced. These findings suggest a remarkable evolution in the news media coverage of transsexuality. However, improvements are still needed. Therefore, the need to continue training and sensitizing journalists is underlined.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T09:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221105316
       
  • Evaluating “exemplary data journalism” from Asia: An exploration into
           South China Morning Post’s data stories on China and the world

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      Authors: Shangyuan Wu
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      As more newsrooms practice data journalism in this age of big data through the use of analytical and visualization tools, much research on exemplary award-winning data stories continue to be Western-centric and associated with data journalism’s dewwmocratic role of scrutinizing government and corporations as watchdog. This study examines the news organization in the non-West that has scored the most wins in international data journalism awards, Hong Kong’s South China Morning Post, to discover characteristics of the data journalism it practices, as its media operates within an environment with increasing government monitoring of the press, similar to countries in the Asian region subjected to various forms of authoritarian politics. Through a content analysis of 130 data stories produced from 2016 to 2020, this study investigates the topics that SCMP’s data team chooses to cover, how they are covered and the extent to which data journalism is able to work in the public’s interest amid Hong Kong’s increasingly complex political and social context. Findings show that even when stories are data-driven and evidence-based, with the use of diverse data sources and visualizations, topics related to China or Chinese politics tend to be approached with caution and the nature of stories more explanatory than investigative and less interactive. The roles of watchdog and interventionist are felt weakly in SCMP’s data stories, and the role of loyal-facilitator felt more strongly for stories on China than those on Hong Kong and the world, suggesting that data journalism may face challenges performing its democratic functions.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T01:10:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221093509
       
  • Ink in their veins' Distorting archetypes, family newspapers, and the
           Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

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      Authors: Jeanna Sybert
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      As newspapers decline across the United States, corporate takeovers of private, family-owned publications have become a familiar symbol of an industry in turmoil. Though arguably beneficial to journalism, the family newspaper as an archetype has frequently been used to perpetuate certain journalistic myths. This includes myths about commercial journalism’s ability to meaningfully prioritize public interest. To understand the ways the family newspaper archetype functions in public discourse, this study examines a moment of upheaval, in which the cultural construct is both upheld and contested. Focusing on a tumultuous period at a metropolitan newspaper, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, the analysis finds that the archetype’s proximity to an imagined past influences its rhetorical force and appeal. At its best, the archetype entrenches romanticized versions of journalism’s past thereby obstructing visions of alternative futures. With local journalism in crisis and media consolidation ever-rising, attention to ownership myths sheds light on the stories that ultimately sustain a journalism for the few instead of the collective.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221095340
       
  • Networked agenda flow between elite U.S. newspapers and Twitter: A case
           study of the 2020 Black Lives Matter movement

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      Authors: Yan Su
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of social media has engendered several debates over traditional media’s agenda-setting power. This study analyzes 4189 newspaper articles and over 1.23 million tweets about the 2020 Black Lives Matter movement from the perspective of network intermedia agenda-setting (IAS). The findings show that both platforms attach significance to the substantive attributes of policing, violence, and systemic racism. Notably, while the newspapers’ overall agenda had a supportive tone, Twitter used a condemning tone. Moreover, the newspapers were more influential in terms of IAS, particularly in setting political and cultural attribute agendas. No IAS effects were found on the affective attributes. Furthermore, the IAS effects on the combined substantive and affective attributes have shrunk significantly. The newspapers were more influential in terms of the bundled substantive attribute agendas as well. This study advances agenda-setting research by examining multiple network agenda dimensions and introducing an affective attribute scale. These are intended to help understand which media could exert a stronger influence on what attribute agendas and how.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:05:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221092521
       
  • Avoiding real news, believing in fake news' Investigating pathways
           from information overload to misbelief

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      Authors: Edson C Tandoc, Hye Kyung Kim
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study sought to examine the potential role of news avoidance in belief in COVID-19 misinformation. Using two-wave panel survey data in Singapore, we found that information overload is associated with news fatigue as well as with difficulty in analyzing information. News fatigue and analysis paralysis also subsequently led to news avoidance, which increased belief in COVID-19 misinformation. However, this link is present only among those who are frequently exposed to misinformation about COVID-19.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221090744
       
  • Analysis of national scientific domains in the journalism discipline
           (scopus, 2003–2019)

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      Authors: María Victoria Nuño-Moral, Magdalena Trillo-Domínguez, Vicente P Guerrero-Bote, Félix Moya-Anegón
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Although journalism has an important social impact, with contributions from multiple academic and professional fields, one can perceive a major deficit in terms of applying scientometric analyses that allow for an objective multidimensional radiography of scientific production, the identification of transnational collaboration networks and the revelation of the position of the different countries. This work evaluated the evolution of national scientific domains of the discipline during the period 2003–2009, constructing a first relationships map that goes beyond the quantitative plane of production to reveal the dynamics and socio-political and geographical context of alliances in Journalism research. Scientific production in journalism increased during this period much faster than world scientific production. Three countries really capitalized the research: the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain generated more than half of the total production, while at the same time being those that determined the entire structure of relationships involving the linguistic, geopolitical and sociocultural (linked with professional and work practices) factors.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T04:36:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221089404
       
  • Exploring “ideological correction” in digital news updates of Portland
           protests & police violence

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      Authors: Sydney L Forde, Robert E Gutsche, Juliet Pinto
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper critically examines 48 digital news updates to six New York Times online articles collected through 181 captures via the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine (WBM), a web scraping tool, pertaining to federal military and local police responses to Portland protests published in headlines, sources, quotes, hyperlinks, the order of information presented, and articles’ main thrusts of meaning. Through this analysis, we call for the notion of “ideological correction” to represent an additional element of the liquidity of journalism in this case — shifts in news explanations of single articles that altered the articles’ focus on and characterizations of law enforcement and protesters — sometimes even under the same, original headline and article URL.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221100073
       
  • How fact-checkers delimit their scope of practices and use sources:
           Comparing professional and partisan practitioners

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      Authors: Nathan L.T. Tsang, Mengzhe Feng, Francis L.F. Lee
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Fact-checkers, as their names suggest, are supposedly agents who check the validity of “facts.” But in reality, how do fact-checkers delimit the scope of their practices' What sources do they use to establish the truth and falsity of the examined materials' Do the practices of different types of fact-checkers vary in these aspects' This study examines how professional and partisan fact-checkers deal with facticity during a protest movement in Hong Kong. The content analysis shows that partisan fact-checkers, when compared to professional fact-checkers, are less likely to restrict themselves to debunking factual claims, and they are more likely to provide no source information for the materials used. Posts addressing “misleading claims,” as opposed to factual claims, are where partisan inclinations are more clearly exhibited. Moreover, partisan fact-checkers used government information in ways consistent with their political predilection. Implications of the findings on our understanding of the fact-checking enterprise are discussed.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T06:10:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221100862
       
