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Cryptography
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2410-387X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Locking-Enabled Security Analysis of
           Cryptographic Circuits

    • Authors: Devanshi Upadhyaya, Maël Gay, Ilia Polian
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Hardware implementations of cryptographic primitives require protection against physical attacks and supply chain threats. This raises the question of secure composability of different attack countermeasures, i.e., whether protecting a circuit against one threat can make it more vulnerable against a different threat. In this article, we study the consequences of applying logic locking, a popular design-for-trust solution against intellectual property piracy and overproduction, to cryptographic circuits. We show that the ability to unlock the circuit incorrectly gives the adversary new powerful attack options. We introduce LEDFA (locking-enabled differential fault analysis) and demonstrate for several ciphers and families of locking schemes that fault attacks become possible (or consistently easier) for incorrectly unlocked circuits. In several cases, logic locking has made circuit implementations prone to classical algebraic attacks with no fault injection needed altogether. We refer to this “zero-fault” version of LEDFA by the term LEDA, investigate its success factors in-depth and propose a countermeasure to protect the logic-locked implementations against LEDA. We also perform test vector leakage assessment (TVLA) of incorrectly unlocked AES implementations to show the effects of logic locking regarding side-channel leakage. Our results indicate that logic locking is not safe to use in cryptographic circuits, making them less rather than more secure.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 3: Novel and Efficient Privacy-Preserving
           Continuous Authentication

    • Authors: Ahmed Fraz Baig, Sigurd Eskeland, Bian Yang
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Continuous authentication enhances security by re-verifying a user’s validity during the active session. It utilizes data about users’ behavioral actions and contextual information to authenticate them continuously. Such data contain information about user-sensitive attributes such as gender, age, contextual information, and may also provide information about the user’s emotional states. The collection and processing of sensitive data cause privacy concerns. In this paper, we propose two efficient protocols that enable privacy-preserving continuous authentication. The contribution is to prevent the disclosure of user-sensitive attributes using partial homomorphic cryptographic primitives and reveal only the aggregated result without the explicit use of decryption. The protocols complete an authentication decision in a single unidirectional transmission and have very low communication and computation costs with no degradation in biometric performance.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 4: Cryptanalysis of Two Conditional Privacy
           Preserving Authentication Schemes for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    • Authors: Ahmad Mohamad Kabil, Heba Aslan, Marianne Azer
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Conditional Privacy Preserving Authentication (CPPA) schemes are an effective way of securing communications in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), as well as ensuring user privacy and accountability. Cryptanalysis plays a crucial role in pointing out the vulnerabilities in existing schemes to enable the development of more resilient ones. In 2019, Zhang proposed a CPPA scheme for VANET security (PA-CRT), based on identity batch verification (IBV) and Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). In this paper, we cryptanalyze Zhang’s scheme and point out its vulnerability to impersonation and repudiation attacks. In 2023, Zhang’s scheme was cryptanalyzed by Tao; however, we point out flaws in Tao’s cryptanalysis due to invalid assumptions; hence, we propose countermeasures to Tao’s attacks. Furthermore, in 2021, Xiong proposed a Certificateless Aggregate Signature (CLAS) scheme which is also cryptanalyzed in this paper. Finally, we analyze the causes and countermeasures by pointing out the vulnerabilities in each scheme that enabled us to launch successful attacks and proposing changes that would fortify these schemes against similar attacks in the future.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Pervasive User Data Collection from
           Cyberspace: Privacy Concerns and Countermeasures

    • Authors: Yinhao Jiang, Mir Ali Rezazadeh Baee, Leonie Ruth Simpson, Praveen Gauravaram, Josef Pieprzyk, Tanveer Zia, Zhen Zhao, Zung Le
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The increasing use of technologies, particularly computing and communication paradigms, has significantly influenced our daily lives. Interconnecting devices and networks provides convenient platforms for information exchange and facilitates pervasive user data collection. This new environment presents serious privacy challenges. User activities can be continuously monitored in both digital and physical realms. Gathered data can be aggregated and analysed, revealing aspects of user behaviour that may not be apparent from a single data point. The very items that facilitate connectivity simultaneously increase the risk of privacy breaches. The data gathered to provide services can also be used for monitoring and surveillance. This paper discerns three novel categories of privacy concerns relating to pervasive user data collection: privacy and user activity in cyberspace, privacy in personal cyber–physical systems, and privacy in proactive user-driven data collection. We emphasise the primary challenges, ranging from identity tracking in browsing histories to intricate issues in opportunistic networks, situating each within practical, real-world scenarios. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of current countermeasures, investigating their strengths and limitations. This paper explores the challenges in preserving privacy in user interactions with dynamic interconnected systems and suggests countermeasures to mitigate identified privacy risks.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Privacy-Preserving Multi-Party Cross-Chain
           Transaction Protocols

    • Authors: Chang Chen, Guoyu Yang, Zhihao Li, Fuan Xiao, Qi Chen, Jin Li
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Cross-chain transaction technologies have greatly promoted the scalability of cryptocurrencies, which then facilitates the development of Metaverse applications. However, existing solutions rely heavily on centralized middleware (notary) or smart contracts. These schemes lack privacy considerations, and users’ cross-chain transactions are easy to master by other parties. Some signature-based payment schemes have good privacy but do not support multi-party cross-chain protocols or rely heavily on some time assumptions. The uncertainty of user behavior makes it difficult to design a secure multi-party cross-chain protocol. To solve these problems, we investigate how to design a secure multi-party cross-chain transaction protocol with offline tolerance. We propose a new signature algorithm called the pre-adaptor signature scheme, an extension of the adaptor signature scheme. The pre-adaptor signature scheme combines the multi-signature and adaptor signature schemes, which can realize the secret transmission channel between multiple parties. To provide offline tolerance, we encode our protocol into the P2SH script. Our protocol provides better privacy due to no dependence on smart contracts. The performance evaluation was conducted with ten participants. For each participant of our cross-chain protocol, the initialization and execution process can be performed in 3 milliseconds and with 6 k bytes of communication overhead at most. The cost increases linearly with the increase in the number of participants.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Threats, Attacks, and Cryptography
           Frameworks of Cybersecurity in Critical Infrastructures

    • Authors: Kyriaki Tsantikidou, Nicolas Sklavos
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Critical Infrastructures (CIs), such as healthcare facilities, power grids, transportation systems, and financial institutions, are vital components of a functioning society, with the economy and safety being dependent on them. Nevertheless, they have become increasingly vulnerable to cyber threats and attacks in recent years. The main reason is their inability to quickly adapt to technological changes, employ updated cryptographic frameworks, and implement a thoroughly secure architecture based on their characteristics. In this study, the unique complexities of these systems are highlighted. Various verified cyberattacks that were executed against CIs in recent years are analyzed. Moreover, the general framework of CIs is demonstrated together with the employed technologies and cryptographic primitives. A thorough architecture of said technologies is developed to better understand the targeted components and easily identify potentially hidden threats. Afterwards, threat, adversary, and attack models that target critical systems and services are designed. The purpose is a better comprehension of the systems’ vulnerabilities, attack structures, motives, and targets for assisting CIs’ designers in creating secure frameworks and mechanisms, with the ability to mitigate such threats. Lastly, security controls and cryptography frameworks are demonstrated together with efficient mitigation architectures and implementations from the research community.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 8: FPGA-Based Acceleration of K-Nearest
           Neighbor Algorithm on Fully Homomorphic Encrypted Data

    • Authors: Sagarika Behera, Jhansi Rani Prathuri
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The suggested solution in this work makes use of the parallel processing capability of FPGA to enhance the efficiency of the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm on encrypted data. The suggested technique was assessed utilizing the breast cancer datasets and the findings indicate that the FPGA-based acceleration method provides significant performance improvements over software implementation. The Cheon–Kim–Kim–Song (CKKS) homomorphic encryption scheme is used for the computation of ciphertext. After extensive simulation in Python and implementation in FPGA, it was found that the proposed architecture brings down the computational time of KNN on ciphertext to a realistic value in the order of the KNN classification algorithm over plaintext. For the FPGA implementation, we used the Intel Agilex7 FPGA (AGFB014R24B2E2V) development board and validated the speed of computation, latency, throughput, and logic utilization. It was observed that the KNN on encrypted data has a computational time of 41.72 ms which is 80 times slower than the KNN on plaintext whose computational time is of 0.518 ms. The main computation time for CKKS FHE schemes is 41.72 ms. With our architecture, we were able to reduce the calculation time of the CKKS-based KNN to 0.85 ms by using 32 parallel encryption hardware and reaching 300 MHz speed.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 8, Pages 1: Residue Number System (RNS) and Power
           Distribution Network Topology-Based Mitigation of Power Side-Channel
           Attacks

    • Authors: Ravikumar Selvam, Akhilesh Tyagi
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Over the past decade, significant research has been performed on power side-channel mitigation techniques. Logic families based on secret sharing schemes, such as t-private logic, that serve to secure cryptographic implementations against power side-channel attacks represent one such countermeasure. These mitigation techniques are applicable at various design abstraction levels—algorithm, architecture, logic, physical, and gate levels. One research question is when can the two mitigation techniques from different design abstraction levels be employed together gainfully' We explore this notion of the orthogonality of two mitigation techniques with respect to the RNS secure logic, a logic level power side-channel mitigation technique, and power distribution network (PDN), with the decoupling capacitance, a mitigation technique at physical level. Machine learning (ML) algorithms are employed to measure the effectiveness of power side-channel attacks in terms of the success rate of the adversary. The RNS protected LED block cipher round function is implemented as the test circuit in both tree-style and grid-style PDN using the FreePDK 45 nm technology library. The results show that the success rate of an unsecured base design 68.96% for naive Bayes, 67.44% with linear discriminant analysis, 67.51% for quadratic discriminant analysis, and 66.58% for support vector machine. It is reduced to a success rate of 19.68% for naive Bayes, 19.62% with linear discriminant analysis, 19.10% for quadratic discriminant analysis, and 10.54% in support vector machine. Grid-type PDN shows a slightly better reduction in success rate compared to the tree-style PDN.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography8010001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 46: A High-Efficiency Modular Multiplication
           Digital Signal Processing for Lattice-Based Post-Quantum Cryptography

