Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1648 journals)
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    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SEXUALITY (56 journals)

Showing 1 - 55 of 55 Journals sorted alphabetically
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cadernos de Gênero e Diversidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Transgender Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gender and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychosexual Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mandrágora     Open Access  
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Queer Cats Journal of LGBTQ Studies     Open Access  
Queer Studies in Media & Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Raheema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Screen Bodies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Experience, Perception, and Display     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sexes     Open Access  
Sextant : Revue de recherche interdisciplinaire sur le genre et la sexualité     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access  
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Simone de Beauvoir Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
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Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2411-5118
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 188-221: The Gory Details: Asylum, Sexual Assault,
           and Traumatic Memory

    • Authors: Connie Oxford
      First page: 188
      Abstract: For asylum seekers to be granted asylum, they must convince immigration officials that they have been persecuted or that they fear they will be persecuted if returned to their home country. This article discusses the reluctance of asylum seekers to be forthcoming about sexual assault as a form of persecution and the ways in which traumatic memory can affect narratives of persecution for rape survivors. Many asylum seekers, particularly those who have been sexually assaulted, show symptoms consistent with trauma survivors. Consequently, their narratives of persecution are often shaped by partial and incomplete memory recall. The result is that how asylum seekers who have been sexually assaulted tell their stories of persecution is the antithesis of the expectations of credibility. This article is based on qualitative research in Los Angeles, California, and New York City, New York, in the United States. It includes interviews with asylum seekers, immigration attorneys, immigrant service providers, asylum officers, and immigration judges; observations of immigration court hearings; and content analysis of asylum applications. I use these sources to argue that the harm of rape and its long-lasting effects evidenced by symptoms of traumatic memory impacts how asylum seekers articulate stories of persecution. How these stories are told can have devastating effects for asylum seekers that may jeopardize their ability to gain asylum if immigration officials do not view them as credible applicants.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 222-255: The Lived Experiences of Male Sex Workers: A
           Global Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    • Authors: Michael G. Curtis, Joshua L. Boe
      First page: 222
      Abstract: The sex industry literature predominantly focuses on the lived experiences of cisgender female sex workers, their customers, and work dynamics. Recently, there has been a shift in the discourse regarding sex work as the sex industry has been openly represented within art, fashion, and film. As such, there has been a growing number of qualitative studies dedicated to investigating cisgender men’s experiences of the sex industry. This article seeks to identify and synthesize these emergent findings to identify possible gaps in the literature, aid in defining new research opportunities, and guide public health policy development. Using qualitative meta-synthesis, 66 original studies were identified and analyzed. Nine meta-themes emerged. Findings demonstrated that male sex workers (MSWs) encounter many of the same experiences that have been previously documented by female sex workers, such as work-related discrimination and the influence of economics on their interest and involvement in the industry. However, MSWs also experience areas of privilege and discrimination unique to their lived experiences. This was particularly salient for men who sold sex in countries where sexual minorities are criminalized or decriminalized but not legalized. These findings highlight the need for responsive sex worker resources tailored to address the unique issues faced by MSWs.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 256-268: Survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation
           Involved in the Justice System: Mental Health Outcomes, HIV/STI Risks, and
           Perceived Needs to Exit Exploitation and Facilitate Recovery

    • Authors: Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta, Edina Butler, Kathi Torres, Lianne A. Urada
      First page: 256
      Abstract: This exploratory retrospective study analyzes the emotional and mental processes, risk behavior for HIV/STIs, and needed services to exit commercial sexual exploitation. Participants were court-referred to the local survivor-led program, Freedom from Exploitation, in southern California. Data were collected (N = 168) using an intake assessment form for a period of five years (2015–2020). Two groups were identified in the data, self-identified survivors of sex trafficking (SST) and non-self-identified survivors of sex trafficking (NSST). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined the associations of HIV/STI risks and emotional and mental processes with these two subgroups. Findings demonstrated that both groups experienced gender-based violence and similar emotional and mental processes as well as HIV/STIs risks. However, in adjusted models, the SST group had three times the odds of experiencing abuse by a sex buyer when asked to use a condom and eight times the odds of feeling hopeless or desperate and experiencing nightmares/flashbacks among other negative mental health outcomes. Both SST and NSST said they needed assistance to obtain legal services and complete a high school equivalency credential, among other services. Findings may be used by social service and law enforcement agencies to better assist survivors of sex trafficking and similar groups in supporting their rehabilitation and protection.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 269-284: Experiencing, Negotiating and Challenging
           Stigma in Sex Work: Examining Responses from Brothel-Based and Transient
           Sex Workers in Kolkata, India