  • The blurring line between freelance journalists and self-employed media
           workers

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      Authors: Beate Josephi, Penny O’Donnell
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses the question, ‘what makes a freelancer specifically a journalist’ as a starting point for investigating the ways Australian freelance journalists experienced and managed precarious employment in COVID-19 impacted 2020. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 32 self-identified freelance journalists, we analyse the types of work they did, the influence of the precarious job situation on their work choices and the consequent ways they chose to display their identity as journalists. Our findings reveal a complex picture, which calls into question some of the binaries established around journalism. While nearly all participants had to resort to work outside journalism in 2020, at least half still displayed strong links to journalism, demonstrated by their sense of belonging to a community of journalists, and their continued interest in doing self-funded public interest journalism as ‘passion projects’. However, we also noticed a blurring between the descriptors of journalist and writer, based partly on employment opportunities but also, importantly, on interest in increasing creativity in the journalistic space. These results lead us to question work-test definitions as a signifier of a freelancer’s bond to journalism and to propose, instead, that freelancers merit a new standing in the flattening hierarchy of journalism.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T09:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221086806
       
  • Performing the disaster genre' TV journalism, disruptive factors and
           

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      Authors: Julian Matthews
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      News coverage of national disasters holds the potential to evoke unique moral sentiments and political reactions. Often, however, we learn that the common use of elite political actors’ consensual commentary by journalists serves to politically appropriate such events or render mute their potential. This paper explores a challenge to this observed authority skew in the performance of TV journalism (BBC, ITN, Channel 4 and Channel 5) while covering the aftermath of the Grenfell Tower block fire. The analysed reporting shows that the presence of (i) disruptive geography (ii) disruptive expertise and (iii) disruptive commentary challenge the reproduction of a traditional ‘reporting template’ and its inscribed authority skew. Combined, such ‘disruptive factors’, it is reasoned, enable opportunities for challenger voices to appear in number, and therein direct criticisms of both neglect and inaction and even to reflect on the state, race and poverty and incite thereafter an elite political apology.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T10:19:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221097735
       
  • Why people don’t pay for news: A qualitative study

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      Authors: Tim Groot Kormelink
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Getting users to pay for news remains a key challenge in journalism. With advertising revenues dwindling, news organizations have become increasingly dependent on reader revenue. This paper explores reasons news users have for not paying for (print and digital) news. 68 participants tried a free three-week newspaper trial subscription and afterward were interviewed about their considerations for (not) getting a paid subscription. Participants had four main reasons not to pay for news: price, sufficient freely available news, not wanting to commit oneself, and delivery and technical issues. A key finding is that digital entertainment subscriptions like Netflix and Spotify seemed central to how younger participants thought about paying for news. Another finding that stands out is that when referencing price, participants had a full print subscription in mind, even when their preferred subscription type was a less costly weekend-only or digital subscription. Participants also discussed future scenarios in which they might consider paying for news: a lower price, a flexible service, a one-stop for reliable news, the added value of higher quality news, and payment as a commitment device disciplining participants into actually reading the news.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T10:13:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221099325
       
  • Moral solidarity as a news value: Rendering marginalized communities and
           enduring social injustice newsworthy

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      Authors: Anita Varma
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Solidarity is a longstanding, though seldom acknowledged, news value in coverage of marginalized communities. As a principled commitment to social justice, solidarity as a news value helps account for news stories that deviate from elite focus and individualistic framing, which have been regularly critiqued in scholarship on dominant news values. This article contributes a grounded framework for locating and analyzing types of solidarity that operate as news values in reporting on marginalized communities. Through qualitative textual analysis of articles published as part of the 2016 San Francisco Homeless Project, this study finds that news values of intragroup solidarity, civic solidarity, political solidarity, and moral solidarity unevenly arise in coverage of local homelessness, and each have implications for whose perspectives are rendered newsworthy. The majority of stories that exhibit solidarity as a news value are aligned with either civic solidarity or political solidarity, which means they maintain focus on the city and critique the structure of the housing market but do not necessarily move journalists toward more inclusive sourcing of people experiencing homelessness. In contrast, intragroup solidarity stories offer a grounded narrative of “we take care of us,” and moral solidarity stories amplify a narrative of “let us live – here’s what we need from you.” These stories represent the perspectives of people subjected to enduring social injustice. Moral solidarity offers the strongest value for journalism that represents marginalized communities because it renders people whose dignity is denigrated by current systemic arrangements newsworthy and amplifies their urgent appeals for concrete changes.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T10:40:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221094669
       
  • Significant social movement as a critical event: The impact of
           journalists’ mutual attention on the differentiation between traditional
           and alternative media in the field

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      Authors: Macau K. F. Mak
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper intends to investigate how the differentiation between traditional and alternative media is reinforced through the mutual attention among journalists, based on field theory. It further argues that a significant social movement can serve as a critical event which intensifies mutual monitoring among journalists. Focusing on the anti-extradition law amendment bill movement in Hong Kong, this study conducted interviews with 20 reporters from traditional and alternative media. The analysis revealed two mechanisms of mutual monitoring: (a) direct monitoring at protest sites and (b) monitoring published works. Such monitoring activities reinforce the differentiation between traditional and alternative media through encouraging boundary work exercised by traditional media journalists and providing cues for alternative media reporters to cover important perspectives which are missing in the mainstream coverage.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221097734
       
  • Communities of practice in the production and resourcing of fact-checking

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      Authors: Stephanie Brookes, Lisa Waller
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers the ways in which national and international institutional alliances and professional organizations form the basis of a collaborative approach to the resourcing, production, and distribution of fact-checks through a case study of CoronaCheck, the COVID-19 fact-checking project of Australia’s RMIT ABC Fact Check. In doing so, it builds on a theorization that conceives of journalism as a “community of practice.” Two themes emerge from attention to the conceptual framework, content analysis of CoronaCheck newsletters and interviews with fact-checkers and journalists. The first relates to the nexus between fact-checking communities of practice and the productive and collaborative networks that underpin their operation. The second builds on this to consider the structures, resources, and approaches that facilitate experimentation within the community. Taken together, the findings suggest that understanding the practices of international and inter-institutional collaboration in fact-checking efforts such as CoronaCheck is key to shedding light on how a subcommunity of journalism practice broadens its remit and reorients the concerns of the domain in response to change.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T10:29:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221078465
       
  • Disconnecting from digital news: News avoidance and the ignored role of
           social class

