Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 978 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (155 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (156 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (168 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (152 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (9 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (310 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (310 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afghanistan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Akademisk Kvarter / Academic Quarter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aleph : UCLA Undergraduate Research Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Astra Salvensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BMC Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Studies Journal     Open Access  
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Con Texte     Open Access  
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Culturas : Debates y Perspectivas de un Mundo en Cambio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Digitális Bölcsészet / Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Dorsal : Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
E+E : Estudios de Extensión en Humanidades     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
East Asian Pragmatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EAU Heritage Journal Social Science and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Esclavages & Post-esclavages     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fa Nuea Journal     Open Access  
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Heritage, Memory and Conflict Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Horizontes LatinoAmericanos     Open Access  
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Humanités Numériques     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal of Graduate School, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies (HASSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Hybrid : Revue des Arts et Médiations Humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business, Humanities, Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Humanity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication     Open Access  
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Research Journal of Arts & Humanities     Open Access  
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Iztapalapa : Revista de ciencias sociales y humanidades     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Jednak Książki : Gdańskie Czasopismo Humanistyczne     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities     Open Access  
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Manusya : Journal of Humanities     Open Access  

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Nature
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • From Storytelling to Facebook

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      Abstract: Abstract Cultural evolution researchers use transmission chain experiments to investigate which content is more likely to survive when transmitted from one individual to another. These experiments resemble oral storytelling, wherein individuals need to understand, memorize, and reproduce the content. However, prominent contemporary forms of cultural transmission—think an online sharing—only involve the willingness to transmit the content. Here I present two fully preregistered online experiments that explicitly investigated the differences between these two modalities of transmission. The first experiment (N = 1,080 participants) examined whether negative content, information eliciting disgust, and threat-related information were better transmitted than their neutral counterpart in a traditional transmission chain setup. The second experiment (N = 1,200 participants) used the same material, but participants were asked whether or not they would share the content in two conditions: in a large anonymous social network or with their friends, in their favorite social network. Negative content was both better transmitted in transmission chain experiments and shared more than its neutral counterpart. Threat-related information was successful in transmission chain experiments but not when sharing, and finally, information eliciting disgust was not advantaged in either. Overall, the results present a composite picture, suggesting that the interactions between the specific content and the medium of transmission are important and, possibly, that content biases are stronger when memorization and reproduction are involved in the transmission—as in oral transmission—than when they are not—as in online sharing. Negative content seems to be reliably favored in both modalities of transmission.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Being More Educated and Earning More Increases Romantic Interest: Data
           from 1.8 M Online Daters from 24 Nations

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      Abstract: Abstract How humans choose their mates is a central feature of adult life and an area of considerable disagreement among relationship researchers. However, few studies have examined mate choice (instead of mate preferences) around the world, and fewer still have considered data from online dating services. Using data from more than 1.8 million online daters from 24 countries, we examined the role of sex and resource-acquisition ability (as indicated by level of education and income) in mate choice using multilevel modeling. We then attempted to understand country-level variance by examining factors such as gender equality and the operational sex ratio. In every nation, a person’s resource-acquisition ability was positively associated with the amount of attention they received from other site members. There was a marked sex difference in this effect; resource-acquisition ability improved the attention received by men almost 2.5 times that of women. This sex difference was in every country, admittedly with some variance between nations. Several country-level traits moderated the effects of resource-acquisition ability, and in the case of unemployment this moderating role differed by sex. Overall, country-level effects were more consistent with evolutionary explanations than sociocultural ones. The results suggest a robust effect of resource-acquisition ability on real-life mate choice that transcends international boundaries and is reliably stronger for men than women. Cross-cultural variance in the role of resource-acquisition ability appears sensitive to local competition and gender equality at the country level.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Political Alliance Formation and Cooperation Networks in the Utah State
           Legislature