    • Authors: Trong-Hung Nguyen, Cong-Kha Pham, Trong-Thuc Hoang
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) has been widely used to speed up polynomial multiplication in lattice-based post-quantum algorithms. All NTT operands use modular arithmetic, especially modular multiplication, which significantly influences NTT hardware implementation efficiency. Until now, most hardware implementations used Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to multiply two integers and optimally perform modulo computations from the multiplication product. This paper presents a customized Lattice-DSP (L-DSP) for modular multiplication based on the Karatsuba algorithm, Vedic multiplier, and modular reduction methods. The proposed L-DSP performs both integer multiplication and modular reduction simultaneously for lattice-based cryptography. As a result, the speed and area efficiency of the L-DSPs are 283 MHz for 77 SLICEs, 272 MHz for 87 SLICEs, and 256 MHz for 101 SLICEs with the parameters q of 3329, 7681, and 12,289, respectively. In addition, the N−1 multiplier in the Inverse-NTT (INTT) calculation is also eliminated, reducing the size of the Butterfly Unit (BU) in CRYSTAL-Kyber to about 104 SLICEs, equivalent to a conventional multiplication in the other studies. Based on the proposed DSP, a Point-Wise Matrix Multiplication (PWMM) architecture for CRYSTAL-Kyber is designed on a hardware footprint equivalent to 386 SLICEs. Furthermore, this research is the first DSP designed for lattice-based Post-quantum Cryptography (PQC) modular multiplication.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Hiding Full-Color Images into Audio with
           Visual Enhancement via Residual Networks

    • Authors: Hwai-Tsu Hu, Tung-Tsun Lee
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Watermarking is a viable approach for safeguarding the proprietary rights of digital media. This study introduces an innovative fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based phase modulation (PM) scheme that facilitates efficient and effective blind audio watermarking at a remarkable rate of 508.85 numeric values per second while still retaining the original quality. Such a payload capacity makes it possible to embed a full-color image of 64 × 64 pixels within an audio signal of just 24.15 s. To bolster the security of watermark images, we have also implemented the Arnold transform in conjunction with chaotic encryption. Our comprehensive analysis and evaluation confirm that the proposed FFT–PM scheme exhibits exceptional imperceptibility, rendering the hidden watermark virtually undetectable. Additionally, the FFT–PM scheme shows impressive robustness against common signal-processing attacks. To further enhance the visual rendition of the recovered color watermarks, we propose using residual neural networks to perform image denoising and super-resolution reconstruction after retrieving the watermarks. The utilization of the residual networks contributes to noticeable improvements in perceptual quality, resulting in higher levels of zero-normalized cross-correlation in cases where the watermarks are severely damaged.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 48: A Practical Implementation of Medical
           Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning Using Multi-Key Homomorphic
           Encryption and Flower Framework

    • Authors: Ivar Walskaar, Minh Christian Tran, Ferhat Ozgur Catak
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The digitization of healthcare data has presented a pressing need to address privacy concerns within the realm of machine learning for healthcare institutions. One promising solution is federated learning, which enables collaborative training of deep machine learning models among medical institutions by sharing model parameters instead of raw data. This study focuses on enhancing an existing privacy-preserving federated learning algorithm for medical data through the utilization of homomorphic encryption, building upon prior research. In contrast to the previous paper, this work is based upon Wibawa, using a single key for HE, our proposed solution is a practical implementation of a preprint with a proposed encryption scheme (xMK-CKKS) for implementing multi-key homomorphic encryption. For this, our work first involves modifying a simple “ring learning with error” RLWE scheme. We then fork a popular federated learning framework for Python where we integrate our own communication process with protocol buffers before we locate and modify the library’s existing training loop in order to further enhance the security of model updates with the multi-key homomorphic encryption scheme. Our experimental evaluations validate that, despite these modifications, our proposed framework maintains a robust model performance, as demonstrated by consistent metrics including validation accuracy, precision, f1-score, and recall.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 49: On Multiple Encryption for Public-Key
           Cryptography

    • Authors: Tudor Soroceanu, Nicolas Buchmann, Marian Margraf
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Using multiple, individual encryption schemes is a well-established method to increase the overall security of encrypted data. These so-called multiple encryption or hybrid schemes have regained traction in the context of public-key cryptography due to the rise of quantum computers, since it allows the combination of well-known classical encryption schemes with novel post-quantum schemes. In this paper, we conduct a survey of the state-of-the-art public-key multiple encryption (M-PKE) schemes. For the first time, we describe the most relevant M-PKE schemes in detail and discuss their security in a unified model, which allows better comparison between the schemes. Hence, we compare the security, efficiency, and complexity of the schemes and offer recommendations for usage based on common use cases. Our survey emphasizes the importance of being deliberate when combining encryption schemes, as small nuances can easily break security.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 50: XOR Chain and Perfect Secrecy at the Dawn
           of the Quantum Era

    • Authors: Luis Adrián Lizama-Pérez
      First page: 50
      Abstract: In this article, we present a new method that achieves Shannon’s perfect secrecy. To achieve this property, we will introduce the triple XOR cancellation rule. The approach has two execution modes: digital signature and data encryption. We provide perfect secrecy proof of the encryption method. Furthermore, based on our fundamental algorithm, we developed a new strategy for the blockchain system that does not require proof of work (PoW). However, it is a practical mechanism for connecting blocks to the chain. Due to the risk that quantum computers present for current cryptosystems based on prime factorization or discrete logarithm, we postulate that our method represents a promising alternative in the quantum era. We expect our work to have profound implications for the security of communications between mobile devices, the Internet of Things (IoT), and the blockchain.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Privacy-Preserving Techniques in Cloud/Fog
           and Internet of Things

    • Authors: Cheng-Chi Lee, Mehdi Gheisari, Mohammad Javad Shayegan, Milad Taleby Ahvanooey, Yang Liu
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Recently, wireless networks have been developed using cloud infrastructure and software-based networks [...]
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 52: SigML++: Supervised Log Anomaly with
           Probabilistic Polynomial Approximation

    • Authors: Devharsh Trivedi, Aymen Boudguiga, Nesrine Kaaniche, Nikos Triandopoulos
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Security log collection and storage are essential for organizations worldwide. Log analysis can help recognize probable security breaches and is often required by law. However, many organizations commission log management to Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), where the logs are collected, processed, and stored. Existing methods for log anomaly detection rely on unencrypted (plaintext) data, which can be a security risk. Logs often contain sensitive information about an organization or its customers. A more secure approach is always to keep logs encrypted (ciphertext). This paper presents “SigML++”, an extension of “SigML” for supervised log anomaly detection on encrypted data. SigML++ uses Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) according to the Cheon–Kim–Kim–Song (CKKS) scheme to encrypt the logs and then uses an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to approximate the sigmoid (σ(x)) activation function probabilistically for the intervals [−10,10] and [−50,50]. This allows SigML++ to perform log anomaly detection without decrypting the logs. Experiments show that SigML++ can achieve better low-order polynomial approximations for Logistic Regression (LR) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) than existing methods. This makes SigML++ a promising new approach for secure log anomaly detection.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 53: On the Security of Quantum Key
           Distribution Networks

    • Authors: Eufemia Lella, Giovanni Schmid
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The main purpose of a quantum key distribution network is to provide secret keys to any users or applications requiring a high level of security, ideally such as to offer the best protection against any computational attack, even of a quantum nature. The keys shared through a point-to-point link between a source and a detector using a quantum key distribution protocol can be proven information-theoretically secure based on the quantum information theory. However, evaluating the security of a quantum key distribution network, especially if it is based on relay nodes, goes far beyond the quantum security of its single quantum links, involving aspects of conventional security for devices and their communication channels. In this contribution, we perform a rigorous threat analysis based on the most recent recommendations and practical network deployment security issues. We show that, at least in the current state of our understanding of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution networks can only offer computational security and that their security in practical implementations in the shorter term requires resorting to post-quantum cryptography.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 54: Random Number Generators: Principles and
           Applications

    • Authors: Anastasios Bikos, Panagiotis E. Nastou, Georgios Petroudis, Yannis C. Stamatiou
      First page: 54
      Abstract: In this paper, we present approaches to generating random numbers, along with potential applications. Rather than trying to provide extensive coverage of several techniques or algorithms that have appeared in the scientific literature, we focus on some representative approaches, presenting their workings and properties in detail. Our goal is to delineate their strengths and weaknesses, as well as their potential application domains, so that the reader can judge what would be the best approach for the application at hand, possibly a combination of the available approaches. For instance, a physical source of randomness can be used for the initial seed; then, suitable preprocessing can enhance its randomness; then, the output of preprocessing can feed different types of generators, e.g., a linear congruential generator, a cryptographically secure one and one based on the combination of one-way hash functions and shared key cryptoalgorithms in various modes of operation. Then, if desired, the outputs of the different generators can be combined, giving the final random sequence. Moreover, we present a set of practical randomness tests that can be applied to the outputs of random number generators in order to assess their randomness characteristics. In order to demonstrate the importance of unpredictable random sequences, we present an application of cryptographically secure generators in domains where unpredictability is one of the major requirements, i.e., eLotteries and cryptographic key generation.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 55: FPGA-Based PUF Designs: A Comprehensive
           Review and Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Kusum Lata, Linga Reddy Cenkeramaddi
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have firmly established themselves as dynamic platforms for the implementation of physical unclonable functions (PUFs). Their intrinsic reconfigurability and profound implications for enhancing hardware security make them an invaluable asset in this realm. This groundbreaking study not only dives deep into the universe of FPGA-based PUF designs but also offers a comprehensive overview coupled with a discerning comparative analysis. PUFs are the bedrock of device authentication and key generation and the fortification of secure cryptographic protocols. Unleashing the potential of FPGA technology expands the horizons of PUF integration across diverse hardware systems. We set out to understand the fundamental ideas behind PUF and how crucially important it is to current security paradigms. Different FPGA-based PUF solutions, including static, dynamic, and hybrid systems, are closely examined. Each design paradigm is painstakingly examined to reveal its special qualities, functional nuances, and weaknesses. We closely assess a variety of performance metrics, including those related to distinctiveness, reliability, and resilience against hostile threats. We compare various FPGA-based PUF systems against one another to expose their unique advantages and disadvantages. This study provides system designers and security professionals with the crucial information they need to choose the best PUF design for their particular applications. Our paper provides a comprehensive view of the functionality, security capabilities, and prospective applications of FPGA-based PUF systems. The depth of knowledge gained from this research advances the field of hardware security, enabling security practitioners, researchers, and designers to make wise decisions when deciding on and implementing FPGA-based PUF solutions.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 56: Secure Groups for Threshold Cryptography
           and Number-Theoretic Multiparty Computation