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      Authors: Johan Lindell, Else Mikkelsen Båge
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      While research on news avoidance has surged in the last couple of decades, we are still at a scholarly shortage in terms of understanding and theorizing the relationship between social class and the inclination to tune out on the news. In addressing this gap, we rely on a mail-back survey with ten thousand Swedes to study how social class predicts the likelihood of avoiding news from different digital outlets. Results show that people at lower social positions, measured as their relative lack of cultural and economic capital, are significantly more likely to avoid online news. A lack of cultural capital predicts total news avoidance online, avoiding online public service news and the “quality news,” while it lessens the likelihood of avoiding “popular news” online. Lacking economic capital predicts total news avoidance online and avoiding the “popular news.” We conclude the article with three cultural sociological lessons for the study of news avoidance. We call for sensitivity in regard to (1) the multi-dimensional character of social inequality, (2) the symbolic value of different types of news genres and outlets, and (3) social inequality in the normative problematizations of news avoidance.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:38:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221085389
       
  • In feminism we trust! On how feminist standpoint epistemologies shape
           journalism practices in two argentine digital newsrooms

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      Authors: Ayleen Cabas-Mijares
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In this exploratory study, I conduct a textual analysis of the online content produced by two Argentine feminist news outlets, LatFem and Diario Digital Femenino (DDF) to examine how feminist standpoint epistemologies (FSE) shape news-making. The findings show that these newsrooms showcase features of a strong reflexivity which allows journalists to consider their own position in the social fabric, to contextualize their journalistic practices, and to question instances of systemic discrimination. Furthermore, the use of FSE enables the expression of solidarity and advocacy by reporters. I argue that the intervention to journalism as performed by feminist Argentine journalists and editors yields profound transformations to journalism practice and news content, as FSE destabilize and complicate traditional notions of journalistic objectivity and its role in democratic societies.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T04:58:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221090741
       
  • Is all Russian news the same' Framing in Russian news media generated
           by the Yandex news algorithm for the United States, Estonia, and Russia

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      Authors: Heidi Erbsen, Siim Põldre
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In light of the growing concern about the potential for Russian state sponsored media to be used as a propaganda tool, this study uses the Yandex News algorithm to show the differences in Russian news generated for the United States, Estonia, and Russia. The authors apply and build on the traditional studies of news framing in order to (1) identify cases where headlines and articles are framed differently, (2) determine the relationship between the topic and frame used, (3) compare these findings across three countries, and (4) generate discussion surrounding the reasons for similarities and differences in each case. The use of the Yandex news algorithm, which has been a subject of speculation when it comes to Russian news media, sheds light on how the tool displays information in different country contexts and shows that there is a statistical difference in the issues that appear in the algorithm-generated headlines for each country.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T05:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211069237
       
  • How to tackle the conceptual inconsistency of audience engagement' The
           introduction of the Dynamic Model of Audience Engagement

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      Authors: Constanza Gajardo, Irene Costera Meijer
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars repeatedly argue that ‘audience engagement’ as a concept and, consequently as a practice, remain inconsistent and ambiguous. Such conceptual inconsistency is in tension with the relevance that the phenomenon of audience engagement has gained in contemporary discussions about journalism. In this article, we tackle the conceptual inconsistency of audience engagement by conducting a qualitative examination of all academic peer-reviewed publications (217) that dealt with ‘audience engagement’ and interrelated terms such as ‘user engagement’, ‘news engagement’ and ‘engaged journalism’, published between 2007 and 2018. Grounded in this empirical examination, we found that, first, definitions and operationalisations of audience engagement emphasised the production context of journalism over that of reception, yielding relatively unbalanced insights into the phenomenon. Second, we offer a Dynamic Model of Audience Engagement composed of four dimensions: normative, habitual, spatio-temporal and embodied. By grasping the complexity and multidimensionality of audience engagement and by aligning audience engagement with the notion with journalism’s democratic goal of informing the citizenry and more concretely its audience, our Dynamic Model of Audience Engagement facilitates future academic discussions in and around the topic of audience engagement.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T12:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221080356
       
  • “The right to voice your opinions”: A historical case study in
           audience members’ emotional hostility to radio journalists

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      Authors: Kathryn J McGarr
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      A focus on political consensus in the United States in the early 1950s has created a false sense of a period of national unity and of the press in that period as a trusted institution. This article uses listener hate mail to radio reporters during a divisive moment—President Harry Truman’s removal of General Douglas MacArthur from his command in the Korean War in April 1951—to identify a politically rancorous discourse, aimed at the press. This period of high emotion for Americans provides a case study in audience members’ sometimes hostile relationship with journalists and does so at an early moment in the creation of a truly mass national news audience. I analyze hundreds of unpublished, archival letters, from a time when public opinion polling was relatively new and still problematic, to rethink what our baseline measurement is for media trust and better contextualize claims about its trajectory. I find three tropes that are especially resonant in the present day and became more visible parts of the public discourse with the presidency of Donald Trump: anti-press attitudes, isolationism, and antisemitism.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T01:49:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221079945
       
  • Viral journalism. Strategy, tactics and limitations of the fast spread of
           content on social media: Case study of the United Kingdom quality
           publications

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      Authors: Anastasia Denisova
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Journalism has been under much strain in the recent decades. It has had to adapt to the changing rhythms of media consumption as much as to the benevolence of social media networks that constantly change algorithms of how journalism is displayed. At the same time, viral communication of all sorts – from memes to GIFs and widespread amateur entertaining videos – is seen by millions. The purpose of this article is to examine the effort of online journalism to compete with viral storytelling. ‘Viral journalism’ is defined as the strategy and tactics to promote quality media stories on the internet in order to gain maximum exposure and sharing. This phenomenon is not to be mistaken with ‘clickbait’, which entails catchy, but often misleading, headlines. This article is based on qualitative interviews with a variety of social media editors and other journalists in the UK: from The Economist to The Guardian. It reveals that quality UK media deploy a range of inventive engaging tactics, but reject virality as a long-term strategy. The media professionals interviewed raised many concerns about virality, indicating that exploiting viral technics may result in reputational damage and alienating loyal readers.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T10:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221077749
       