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      Abstract: Abstract Social network analysis has become an increasingly important tool among political scientists for understanding legislative cooperation in modern, democratic nation-states. Recent research has demonstrated the influence that group affinity (homophily) and mutual exchanges (reciprocity) have in structuring political relationships. However, this literature has typically focused on political cooperation where costs are low, relationships are not exclusive, and/or partisan competition is high. Patterns of legislative behavior in alternative contexts are less clear and remain largely unexamined. Here, we compare theoretical expectations of cooperation in these contexts from the political and biosocial sciences and implement the first assessment of political alliance formation in a novel legislative environment where costs to cooperation are high and party salience low. We implement a stochastic actor-oriented model (SAOM) to examine bill floor sponsorship, a process in which a “floor sponsor” becomes the exclusive advocate for a colleague’s piece of legislation, in the Utah state legislature from 2005 to 2008—a context in which gender (male) and political party (Republican) supermajorities exist. We find that (1) party and gender homophily predict who legislators recruit as floor sponsors, whereas seniority does not, and (2) legislators frequently engage in reciprocal exchanges of floor sponsorship. In addition, whereas gender homophily increases the likelihood of reciprocity, party homophily decreases it. Our findings suggest that when the cost of cooperation is high, political actors use in-group characteristics for initiating alliances, but once a cooperative relationship is established with an out-group political member, it is reinforced through repeated exchanges. These findings may be useful for understanding the rise of political polarization and gridlock in democracies internationally.
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09420-w
       
  • Why People Keep an Intimate Relationship

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      Abstract: Abstract Forming long-term intimate relationships constitutes an important aspect of human nature. Within the context of an evolutionary theoretical framework, the current research has attempted to investigate what motivates people to keep an intimate relationship. Using a combination of qualitative research methods in a sample of 131 Greek-speaking participants, 58 reasons that motivated individuals to keep their intimate relationship were identified. Using quantitative research methods in a sample of 789 Greek-speaking participants who were in an intimate relationship, these reasons were classified in nine broad factors and two broader domains. Having a supporting and compatible partner with whom one shares similar goals, and with whom one has good sex and a strong emotional attachment, were rated among the most important factors motivating participants to keep their relationship. Moreover, as indicated by the domain means, participants were more strongly motivated to keep their intimate relationship if their partners had desirable attributes, such as providing them with support, and less so by their own attributes, such as fear of loneliness. Significant effects of sex, age, marital status, presence of children, and years in a relationship were found for several factors.
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09421-9
       
  • Four Puzzles of Reputation-Based Cooperation

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      Abstract: Abstract Research in various disciplines has highlighted that humans are uniquely able to solve the problem of cooperation through the informal mechanisms of reputation and gossip. Reputation coordinates the evaluative judgments of individuals about one another. Direct observation of actions and communication are the essential routes that are used to establish and update reputations. In large groups, where opportunities for direct observation are limited, gossip becomes an important channel to share individual perceptions and evaluations of others that can be used to condition cooperative action. Although reputation and gossip might consequently support large-scale human cooperation, four puzzles need to be resolved to understand the operation of reputation-based mechanisms. First, we need empirical evidence of the processes and content that form reputations and how this may vary cross-culturally. Second, we lack an understanding of how reputation is determined from the muddle of imperfect, biased inputs people receive. Third, coordination between individuals is only possible if reputation sharing and signaling is to a large extent reliable and valid. Communication, however, is not necessarily honest and reliable, so theoretical and empirical work is needed to understand how gossip and reputation can effectively promote cooperation despite the circulation of dishonest gossip. Fourth, reputation is not constructed in a social vacuum; hence we need a better understanding of the way in which the structure of interactions affects the efficiency of gossip for establishing reputations and fostering cooperation.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09419-3
       
  • Voices as Cues to Children’s Needs for Caregiving

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the role of voices as cues to adults of children’s needs for potential caregiving during early childhood. To this purpose, 74 college students listened to pairs of 5-year-old versus 10-year-old children verbalizing neutral-content sentences and indicated which voice was better associated with each of 14 traits, potentially meaningful in interactions between young children and adults. Results indicated that children with immature voices were perceived more positively and as being more helpless than children with mature voices. Children’s voices, regardless of the content of speech, seem to be a powerful source of information about children’s need for caregiving for parents and others during the first six years of life.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09418-4
       