    • Authors: Berry Schoenmakers, Toon Segers
      First page: 56
      Abstract: In this paper, we introduce secure groups as a cryptographic scheme representing finite groups together with a range of operations, including the group operation, inversion, random sampling, and encoding/decoding maps. We construct secure groups from oblivious group representations combined with cryptographic protocols, implementing the operations securely. We present both generic and specific constructions, in the latter case specifically for number-theoretic groups commonly used in cryptography. These include Schnorr groups (with quadratic residues as a special case), Weierstrass and Edwards elliptic curve groups, and class groups of imaginary quadratic number fields. For concreteness, we develop our protocols in the setting of secure multiparty computation based on Shamir secret sharing over a finite field, abstracted away by formulating our solutions in terms of an arithmetic black box for secure finite field arithmetic or for secure integer arithmetic. Secure finite field arithmetic suffices for many groups, including Schnorr groups and elliptic curve groups. For class groups, we need secure integer arithmetic to implement Shanks’ classical algorithms for the composition of binary quadratic forms, which we will combine with our adaptation of a particular form reduction algorithm due to Agarwal and Frandsen. As a main result of independent interest, we also present an efficient protocol for the secure computation of the extended greatest common divisor. The protocol is based on Bernstein and Yang’s constant-time 2-adic algorithm, which we adapt to work purely over the integers. This yields a much better approach for multiparty computation but raises a new concern about the growth of the Bézout coefficients. By a careful analysis, we are able to prove that the Bézout coefficients in our protocol will never exceed 3max(a,b) in absolute value for inputs a and b. We have integrated secure groups in the Python package MPyC and have implemented threshold ElGamal and threshold DSA in terms of secure groups. We also mention how our results support verifiable multiparty computation, allowing parties to jointly create a publicly verifiable proof of correctness for the results accompanying the results of a secure computation.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Hardware Implementations of Elliptic Curve
           Cryptography Using Shift-Sub Based Modular Multiplication Algorithms

    • Authors: Yamin Li
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over prime fields relies on scalar point multiplication realized by point addition and point doubling. Point addition and point doubling operations consist of many modular multiplications of large operands (256 bits for example), especially in projective and Jacobian coordinates which eliminate the modular inversion required in affine coordinates for every point addition or point doubling operation. Accelerating modular multiplication is therefore important for high-performance ECC. This paper presents the hardware implementations of modular multiplication algorithms, including (1) interleaved modular multiplication (IMM), (2) Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM), (3) shift-sub modular multiplication (SSMM), (4) SSMM with advance preparation (SSMMPRE), and (5) SSMM with CSAs and sign detection (SSMMCSA) algorithms, and evaluates their execution time (the number of clock cycles and clock frequency) and required hardware resources (ALMs and registers). Experimental results show that SSMM is 1.80 times faster than IMM, and SSMMCSA is 3.27 times faster than IMM. We also present the ECC hardware implementations based on the Secp256k1 protocol in affine, projective, and Jacobian coordinates using the IMM, SSMM, SSMMPRE, and SSMMCSA algorithms, and investigate their cost and performance. Our ECC implementations can be applied to the design of hardware security module systems.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Secure Instruction and Data-Level
           Information Flow Tracking Model for RISC-V

    • Authors: Geraldine Shirley Nicholas, Dhruvakumar Vikas Aklekar, Bhavin Thakar, Fareena Saqib
      First page: 58
      Abstract: With the proliferation of electronic devices, third-party intellectual property (3PIP) integration in the supply chain of the semiconductor industry and untrusted actors/fields have raised hardware security concerns that enable potential attacks, such as unauthorized access to data, fault injection and privacy invasion. Different security techniques have been proposed to provide resilience to secure devices from potential vulnerabilities; however, no one technique can be applied as an overarching solution. We propose an integrated Information Flow Tracking (IFT) technique to enable runtime security to protect system integrity by tracking the flow of data from untrusted communication channels. Existing hardware-based IFT schemes are either fine-, which are resource-intensive, or coarse-grained models, which have minimal precision logic, providing either control-flow or data-flow integrity. No current security model provides multi-granularity due to the difficulty in balancing both the flexibility and hardware overheads at the same time. This study proposes a multi-level granularity IFT model that integrates a hardware-based IFT technique with a gate-level-based IFT (GLIFT) technique, along with flexibility, for better precision and assessments. Translation from the instruction level to the data level is based on module instantiation with security-critical data for accurate information flow behaviors without any false conservative flows. A simulation-based IFT model is demonstrated, which translates the architecture-specific extensions into a compiler-specific simulation model with toolchain extensions for Reduced Instruction Set Architecture (RISC-V) to verify the security extensions. This approach provides better precision logic by enhancing the tagged mechanism with 1-bit tags and implementing an optimized shadow logic that eliminates the area overhead by tracking the data for only security-critical modules.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 59: Privacy-Preserving k-Nearest Neighbor
           Classification over Malicious Participants in Outsourced Cloud
           Environments

    • Authors: Xian Guo, Ye Li, Yongbo Jiang, Jing Wang, Junli Fang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: In recent years, many companies have chosen to outsource data and other data computation tasks to cloud service providers to reduce costs and increase efficiency. However, there are risks of security and privacy breaches when users outsource data to a cloud environment. Many researchers have proposed schemes based on cryptographic primitives to address these risks under the assumption that the cloud is a semi-honest participant and query users are honest participants. However, in a real-world environment, users’ data privacy and security may be threatened by the presence of malicious participants. Therefore, a novel scheme based on secure multi-party computation is proposed when attackers gain control over both the cloud and a query user in the paper. We prove that our solution can satisfy our goals of security and privacy protection. In addition, our experimental results based on simulated data show feasibility and reliability.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Comparative Study of Keccak SHA-3
           Implementations

    • Authors: Alessandra Dolmeta, Maurizio Martina, Guido Masera
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This paper conducts an extensive comparative study of state-of-the-art solutions for implementing the SHA-3 hash function. SHA-3, a pivotal component in modern cryptography, has spawned numerous implementations across diverse platforms and technologies. This research aims to provide valuable insights into selecting and optimizing Keccak SHA-3 implementations. Our study encompasses an in-depth analysis of hardware, software, and software–hardware (hybrid) solutions. We assess the strengths, weaknesses, and performance metrics of each approach. Critical factors, including computational efficiency, scalability, and flexibility, are evaluated across different use cases. We investigate how each implementation performs in terms of speed and resource utilization. This research aims to improve the knowledge of cryptographic systems, aiding in the informed design and deployment of efficient cryptographic solutions. By providing a comprehensive overview of SHA-3 implementations, this study offers a clear understanding of the available options and equips professionals and researchers with the necessary insights to make informed decisions in their cryptographic endeavors.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Garbled Circuits Reimagined: Logic
           Synthesis Unleashes Efficient Secure Computation

    • Authors: Mingfei Yu, Dewmini Sudara Marakkalage, Giovanni De Micheli
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Garbled circuit (GC) is one of the few promising protocols to realize general-purpose secure computation. The target computation is represented by a Boolean circuit that is subsequently transformed into a network of encrypted tables for execution. The need for distributing GCs among parties, however, requires excessive data communication, called garbling cost, which bottlenecks system performance. Due to the zero garbling cost of XOR operations, existing works reduce garbling cost by representing the target computation as the XOR-AND graph (XAG) with minimal structural multiplicative complexity (MC). Starting with a thorough study of the cipher-text efficiency of different types of logic primitives, for the first time, we propose XOR-OneHot graph (X1G) as a suitable logic representation for the generation of low-cost GCs. Our contribution includes (a) an exact algorithm to synthesize garbling-cost-optimal X1G implementations for small-scale functions and (b) a set of logic optimization algorithms customized for X1Gs, which together form a robust optimization flow that delivers high-quality X1Gs for practical functions. The effectiveness of the proposals is evidenced by comprehensive evaluations: compared with the state of the art, 7.34%, 26.14%, 13.51%, and 4.34% reductions in garbling costs are achieved on average for the involved benchmark suites, respectively, with reasonable runtime overheads.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 62: A Publicly Verifiable E-Voting System
           Based on Biometrics

    • Authors: Jinhui Liu, Tianyi Han, Maolin Tan, Bo Tang, Wei Hu, Yong Yu
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Voters use traditional paper ballots, a method limited by the factors of time and space, to ensure their voting rights are exercised; this method requires a lot of manpower and resources. Duplicate voting problems may also occur, meaning the transparency and reliability of the voting results cannot be guaranteed. With the rapid developments in science and technology, E-voting system technology is being adopted more frequently in election activities. However, E-voting systems still cannot address the verifiability of the election process; the results of a given election and the credibility of the host organization will be questioned if the election’s verifiability cannot be ensured. Elections may also pose a series of problems related to privacy, security, and so on. To address these issues, this paper presents a public, and verifiable E-voting system with hidden statistics; this system is based on commitment, zk-SNARKs, and machine learning. The system can deal with a large number of candidates, complex voting methods, and result functions in counting both hidden and public votes and can satisfy the requirements of verifiability, privacy, security, and intelligence. Our security analysis shows that our scheme achieves privacy, hidden vote counting and verifiability. Our performance evaluation demonstrates that our system has reasonable applications in real scenarios.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Practical Certificate-Less Infrastructure
           with Application in TLS

    • Authors: Li Duan, Yong Li, Lijun Liao
      First page: 63
      Abstract: We propose highly efficient certificate-less (CL) protocols for the infrastructure used by authenticated key exchange (AKE). The construction is based on elliptic curves (EC) without pairing, which means it can be easily supported by most industrial cryptography libraries on constrained devices. Compared with other pairing-free CL solutions, the new CL-AKE protocol enjoys the least number of scalar multiplications over EC groups. We use a unified game-based model to formalize the security of each protocol, while most previous works only assess the security against a list of attacks, provide informal theorems without proper modeling, or use separate models for protocols in different stages. We also present an efficient integration of the core protocols into the TLS cipher suites and a stand-alone implementation for constrained devices. The performance is evaluated on constrained devices in real-world settings, which further confirms the efficiency of our proposal.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 64: One-to-Many Simultaneous Secure Quantum
           Information Transmission