  • “My mother is not newsworthy”: Framing missingness in Israel

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      Authors: Ori Katz
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This research explores the processes of framing civilian (as opposed to military-related) missingness in Israel. The people who have been left behind, and particularly the missing persons’ loved ones, seek to frame missingness stories in such a way as to make them newsworthy. However, civilian missingness lacks both cultural scripts and an end to the stories. Thus, I argue, those left behind must use meta-narratives to assert the newsworthiness of these stories. Based on narrative ethnography, I explore two kinds of framings that are used, both reflecting an acceptance of the life/death dichotomy. The first framing (“the child of us all”), is collective in form, and derives from stories with a wide cultural resonance such as cases of missing soldiers. The second framing (“it can happen to anyone”), which highlights individualism, borrows from a common framing of missing persons in the US, particularly about missing young white women. Ultimately, both framings generally fail to achieve wide resonance in Israel. Together with the failure to achieve an ontological solution, I argue, missingness might then be constructed as a stable category. This category has the potential to be a subversive one, creating new cultural scripts that challenge meta-narratives as well as the distinction between life and death.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T06:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211064081
       
  • Racism and journalism: The dangers of returning to the
           ‘safe-space’ of objectivity

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      Authors: John Budarick
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Although a contested term in journalism research, the need for a critique of objectivity is increased by responses to the current “crisis of journalism,” which have united around the rediscovery of sacred journalistic ideals such as truth, facts, and autonomy. In particular, objectivity must be critiqued for its role in the persistence of racism in liberal democratic journalism, a persistence that runs across different funding models and organizational structures. Objectivity, as a contested and flexible political concept, has proven incapable of addressing systemic racism. I argue that objectivity needs to be understood as an inherently political concept, which is as much proscriptive as descriptive in the way it shapes the field of journalism and the profession’s relationship to political and social life. Rather than return to the safe ground of autonomy, truth and facts, professional, liberal journalism must recognize its foundations within racially unequal political and social structures.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T07:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221077747
       
  • How journalists do memory work with numbers: The case of the 220,000
           deaths during the Colombian conflict (1958–2012)

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      Authors: Jose Ortega, Brendan Lawson
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the relationship between memory, journalism and numbers. It does so through a case study that examines how the Colombian news media reported on a particular figure during a peace negotiation: the 220,000 people who died because of the armed conflict in Colombia. The number was produced by the National Centre for Historical Memory in 2013 in a comprehensive report about the ravages of the Colombian conflict (1958–2012). Following a mix-method approach – a quantitative content analysis and a thematic analysis of the news articles – we find that the way in which journalists reported on the figure contradicts two key aspects of the report. While the report rejects an ‘official memory’ of the conflict for one that is more open to political and social debate, one characterised less by ‘closed truths’, the news reports treated the number as a fact and very rarely provided a form of contestation to it. Moreover, while the report emphasises the need for clarification over distortion and concealment when constructing memory, the news articles misrepresented those accountable for the casualties: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) was consistently positioned as the main illegal armed organisation responsible for the death toll. This representation ran counter to the findings from the report that emphasised the way paramilitary groups, rather than guerrilla groups (e.g. FARC), were more responsible for the killings. Considering our findings, we argue that an adherence to accuracy by journalists is more desirable than a practice of vagueness in the contribution to memory formation in post-conflict contexts.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T11:11:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221075434
       
  • Defending democracy or amplifying populism' Journalistic coverage,
           Twitter, and users’ engagement in Bolsonaro’s Brazil

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      Authors: Giulia Sbaraini Fontes, Francisco Paulo Jamil Marques
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The article examines how mainstream news organizations in Brazil have tweeted about Jair Bolsonaro, investigating to what extent they may (voluntarily or not) amplify the visibility of populist leaders. We also scrutinize the levels of audience engagement with posts mentioning the President. Our empirical design comprises a content analysis of 128,096 tweets published throughout 2019 by Folha de S. Paulo, O Estado de S. Paulo, and O Globo. The results reveal that such newspapers focused on controversies and negative issues involving Bolsonaro, while posts addressing public policies did not achieve high visibility or engagement. The article also discusses to what degree the newspapers may be taking advantage of users' preferences for content with populist features to reinforce their watchdog role and boost audience ratings. Our findings also contribute to understanding how populist leaders and media organizations can build a mutually beneficial relationship, even though they publicly claim to oppose each other. Finally, the paper suggests new hypotheses to be explored, such as the argument that quality papers may be loosening the division between news and opinion when using social media to satisfy audience niches in polarized environments.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T05:52:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221075429
       
  • News comment sections and online echo chambers: The ideological alignment
           between partisan news stories and their user comments

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      Authors: Jiyoung Han, Youngin Lee, Junbum Lee, Meeyoung Cha
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored the presence of digital echo chambers in the realm of partisan media’s news comment sections in South Korea. We analyzed the political slant of 152 K user comments written by 76 K unique contributors on NAVER, the country’s most popular news aggregator. We found that the political slant of the average user comments to be in alignment with the political leaning of the conservative news outlets; however, this was not true of the progressive media. A considerable number of comment contributors made a crossover from like-minded to cross-cutting partisan media and argued with their political opponents. The majority of these crossover commenters were “headstrong ideologues,” followed by “flip-floppers” and “opponents.” The implications of the present study are discussed in light of the potential for the news comment sections to be the digital cafés of Public Sphere 2.0 rather than echo chambers.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T03:52:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211069241
       
  • Journalism with the voice of authority: The emergence of interpretive
           reporting at The NEW YORK Times, 1919–1931

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      Authors: Kevin L Stoker
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      AbstractIn 1930, New York Times Washington correspondent Richard V. Oulahan described his coverage of government activities and affairs as interpretive reporting. Journalism historians have linked the rise of interpretive reporting to the use of bylines, globalism, syndicated columns, and specialized journalism education. The dean of the Washington press corps, Oulahan earned his first bylined story in 1918 for coverage of the Paris Peace Conference. After that time, he began receiving bylines for his coverage of government, politics, and international affairs. Thus, Oulahan’s bylined reporting offers an access point for studying the post-World War I rise of interpretive reporting at The New York Times. The study examines the concept of interpretive reporting and then focuses on The New York Times, particularly the influence of Oulahan, Lester Markel, and Arthur Sulzberger. The study shows a direct link between Oulahan’s authoritative voice and the editorial innovations pioneered by Sunday Times editor Markel, one of the foremost advocates of interpretive reporting. Next, the study reveals additional factors, including foreign correspondence and good old competition, that led to the emergence of interpretive reporting at The New York Times.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T05:09:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211072937
       
  • Before reception: Trust in the news as infrastructure

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      Authors: Rachel E. Moran, Efrat Nechushtai
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Given the necessity of trust to the fulfillment of the news media’s democratic and civic roles, the decline of trust in the news has become a major theme in journalism and communication studies, with researchers typically focusing on news audiences and measuring attitudes toward news products. Alongside the importance of reception, this paper advocates for conceptualizing trust not solely as a response to news, but as a key component in the infrastructure that makes news possible. Through an exploration of the role of trust at every stage of the newsmaking process, we argue that trust structures and underpins news funding, production, circulation, and audience measurement. Expanding the conceptual framework through which trust is assessed to consider its infrastructural role affords greater clarity on the consequences of distrust in news. We highlight future research directions and areas of inquiry made possible by theorizing trust in news in this way.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T02:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211048961
       