    • Authors: Satarupa Dasgupta
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Stigma is felt, constructed, understood and negotiated differently by varied marginalized groups, including diverse groups among commercial sex workers themselves. Brothel-based sex workers in India have more visibility and undergo greater social scrutiny, moral surveillance and stigmatization. For the transient sex workers, invisibility and non-identification as sex workers are strategically used to mitigate stigmatization. The current research conducts semi-structured interviewing of 23 brothel-based and 21 transient sex workers in and around Kolkata in Eastern India. The results delineate the differences between the impact of stigmatization on brothel-based and transient sex workers in India and how these two groups negotiate with and resist stigma in their lives. The current study shows that the impact and extent of stigmatization varied among the sex workers in accordance to their location and status.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4020018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 285-295: Determinants of Information about Sexual
           Health and High-Risk Sexual Behaviour amongst Migrant Youths in
           Johannesburg, South Africa

    • Authors: Nkechi Obisie-Nmehielle, Joshua Akinyemi, Kennedy Machira, Immanuela C. Obisie-Orlu
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Sexual health is essential to the complete well-being of every individual, and provision of all-inclusive and superior-quality information about living a healthful sexual life is necessary for everyone in a community, especially for youths. Using data collected in 2019 from 467 male and female immigrant youths between 18 and 34 years of age who resided in a suburb of the inner city of Johannesburg, this secondary analytical study examined the determining factors of sources of information about sexual health, using condoms inconsistently, and engaging in multiple sexual relationships. Binary logistic regression and negative binomial regression models were employed to understand the relationships between explanatory variables and outcome variables. The determinants of the sources of information about sexual health were gender, educational attainment level, wealth index, and age at first sexual intercourse. Gender, age group, marital status, and migration status were the determining factors for inconsistency of condom use. Gender, migration status, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, and having had sex while drunk were the determinants of engaging in multiple sexual relationships. Avoiding behaviours that expose individuals to sexual risks and the negative consequences of unprotected sexual activity is crucial for youths. This study shows that receiving information about sexual health from informal sources and high-risk sexual behaviour are major public health problems amongst the immigrant youths.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4020019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 26-37: Occupational Health and Safety among Female
           Commercial Sex Workers in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Andrea A. Antwi, Michael W. Ross, Christine Markham
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The topic of occupational health and safety (OHS) has been investigated for many years and continues to be a concept often researched today. Generally speaking, OHS research has been centered around food safety, construction safety, transportation safety, fire safety, drug and alcohol testing, health and medical management, and industrial hygiene, to name a few. However, the concept of OHS concerning female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) has rarely been investigated, often neglected, seldom discussed, and is lacking in sound research. Although regarded as the “oldest profession”, commercial sex work (CSW) has consistently been ignored, disregarded, and under-researched due to the illegality and stigmatization of prostitution. This paper reviews occupational safety and health issues faced by FCSWs in Tema and Accra, Ghana, through in-depth interviews, visits to women’s homes, fieldwork, informal conversations, and observations with FCSWs during the summer of May 2012–July 2012. Facets of OHS that emerged among FCSWs included: sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with harassment and violence from police and clients, alcohol and drug use, irregular hospital visits or lack of hospital visits, immigration issues, legal hazards, and working conditions. We argue that CSW be viewed as an occupation in great need of interventions to reduce workplace risks.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 38-39: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Sexes in

    • Authors: Sexes Editorial Office Sexes Editorial Office
      First page: 38
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 40-54: Description of and Relationships among
           Potential Variables Supported for the Diagnosis of Delayed Ejaculation