    • Authors: Theodore Andronikos, Alla Sirokofskich
      First page: 64
      Abstract: This paper presents a new quantum protocol designed to transmit information from one source to many recipients simultaneously. The proposed protocol, which is based on the phenomenon of entanglement, is completely distributed and is provably information-theoretically secure. Numerous existing quantum protocols guarantee secure information communication between two parties but are not amenable to generalization in situations where the source must transmit information to two or more recipients. Hence, they must be executed sequentially two or more times to achieve the desired goal. The main novelty of the new protocol is its extensibility and generality to situations involving one party that must simultaneously communicate different, in general, messages to an arbitrary number of spatially distributed parties. This is achieved in the special way employed to encode the transmitted information in the entangled state of the system, one of the distinguishing features compared with previous protocols. This protocol can prove expedient whenever an information broker, say, Alice, must communicate distinct secret messages to her agents, all in different geographical locations, in one go. Due to its relative complexity compared with similar cryptographic protocols, as it involves communication among n parties and relies on GHZn⟩ tuples, we provide an extensive and detailed security analysis so as to prove that it is information-theoretically secure. Finally, in terms of its implementation, the prevalent characteristics of the proposed protocol are its uniformity and simplicity, because it only requires CNOT and Hadamard gates and the local quantum circuits are identical for all information recipients.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7040064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Threshold Lattice-Based Signature Scheme
           for Authentication by Wearable Devices

    • Authors: Anton Leevik, Vadim Davydov, Sergey Bezzateev
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This paper presents a new threshold signature scheme based on Damgaard’s work. The proposed scheme allows for changing the message signature threshold, thereby improving the flexibility of the original Damgaard scheme. This scheme can be applied as a user authentication system using wearable devices. Based on the hardness of lattice problems, this scheme is resistant to attacks on a quantum computer, which is an advantage over the currently used multi-factor authentication schemes. The scheme’s security relies on the computational complexity of the Module-LWE and Module-SIS problems, as well as the Shamir secret sharing scheme’s security.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Detecting Smart Contract Vulnerabilities
           with Combined Binary and Multiclass Classification

    • Authors: Anzhelika Mezina, Aleksandr Ometov
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The development of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is pushing toward automating decentralized data exchange processes. One of the key components of this evolutionary step is facilitating smart contracts that, in turn, come with several additional vulnerabilities. Despite the existing tools for analyzing smart contracts, keeping these systems running and preserving performance while maintaining a decent level of security in a constantly increasing number of contracts becomes challenging. Machine Learning (ML) methods could be utilized for analyzing and detecting vulnerabilities in DLTs. This work proposes a new ML-based two-phase approach for the detection and classification of vulnerabilities in smart contracts. Firstly, the system’s operation is set up to filter the valid contracts. Secondly, it focuses on detecting a vulnerability type, if any. In contrast to existing approaches in this field of research, our algorithm is more focused on vulnerable contracts, which allows to save time and computing resources in the production environment. According to the results, it is possible to detect vulnerability types with an accuracy of 0.9921, F1 score of 0.9902, precision of 0.9883, and recall of 0.9921 within reasonable execution time, which could be suitable for integrating existing DLTs.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Automated Classical Cipher Emulation
           Attacks via Unified Unsupervised Generative Adversarial Networks

    • Authors: Seonghwan Park, Hyunil Kim, Inkyu Moon
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Cryptanalysis has been studied and gradually improved with the evolution of cryptosystems over past decades. Recently, deep learning (DL) has started to be used in cryptanalysis to attack digital cryptosystems. As computing power keeps growing, deploying DL-based cryptanalysis becomes feasible in practice. However, since these studies can analyze only one cipher type for one DL model learning, it takes a lot of time to analyze multi ciphers. In this paper, we propose a unified cipher generative adversarial network (UC-GAN), which can perform ciphertext-to-plaintext translations among multiple domains (ciphers) using only a single DL model. In particular, the proposed model is based on unified unsupervised DL for the analysis of classical substitutional ciphers. Simulation results have indicated the feasibility and good performance of the proposed approach. In addition, we compared our experimental results with the findings of conditional GAN, where plaintext and ciphertext pairs in only the single domain are given as training data, and with CipherGAN, which is cipher mapping between unpaired ciphertext and plaintext in the single domain, respectively. The proposed model showed more than 97% accuracy by learning only data without prior knowledge of three substitutional ciphers. These findings could open a new possibility for simultaneously cracking various block ciphers, which has a great impact on the field of cryptography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the cryptanalysis of multiple cipher algorithms using only a single DL model
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 36: The Role of Blockchain in Medical Data
           Sharing

    • Authors: Hamed Taherdoost
      First page: 36
      Abstract: As medical technology advances, there is an increasing need for healthcare providers all over the world to securely share a growing volume of data. Blockchain is a powerful technology that allows multiple parties to securely access and share data. Given the enormous challenge that healthcare systems face in digitizing and sharing health records, it is not unexpected that many are attempting to improve healthcare processes by utilizing blockchain technology. By systematically examining articles published from 2017 to 2022, this review addresses the existing gap by methodically discussing the state, research trends, and challenges of blockchain in medical data exchange. The number of articles on this issue has increased, reflecting the growing importance and interest in blockchain research for medical data exchange. Recent blockchain-based medical data sharing advances include safe healthcare management systems, health data architectures, smart contract frameworks, and encryption approaches. The evaluation examines medical data encryption, blockchain networks, and how the Internet of Things (IoT) improves hospital workflows. The findings show that blockchain can improve patient care and healthcare services by securely sharing data.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 37: A New RSA Variant Based on Elliptic Curves

    • Authors: Maher Boudabra, Abderrahmane Nitaj
      First page: 37
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new scheme based on ephemeral elliptic curves over a finite ring with an RSA modulus. The new scheme is a variant of both the RSA and the KMOV cryptosystems and can be used for both signature and encryption. We study the security of the new scheme and show that it is immune to factorization attacks, discrete-logarithm-problem attacks, sum-of-two-squares attacks, sum-of-four-squares attacks, isomorphism attacks, and homomorphism attacks. Moreover, we show that the private exponents can be much smaller than the ordinary exponents in RSA and KMOV, which makes the decryption phase in the new scheme more efficient.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Boosting Quantum Key Distribution via the
           End-to-End Loss Control

    • Authors: Aleksei D. Kodukhov, Valeria A. Pastushenko, Nikita S. Kirsanov, Dmitry A. Kronberg, Markus Pflitsch, Valerii M. Vinokur
      First page: 38
      Abstract: With the rise of quantum technologies, data security increasingly relies on quantum cryptography and its most notable application, quantum key distribution (QKD). Yet, current technological limitations, in particular, the unavailability of quantum repeaters, cause relatively low key distribution rates in practical QKD implementations. Here, we demonstrate a remarkable improvement in the QKD performance using end-to-end line tomography for the wide class of relevant protocols. Our approach is based on the real-time detection of interventions in the transmission channel, enabling an adaptive response that modifies the QKD setup and post-processing parameters, leading, thereby, to a substantial increase in the key distribution rates. Our findings provide everlastingly secure efficient quantum cryptography deployment potentially overcoming the repeaterless rate-distance limit.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Applications of Neural Network-Based AI in
           Cryptography

    • Authors: Abderrahmane Nitaj, Tajjeeddine Rachidi
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a modern technology that allows plenty of advantages in daily life, such as predicting weather, finding directions, classifying images and videos, even automatically generating code, text, and videos. Other essential technologies such as blockchain and cybersecurity also benefit from AI. As a core component used in blockchain and cybersecurity, cryptography can benefit from AI in order to enhance the confidentiality and integrity of cyberspace. In this paper, we review the algorithms underlying four prominent cryptographic cryptosystems, namely the Advanced Encryption Standard, the Rivest–Shamir–Adleman, Learning With Errors, and the Ascon family of cryptographic algorithms for authenticated encryption. Where possible, we pinpoint areas where AI can be used to help improve their security.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 40: A Survey of Post-Quantum Cryptography:
           Start of a New Race

    • Authors: Duc-Thuan Dam, Thai-Ha Tran, Van-Phuc Hoang, Cong-Kha Pham, Trong-Thuc Hoang
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Information security is a fundamental and urgent issue in the digital transformation era. Cryptographic techniques and digital signatures have been applied to protect and authenticate relevant information. However, with the advent of quantum computers and quantum algorithms, classical cryptographic techniques have been in danger of collapsing because quantum computers can solve complex problems in polynomial time. Stemming from that risk, researchers worldwide have stepped up research on post-quantum algorithms to resist attack by quantum computers. In this review paper, we survey studies in recent years on post-quantum cryptography (PQC) and provide statistics on the number and content of publications, including a literature overview, detailed explanations of the most common methods so far, current implementation status, implementation comparisons, and discussion on future work. These studies focused on essential public cryptography techniques and digital signature schemes, and the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) launched a competition to select the best candidate for the expected standard. Recent studies have practically implemented the public key encryption/key encapsulation mechanism (PKE/KEM) and digital signature schemes on different hardware platforms and applied various optimization measures based on other criteria. Along with the increasing number of scientific publications, the recent trend of PQC research is increasingly evident and is the general trend in the cryptography industry. The movement opens up a promising avenue for researchers in public key cryptography and digital signatures, especially on algorithms selected by NIST.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Matrix Encryption Walks for Lightweight
           Cryptography

