Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)

Showing 1 - 5 of 5 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Instrumentation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Nanomanufacturing and Metrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
NCSLI Measure : The Journal of Measurement Science     Hybrid Journal  
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Nanomanufacturing and Metrology
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2520-811X - ISSN (Online) 2520-8128
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Fabrication of Nanoscale Active Plasmonic Elements Using Atomic Force
           Microscope Tip-Based Nanomachining

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      Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a widely adopted imaging and surface analysis technique that provides resolutions on the nanometer scale. AFM tip-based nanomachining has recently been adopted for the fabrication of arbitrarily shaped nanoscale structures. A major challenge of using AFM tip-based machining for the sculpting of nanoscale plasmonic structures is the build-up of displaced material along the sides of the channels. Here we apply this nanomechanical machining method to create active plasmonic elements and present the strategy we have been using to avoid the formation of such debris. Furthermore, a number of post-manufacturing treatments that can potentially be used to reduce the amount of debris surrounding the fabricated structures are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
       
  • Patterning Functionalized Surfaces of 2D Materials by Nanoshaving

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      Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning probe lithography can be used for the mechanical treatment of various surfaces, including polymers, metals, and semiconductors. The technique of nanoshaving, in which materials are removed using the AFM tip, is employed in this work to produce nanopatterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on two-dimensional (2D) materials. The materials used are monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), namely, MoS2 and WS2, which are noncovalently functionalized with perylene diimide (PDI), a perylene derivative. The approach involves rastering an AFM probe across the surface at a controlled increased load in ambient conditions. As a result of the strong bond between PDI SAM and TMD, loads in excess of 1 μN are required to pattern the monolayer. Various predefined patterns, including a grating pattern with feature sizes below 250 nm, are demonstrated. Results indicate the high precision of nanoshaving as an accurate and nondestructive lithographic technique for 2D materials. The work functions of shaved heterostructures are also examined using Kelvin probe force microscopy.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
       
  • Deterministic Dual Control of Phase Competition in Strained BiFeO3: A
           Multiparametric Structural Lithography Approach

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      Abstract: The realization of a mixed-phase microstructure in strained BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films has led to numerous novel effects derived from the coexistence of the tetragonal-like monoclinic phase (T phase) and rhombohedral-like monoclinic phase (R phase). Strong strain and polarization differences between the phases should result in a high level of transformation plasticity, which enables the continuous alteration of the relative proportion of R and T states in response to external forces. Although the potential for utilizing such plasticity to control mixed-phase populations under external stimuli is evident, direct experimental evidence backed by equilibrium predictions has not yet been fully demonstrated. Here we demonstrate deterministic control of mixed-phase populations in an epitaxially strained BFO thin film through the application of localized stresses and electric fields in a reversible manner. The results illustrate and rationalize deterministic control of mixed phases in strained BFO films, which could be crucial in tuning their functional properties. The findings also highlight a new multiparametric technique in the scanning probe lithography toolbox based on tip-assisted electric and strain field manipulation of functional properties that might find application beyond the ferroelectric domain and structural phase lithography.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
       
  • Manufacturable Novel Nanogrease with Superb Physical Properties

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      Abstract: High-performance nanogrease manufactured from carbon nanomaterials is observed to be stable and homogeneous and have superb physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivities, compared with current commercial greases made of lithium, calcium, and aluminum. For the first time, carbon nanomaterials have been observed to disperse well as the sole thickeners in oil systems, e.g., polyalphaolefin and polyester (ROYCO), without the aid of any chemical surfactants. Three-dimensional percolation network structures that exist among carbon nanomaterials are easily scalable, which can be attributed to the intermolecular van der Waals forces. Moreover, the introduction of hydrogen bonding in any form to grease significantly increases its thermal and electrical conductivities and substantially reduces the weight percentage of carbon nanomaterials needed to fabricate stable grease. For example, loading of only 1.4 wt% hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT-OH) with Krytox XHT750 oil leads to a 37.8% increase in thermal conductivity. Moreover, 75% glycerol, 25% water, and 4.5 wt% MWNT-OH yielded the lowest electrical resistivity of 10.0 Ω cm. This finding can be extended to hydrogen bonding materials with functional groups, such as OH, COOH, F, and NH. The nanogrease reported in this study has been manufactured using the three-roll mill method, which is an easy and cost-effective method, as the loading weight percentage of carbon nanomaterials to fabricate stable grease decreases from 12 wt% to 3–4 wt%. Furthermore, the process is easily scalable, reproduced, and optimized. This novel high-performance nanogrease has a high commercial value and numerous applications and could replace current commercial greases.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Surface Effect on Vibration of Timoshenko Nanobeam Based on Generalized
           Differential Quadrature Method and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