    • Authors: David L. Rowland, Sean M. McNabney, Lijana G. Teague, Sarah M. Padilla, Katelyn R. Bacys, Krisztina Hevesi
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The lack of empirically based diagnostic criteria for delayed ejaculation (DE) not only undermines confidence in the reported prevalence rates for this sexual dysfunction, but it has also resulted in a lack of validated patient reported outcomes (PROs) for assessing this condition. The current study was designed to describe and evaluate six face-valid variables previously shown to discriminate between men with and without DE for their utility as diagnostic measures for DE. A sample of 1285 men (mean age = 37.8, SD = 12.7) free of erectile problems and premature ejaculation completed an online sexual health survey that included potential questions intended for use in the diagnosis of DE. Questionnaire items included ones reflective of previously proposed diagnostic constructs related to DE: ejaculation timing/latency, ejaculation efficacy/control, and negative effects of DE. Results indicated that five of the six proposed items showed moderate intercorrelations, suggesting that each constituted a distinct (i.e., non-redundant) though relevant criterion related to the diagnosis of DE. Based on the level of interrelatedness, the better items representing each construct were included in commonality analysis to assess their unique contributions to the diagnosis of DE. Perceived lack of ejaculatory efficacy/control contributed the largest portion of the variance to the diagnosis of DE (58%), with bother/distress (an index of the negative effects of DE) contributing the second largest portion (25%), and ejaculation timing/latency contributing only a small portion of the variance (6%) to the diagnosis of DE. The relevance of these findings to developing a patient report outcome (PRO) for diagnosing DE that considers both empirically supported questions/items and an appropriate balance of items regarding the three constructs was discussed.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 55-64: Management of Persistent Erectile Dysfunction
           after COVID-19 Infection: An 18-Month Follow-Up Case Report

    • Authors: Stefano Iuliano, Giuseppe Seminara, Maria Carmela Zagari, Luigi Di Luigi, Antonio Aversa
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019 the new virus has spread all over the world and has become a major health problem also because of the public measures that could affect people’s sexual activity. We report a case of a 35-year-old married male admitted to the andrology outpatient clinic in July 2021 because of sudden onset erectile dysfunction (ED). The diagnostic workup showed no risk factor for ED, normal levels of testosterone, increased levels of endothelial dysfunction markers, such as CRP (C-Reactive Protein) and Endothelin-1, and reduced Vitamin D (VD) levels. Dynamic penile duplex ultrasound (D-PDU) revealed dysfunctional penile arterial flow. The five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) showed a reduction in all domain scores. The patient, initially unresponsive to the high dose oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5is), was treated with vitamin-D and then submitted to LI-SWT (low intensity shockwave treatment), with a progressive clinical benefit at the 12-month follow-up. After 18 months, hormone levels persisted in normal ranges, with a consistent reduction in CRP and Endothelin-1. Additionally, IIEF-5, SF-36 and arterial flow significantly improved over the follow-up period. Thus far, the erectile function was restored and the patient is no more treated with PDE-5i.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 65-79: How Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Teachers
           Experience Physical Education—A Systematic Review of Qualitative

    • Authors: Johannes Müller, Nicola Böhlke
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Research on sexual diversity in physical education (PE) focuses primarily on students and rarely on teachers. Against this background, this study takes a look at teachers and explores the question of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) teachers experience PE. Our study was conceived as a systematic literature review of qualitative studies published between 1990 and 2022. The processual study selection was carried out according to PRISMA. A total of nine studies were identified that met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed and compared the findings of these studies. On an overarching level, our analysis shows that the identified studies predominantly focus on the challenges and problems associated with the sexuality of LGB teachers. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the PE teachers interviewed in the studies perceive and anticipate school as a homophobic context. From the teachers’ perspective, PE is a special subject that they experience as particularly risky due to their sexuality. Against the backdrop of these experiences, many PE teachers use protective strategies, which mainly consist of hiding their own sexuality and ignoring the perceived homophobia. In the end, research implications are discussed, highlighting the need for ongoing research on LGB PE teachers.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 80-93: Intrasexual Competition in Women’s
           Likelihood of Self-Enhancement and Perceptions of Breast Morphology: A
           Hispanic Sample