    • Authors: Aeryn Dunmore, Juliet Samandari, Julian Jang-Jaccard
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new symmetric stream cipher encryption algorithm based on Graph Walks and 2-dimensional matrices, called Matrix Encryption Walks (MEW). We offer example Key Matrices and show the efficiency of the proposed method, which operates in linear complexity with an extremely large key space and low-resource requirements. We also provide the Proof of Concept code for the encryption algorithm and a detailed analysis of the security of our proposed MEW. The MEW algorithm is designed for low-resource environments such as IoT or smart devices and is therefore intended to be simple in operation. The encryption, decryption, and key generation time, along with the bytes required to store the key, are all discussed, and similar proposed algorithms are examined and compared. We further discuss the avalanche effect, key space, frequency analysis, Shannon entropy, and chosen/known plaintext-ciphertext attacks, and how MEW remains robust against these attacks. We have also discussed the potential for future research into algorithms such as MEW, which make use of alternative structures and graphic methods for improving encryption models.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Enhanced Authentication for Decentralized
           IoT Access Control Architecture

    • Authors: Jeong Hwa Kang, Minhye Seo
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) enables a hyperconnected society, offering intelligent services and convenience through various connections between people, objects, and services. However, the current state of the IoT still faces limitations in security. Security issues in the IoT are of significant concern, leading to the proposal of numerous security frameworks and solutions to address these challenges. Authentication and authorization are crucial security requirements in the IoT environment, considering the potential risks posed by inadequate authentication and incorrect authorization. To comprehensively mitigate these issues, we presents a novel IoT access control architecture in this paper. The proposed architecture leverages the OAuth framework for authorization and the decentralized identity technology to enhance the authentication and authorization processes.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Divisions and Square Roots with Tight
           Error Analysis from Newton–Raphson Iteration in Secure Fixed-Point
           Arithmetic

    • Authors: Stan Korzilius, Berry Schoenmakers
      First page: 43
      Abstract: In this paper, we present new variants of Newton–Raphson-based protocols for the secure computation of the reciprocal and the (reciprocal) square root. The protocols rely on secure fixed-point arithmetic with arbitrary precision parameterized by the total bit length of the fixed-point numbers and the bit length of the fractional part. We perform a rigorous error analysis aiming for tight accuracy claims while minimizing the overall cost of the protocols. Due to the nature of secure fixed-point arithmetic, we perform the analysis in terms of absolute errors. Whenever possible, we allow for stochastic (or probabilistic) rounding as an efficient alternative to deterministic rounding. We also present a new protocol for secure integer division based on our protocol for secure fixed-point reciprocals. The resulting protocol is parameterized by the bit length of the inputs and yields exact results for the integral quotient and remainder. The protocol is very efficient, minimizing the number of secure comparisons. Similarly, we present a new protocol for integer square roots based on our protocol for secure fixed-point square roots. The quadratic convergence of the Newton–Raphson method implies a logarithmic number of iterations as a function of the required precision (independent of the input value). The standard error analysis of the Newton–Raphson method focuses on the termination condition for attaining the required precision, assuming sufficiently precise floating-point arithmetic. We perform an intricate error analysis assuming fixed-point arithmetic of minimal precision throughout and minimizing the number of iterations in the worst case.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 44: A Novel and Secure Fake-Modulus Based
           Rabin-Ӡ Cryptosystem

    • Authors: Raghunandan Kemmannu Ramesh, Radhakrishna Dodmane, Surendra Shetty, Ganesh Aithal, Monalisa Sahu, Aditya Kumar Sahu
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Electronic commerce(E-commerce) transactions require secure communication to protect sensitive information such as credit card numbers, personal identification, and financial data from unauthorized access and fraud. Encryption using public key cryptography is essential to ensure secure electronic commerce transactions. RSA and Rabin cryptosystem algorithms are widely used public key cryptography techniques, and their security is based on the assumption that it is computationally infeasible to factorize the product of two large prime numbers into its constituent primes. However, existing variants of RSA and Rabin cryptosystems suffer from issues like high computational complexity, low speed, and vulnerability to factorization attacks. To overcome the issue, this article proposes a new method that introduces the concept of fake-modulus during encryption. The proposed method aims to increase the security of the Rabin cryptosystem by introducing a fake-modulus during encryption, which is used to confuse attackers who attempt to factorize the public key. The fake-modulus is added to the original modulus during encryption, and the attacker is unable to distinguish between the two. As a result, the attacker is unable to factorize the public key and cannot access the sensitive information transmitted during electronic commerce transactions. The proposed method’s performance is evaluated using qualitative and quantitative measures. Qualitative measures such as visual analysis and histogram analysis are used to evaluate the proposed system’s quality. To quantify the performance of the proposed method, the entropy of a number of occurrences for the pixels of cipher text and differential analysis of plaintext and cipher text is used. When the proposed method’s complexity is compared to a recent variant of the Rabin cryptosystem, it can be seen that it is more complex to break the proposed method—represented as O(ɲ× τ) which is higher than Rabin-P (O(ɲ)) algorithms.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 45: A New Idea for RSA Backdoors

    • Authors: Marco Cesati
      First page: 45
      Abstract: This article proposes a new method to inject backdoors in RSA (the public-key cryptosystem invented by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) and other cryptographic primitives based on the integer factorization problem for balanced semi-primes. The method relies on mathematical congruences among the factors of the semi-primes based on a large prime number, which acts as a “designer key” or “escrow key”. In particular, two different backdoors are proposed, one targeting a single semi-prime and the other one a pair of semi-primes. This article also describes the results of tests performed on a SageMath implementation of the backdoors.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7030045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Encryption Scheme of Verifiable Search
           Based on Blockchain in Cloud Environment

    • Authors: Buzhen He, Tao Feng
      First page: 16
      Abstract: While transferring data to cloud servers frees users from having to manage it, it eventually raises new problems, such as data privacy. The concept of searchable encryption has drawn more and more focus in research as a means of resolving the tension between data accessibility and data privacy. Due to the lack of integrity and correctness authentication in most searchable encryption techniques, malicious cloud servers may deliver false search results to users. Based on public key encryption with searching (PEKS), the study suggests a privacy-preserving method for verifiable fuzzy keyword searches based on the Ethernet blockchain in a cloud context to overcome the aforementioned security concerns. The search user can check the accuracy and integrity of the query document using the unalterability characteristics of the Ethernet blockchain system in this scheme to prevent the cloud server from giving incorrect query results. Furthermore, a fair transaction between the cloud server and the data user is achieved and can be tracked back to the malicious user using hash functions and Ethereum smart contracts, even if the user or the cloud is malicious. Finally, the security analysis shows that, under the random oracle model, our technique fulfils the adaptive selection keyword’s semantic security. The performance assessment demonstrates that the proposed scheme outperforms other related schemes in terms of computational efficiency.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 17: SCANN: Side Channel Analysis of Spiking
           Neural Networks

    • Authors: Karthikeyan Nagarajan, Rupshali Roy, Rasit Onur Topaloglu, Sachhidh Kannan, Swaroop Ghosh
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are quickly gaining traction as a viable alternative to deep neural networks (DNNs). Compared to DNNs, SNNs are computationally more powerful and energy efficient. The design metrics (synaptic weights, membrane threshold, etc.) chosen for such SNN architectures are often proprietary and constitute confidential intellectual property (IP). Our study indicates that SNN architectures implemented using conventional analog neurons are susceptible to side channel attack (SCA). Unlike the conventional SCAs that are aimed to leak private keys from cryptographic implementations, SCANN (SCA̲ of spiking n̲eural n̲etworks) can reveal the sensitive IP implemented within the SNN through the power side channel. We demonstrate eight unique SCANN attacks by taking a common analog neuron (axon hillock neuron) as the test case. We chose this particular model since it is biologically plausible and is hence a good fit for SNNs. Simulation results indicate that different synaptic weights, neurons/layer, neuron membrane thresholds, and neuron capacitor sizes (which are the building blocks of SNN) yield distinct power and spike timing signatures, making them vulnerable to SCA. We show that an adversary can use templates (using foundry-calibrated simulations or fabricating known design parameters in test chips) and analysis to identify the specifications of the implemented SNN.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 18: A Novel FPGA Implementation of the
           NAND-PUF with Minimal Resource Usage and High Reliability

    • Authors: Riccardo Della Sala, Giuseppe Scotti
      First page: 18
      Abstract: In this work we propose a novel implementation on recent Xilinx FPGA platforms of a PUF architecture based on the NAND SR-latch (referred to as NAND-PUF in the following) which achieves an extremely low resource usage with very good overall performance. More specifically, a 4 bit NAND-PUF macro has been designed referring to the Artix-7 platform occupying only 2 slices. The optimum excitation sequence has been determined by analysing the reliability versus the excitation time of the PUF cells under supply voltage variations. A 128 bit NAND-PUF has been tested on 16 FPGA boards under supply voltage and temperature variations and measured performances have been compared against state-of-the-art PUFs from the literature. The comparison has shown that the proposed PUF implementation exhibits the best reliability performance while occupying the minimum FPGA resource usage achieved in the PUF literature.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Algebraic Cryptanalysis with MRHS
           Equations

    • Authors: Pavol Zajac
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In this work, we survey the existing research in the area of algebraic cryptanalysis based on Multiple Right-Hand Sides (MRHS) equations (MRHS cryptanalysis). MRHS equation is a formal inclusion that contains linear combinations of variables on the left-hand side, and a potential set of values for these combinations on the right-hand side. We describe MRHS equation systems in detail, including the evolution of this representation. Then we provide an overview of the methods that can be used to solve MRHS equation systems. Finally, we explore the use of MRHS equation systems in algebraic cryptanalysis and survey existing experimental results.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Protecting Digital Images Using Keys
           Enhanced by 2D Chaotic Logistic Maps

    • Authors: Mua’ad Abu-Faraj, Abeer Al-Hyari, Charlie Obimbo, Khaled Aldebei, Ismail Altaharwa, Ziad Alqadi, Orabe Almanaseer
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This research paper presents a novel digital color image encryption approach that ensures high-level security while remaining simple and efficient. The proposed method utilizes a composite key r and x of 128-bits to create a small in-dimension private key (a chaotic map), which is then resized to match the color matrix dimension. The proposed method is uncomplicated and can be applied to any image without any modification. Image quality, sensitivity analysis, security analysis, correlation analysis, quality analysis, speed analysis, and attack robustness analysis are conducted to prove the efficiency and security aspects of the proposed method. The speed analysis shows that the proposed method improves the performance of image cryptography by minimizing encryption–decryption time and maximizing the throughput of the process of color cryptography. The results demonstrate that the proposed method provides better throughput than existing methods. Overall, this research paper provides a new approach to digital color image encryption that is highly secure, efficient, and applicable to various images.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 21: A Multi-Party Functional Signatures Scheme
           for Private Blockchain