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      Abstract: Nanobeams have promising applications in areas such as sensors, actuators, and resonators in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Considering the effects of gyration inertia, surface layer mass, surface residual stress, and surface Young’s modulus, this study develops the vibration equations of the Timoshenko nanobeam. The generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation are used to study the surface effect on vibration. For a rectangular cross section, surface residual stress and surface Young’s modulus are all affected by the height of the cross section rather than by the length–height ratio. If surface layer mass is considered, then the first three natural frequencies all decrease relative to their counterparts in the case in which surface layer mass is ignored. Results show that the effect of gyration inertia on resonance frequency is negligible. Longitudinal vibration does not easily occur relative to the bending and rotation vibrations of nanobeams. In addition, the results obtained by the GDQ method fit those obtained by MD simulation for beams with length–height ratios of 4–8. This study provides insights into the mechanism of the vibration of short and deep nanobeams and sheds light on the quantitative design of the elements in NEMSs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Product Fingerprints for the Evaluation of Tool/Polymer Replication
           Quality in Injection Molding at the Micro/Nano Scale

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      Abstract: Replication processes for the manufacturing of micro/nano-structured components are characterized by a certain degree of precision and accuracy. The transcription loss, or replication fidelity, defines the geometrical and dimensional correspondence of micro/nano-structure from metal tool inserts into plastic patterned products. The employment of a vast spectrum of micro/nano-structured geometries calls for methodologies that can be used for the estimation of replication fidelity. This study presents a number of product fingerprints, which propose multiple ways to characterize micro/nano structures in replication technologies. Replication fidelity yielded values above 80% and up to 96% depending on the considered product fingerprints and their definition. Thereafter, a correlation of the product fingerprint with the process parameters was found to optimize the replication process. Measurement uncertainty accompanies the analysis of the product fingerprints, enabling a standardized, robust, and quantitative methodology for process learning, modeling, and optimization.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Roughness Measurements with Polychromatic Speckles on Tilted Surfaces

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      Abstract: Surface light scattering enables contactless and fast measurements of surface roughness. A surface inclination alters the direction of the scattering beam and thus the measured surface roughness is calculated from the detected intensity distribution. Hence, an accurate sensor–surface alignment is necessary. In order to achieve tilt-independent roughness measurements, a model-based evaluation approach for polychromatic speckle patterns is presented. By evaluating the shape of the superposed speckles, which occur for polychromatic illumination, with regard to the distance to the scattering centre, surfaces with an Sa roughness value in the range of 0.8–3.2 μm are measurable. Experimental investigations demonstrate that the influence of a surface tilt up to ± 1.25° on the roughness measurement is reduced by 90%. As a result, the robustness of the polychromatic speckle roughness measurement is improved, which allows to speed up the adjustment of the measurement system or the surface sample, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Hydrogen Ion Implantation Induced Cutting Behavior Variation in Plunge
           Cutting of the Monocrystalline Silicon

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      Abstract: In this study, surface modification of monocrystalline silicon with two doses of hydrogen ion implantation and the plunge cutting process were conducted to explore the influence of hydrogen ions on the cutting behavior of silicon. The results show that ion implantation is capable of deteriorating or improving the machinability of silicon, depending on the implantation dose. More cleavages and a reduction of critical depth of cut (CDoC) were observed for the silicon with a low implantation dose in the cutting direction of < 100> in comparison to bare silicon, while no cleavage and an increase of CDoC were achieved after implantation with a high dose in the same cutting direction. Besides, the ductile cutting and thrust forces of the silicon with the low dose are larger than the bare silicon, but the forces are significantly reduced for the silicon after the high dose of implantation. The variation of the cutting forces is due to the different required stresses to overcome ductile and fracture deformation of silicon.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Additive Manufacturing of Metal Micro-ring and Tube by Laser-Assisted
           Electrophoretic Deposition with Laguerre–Gaussian Beam