  • Media and public sphere in Ethiopia: Mediated deliberations in public and
           commercial television programs

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      Authors: Gebru Kahsay Kiflu, Adem Chanie Ali, Hagos Nigussie
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores if televised deliberations constitute the public sphere in Ethiopia, analysing the public service and commercial TV stations focussing on the EBC’s ETV Medrek, FBC’s Zuria Meles and LTV’s Sefiw Mihdar programs. It has drawn on content analysis of the mediated deliberations of the three TV programs and an in-depth interview with hosts of the programs. The study found that these television stations have created permanent elitist platforms where experts, the academia and other prominent figures discussed and debated that did not exist previously. In contrast, these programs did not create forums for ordinary citizens and other marginalised groups, including women. Indeed, these programs created limited space as platforms for different views, opinions, perceptions and diversity of participants in their discussions. These programs anticipated to covering event-oriented issues that kept changing each week. The program hosts faced internal and external influence mainly from political leaders in the daily routines of producing the programs in their respective media houses. Overall, the role of these TV stations in creating a platform for public sphere, setting the public agenda consistently and promoting public opinion formation endured minimal.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T02:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211048288
       
  • Beyond positive and negative: Developing a reflexive framework for first
           amendment theory

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      Authors: Patrick Walters
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Tracing back to the work of Isaiah Berlin and the debates of the Hutchins Commission, discussions of First Amendment theory have long been divided into interpretations of “negative” rights protecting speakers from interference and “positive” rights ensuring that the public has the right to a quality information system. This paper explores how a First Amendment framework consisting of these two approaches breaks down in a networked communication ecosystem in which the lines between communicator and audience are increasingly blurred. The analysis explores these questions amid ongoing debates over regulating platforms and the possibility of increased public intervention in the floundering news industry. The paper builds on previous scholarship that has deemed First Amendment theory “inadequate,” incorporating the work of Mike Ananny, Joshua Braun, Victor Pickard, Phillip Napoli, and others. It argues that the current information system is too complex for a simple binary approach to First Amendment theory. Instead, it calls for a reflexive approach that embraces how these perspectives interrelate, one that calls for protecting the rights of speakers, but doing so in a way that characterizes them as members of a larger collective of listeners whose interests must be served.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:38:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221074421
       
  • The civil norm building role of news journalism in post-civil war settings

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      Authors: Jackie Harrison, Stefanie Pukallus
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This paper seeks to provide an answer to the question of the role that news journalism can play in the building of civil peace as peaceful cooperation in post-civil war settings. Alternatively expressed, how it can utilise its communicative capacity to facilitate and contribute to contextually and culturally appropriate versions of sustainable peace within civil society. Peacebuilding tool kits are wide and varied and often narrowly focus on news journalism as a political actor and its role in political life. We would like to shift the focus away from the ‘political’ to the role that news journalism can play in the (re-)building of an associative and cooperative civil society. Specifically, we believe that news journalism should and can develop for itself an ethos of civil norm building that aims to stimulate a civil consciousness in its audiences which is indispensable for the practical application of the categories of civil norms of peaceful cooperation in everyday life. To understand how such an ethos can be developed we need to recognise three features that are necessary for news journalism to achieve its potential as a civil norm builder: (1) its transformative communicative capacity, (2) its institutional and organisational commitment toward news reporting that exemplifies peaceful cooperation in everyday life and (3) the way it can concretely undertake the application of editorial guidelines in post-civil war settings which exemplify the three basic categories of civil norms of peaceful cooperation: (a) assent to civil peace, (b) substantive civility and (c) building civil capacity and civil competencies.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:35:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211072947
       
  • Covering religion: Field insurgency in United States religion reporting

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      Authors: Gregory Perreault, Kathryn Montalbano
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The present study analyzes the role of religion reporting with the journalistic field. Personnel cuts within newsrooms and the development of “religion reporters” operating from religious institutions necessitate a re-exploration of the changing field. At stake is the coverage of religion, a topic particularly pertinent to residents in the United States, nearly 77% of which identify as religious to some degree. Simultaneously, the majority of the United States tends to think journalists cover religion poorly. Through the lens of field theory, this study analyzes 20 interviews with U.S.-based religion reporters who work for both mainstream and religious publications.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:32:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211073220
       
  • Diffusion of innovations in digital journalism: Technology, roles, and
           gender in modern newsrooms

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      Authors: Lynette Holman, Gregory P. Perreault
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined journalists’ use of technology, their gender identity, and how they rate themselves as adopters of innovations. Through the lens of diffusion of innovations, this study conducted telephone interviews with 68 U.S.-based digital journalists and applied an explanatory mixed-method research design in order to examine journalists’ adoption of digital journalism technologies. Men and women did not significantly differ in their uses of most technologies and shared equivalence in terms of adoption ratings; however, men did use DSLR and video cameras more than women, while women used nonlinear video editing software significantly more than men. In addition, while men felt significantly less supported by their employers to learn new innovations, this did not lessen their self-evaluation as adopters of innovations. Men also showed significantly more personal agency in choosing stories to cover.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:31:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211073441
       
  • How journalists internalize news practices and why it matters

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      Authors: David M. Ryfe
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Practice scholars of news production generally imagine news practices as symbolic resources that exist external to reporters and prior to reporters’ actions. This understanding has been incredibly productive for scholars, but it elides an important question. How do news practices actually get into reporters’ heads' The lack of answers to this question has created a persistent gap between the study of news practices and examination of reporters’ actions. In this essay, I build on recent advances in cognitive cultural sociology, especially the dual-process theory of social cognition, to offer an account of how reporters internalize culture. I argue that this account is especially helpful for analysis of situations in which what journalists can say about what they do is only loosely associated with what they do, or know how to do. In my estimation, such situations are increasingly common in journalism. A clearer understanding of processes of internalization will lead to more accurate assessments of reporters’ actions, especially in situations in which their words and their deeds are not aligned.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221074420
       
  • Conservative advocacy journalism: Explored with a model of
           journalists’ influence on democracy