  • The Relative Importance of “Cooperative Context” and Kinship in
           Structuring Cooperative Behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract Kin relations have a strong theoretical and empirical basis for explaining cooperative behavior. Nevertheless, there is growing recognition that context—the cooperative environment of an individual—also shapes the willingness of individuals to cooperate. For nomadic pastoralists in Norway, cooperation among both kin and non-kin is an essential predictor for success. The northern parts of the country are characterized by a history of herder-herder competition exacerbating between-herder conflict, lack of trust, and subsequent coordination problems. In contrast, because of a history of herder-farmer competition, southern Norway is characterized by high levels of between-herder coordination and trust. This comparative study investigates the relative importance of “cooperative context” and kinship in structuring cooperative behavior using an experimental gift game. The main findings from this study were that in the South, a high level of cooperation around an individual pushes gifts to be distributed evenly among other herders. Nevertheless, kinship matters, since close kin give and receive larger gifts. In contrast, kinship seems to be the main factor affecting gift distribution in the North. Herders in the North are also concerned with distributing gifts equally, albeit limiting them to close kin: the level of intragroup cooperation drives gifts to be distributed evenly among other closely related herders. The observed regional contrasts in cooperative decisions fit with the different historical levels of conflict and trust in the two regions: whereas herders in the South are affected by both cooperative context and kinship, kinship seems to be the main determinant of cooperation in the North.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09416-6
       
  • Nine Levels of Explanation

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      Abstract: Abstract Tinbergen’s classic “On Aims and Methods of Ethology” (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 1963) proposed four levels of explanation of behavior, which he thought would soon apply to humans. This paper discusses the need for multilevel explanation; Huxley and Mayr’s prior models, and others that followed; Tinbergen’s differences with Lorenz on “the innate”; and Mayr’s ultimate/proximate distinction. It synthesizes these approaches with nine levels of explanation in three categories: phylogeny, natural selection, and genomics (ultimate causes); maturation, sensitive period effects, and routine environmental effects (intermediate causes); and hormonal/metabolic processes, neural circuitry, and eliciting stimuli (proximate causes), as a respectful extension of Tinbergen’s levels. The proposed classification supports and builds on Tinbergen’s multilevel model and Mayr’s ultimate/proximate continuum, adding intermediate causes in accord with Tinbergen’s emphasis on ontogeny. It requires no modification of Standard Evolutionary Theory or The Modern Synthesis, but shows that much that critics claim was missing was in fact part of Neo-Darwinian theory (so named by J. Mark Baldwin in The American Naturalist in 1896) all along, notably reciprocal causation in ontogeny, niche construction, cultural evolution, and multilevel selection. Updates of classical examples in ethology are offered at each of the nine levels, including the neuroethological and genomic findings Tinbergen foresaw. Finally, human examples are supplied at each level, fulfilling his hope of human applications as part of the biology of behavior. This broad ethological framework empowers us to explain human behavior—eventually completely—and vindicates the idea of human nature, and of humans as a part of nature.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09414-8
       
  • Occupational Preferences and Recalled Childhood Sex-Atypical Behavior
           among Istmo Zapotec Men, Women, and Muxes

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      Abstract: Abstract Research has found that both cisgender and transgender androphilic males (i.e., males sexually attracted to and aroused by other adult males) have female-typical occupational preferences when compared with gynephilic males (i.e., males sexually attracted to and aroused by adult females). Moreover, whereas cisgender androphilic males’ occupational preferences tend to be intermediate between those of gynephilic men and androphilic women, transgender androphilic males tend to have occupational preferences that are more similar to androphilic women. No study has directly compared both types of androphilic males within the same culture. The present study investigated occupational preference and its relation to childhood sex-atypical behavior (CSAB), among gynephilic men (n = 208), androphilic women (n = 138), and cisgender (n = 132) and transgender (n = 129) androphilic males from the Istmo region of Oaxaca, Mexico, where androphilic males are recognized as third gender, muxes. The study found large sex differences in occupational preferences (d = 2.80). Furthermore, both cisgender muxe nguiiu (d = 2.36) and transgender muxe gunaa (d = 3.44) reported having more sex-atypical occupational preferences compared with men. However, muxe gunaa reported higher female-typical occupational preferences than women (d = 0.59) and muxe nguiiu (d = 0.57), whereas muxe nguiiu and women did not differ (d = 0.08). These findings are consistent with the conclusion that sex-atypical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally universal aspect of male androphilia. Finally, CSAB was associated with sex-atypical occupational preferences among all participants. These findings suggest that a developmental continuity exists between childhood and adulthood sex-atypicality.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09417-5
       