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      Abstract: We report a method for laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition using a Laguerre–Gaussian beam for maskless patterning of metal rings and tubes. These are structures of utmost importance, particularly in photonic devices. Metal nanoparticles, which are gathered in a colloidal solution by a laser trapping technique, are deposited on a substrate via electrophoresis. The deposition pattern is dependent on the focused spot shape during laser trapping. The intensity distribution of the Laguerre–Gaussian beam is ring-shaped. Rings with different inner diameters can be fabricated by varying the topological charge of the Laguerre–Gaussian beam. The equivalent inner diameters of the deposited rings with topological charges of 1, 3, and 5 were 0.30, 0.78, and 1.45 µm, respectively. The inner diameter of the deposited ring with a topological charge of 1 was smaller than the wavelength of the laser beam (532 nm). A tube was also fabricated with a topological charge of 3 by vertical displacement of the deposition cell. The deposition technology developed here using Laguerre–Gaussian beam will contribute to advancements in the fabrication of photonic and nano-fluidic devices.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Three-Probe Error Separation with Chromatic Confocal Sensors for Roundness
           Measurement

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      Abstract: In this study, three-probe error separation was developed with three chromatic confocal displacement sensors for roundness measurement. Here, the harmonic suppression is discussed first to set suitable orientation angles among three sensors. Monte Carlo simulation is utilized to test the error separation and optimize the orientation angles and off-axial distance. The experimental setup is established using chromatic confocal sensors with a precise rotary platform. The experimental results show that the measured roundness with an orientation-angle combination of (0°, 90.1°, and 178.6°) is much better than that of another nonoptimal selection (0°, 90.4°, and 177.4°). The roundness error is only 0.7% between the proposed measurement system and an expensive ultraprecision roundness meter. Furthermore, it is proven that the eccentricity distance should be decreased as small as possible to improve the measurement accuracy. In sum, this paper proposes a feasible method for roundness measurement with reliable simulations, easily integrated sensors, and an ordinary precision rotary platform.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • A Novel Approach to Fabricate Carbon Nanomaterials–Nanoparticle Solids
           through Aqueous Solutions and Their Applications

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      Abstract: A better understanding of the bonding and aggregation processes occurring between carbon nanomaterials and metal oxide particles in aqueous solutions is important in the development of novel nanosolids for applications in the areas of sensor development, highly conductive paint, nanotube alignment, polymer composites, Li-ion batteries, and many other areas. The current investigation reviews these processes and presents a detailed description of the aggregation processes occurring between carbon nanomaterials and metal oxide particles (metals) in various aqueous solutions. The results indicate that the charge attraction between the particles results in a strong homogeneous bonding that occurs within the aqueous solution and for the first time demonstrate and describe the aggregation process of these nanoparticles. The relative importance of many parameters that impact the aggregation process is identified and discussed, and guidelines for controlling the aggregation process are presented. This is a simple and cost-effective process to manufacture a novel nano-solid based on carbon nano-material and metal oxide. In addition, the process is easy to scale up and optimize. The methodology could lead to many significant applications as well as commercialization.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Study on Mechanisms of Photon-Induced Material Removal on Silicon at
           Atomic and Close-to-Atomic Scale