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      Authors: Victoria Fielding
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The democratic role of news media in Western society is usually analysed through the lens of the dominant liberal model of media. This model assumes that journalists play a positive part in democracy by monitoring those with power and facilitating a diverse marketplace of ideas. Within this model, journalistic professionalism emphasises objectivity, neutrality, pluralism, balance and independence. There are, however, two types of advocacy journalism which, despite receiving less attention, nonetheless are present in Western media and exhibit characteristics contrary to these liberal values: radical journalism and collaboration between journalists and the state. Through a case study comparing Australian Murdoch media coverage of an industrial dispute to that of non-Murdoch media, this paper proposes a third type of advocacy journalism: conservative advocacy. Through the development of a model of journalistic influence on democracy, conservative advocacy is proposed as the least democratic form of journalism due to its suppression of voices that challenge power.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211072717
       
  • Strategy framing in the international arena: A cross-national comparative
           content analysis on the China-US trade conflict coverage

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      Authors: Shujun Liu, Mark Boukes, Knut De Swert
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Strategy framing is usually studied in the context of news coverage about domestic Western politics. This study expands its application to news reports on the China-US trade war—an inter-state conflict including a democratic and one-party dominant system—thereby adding an international dimension to the study of strategy framing. Through a manual content analysis of news coverage from China, the US, Singapore, and Ireland (from January 2013 to January 2020; n = 1872), we investigate whether media independence, conflict involvement, and crisis phases influence the employment of the issue framing and strategy framing. For democratic countries, the more involved they are in the conflict, the more prominent strategy framing was in their coverage of the trade conflict; the inverse was observed for one-party dominant systems. Strategy framing that considers countries as contenders is more prevalent than the sub-frame that focuses on individual politicians. The presence of national-versus-personal level strategy framing was more balanced for directly involved countries than indirectly involved countries since news from directly involved countries accords relatively more space to politicians’ personal strategy.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T05:23:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211052438
       
  • Journalism ‘fixers’, hyper-precarity and the violence of the
           entrepreneurial self

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      Authors: Syed I Ashraf, Sean Phelan
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The figure of the so-called journalism ‘fixer’ has received overdue academic attention in recent years. Scholars have highlighted the role played by fixers in international news reporting, a role historically obscured in the mythos of the Western foreign correspondent. Recent research has produced useful insights about the work done by fixers in ‘the shadows’ of the international news economy. However, it has also tended towards a domestication of the role, where the local ‘fixer’ finds their place in a collaborative relationship with those officially consecrated as ‘journalists’ from elsewhere. This article presents a critical theoretical analysis of this functional role, building on the image of the fixer as a kind of ‘entrepreneur’. Rather than interpreting the latter designation as a source of empowerment or agency, we approach it as a euphemism for the hyper-precarious and exploitative underpinnings of fixer-labour. Our argument draws on different theoretical sources, including Foucault-inspired work on the entrepreneurial rationality of the neoliberal self, Bourdieu’s notion of symbolic violence, and Rancière’s concept of politics. The theoretical argument is supported by the first author’s reflections of working as a Pakistani-based ‘fixer’ during the U.S-led war on terror.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T07:24:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211065306
       
  • The discursive representation of male sex workers in Thai newspapers

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      Authors: Nattawaj Kijratanakoson
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study is to examine how male sex workers are represented in Thai newspapers. The analysis is contingent upon Reisigl and Wodak’s concept of discursive strategy in conjunction with Machin and Mayr’s compilation of transitivity analysis. Methodologically, this study employs corpus-assisted discourse analysis. The 45,769-word corpus consists of news articles retrieved from the websites of 11 Thai newspapers. They were published in English between the period of 2000 and 2019. Findings reveal that the media pursue the nomination, predication, argumentation, perspectivization together with intensification and mitigation strategies to portray male sex workers in a non-threatening fashion. Possible contributing factors behind such portrayal are discussed.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T02:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211062760
       
  • Gender byline bias in sports reporting: Examining the visibility and
           audience perception of male and female journalists in sports coverage

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      Authors: Karin Boczek, Leyla Dogruel, Christiana Schallhorn
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Gender-based marginalization and discrimination in sports journalism is an ongoing concern of research addressing gender equality in journalism. The visibility of female reporters as authors in terms of sports coverage has been found to be under 10% in content analysis that spans several countries. Research into audiences’ perceptions of authorship in sports journalism further found female authors to be prone to byline biases—even though findings are mixed. In this article, we set out to examine if the under representation of female sport authors has changed over the time span of 15 years. This is explored by conducting a content analysis of news coverage from 2006 to 2020 (Study 1). Further, we study whether biases against female authors in sports coverage (still) exist among recipients and in how far this is different for male and female sports. To address audience perceptions of gender in sport reporting, we performed an online experiment investigating the effect of female and male authorship as well as men’s and women’s football (soccer) as one of the most popular topic of sport reporting (Study 2). We found that female authorship in sports journalism is still marginalized without any significant improvement observed from 2006 to 2020 (Study 1). This contrasts with our findings on audiences’ perceptions of male and female authors, which did not confirm a gender byline bias (Study 2). Our results therefore suggest that gender discrimination in newsrooms cannot be justified by audience perceptions.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T08:46:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211063312
       
  • Redefining journalism narratives, distribution strategies, and user
           involvement based on innovation in digital native media

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      Authors: José Sixto-García, Alba Silva-Rodríguez, Ana I Rodríguez-Vázquez, Xosé López-García
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Digital journalism is seeking to redefine its role in the communicative ecosystem in the network society of the third decade of the 21st century. This has been made through innovation processes that entail renewed narratives and formats, greater user involvement, and advanced dissemination strategies. Thousands of digital native media, most of which have come to prominence in last ten years, have undertaken this process of adaptation and reinvention. It has happened during a period of intense media coverage and constant technological changes. Based on the most recent research in the journalistic field, and on an empirical study of the most innovative digital native media within reach from an international perspective (n = 26; 20 digital native media + 6 traditional newspapers), this text reflects on current trends and the likely consequences of the changes underway within journalism, the journalistic profession, and research in the journalistic field. The results are structured according to the three assessed areas: mobile narratives, diffusion strategies, and user involvement.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T11:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211062766
       
  • How have quality newspapers covered the microbiome' A content analysis
           of The New York Times, The Times, and El País

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      Authors: Andreu Prados-Bo, Gonzalo Casino
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The microbiome has captured the attention of researchers and newspapers. We studied how the subject is covered in The New York Times, The Times, and El País via DowJones Factiva (2007–2019), analyzing aspects that included article type, word count, authorship, topic, and citation of researchers, organizations, and journals. We found that 87.6% of newspaper articles (409/467) were news articles and most were longer than 300 words (396; 84.8%), with The New York Times devoting the highest proportion to newspaper articles over 1000 words (99; 45.4%). While basic science findings received the most attention from newspapers from 2007 to 2015, topics related to medicine and nutrition attracted increasing attention from 2016 to 2019. Newspapers showed a domestic preference for their respective researchers, organizations, and journals.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T02:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211067858
       