  • Disguises and the Origins of Clothing

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      Abstract: Abstract Thermoregulation is often thought to be a key motivating factor behind the origins of clothing. Less attention has been given, however, to the production and use of clothing across traditional societies in contexts outside of thermoregulatory needs. Here I investigate the use of disguises, modesty coverings, and body armor among the 10 hunter-gatherer societies in the Probability Sample Files (PSF) within the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) World Cultures database, with a particular focus on disguise cases and how they compare with strategies of deception across other taxa. The employment of disguises—defined as altering one’s appearance for purposes of deceiving conspecifics or other animals—is noted for eight of the 10 societies, with their use occurring in contexts of hunting, religious or cult practices, and war or interpersonal violence. Most hunter-gatherer disguises demonstrated clear similarities to cases of visual deception found in other species, with the majority of examples fitting categories of animal mimicry, masquerading as plants, disruptive coloration (camouflage), or background matching (camouflage), while disguises unique to humans involved the impersonation of culture-specific “spirit-beings.” Clothing for modesty purposes (nine societies) and body armor (six societies) are also noted. I propose that strategic initiatives by individuals or groups to disguise or conceal themselves represents one possible initial pathway to the cultural evolution of clothing. There are likely multiple potential (nonexclusive) social and functional pathways to the emergence of clothing outside of thermoregulatory needs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09415-7
       
  • A Naturalistic Study of Norm Conformity, Punishment, and the Veneration of
           the Dead at Texas A&M University, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract Culturally inherited institutional norms structure much of human social life. Successfully replicating institutions train their current members to behave in the generally adaptive ways that served past members. Ancestor veneration is a well-known manifestation of this phenomenon whereby deference is conferred to prestigious past members who are used as cultural models. Such norms of respect may be maintained by punishment based on evidence from theory and laboratory experiments, but there is little observational evidence to show that punishment is commonly used. To test for punishment as a mechanism that maintains these norms, we examine a norm of ancestor veneration in a natural field experiment at the Memorial Student Center (MSC) at Texas A&M University. The MSC is a memorial to university war dead, and the expectation is that all who enter the building remove their hats out of respect. Observations reveal that hat removal is significantly more common at the MSC than at two control locations. Survey data indicate that most, but not all, subjects understand the norm to be veneration of the dead, and most expect others to follow the norm. Many report a strong negative emotional response when asked to imagine the norm being violated. Sixty-two percent report they would definitely or probably ask the noncompliant to uncover. Focal follow data show that punishment is relatively rare, however, with the majority of behatted subjects going unreproached as they pass through the building. Both survey and observational data indicate there is a motivated minority that enthusiastically enforces the norm.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09413-9
       
  • Being in the Know

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      Abstract: Abstract Gossip (evaluative talk about others) is ubiquitous. Gossip allows important rules to be clarified and reinforced, and it allows individuals to keep track of their social networks while strengthening their bonds to the group. The purpose of this study is to decipher the nature of gossip and how it relates to friendship connections. To measure how gossip relates to friendship, participants from men’s and women’s collegiate competitive rowing (crew) teams (N = 44) noted their friendship connections and their tendencies to gossip about each of their teammates. Using social network analysis, we found that the crew members’ friend group connectedness significantly correlated with their positive and negative gossip network involvement. Higher connectedness among friends was associated with less involvement in spreading negative gossip and/or being a target of negative gossip. More central connectedness to the friend group was associated with more involvement in spreading positive gossip and/or being a target of positive gossip. These results suggest that the spread of both positive and negative gossip may influence and be influenced by friendship connections in a social network.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09409-5
       