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      Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for material removal on silicon at atomic and close-to-atomic scale assisted by photons. The corresponding mechanisms are also investigated. The proposed approach consists of two sequential steps: surface modification and photon irradiation. The back bonds of silicon atoms are first weakened by the chemisorption of chlorine and then broken by photon energy, leading to the desorption of chlorinated silicon. The mechanisms of photon-induced desorption of chlorinated silicon, i.e., SiCl2 and SiCl, are explained by two models: the Menzel–Gomer–Redhead (MGR) and Antoniewicz models. The desorption probability associated with the two models is numerically calculated by solving the Liouville–von Neumann equations for open quantum systems. The calculation accuracy is verified by comparison with the results in literatures in the case of the NO/Pt (111) system. The calculation method is then applied to the cases of SiCl2/Si and SiCl/Si systems. The results show that the value of desorption probability first increases dramatically and then saturates to a stable value within hundreds of femtoseconds after excitation. The desorption probability shows a super-linear dependence on the lifetime of excited states.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Flexible Evanescent Wave Interference Lithography System for
           Sub-half-Wavelength Complex Relief Structures Fabrication

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      Abstract: Surface microstructures impart various useful properties to objects, for example, improving optical characteristics, wettability, and sliding properties. It is well known that biomimicking relief structures are effective in making such properties arise and have been studied to be applied to various devices. Furthermore, they are expected to be utilized not only for improving a particular property but also for adding more complex functions on a device's surface by fabricating different multi-functional structures on a single surface in the future. However, to begin with, artificially fabricating such biomimicking special functional relief is difficult. One typical feature of biomimicking surfaces is the dual-scale structure, the smaller one of which is less than 200 nm. Moreover, in the case of realizing the more complex devices, it is necessary to fabricate various forms as changing process conditions dynamically. In this study, we proposed and developed a flexible evanescent wave interference lithography system as a novel fabrication method, which allows us to realize the fabrication of sub-half-wavelength complex relief structures. Firstly, we theoretically analyzed the fundamental behavior of the fabricated structure and found that the proposed concept has the potential to realize one of the target complex structures. Secondly, we developed the proposed system with high process flexibility, in which the number of beams, the azimuth angles, and the polarization can be simply manipulated. Finally, we validated the concept of the designed system by some experiments, where we fabricated dual-scale structures with 840-nm and 190-nm fringe patterns simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Numerical Analysis of Microchannels Designed for Heat Sinks

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      Abstract: Conjugate heat transfer is numerically investigated using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach in various microchannel geometries to identify a high-performance cooling method for piezoelectric ceramic stacks and spindle units in high-precision machines. Straight microchannels with rectangular cross sections are first considered, showing the performance limitations of decreasing the size of the microchannels, so other solutions are needed for high applied heat fluxes. Next, many microchannel designs, focusing on streamwise geometric variation, are compared to straight channels to assess their performances. Sinusoidally varying channels produce the highest heat transfer rates of those studied. Thus, their optimization is considered at a channel width and height of 35 and 100 μm, respectively. Heat transfer increases as the amplitude and spatial frequencies of the channels increase due to increased interfacial surface area and enhanced Dean flow. The highest performance efficiencies are observed at intermediate levels of amplitude and frequency, with efficiency decreasing as these geometric parameters are increased further at the onset of flow separation. The sinusoidal channel geometries are then optimized with respect to minimizing the system’s pressure drop for all applied heat fluxes between 5690 and 6510 kW/m2. Doing so created an optimal geometry curve and showed that all geometries in this region had amplitudes close to 40 μm. Therefore, imposing a fixed heat flux requirement for a case study of cooling piezoelectric ceramics, the optimized sinusoidal geometry decreases the system pressure drop by 79% relative to a straight channel while maintaining a larger minimum feature size.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
       
  • Research Activities of Nanodimensional Standards Using Atomic Force
           Microscopes, Transmission Electron Microscope, and Scanning Electron
           Microscope at the National Metrology Institute of Japan

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      Abstract: With the progress in nanotechnology, the importance of nanodimensional standards is increasing. Realizing nanodimensional standards requires multiple types of high-precision microscopy techniques. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), one of the research domains in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), is developing nanodimensional standards using atomic force, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The current status of nanodimensional standards in NMIJ is introduced herein.
      PubDate: 2021-11-04
       