  • Exploring changing news repertoires: Towards a typology

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      Authors: Julie Vulpius, Josephine Lehaff, Kim Christian Schrøder, Chris Peters
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The past few decades of journalism studies have been characterized by a focus on change, from the transforming digital media ecology, to shifting usage patterns, transitioning business models, and other pressing developments. However, specifying such changes in relation to news audiences and engagement is challenging. This article aims to unfold the complexity of consumption to specify different processes of changing news use. Employing an abductive approach that augments existing literature with a study on the processes and catalysts of transformation, we develop a heuristic framework to explicate changing news repertoires. The framework establishes where change takes place, explores what qualities change has, examines what dynamic factors drive change, and ultimately elaborates a more precise vocabulary to identify different change processes. Further specifying and modeling the exploration and elaboration phases, the article details how deliberateness, permanence, and scale vary the intensity and direction of change, before developing a typology that systematizes different analytical characteristics of how news media become part of (emergence), exist within (maintenance), and are removed from (disappearance) an individual’s media repertoire. The article provides a detailed, systematic, and innovative approach to analyze news use, providing scholars with a comprehensive, actionable framework for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods research to better understand what, exactly, repertoire change “is”. In terms of applicability, the theoretical perspective developed alerts us to the fact that changing news use is often conceptualized by audiences in association with non-journalistic, contextual considerations, which are key to whether or not the potential for changing news use is actualized.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T03:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211047384
       
  • A threat to journalism' How journalists and advertising sales managers
           in news organizations perceive and cope with native advertising

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      Authors: Johannes Beckert
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      In the course of digitization, the traditional business model of news organizations has been substantially challenged, making innovative formats necessary to master the business of online news. Native advertising (i.e., sponsored articles) is considered an escape from this dilemma. In adapting to journalistic content, this advertising format is distinct from conventional online advertising and allows advertisers to convey persuasive messages in an unobtrusive manner. However, despite its financial benefits, there are ethical concerns about native advertising, which is inherently and intentionally deceptive to its audience. Moreover, native advertising perforates the normative wall separating journalistic responsibilities from advertisers’ interests. In news organizations, this is reflected in the relationship between journalists and advertising sales managers. The present study therefore explored how individuals in these two roles differ in their perceptions of risks and opportunities related to native advertising and in how they cope with ethical concerns. Exploring the power relations between journalists and sales managers in collaborations on native advertising, this study also sheds light on potential restrictions of journalistic autonomy caused by native advertising.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T12:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211067584
       
  • Making “Un-news”: News aggregation in Chinese press

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      Authors: Dan Wang, Steve Zhongshi Guo
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      “Un-news” is a Chinese newsroom jargon that refers to the process as well as the product of aggregation. It encapsulates clashes between digital and legacy journalism, challenges posed by and responses to technologies in the media industry. It differs from aggregation news elsewhere because of dynamic media environment in China. This ethnographic study closely analyzes manifestations of “un-news” churned out by digital aggregators who have to work under management of legacy print journalists and editors in a local Chinese press. The hierarchy of influences model is used to decompose the meanings and complexities of “un-news.” Fieldwork observations have confirmed our expectations that the hierarchy model remains structurally valid, although the content and meaning of influence have changed drastically within each level.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T02:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211067590
       
  • Writing for the audience or for public relations' How lifestyle
           editors perceive expectations about their professional role and manage
           potential for conflict

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      Authors: Benno Viererbl
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Lifestyle journalists work in a boundary area between journalistic and commercial interests. They report journalistically on lifestyle topics such as travel, food, or fashion, while also incorporating promotional content and public relations concerns, either because reporting on lifestyle topics would otherwise not be possible or because their publications depend economically on commercial partners. These differing demands could lead to role conflicts for the editors of lifestyle magazines. This study investigates how lifestyle editors perceive expectations regarding their professional role and whether diverging expectations lead to role conflicts. To answer these questions, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with lifestyle editors from Germany. The results show that lifestyle editors aim primarily to entertain, spread positivity, and inspire their readers, while attempting to report independently and objectively. However, commercial expectations compromise these norms, leading to perceptions of role conflict.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T02:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211067586
       
  • Social campaigns to social change' Sexual violence framing in U.S.
           news before and after #metoo

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      Authors: Selina Noetzel, Maria F Mussalem Gentile, Gianna Lowery, Sona Zemanova, Sophie Lecheler, Christina Peter
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The discussion on sexual violence gained momentum in October 2017 after the Twitter hashtag (#metoo) spread globally highlighting the widespread reality of this problem. While this resulted in extensive media coverage, and naturally informed audiences about societal issues, it can also be problematic regarding the media’s power to reflect and construct reality. Therefore, it is important to research how societal issues like sexual violence are discussed in media settings. The study aimed to investigate how journalists frame sexual violence in the news (RQ1) and whether such practices have changed in the wake of the MeToo movement (RQ2). A quantitative content analysis was conducted for news articles published in four US newspapers, spanning a period of 2 years – from 1 year before to 1 year after the #metoo tweet (N = 612; Oct. 2016 – Oct. 2018). Results indicate that news coverage on sexual violence shifted from straightforward, single-incident reports to broader discussions. This study contributes to scientific research and journalism practices by providing an overarching view of how sexual violence is framed in the news and the potential impact of social movements on reportage.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T02:29:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211056386
       
  • Black maternal mortality in the media: How journalists cover a deadly
           racial disparity

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      Authors: Denetra Walker, Kelli Boling
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Through semi-structured interviews with four women news journalists, this study explores how journalists who specialize in women’s issues and health cover Black maternal mortality. Discussions include the role of advocacy in journalism and the struggle of covering the complex, long-standing systemic issue of maternal mortality associated with race in American society. Six themes consider the inclusion of race in healthcare coverage, a need for in-depth, nuanced coverage, the role of advocacy in journalism, complications of reporting on race, the importance of citing sources of color, and celebrity influence. Findings show the need for media advocacy in public health crises, and how journalistic norms can pressure journalists into citing inappropriate sources or diluting the story.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T08:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211063361
       