  • Gathering Is Not Only for Girls

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      Abstract: Abstract In some small-scale societies, a sexual division of labor is common. For subadult hunter-gatherers, the onset of this division dates to middle childhood and the start of puberty; however, there is apparently no physiological explanation for this timing. The present study uses an experimental approach to evaluate possible energetic differences by sex in gathering-related activities. The energetic cost of gathering-related activities was measured in a sample of 42 subjects of both sexes aged between 8 and 14 years. Body mass and other anthropometric variables were also recorded. Our results show that the energetic differences in the simulated gathering activities depend only on body mass. Both sexes expend a similar amount of energy during locomotion activities related to gathering. Discarding the energetic factor, the sexual division of tasks may be explained as an adaptation to acquire the skills needed to undertake the complex activities required during adulthood as early as possible. Carrying out gathering activities during childhood and adolescence could be favored by the growth and development cycles of Homo sapiens. Moreover, if most of the energetic costs of gathering activities depend on body mass, the delayed growth in humans relative to other primates allows subadults to practice these tasks for longer periods, and to become better at performing them. In fact, this strategy could enable them to acquire adults’ complex skills at a low energetic cost that can be easily subsidized by other members of the group.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09411-x
       
  • Ethnic Markers without Ethnic Conflict

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      Abstract: Abstract People often signal their membership in groups through their clothes, hairstyle, posture, and dialect. Most existing evolutionary models argue that markers label group members so individuals can preferentially interact with those in their group. Here we ask why people mark ethnic differences when interethnic interaction is routine, necessary, and peaceful. We asked research participants from three ethnic groups in southwestern Madagascar to sort photos of unfamiliar people by ethnicity, and by with whom they would prefer or not prefer to cooperate, in a wage labor vignette. Results indicate that southwestern Malagasy reliably send and detect ethnic signals; they signal less in the marketplace, a primary site of interethnic coordination and cooperation; and they do not prefer co-ethnics as cooperation partners in novel circumstances. Results from a cultural knowledge survey and calculations of cultural FST suggest that these ethnic groups have relatively little cultural differentiation. We concur with Moya and Boyd (Human Nature 26:1–27, 2015) that ethnicity is unlikely to be a singular social phenomenon. The current functions of ethnic divisions and marking may be different from those at the moment of ethnogenesis. Group identities may persist without group conflict or differentiation.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09412-w
       
  • The Cultural Evolution of Epistemic Practices

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      Abstract: Abstract Although a substantial literature in anthropology and comparative religion explores divination across diverse societies and back into history, little research has integrated the older ethnographic and historical work with recent insights on human learning, cultural transmission, and cognitive science. Here we present evidence showing that divination practices are often best viewed as an epistemic technology, and we formally model the scenarios under which individuals may overestimate the efficacy of divination that contribute to its cultural omnipresence and historical persistence. We found that strong prior belief, underreporting of negative evidence, and misinferring belief from behavior can all contribute to biased and inaccurate beliefs about the effectiveness of epistemic technologies. We finally suggest how scientific epistemology, as it emerged in Western societies over the past few centuries, has influenced the importance and cultural centrality of divination practices.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09408-6
       
  • Deriving Features of Religions in the Wild

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      Abstract: Abstract Religions “in the wild” are the varied set of religious activities that occurred before the emergence of organized religions with doctrines, or that persist at the margins of those organized traditions. These religious activities mostly focus on misfortune; on how to remedy specific cases of illness, accidents, failures; and on how to prevent them. I present a general model to account for the cross-cultural recurrence of these particular themes. The model is based on (independently established) features of human psychology—namely, (a) epistemic vigilance, the set of systems whereby we evaluate the quality of information and of sources of information, and (b) threat-detection psychology, the set of evolved systems geared at detecting potential danger in the environment. Given these two sets of systems, the dynamics of communication will favor particular types of messages about misfortune. This makes it possible to predict recurrent features of religious systems, such as the focus on nonphysical agents, the focus on particular cases rather than general aspects of misfortune, and the emergence of specialists. The model could illuminate not just why such representations are culturally successful, but also why people are motivated to formulate them in the first place.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09410-y
       