  • Tip-Based Nanomachining on Thin Films: A Mini Review

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      Abstract: As one of the most widely used nanofabrication methods, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-based nanomachining technique offers important advantages, including nanoscale manipulation accuracy, low maintenance cost, and flexible experimental operation. This technique has been applied to one-, two-, and even three-dimensional nanomachining patterns on thin films made of polymers, metals, and two-dimensional materials. These structures are widely used in the fields of nanooptics, nanoelectronics, data storage, super lubrication, and so forth. Moreover, they are believed to have a wide application in other fields, and their possible industrialization may be realized in the future. In this work, the current state of the research into the use of the AFM tip-based nanomachining method in thin-film machining is presented. First, the state of the structures machined on thin films is reviewed according to the type of thin-film materials (i.e., polymers, metals, and two-dimensional materials). Second, the related applications of tip-based nanomachining to film machining are presented. Finally, the current situation of this area and its potential development direction are discussed. This review is expected to enrich the understanding of the research status of the use of the tip-based nanomachining method in thin-film machining and ultimately broaden its application.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
       
  • Foreword to the Special Issue on “Tip- and Laser-Based 3D
           Nanofabrication in Extended Macroscopic Working Areas”

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      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Fundamental Investigations in the Design of Five-Axis Nanopositioning
           Machines for Measurement and Fabrication Purposes

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      Abstract: The majority of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines (NPMMs) are based on three independent linear movements in a Cartesian coordinate system. This in combination with the specific nature of sensors and tools limits the addressable part geometries. An enhancement of an NPMM is introduced by the implementation of rotational movements while keeping the precision in the nanometer range. For this purpose, a parameter-based dynamic evaluation system with quantifiable technological parameters has been set up and employed to identify and assess general solution concepts and adequate substructures. Evaluations taken show high potential for three linear movements of the object in combination with two angular movements of the tool. The influence of the additional rotation systems on the existing structure of NPMMs has been investigated further on. Test series on the repeatability of an NPMM enhanced by a chosen combination of a rotary stage and a goniometer setup are realized. As a result of these test series, the necessity of in situ position determination of the tool became very clear. The tool position is measured in situ in relation to a hemispherical reference mirror by three Fabry–Pérot interferometers. FEA optimization has been used to enhance the overall system structure with regard to reproducibility and long-term stability. Results have been experimentally investigated by use of a retroreflector as a tool and the various laser interferometers of the NPMM. The knowledge gained has been formed into general rules for the verification and optimization of design solutions for multiaxial nanopositioning machines.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Development and Implementation of a Rotating Nanoimprint Lithography Tool
           for Orthogonal Imprinting on Edges of Curved Surfaces

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      Abstract: Uniform molding and demolding of structures on highly curved surfaces through conformal contact is a crucial yet often-overlooked aspect of nanoimprint lithography (NIL). This study describes the development of a NIL tool and its integration into a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine to achieve high-precision orthogonal molding and demolding for soft ultraviolet-assisted NIL (soft UV-NIL). The process was implemented primarily on the edges of highly curved plano-convex substrates to demonstrate structure uniformity on the edges. High-resolution nanostructures of sub-200-nm lateral dimension and microstructures in the range of tens of microns were imprinted. However, the nanostructures on the edges of the large, curved substrates were difficult to characterize precisely. Therefore, microstructures were used to measure the structure fidelity and were characterized using profilometry, white light interferometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Regardless of the restricted imaging capabilities at high inclinations for high-resolution nanostructures, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of the structures on top of the lens substrate and at an inclination of 45° was performed. The micro and nanostructures were successfully imprinted on the edges of the plano-convex lens at angles of 45°, 60°,and 90° from the center of rotation of the rotating NIL tool. The method enables precise imprinting at high inclinations, thereby presenting a different approach to soft UV-NIL on curved surfaces.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
  • Heterodyne Standing-Wave Interferometer with Improved Phase Stability

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      Abstract: This paper describes a standing-wave interferometer with two laser sources of different wavelengths, diametrically opposed and emitting towards each other. The resulting standing wave has an intensity profile which is moving with a constant velocity, and is directly detected inside the laser beam by two thin and transparent photo sensors. The first sensor is at a fixed position, serving as a phase reference for the second one which is moved along the optical axis, resulting in a frequency shift, proportional to the velocity. The phase difference between both sensors is evaluated for the purpose of interferometric length measurements.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
       
 
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