  • The structures that shape news consumption: Evidence from the early period
           of the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Jacob L Nelson, Seth C Lewis
      First page: 2495
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers and practitioners increasingly believe that journalism must improve its relationship with audiences to increase the likelihood that people will consume and support news. In this paper, we argue that this assumption overlooks the importance of structural- and individual-level factors in shaping news audience behavior. Drawing on Giddens’ theory of structuration, we suggest that, when it comes to the amount of time that people devote to news, consumers’ choices are guided more by life circumstances than by news preferences. To illustrate this point, we draw on a combination of interview and audience analytics data collected when so many people’s life circumstances changed: the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that people consumed more news during the early months of the pandemic than normal because (1) they had more time on their hands due to things like shelter-in-place orders, layoffs, and shifts to working from home and (2) they were more interested in understanding the coronavirus’ spread and risks as well as the preventative measures being pursued. We conclude that journalists should embrace “journalistic humility,” thereby acknowledging and accepting that they have much less control over the reception of their work than they would like to believe.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221095335
       
  • Expert voices in the news reporting of the coronavirus pandemic: A study
           of UK television news bulletins and their audiences

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      Authors: Marina Morani, Stephen Cushion, Maria Kyriakidou, Nikki Soo
      First page: 2513
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The study examines the role of experts in UK television news at the start of the coronavirus pandemic by analysing both how they were used in coverage and perceived by news audiences. Our systematic content analysis of sources (N = 2300) used in the UK’s flagship evening news bulletins found a reliance on political sources, principally from the government’s perspective. We also discovered health and scientific experts received limited coverage and were only occasionally used to scrutinise public health policy. Yet, our six-week online diary study with 175 participants identified a strong preference for expert views about how the pandemic was being handled. It showed audiences favoured a range of expert sources in routine reporting – balancing government appointed and independent experts – to provide evidence-based scrutiny of the executive’s decision-making. Overall, our findings contribute to a greater understanding of audience expectations, opinions, and experiences with broadcast news during a major public health crisis.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T10:14:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221127629
       
  • Of essential workers and working from home: Journalistic discourses and
           the precarities of a pandemic economy

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      Authors: Brian Creech, Jessica Maddox
      First page: 2533
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers how reporting about work during the COVID-19 pandemic operated as a field of discourse that challenged the ideological workings of neoliberalism. By documenting the risks and stresses workers of all classes faced during the first year of the pandemic, the reporting began to question neoliberal capitalism as socially unsustainable. Drawing on a corpus of 151 long-form articles and commentary, we show how journalistic discourse structured relationships between different classes of workers and implicated institutions for failing to properly mitigate the risks associated with COVID-19, even though the discourse largely centered on professionals working from home. As the reporting substantiated the precarities revealed by the pandemic as social facts, it challenged presumptions that undergird neoliberal ideologies, though it remains to be seen whether journalism will discursively re-center neoliberal logics in the wake of the pandemic.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:29:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849211073450
       
  • “Good morning, COVID!” the inertia of journalistic imaginaries in
           morning shows’ online comments

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      Authors: Robert E Gutsche, Sydney L Forde, Juliet Pinto, Yanqi Zhu
      First page: 2552
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      This textual analysis examines meanings of user comments to Facebook posts of three UK breakfast programs as COVID-19 entered England in 2020. This analysis suggests that during this time of crisis and uncertainty, users’ – even if trolling, interacting through incidental media use, or commenting as regular contributors to the pages – relied on traditional and lasting interpretations of conventional journalistic standards in their discourse surrounding “soft news” content. We argue that such comments represent an “inertia” of longstanding journalistic imaginaries that have survived an increased hybridity of news.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T05:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221099265
       
  • Social media, misinformation, and cultivation of informational mistrust:
           Cultivating Covid-19 mistrust

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      Authors: Yong Jin Park, Jae Eun Chung, Jeong Nam Kim
      First page: 2571
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      We adopt the cultivation theory to identify the ways the increased exposures to (mis)information in social media and traditional media cultivate the perceptions of (1) informational mistrust and (2) ill-confidence in dealing with Covid-19 pandemic risk. Importantly, we expanded the theory and hypothesized about the roles of informal societal ties by investigating whether local community attachment and frequent friend-family interactions can mitigate the formation and consequence of mistrust arising from the exposure to misinformation. We found that the higher exposure to Covid-19 misinformation, as promulgated in both active and passive social media uses, was related to informational mistrust that was also linked to a lower level of confidence in telling the veracity of misinformation. Findings also show the significant relationships between two forms of informal social ties and misinformation confidence. We discuss how the abundance of information sources fuels misinformed citizenry as individuals are left alone to navigate increasingly confusing influx of unfounded misinformation abounded in social media.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T11:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221085050
       
  • Making soufflé with metal: Effects of the coronavirus pandemic on
           sports journalism practices

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      Authors: Carolina Velloso
      First page: 2591
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The coronavirus pandemic significantly – and perhaps permanently – altered the ways by which we lead our personal and professional lives. Sports journalism is no exception – with the seasons of all kinds of sports modified, reduced or cancelled entirely in 2020, reporters on the sports beat had to quickly adapt to ever-changing circumstances. This exploratory study investigates the impact of the pandemic on the practices of sports beat writers during the 2020 season. Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 beat writers covering teams in all four major North American sports leagues, this study reveals that the journalists’ experiences with the pandemic-imposed conditions underscored already-present trends within sports journalism: namely, a reduction of access to players and coaching due, in part, to increased team control through robust media relations divisions; journalists’ overreliance on official team sources; and a move towards feature and data- and analytics-driven stories. This study contributes to literature on sports journalism beat reporting and offers an early insight into how the pandemic conditions might help shape the future of the industry.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T06:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221131725
       
  • Trends in the interest in COVID-19 news of the local media and their
           readers: The case of Spain

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      Authors: Tatiana Santos-Gonçalves, Sebastian Napp
      First page: 2608
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 has caused not just an unprecedented sanitary crisis but a social crisis, which has affected, among many other fields, the local journalism, which had to adapt to meet the public’s information needs about coronavirus. In this study we analyzed the evolution of local news about COVID-19 in Spain throughout the pandemic by examining local news articles in social media. Using a unique dataset of over 230k Facebook posts published by Spanish local media organizations during 2020 and 2021, we found evidence that the interest of local media in COVID-19, measured as the proportion of the news related to COVID-19, changed as the pandemic evolved. Our results also show that the interest that local media readers had in COVID-19, measured as the proportion Facebook interactions related to COVID-19, was even higher, and also evolved during the pandemic. Although the interest in COVID-19 of local media and their readers essentially progressed in parallel, we also identified some periods in which they behaved differently. While a fatigue with COVID-19 related news would be expected after 2 years of pandemic, a clear decrease of interest was not observed neither in journalists nor in readers.
      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T04:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221114736
       
  • Book review: Future of journalism: Technology-stimulated evolution in the
           audience-news media relationship

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ibis Ali, Galung Triko
      First page: 2646
      Abstract: Journalism, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journalism
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T10:29:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14648849221137297
       
 
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