    • Authors: Quan Zhou, Yulong Zheng, Kaijun Wei, Minhui Chen, Zhikang Zeng
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Digital signature technology is essential for ensuring the authenticity and unforgeability of transactions in a private blockchain framework. In some scenarios, transactions require verification from multiple parties, each of whom needs to authenticate different parts of the transaction. To address this issue, researchers have developed multi-party ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) signature schemes. However, these schemes either need to consider the authentication of different parts of the transaction or generate an aggregated signature. This paper proposes a novel solution that combines functional signatures and multi-party ECDSA signatures to create a multi-party functional signature for private blockchains. Compared to previous constructions, the proposed scheme ensures that each part of the transaction is verified. Furthermore, when the aggregate signature of the entire transaction cannot be verified, this scheme identifies the specific part of the transaction for which the signature authentication fails instead of rejecting the entire transaction. This paper uses a smart contract to securely deploy the proposed scheme and authenticate the f in functional signatures. The constructed scheme also provides security under the existential unforgeability of the ECDSA signature, even if n−1 parties are corrupted, assuming a total of n parties. The scheme of this paper successfully conducted experiments on a personal computer, with three users taking approximately 343 ms, six users taking 552 ms, and nine users taking 791 ms.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 22: Anonymous Homomorphic IBE with Application
           to Anonymous Aggregation

    • Authors: Michael Clear, Hitesh Tewari
      First page: 22
      Abstract: All anonymous identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes that are group homomorphic (to the best of our knowledge) require knowledge of the identity to compute the homomorphic operation. This paper is motivated by this open problem, namely to construct an anonymous group-homomorphic IBE scheme that does not sacrifice anonymity to perform homomorphic operations. Note that even when strong assumptions, such as indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), are permitted, no schemes are known. We succeed in solving this open problem by assuming iO and the hardness of the DBDH problem over rings (specifically, ZN2 for RSA modulus N). We then use the existence of such a scheme to construct an IBE scheme with re-randomizable anonymous encryption keys, which we prove to be IND-ID-RCCA secure. Finally, we use our results to construct identity-based anonymous aggregation protocols.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 23: Neural Crypto-Coding Based Approach to
           Enhance the Security of Images over the Untrusted Cloud Environment

    • Authors: Pallavi Kulkarni, Rajashri Khanai, Dattaprasad Torse, Nalini Iyer, Gururaj Bindagi
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The cloud provides on-demand, high-quality services to its users without the burden of managing hardware and software. Though the users benefit from the remote services provided by the cloud, they do not have their personal data in their physical possession. This certainly poses new security threats for personal and confidential data, bringing the focus back on trusting the use of the cloud for sensitive data. The benefits of the cloud outweigh the concerns raised earlier, and with an increase in cloud usage, it becomes more important for security services to evolve in order to address the ever-changing threat landscape. Advanced encryption standard (AES), being one of the most widely used encryption techniques, has inherent disadvantages related to the secret key that is shared, and predictable patterns in subkey generation. In addition, since cloud storage involves data transfer over a wireless channel, it is important to address the effect of noise and multipath propagation on the transmitted data. Catering to this problem, we propose a new approach—the secure and reliable neural cryptcoding (SARNC) technique—which provides a superior algorithm, dealing with better encryption techniques combined with channel coding. A chain is as strong as the weakest link and, in the case of symmetric key encryption, the weakest link is the shared key. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose an approach wherein the key used for cryptographic purposes is different from the key shared between the sender and the receiver. The shared key is used to derive the secret private key, which is generated by the neural key exchange protocol. In addition, the proposed approach emphasizes strengthening the sub-key generation process and integrating advanced encryption standard (AES) with low-density parity check (LDPC) codes to provide end-to-end security and reliability over wireless channels. The proposed technique was tested against research done in related areas. A comparative study shows a significant improvement in PSNR, MSE, and the structural similarity index (SSIM). The key strength analysis was carried out to understand the strength and weaknesses of the keys generated.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 24: LACT+: Practical Post-Quantum Scalable
           Confidential Transactions

    • Authors: Jayamine Alupotha, Xavier Boyen, Matthew McKague
      First page: 24
      Abstract: A “confidential monetary value” carries information about the real monetary value but does not disclose it. Post-quantum private blockchains with confidential monetary values—large-sized blockchains with large verification times—have the least scalability because they need to save and verify more information than those with “plain-text monetary values”. High scalability is an essential security requirement for decentralized blockchain payment systems because the more honest peers who can afford to verify the blockchain copies are, the higher the security. We propose a quantum-safe transaction protocol for confidential monetary blockchains, LACT+ (Lattice-based Aggregable Confidential Transactions), which is more scalable than previous post-quantum confidential blockchains, i.e., many input/output transactions with logarithmic sized complexity.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 25: PudgyTurtle Mode Resists Bit-Flipping
           Attacks

    • Authors: David A. August, Anne C. Smith
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Cryptosystems employing a synchronous binary-additive stream cipher are susceptible to a generic attack called ’bit-flipping’, in which the ciphertext is modified to decrypt into a fraudulent message. While authenticated encryption and message authentication codes can effectively negate this attack, encryption modes can also provide partial protection against bit-flipping. PudgyTurtle is a stream-cipher mode which uses keystream to encode (via an error-correcting code) and to encipher (via modulo-2 addition). Here, we describe the behavior of this mode during bit-flipping attacks and demonstrate how it creates uncertainty about the number, positions, and identities of decrypted bits that will be affected.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Revisiting Multiple Ring Oscillator-Based
           True Random Generators to Achieve Compact Implementations on FPGAs for
           Cryptographic Applications

    • Authors: Luis Parrilla, Antonio García, Encarnación Castillo, Juan Antonio López-Villanueva, Uwe Meyer-Baese
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The generation of random numbers is crucial for practical implementations of cryptographic algorithms. In this sense, hardware security modules (HSMs) include true random number generators (TRNGs) implemented in hardware to achieve good random number generation. In the case of cryptographic algorithms implemented on FPGAs, the hardware implementation of RNGs is limited to the programmable cells in the device. Among the different proposals to obtain sources of entropy and process them to implement TRNGs, those based in ring oscillators (ROs), operating in parallel and combined with XOR gates, present good statistical properties at the cost of high area requirements. In this paper, these TRNGs are revisited, showing a method for area optimization independently of the FPGA technology used. Experimental results show that three ring oscillators requiring only three LUTs are enough to build a TRNG on Artix 7 devices from Xilinx with a throughput of 33.3 Kbps, which passes NIST tests. A throughput of 50 Kbps can be achieved with four ring oscillators, also requiring three LUTs in Artix 7 devices, while 100 Kbps can be achieved using an structure with four ring oscillators requiring seven LUTs.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Blockchain-Based Electronic Voting: A
           Secure and Transparent Solution

    • Authors: Bruno Miguel Batista Pereira, José Manuel Torres, Pedro Miguel Sobral, Rui Silva Moreira, Christophe Pinto de Almeida Soares, Ivo Pereira
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Since its appearance in 2008, blockchain technology has found multiple uses in fields such as banking, supply chain management, and healthcare. One of the most intriguing uses of blockchain is in voting systems, where the technology can overcome the security and transparency concerns that plague traditional voting systems. This paper provides a thorough examination of the implementation of a blockchain-based voting system. The proposed system employs cryptographic methods to protect voters’ privacy and anonymity while ensuring the verifiability and integrity of election results. Digital signatures, homomorphic encryption (He), zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs), and the Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus method underpin the system. A review of the literature on the use of blockchain technology for voting systems supports the analysis and the technical and logistical constraints connected with implementing the suggested system. The study suggests solutions to problems such as managing voter identification and authentication, ensuring accessibility for all voters, and dealing with network latency and scalability. The suggested blockchain-based voting system can provide a safe and transparent platform for casting and counting votes, ensuring election results’ privacy, anonymity, and verifiability. The implementation of blockchain technology can overcome traditional voting systems’ security and transparency shortcomings while also delivering a high level of integrity and traceability.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Flexible and Efficient Multi-Keyword
           Ranked Searchable Attribute-Based Encryption Schemes

    • Authors: Je-Kuan Lin, Wun-Ting Lin, Ja-Ling Wu
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Currently, cloud computing has become increasingly popular and thus, many people and institutions choose to put their data into the cloud instead of local environments. Given the massive amount of data and the fidelity of cloud servers, adequate security protection and efficient retrieval mechanisms for stored data have become critical problems. Attribute-based encryption brings the ability of fine-grained access control and can achieve a direct encrypted data search while being combined with searchable encryption algorithms. However, most existing schemes only support single-keyword or provide no ranking searching results, which could be inflexible and inefficient in satisfying the real world’s actual needs. We propose a flexible multi-keyword ranked searchable attribute-based scheme using search trees to overcome the above-mentioned problems, allowing users to combine their fuzzy searching keywords with AND–OR logic gates. Moreover, our enhanced scheme not only improves its privacy protection but also goes a step further to apply a semantic search to boost the flexibility and the searching experience of users. With the proposed index-table method and the tree-based searching algorithm, we proved the efficiency and security of our schemes through a series of analyses and experiments.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Timing-Attack-Resistant Acceleration of
           NTRU Round 3 Encryption on Resource-Constrained Embedded Systems

    • Authors: Eros Camacho-Ruiz, Macarena C. Martínez-Rodríguez, Santiago Sánchez-Solano, Piedad Brox
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The advent of quantum computing with high processing capabilities will enable brute force attacks in short periods of time, threatening current secure communication channels. To mitigate this situation, post-quantum cryptography (PQC) algorithms have emerged. Among the algorithms evaluated by NIST in the third round of its PQC contest was the NTRU cryptosystem. The main drawback of this algorithm is the enormous amount of time required for the multiplication of polynomials in both the encryption and decryption processes. Therefore, the strategy of speeding up this algorithm using hardware/software co-design techniques where this operation is executed on specific hardware arises. Using these techniques, this work focuses on the acceleration of polynomial multiplication in the encryption process for resource-constrained devices. For this purpose, several hardware multiplications are analyzed following different strategies, taking into account the fact that there are no possible timing information leaks and that the available resources are optimized as much as possible. The designed multiplier is encapsulated as a fully reusable and parametrizable IP module with standard AXI4-Stream interconnection buses, which makes it easy to integrate into embedded systems implemented on programmable devices from different manufacturers. Depending on the resource constraints imposed, accelerations of up to 30–45 times with respect to the software-level multiplication runtime can be achieved using dedicated hardware, with a device occupancy of around 5%.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Secure Firmware Update: Challenges and
           Solutions