  • Correction to: Eyes, More Than Other Facial Features, Enhance Real-World
           Donation Behavior

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      Abstract: In Fig. 2 of the aforementioned article the mean value of the “chair” condition is incorrectly displayed as 0.011 when it should be 0.008. All statistics in the text are correct, and the conclusions remain the same.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-9331-5
       
  • Ethnic Markers and How to Find Them

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      Abstract: Abstract Ethnic markers are a prominent organizing feature of human society when individuals engage in significant anonymous interactions. However, identifying markers in natural settings is nontrivial. Although ad hoc assignment of markers to groups is widely documented in the ethnographic literature, predicting the membership of individuals based on stylistic variation is less clear. We argue that a more systematic approach is required to satisfy the basic assumptions made in ethnic marker theory. To this end we introduce a three-step ethnographic method to assess the presence, recognition, and transmission of markers of group identity: (1) continual scans, (2) a utilization survey, and (3) a comparative classification task. Applying the method to a study of culturally significant motifs in the South Pacific Island nation of Tonga, we provide evidence that the motif set satisfies basic theoretical assumptions and thus the motifs are likely expressions for social coordination. We also found that the coordinating role of each motif is variable and requires further investigation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09401-z
       
  • “A Solidarity-Type World”: Need-Based Helping among Ranchers in the
           Southwestern United States

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      Abstract: Abstract To better understand risk management and mutual aid among American ranchers, we interviewed and mailed a survey to ranchers in Hidalgo County, New Mexico, and Cochise County, Arizona, focusing on two questions: (1) When do ranchers expect repayment for the help they provide others' (2) What determines ranchers’ degrees of involvement in networks of mutual aid, which they refer to as “neighboring”' When needs arise due to unpredictable events, such as injuries, most ranchers reported not expecting to be paid back for the help they provide. When help is provided for something that follows a known schedule or that can be scheduled, such as branding, most ranchers did expect something in return for the help they provide. This pattern makes sense in light of computational modeling that shows that transfers to those in need without expectations of repayment pool risk more effectively than transfers that create debt. Ranchers reported helping other ranchers more often when they belonged to more religious and civic organizations, when they owned larger ranches, when they relied less on ranch vs. other income, and when they had more relatives in the area. Operators of midsize ranches reported helping other ranchers more frequently than did those on smaller and larger ranches. None of our independent variables predicted how many times ranchers reported receiving help from other ranchers. Although ranch culture in the American West is often characterized by an ethic of individualism and independence, our study suggests that this ethic stands alongside an ethic of mutual aid during times of need.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09406-8
       
  • Do Local Sex Ratios Approximate Subjective Partner Markets'

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      Abstract: Abstract Sex ratios have widely been recognized as an important link between demographic contexts and behavior because changes in the ratio shift sex-specific bargaining power in the partner market. Implicitly, the literature considers individual partner market experiences to be a function of local sex ratios. However, empirical evidence on the correspondence between subjective partner availability and local sex ratios is lacking so far. In this paper, we analyzed how closely a set of different local sex ratio measures correlates with subjective partner market experiences. Linking a longitudinal German survey to population data for different entities (states, counties, municipalities), we used multilevel logistic regression models to explore associations between singles’ subjective partner market experiences and various operationalizations of local sex ratios. Results suggest that local sex ratios correlated only weakly with subjective partner market experiences. Adult sex ratios based on broad age brackets, including those for lower-level entities, did not significantly predict whether individuals predominantly met individuals of their own sex. More fine-grained, age-specific sex ratios prove to be better predictors of subjective partner market experiences, in particular when age hypergamy patterns were incorporated. Nevertheless, the respective associations were only significant for selected measures. In a complementary analysis, we illustrate the validity of the subjective indicator as a predictor of relationship formation. In sum, our results suggest that subjective partner availability is not adequately represented by the broad adult sex ratio measures that are frequently used in the literature. Future research should be careful not to equate local sex ratios and conscious partner market experiences.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09397-6
       
 
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