    • Authors: Ray Garza, Farid Pazhoohi
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Women’s breasts are considered sexually attractive because they may infer a woman’s residual reproductive value. Given that men find women’s breasts attractive, women may compete with other women to enhance their physical attractiveness when primed with an intrasexual competitive cue. The current study investigated women’s intrasexual competition when viewing variations in breast morphology. Women (N = 189) were randomly assigned to a partner threat condition and shown images of women’s breasts that included variations in breast size, ptosis (i.e., sagginess), and intermammary distance (i.e., cleavage). Women were more likely to report an increase in enhancing their appearance, wearing revealing clothing, dieting and exercising, and perceiving the breasts as a sexual threat as a function of larger breast sizes with low ptosis and intermediate distances. The partner threat prime did not play a role in ratings. Interestingly, there was a moderating role for women’s dispositional levels in intrasexual competition. Women with higher levels of intrasexual competition were more likely to enhance their appearance when viewing large breast sizes. The study points to the role that breast morphology indicative of residual reproductive value has on increasing enhancement strategies.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 94-101: Is Japan Pronatalism Justified' Fear of
           Hinoeuma Women and Sex Selection

    • Authors: Shizuko Takahashi, Eisuke Nakazawa
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Japan, having had the longest isolationist policy in the world, is averse to options, such as migration to increase the population. What kinds of pronatalist policies to increase fertility and lower the population’s age are ethical' Two questions can be raised: is it ethical for the government to intercede, and is it ethical for individuals to exercise this choice' In addition to the gradually decreasing birth rate, Japan is faced with the challenge of a possible sharp decline in the birth rate in 5 years. Astrology and superstition have influenced the sex preference of a child in Japan, and in 1966, there was a 26% drop in the birth rate. It was the year of Hinoeuma, occurring at 60-year intervals, and women born that year are believed to have a potentially dangerous ‘headstrong temperament’ and murder their husbands. Abortion rates spiked that year, and many forged the birth date of their child. The next Hinoeuma is in 2026. Although the bioethical debate about pronatalism exists in the literature, there is no literature addressing the question of sex selection in the context of a decreasing population. This paper argues that even if the Japanese government’s current pronatalist approach is ethically warranted, it should not extend to sex selection since it would promote misogyny and stereotypical gender roles.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 102-117: Telling Disabled and Autistic Sexuality
           Stories: Reflecting upon the Current Research Landscape and Possible
           Future Developments

    • Authors: Alex Toft
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Developments in the study of sexuality in the lives of disabled people have been relatively slow, as the spectre of a medicalised model continues to dominate most debates and invalidate any form of sexual identity. The social model of disability has enabled the amplification of voices that have been previously silenced; however, progress has stalled. Within autism studies, however, the rise of neurodiversity studies coupled with intersectionality, has presented an opportunity to explore sexualities in terms of difference rather than deficiency, therefore bypassing deficit models which have dominated any study of non-heterosexual lives. Such deficit models have focussed upon discovering what it is about autism that leads autistic people to think they are non-heterosexual, often resulting in a lack of support for young LGBT+ people as sexuality is dismissed as a result of autism. Reflecting upon findings from my own ongoing work alongside emerging social research, this article explores important developments and potential future directions. This will highlight the progress made and the barriers remaining. Using a sociological approach and a framework inspired by Plummer, which focusses upon the importance of sexual stories, the article will show that much needs to be done. The diversity of goals and multiplicity of stories means that disabled and autistic sexuality stories have not been accepted into the public consciousness.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 118-132: Three Quarks for Hypersexuality Research