    • Authors: Luigi Catuogno, Clemente Galdi
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The pervasiveness of IoT and embedded devices allows the deployment of services that were unthinkable only few years ago. Such devices are typically small, run unattended, possibly on batteries and need to have a low cost of production. As all software systems, this type of devices need to be updated for different reasons, e.g., introducing new features, improving/correcting existing functionalities or fixing security flaws. At the same time, because of their low-complexity, standard software distribution platforms and techniques cannot be used to update the software. In this paper we review the current limitations posed to software distribution systems for embedded/IoT devices, consider challenges that the researchers in this area have been identifying and propose the corresponding solutions.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Inferring Bivariate Polynomials for
           Homomorphic Encryption Application

    • Authors: Diana Maimuţ, George Teşeleanu
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Inspired by the advancements in (fully) homomorphic encryption in recent decades and its practical applications, we conducted a preliminary study on the underlying mathematical structure of the corresponding schemes. Hence, this paper focuses on investigating the challenge of deducing bivariate polynomials constructed using homomorphic operations, namely repetitive additions and multiplications. To begin with, we introduce an approach for solving the previously mentioned problem using Lagrange interpolation for the evaluation of univariate polynomials. This method is well-established for determining univariate polynomials that satisfy a specific set of points. Moreover, we propose a second approach based on modular knapsack resolution algorithms. These algorithms are designed to address optimization problems in which a set of objects with specific weights and values is involved. Finally, we provide recommendations on how to run our algorithms in order to obtain better results in terms of precision.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Research on PoW Protocol Security under
           Optimized Long Delay Attack

    • Authors: Tao Feng, Yufeng Liu
      First page: 32
      Abstract: In the blockchain network, the communication delay between different nodes is a great threat to the distributed ledger consistency of each miner. Blockchain is the core technology of Bitcoin. At present, some research has proven the security of the PoW protocol when the number of delay rounds is small, but in complex asynchronous networks, the research is insufficient on the security of the PoW protocol when the number of delay rounds is large. This paper improves the proposed blockchain main chain record model under the PoW protocol and then proposes the TOD model, which makes the main chain record in the model more close to the actual situation and reduces the errors caused by the establishment of the model in the analysis process. By comparing the differences between the TOD model and the original model, it is verified that the improved model has a higher success rate of attack when the probability of mining the delayable block increases. Then, the long delay attack is improved on the balance attack in this paper, which makes the adversary control part of the computing power and improves the success rate of the adversary attack within a certain limit.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 1: Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in the
           Standard Model under Weaker Assumptions

    • Authors: Janaka Alawatugoda
      First page: 1
      Abstract: A two-party authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol allows each of the two parties to share a common secret key over insecure channels, even in the presence of active adversaries who can actively control and modify the exchanged messages. To capture the malicious behaviors of the adversaries, there have been many efforts to define security models. Amongst them, the extended Canetti–Krawczyk (eCK) security model is considered one of the strongest security models and has been widely adopted. In this paper, we present a simple construction of a pairing-based eCK-secure AKE protocol in the standard model. Our protocol can be instantiated with a suitable signature scheme (i.e., an existentially unforgeable signature scheme against adaptive chosen message attacks). The underlying assumptions of our construction are the decisional bilinear Diffie–Hellman assumption and the existence of a pseudorandom function. Note that the previous eCK-secure protocol constructions either relied on random oracles for their security or used somewhat strong assumptions, such as the existence of strong-pseudorandom functions, target collision-resistant functions, etc., while our protocol construction uses fewer and more-standard assumptions in the standard model. Furthermore, preserving the same security argument, our protocol can be instantiated with any appropriate signature scheme that comes in the future with better efficiency.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010001
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 2: Polar Codes for Module-LWE Public Key
           Encryption: The Case of Kyber

    • Authors: Iason Papadopoulos, Jiabo Wang
      First page: 2
      Abstract: In modern society, the Internet is one of the most used means of communication. Thus, secure information transfer is inevitably of major importance. Computers nowadays use encryption methods based on arithmetic operations to turn messages into ciphertexts that are practically impossible for an attacker to reverse-engineer using a classical computer. Lately, it has been proven that this is possible in a post-quantum setting where quantum computers of considerable size are available to attackers. With the advance of technology of quantum computers, it is now more necessary than ever before to construct encryption schemes that cannot be broken either using a classical or a quantum computer. The National Institute of Technology and Standards (NIST) has orchestrated a competition, and numerous encryption schemes have been proposed. The NIST has identified one algorithm to be standardized for the post-quantum era. This algorithm is called CRYSTALS-Kyber and is based on module learning with errors (MLWE). This paper investigates how to apply error correcting codes in order to create some excess decryption failure rate (DFR) and to take advantage of that in order to re-tune Kyber’s parameters in the pursuit of higher security. By applying Polar Codes, Kyber’s security was managed to be increased by 54.4% under a new set of parameters, while keeping the decryption failure rate well below the upper acceptable bound set by the NIST.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 3: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Cryptography in 2022

    • Authors: Cryptography Editorial Office Cryptography Editorial Office
      First page: 3
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010003
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 4: Early Detection of Clustered Trojan Attacks
           on Integrated Circuits Using Transition Delay Fault Model

    • Authors: Navya Mohan, J. P. Anita
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The chances of detecting a malicious reliability attack induced by an offshore foundry are grim. The hardware Trojans affecting a circuit’s reliability do not tend to alter the circuit layout. These Trojans often manifest as an increased delay in certain parts of the circuit. These delay faults easily escape during the integrated circuits (IC) testing phase, hence are difficult to detect. If additional patterns to detect delay faults are generated during the test pattern generation stage, then reliability attacks can be detected early without any hardware overhead. This paper proposes a novel method to generate patterns that trigger Trojans without altering the circuit model. The generated patterns’ ability to diagnose clustered Trojans are also analyzed. The proposed method uses only single fault simulation to detect clustered Trojans, thereby reducing the computational complexity. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a detection ratio of 99.99% when applied on ISCAS’89, ITC’99 and IWLS’05 benchmark circuits. Experiments on clustered Trojans indicate a 46% and 34% improvement in accuracy and resolution compared to a standard Automatic Test Pattern Generator (ATPG)Tool.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 5: Quantum Secret Aggregation Utilizing a
           Network of Agents

    • Authors: Michael Ampatzis, Theodore Andronikos
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Suppose that the renowned spymaster Alice controls a network of spies who all happen to be deployed in different geographical locations. Let us further assume that all spies have managed to get their hands on a small, albeit incomplete by itself, secret, which actually is just a part of a bigger secret. In this work, we consider the following problem: given the above situation, is it possible for the spies to securely transmit all these partial secrets to the spymaster so that they can be combined together in order to reveal the big secret to Alice' We call this problem, which, to the best of our knowledge, is a novel one for the relevant literature, the quantum secret aggregation problem. We propose a protocol, in the form of a quantum game, that addresses this problem in complete generality. Our protocol relies on the use of maximally entangled GHZ tuples, shared among Alice and all her spies. It is the power of entanglement that makes possible the secure transmission of the small partial secrets from the agents to the spymaster. As an additional bonus, entanglement guarantees the security of the protocol, by making it statistically improbable for the notorious eavesdropper Eve to steal the big secret.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 6: High Throughput PRESENT Cipher Hardware
           Architecture for the Medical IoT Applications

    • Authors: Jamunarani Damodharan, Emalda Roslin Susai Michael, Nasir Shaikh-Husin
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is an intelligent technology applied to various fields like agriculture, healthcare, automation, and defence. Modern medical electronics is also one such field that relies on IoT. Execution time, data security, power, and hardware utilization are the four significant problems that should be addressed in the data communication system between intelligent devices. Due to the risks in the implementation algorithm complexity, certain ciphers are unsuitable for IoT applications. In addition, IoT applications are also implemented on an embedded platform wherein computing resources and memory are limited in number. Here in the research work, a reliable lightweight encryption algorithm with PRESENT has been implemented as a hardware accelerator and optimized for medical IoT-embedded applications. The PRESENT cipher is a reliable, lightweight encryption algorithm in many applications. This paper presents a low latency 32-bit data path of PRESENT cipher architecture that provides high throughput. The proposed hardware architecture has been implemented and tested with XILINX XC7Z030FBG676-2 ZYNQ FPGA board 7000. This work shows an improvement of about 85.54% in throughput with a reasonable trade-off over hardware utilization.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Privacy Preserved Video Summarization of
           Road Traffic Events for IoT Smart Cities

    • Authors: Mehwish Tahir, Yuansong Qiao, Nadia Kanwal, Brian Lee, Mamoona Naveed Asghar
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The purpose of smart surveillance systems for automatic detection of road traffic accidents is to quickly respond to minimize human and financial losses in smart cities. However, along with the self-evident benefits of surveillance applications, privacy protection remains crucial under any circumstances. Hence, to ensure the privacy of sensitive data, European General Data Protection Regulation (EU-GDPR) has come into force. EU-GDPR suggests data minimisation and data protection by design for data collection and storage. Therefore, for a privacy-aware surveillance system, this paper targets the identification of two areas of concern: (1) detection of road traffic events (accidents), and (2) privacy preserved video summarization for the detected events in the surveillance videos. The focus of this research is to categorise the traffic events for summarization of the video content, therefore, a state-of-the-art object detection algorithm, i.e., You Only Look Once (YOLOv5), has been employed. YOLOv5 is trained using a customised synthetic dataset of 600 annotated accident and non-accident video frames. Privacy preservation is achieved in two steps, firstly, a synthetic dataset is used for training and validation purposes, while, testing is performed on real-time data with an accuracy from 55% to 85%. Secondly, the real-time summarized videos (reduced video duration to 42.97% on average) are extracted and stored in an encrypted format to avoid un-trusted access to sensitive event-based data. Fernet, a symmetric encryption algorithm is applied to the summarized videos along with Diffie–Hellman (DH) key exchange algorithm and SHA256 hash algorithm. The encryption key is deleted immediately after the encryption process, and the decryption key is generated at the system of authorised stakeholders, which prevents the key from a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 8: Linear Cryptanalysis of Reduced-Round
           Simeck Using Super Rounds