    • Authors: Piet Van Tuijl, Peter Verboon, Jacques J. D. M. Van Lankveld
      First page: 118
      Abstract: In some areas of sex research, we note room for methodological improvement of research practices. In particular, in the field of hypersexuality research, where societal norms have been influential, methodological improvement might advance goals of objectivity in research. We propose that hypersexuality research should: firstly, take into account relevant subpopulations; secondly, use Item Response Theory (IRT) to construct item banks for measurement instruments; and, thirdly, measure sexual desire and related important constructs where and how they play out—in daily life, changing from moment to moment. We show that comparing relevant subpopulations can lead to depathologizing normative, but highly frequent, sexual behavior. Using IRT can lead to more precise measurement instruments by assessment of characteristics of individual items. Measuring sexual desire as an inherently fluctuating process in everyday life, and as part of emotion regulation processes, can direct research towards relevant associations other research methods might miss. Bringing into practice our three proposals for improvement can procure a number of advantages. We illustrate these advantages mainly for the field of hypersexuality research, but our suggestions might also be beneficial for sex research in general.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 133-154: Effectiveness of an Unguided Online
           Intervention for Sexual Pleasure in Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot

    • Authors: Michèle Borgmann, Lucca Michelle Brandner, Linda Affolter, Julia Vonesch, Stefanie Gonin-Spahni
      First page: 133
      Abstract: The importance of sexual pleasure as a factor promoting sexual and public health is increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, hardly any theory-based and empirically tested interventions exist for fostering sexual pleasure. Consequently, we developed an unguided online intervention called PleaSure to promote sexual pleasure in women. In a randomized controlled pilot trial with a mixed-method design, we evaluated the effectiveness of PleaSure by comparing the intervention group to a waitlist control group in pre–post measurements over 4 weeks. With 657 participants (Mage = 31.46, SDage = 8.78), we evaluated an index of sexual pleasure and five facets: sensual pleasure, pleasure-related mastery, pleasure-related validation, interaction pleasure, and bonding pleasure. The results show that the online intervention primarily strengthened the intrapersonal domain of sexual pleasure by increasing pleasure-related mastery. Neither the other facets nor the index was significantly influenced by the intervention. Although the effects of the quantitative data are small, the qualitative data support overall positive effects on participants’ sexual experience. We discuss the content of the intervention and the methods used. Our pilot study suggests that sexual pleasure can be promoted but that major improvements are needed to the intervention’s content and design to do so effectively. Therefore, future studies are encouraged to further develop and implement such resource-efficient interventions in clinical and non-clinical samples to better understand the importance of sexual pleasure to sexual health.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 155-166: Understanding the Vicious Cycle:
           Relationships between Nonconsensual Sexting Behaviours and Cyberbullying

    • Authors: Yunhao Hu, Elizabeth Mary Clancy, Bianca Klettke
      First page: 155
      Abstract: With the increased ubiquity of digital technology, sexting behaviours, defined as the online sending, receiving, or disseminating of sexually explicit messages, images, or videos, have become increasingly frequent, particularly among young adults. While prior research found sexting behaviours to be associated with cyberbullying behaviours, the role of consent as part of this association has been largely unexplored. The current study investigates whether the relationship between sexting behaviours and cyberbullying perpetration might be explained by a subset of nonconsensual sexting behaviours, such as engagement in nonconsensual sext dissemination and sext-hassling. A large convenience sample of young Western cisgendered adults (n = 1688, M age = 23.15, SD = 3.23, 52.7% women) completed an anonymous online survey exploring harmful online behaviours (nonconsensual sext dissemination, sext-hassling, cyberbullying victimisation/perpetration). A hierarchical logistic regression was used to analyse predictive relationships between variables. The results showed no significant association between consensual sext-sending and cyberbullying perpetration in young adults. However, nonconsensual sexting behaviours, particularly sext-hassling and nonconsensual sext dissemination, were predictive of cyberbullying perpetration. Finally, cyberbullying victimization appeared to be the most strongly associated factor with cyberbullying perpetration. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts surrounding sexting and cyberbullying perpetration would benefit from a focus on consent and the bidirectional nature of cyberbullying behaviours.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 167-187: Food-Related Behaviours of Female and Male
           Tourists before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Antonia Matalas, Dimitris Panaretos, Milia Tzoutzou, Georgios Lazaridis
      First page: 167
      Abstract: The literature contains scant information on the relationship between tourists’ gender and their attitudes toward food while vacationing. The present study had as its main aim to examine the role of gender in key behaviours concerning tourists’ food choices and eating habits; in addition, our study evaluated the hypothesis that gender interacts with the “pandemic effect” in modifying tourists’ food-related behaviour. By implementing a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive methodology, an online questionnaire was developed based on existing literature. To this end, data derived from 474 female and 370 male tourists visiting Greece in 2019 (before) or in 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) were analysed and evaluated. The results indicate that, compared to men, women were more motivated to taste local food, especially with respect to obtaining cultural experience and excitement, promoting interpersonal relations, and as a result of health concerns. In addition, they dined at facilities at their place of stay, as well as at Greek restaurants and taverns at a higher rate compared to men. Women also reported being more satisfied than men by their food experiences during their trips, and was found that during the pandemic they spent, on average, more on food than before. The study showed that the pandemic affected both genders; however, the most significant of the differences observed relates to the choice of dining facilities, in all likelihood, as a result of women being more sensitive to the risks of COVID-19. Overall, during the pandemic, women appeared more likely than men to adopt behaviours that are in line with the principles of sustainability, such as a positive attitude and motivation to consume foods produced locally in the country. Differences detected between genders can be used by various stakeholders as a benchmark to further improve the food services offered at tourist destinations.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 1-6: Long-Term Effects of a U.S. University Human
           Sexuality Course on Use of Contraception