    • Authors: Reham Almukhlifi, Poorvi L. Vora
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The Simeck family of lightweight block ciphers was proposed by Yang et al. in 2015, which combines the design features of the NSA-designed block ciphers Simon and Speck. Previously, we proposed the use of linear cryptanalysis using super-rounds to increase the efficiency of implementing Matsui’s second algorithm and achieved good results on all variants of Simon. The improved linear attacks result from the observation that, after four rounds of encryption, one bit of the left half of the state of the cipher depends on only 17 key bits (19 key bits for the larger variants of the cipher). We were able to follow a similar approach, in all variants of Simeck, with an improvement in Simeck 32 and Simeck 48 by relaxing the previous constraint of a single active bit, using multiple active bits instead. In this paper we present improved linear attacks against all variants of Simeck: attacks on 19-rounds of Simeck 32/64, 28-rounds of Simeck 48/96, and 34-rounds of Simeck 64/128, often with the direct recovery of the full master key without repeating the attack over multiple rounds. We also verified the results of linear cryptanalysis on 8, 10, and 12 rounds for Simeck 32/64.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Attacking Windows Hello for Business: Is It
           What We Were Promised'

    • Authors: Joseph Haddad, Nikolaos Pitropakis, Christos Chrysoulas, Mouad Lemoudden, William J. Buchanan
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Traditional password authentication methods have raised many issues in the past, including insecure practices, so it comes as no surprise that the evolution of authentication should arrive in the form of password-less solutions. This research aims to explore the problems that password authentication and password policies present and aims to deploy Windows Hello for Business (WHFB) on-premises. This includes creating three virtual machines (VMs) and evaluating WHFB as a password-less solution and showing how an attacker with privileged access may retrieve the end user’s domain password from the computer’s memory using Mimikatz and describing the possible results. The conducted research tests are in the form of two attack methods. This was feasible by the creation of three VMs operating in the following way. The first VM will act as a domain controller (DC) and certificate authority server (CA server). The second VM will act as an Active Directory Federation Service (ADFS). The third VM will act as the end-user device. The test findings research summarized that password-less authentication is far more secure than the traditional authentication method; this is evidenced throughout the author’s tests. Within the first test, it was possible to retrieve the password from an enrolled device for WHFB while it was still in the second phase of the deployment. The second test was a brute-force attack on the PIN of WHFB; since WHFB has measures to prevent such attacks, the attack was unsuccessful. However, even though the retrieval of the password was successful, there are several obstacles to achieving this outcome. It was concluded that many organizations still use password authentication as their primary authentication method for accessing devices and applications. Larger organizations such as Microsoft and Google support the adoption of password-less authentication for end-users, and the current usage of password-less authentication shared by both organizations is encouraged. This usually leads organizations to adopt this new solution for their IT infrastructure. This is because it has been used and tested by millions of people and has proven to be safe. This supports the findings of increased usage and the need for password-less authentication by today’s users.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 10: Selection Strategy of F4-Style Algorithm
           to Solve MQ Problems Related to MPKC

    • Authors: Takashi Kurokawa, Takuma Ito, Naoyuki Shinohara, Akihiro Yamamura, Shigenori Uchiyama
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Multivariate public-key cryptosystems are potential candidates for post-quantum cryptography. The security of multivariate public-key cryptosystems relies on the hardness of solving a system of multivariate quadratic polynomial equations. Faugère’s F4 algorithm is one of the solution techniques based on the theory of Gröbner bases and selects critical pairs to compose the Macaulay matrix. Reducing the matrix size is essential. Previous research has not fully examined how many critical pairs it takes to reduce to zero when echelonizing the Macaulay matrix in rows. Ito et al. (2021) proposed a new critical-pair selection strategy for solving multivariate quadratic problems associated with encryption schemes. Instead, this paper extends their selection strategy for solving the problems associated with digital signature schemes. Using the OpenF4 library, we compare the software performance between the integrated F4-style algorithm of the proposed methods and the original F4-style algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can reduce the processing time of the F4-style algorithm by up to a factor of about seven under certain specific parameters. Moreover, we compute the minimum number of critical pairs to reduce to zero and propose their extrapolation outside our experimental scope for further research.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Data Sharing Privacy Metrics Model Based
           on Information Entropy and Group Privacy Preference

    • Authors: Yihong Guo, Jinxin Zuo, Ziyu Guo, Jiahao Qi, Yueming Lu
      First page: 11
      Abstract: With the development of the mobile internet, service providers obtain data and resources through a large number of terminal user devices. They use private data for business empowerment, which improves the user experience while causing users’ privacy disclosure. Current research ignores the impact of disclosing user non-sensitive attributes under a single scenario of data sharing and lacks consideration of users’ privacy preferences. This paper constructs a data-sharing privacy metrics model based on information entropy and group privacy preferences. Use information theory to model the correlation of the privacy metrics problem, the improved entropy weight algorithm to measure the overall privacy of the data, and the analytic hierarchy process to correct user privacy preferences. Experiments show that this privacy metrics model can better quantify data privacy than conventional methods, provide a reliable evaluation mechanism for privacy security in data sharing and publishing scenarios, and help to enhance data privacy protection.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 12: Dynamic Multimedia Encryption Using a
           Parallel File System Based on Multi-Core Processors

    • Authors: Osama A. Khashan, Nour M. Khafajah, Waleed Alomoush, Mohammad Alshinwan, Sultan Alamri, Samer Atawneh, Mutasem K. Alsmadi
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Securing multimedia data on disk drives is a major concern because of their rapidly increasing volumes over time, as well as the prevalence of security and privacy problems. Existing cryptographic schemes have high computational costs and slow response speeds. They also suffer from limited flexibility and usability from the user side, owing to continuous routine interactions. Dynamic encryption file systems can mitigate the negative effects of conventional encryption applications by automatically handling all encryption operations with minimal user input and a higher security level. However, most state-of-the-art cryptographic file systems do not provide the desired performance because their architectural design does not consider the unique features of multimedia data or the vulnerabilities related to key management and multi-user file sharing. The recent move towards multi-core processor architecture has created an effective solution for reducing the computational cost and maximizing the performance. In this paper, we developed a parallel FUSE-based encryption file system called ParallelFS for storing multimedia files on a disk. The developed file system exploits the parallelism of multi-core processors and implements a hybrid encryption method for symmetric and asymmetric ciphers. Usability is significantly enhanced by performing encryption, decryption, and key management in a manner that is fully dynamic and transparent to users. Experiments show that the developed ParallelFS improves the reading and writing performances of multimedia files by approximately 35% and 22%, respectively, over the schemes using normal sequential encryption processing.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 13: A Decentralized COVID-19 Vaccine Tracking
           System Using Blockchain Technology

    • Authors: Atsuki Koyama, Van Chuong Tran, Manato Fujimoto, Vo Nguyen Quoc Bao, Thi Hong Tran
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines play a crucial role in preventing the spread of the disease. However, the circulation of low-quality and counterfeit vaccines seriously affects human health and the reputation of real vaccine manufacturers (VMs) and increases the amount of fear concerning vaccination. In this study, we address this problem by developing a blockchain-based COVID-19 vaccine tracking system called “Vacchain”. Our Vacchain allows users (USERs) to track and trace the route of vaccines. We propose three mechanisms, namely, a system manager (SYS-MAN), a mutual agreement concerning vaccine ownership, and vaccine passports, to enhance the security and reliability of data recorded in the Vacchain ledger. We develop this system on the Substrate platform with the Rust language. Our implementation, evaluation, and analysis have shown that Vacchain can trace and track vaccines smoothly. In addition, data security and reliability are enhanced by the abovementioned three mechanisms. The proposed system is expected to contribute to preventing the spread of COVID-19.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Models for Generation of Proof Forest in
           zk-SNARK Based Sidechains

    • Authors: Yuri Bespalov, Lyudmila Kovalchuk, Hanna Nelasa, Roman Oliynykov, Rob Viglione
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Sidechains are among the most promising scalability and extended functionality solutions for blockchains. Application of zero knowledge techniques (Latus, Mina) allows for reaching high level security and general throughput, though it brings new challenges on keeping decentralization where significant effort is required for robust computation of zk-proofs. We consider a simultaneous decentralized creation of various zk-proof trees that form proof-trees sequences in sidechains in the model that combines behavior of provers, both deterministic (mutually consistent) or stochastic (independent) and types of proof trees. We define the concept of efficiency of such process, introduce its quantity measure and recommend parameters for tree creation. In deterministic cases, the sequences of published trees are ultimately periodic and ensure the highest possible efficiency (no collisions in proof creation). In stochastic cases, we obtain a universal measure of prover efficiencies given by the explicit formula in one case or calculated by a simulation model in another case. The optimal number of allowed provers’ positions for a step can be set for various sidechain parameters, such as number of provers, number of time steps within one block, etc. Benefits and restrictions for utilization of non-perfect binary proof trees are also explicitly presented.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cryptography, Vol. 7, Pages 15: Cybersecurity Test Bed for Smart Contracts

    • Authors: Casimer DeCusatis, Brian Gormanly, John Iacino, Reed Percelay, Alex Pingue, Justin Valdez
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Blockchain, smart contracts, and related concepts have emerged in recent years as a promising technology for cryptocurrency, NFTs, and other areas. However, there are still many security issues that must be addressed as these technologies evolve. This paper reviews some of the leading social engineering attacks on smart contracts, as well as several vulnerabilities which result from insecure code development. A smart contract test bed is constructed using Solidity and a Metamask wallet to evaluate vulnerabilities such as insecure arithmetic, denial of service, and re-entrancy attacks. Cross-chain vulnerabilities and potential vulnerabilities resulting from layer 2 side-chain processing were also investigated. Mitigation best practices are proposed based on the experimental results.
      Citation: Cryptography
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cryptography7010015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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