    • Authors: Courtney E. Sciarro, Shelby L. Mozingo, Elenah B. Rosopa, Bruce M. King
      First page: 1
      Abstract: This study examined long-term effects of taking a university sexuality course on use of contraception. A questionnaire was given to two groups of students: 602 students enrolled in the first week of a comprehensive sexuality course, and 352 students who had completed the course 1–1.5 years earlier. A significantly smaller percentage of former students had used no contraception at last sexual intercourse (p < 0.005). Former students were less likely to have used a dual method, and favored either IUDs, implants, or birth control pills used alone. There was no notable change in the percentage of former students using withdrawal or condoms. Former students showed evidence of better communication about sex with their partners. The effect size for use of contraception was small, but if this result is true of other college sexuality courses, nationwide it translates into thousands of students who may have avoided unintentional pregnancies.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 4, Pages 7-25: Stigmatisation of People with Deviant Sexual
           Interest: A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Kirra Combridge, Michele Lastella
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Pedophilia is a deviant sexual interest subject to more public stigma and punitive attitudes than others. Pedophilia has received a disproportionate amount of scholarly attention in comparison to other deviant sexual interests. To address this, the present study offers a comparison of the public stigma and punitive attitudes associated with pedophilia, fetishism, and hypersexuality. Methods: Recruited in Australia, one-hundred and twelve individuals participated in an anonymous online survey. Stigmatising and punitive attitudes toward pedophilia, fetishism, and hypersexuality were assessed via sub-scales of perceived dangerousness, deviance, intentionality, and punitive attitudes. Results: Participants held harsher punitive attitudes toward people with pedophilia and thought them to be more deviant and dangerous than people with fetishism and hypersexuality. Participants perceived hypersexuality to be more dangerous and deviant than fetishism. No consistent combination of perceived dangerousness, deviance, and intentionality predicted punitive attitudes toward all conditions. Rather, combinations of punitive attitude predictors were unique across conditions. Conclusions: This research articulates the unparalleled public stigma and punitive attitudes faced by people with pedophilia, compared to people with fetishism and hypersexuality. Findings which suggest that public stigma is stronger for hypersexuality than it is for fetishism are relatively novel, as are the observed predictors of punitive attitudes toward each condition. Knowledge produced by this study contributes to an improved conceptualisation of how the public views individuals who experience deviant sexual interests.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 492-507: Examination of Identity Negotiation, Sexual
           Health Behavior, and Healthcare-Seeking Behavior of Transgender Sex
           Workers in India

    • Authors: Satarupa Dasgupta
      First page: 492
      Abstract: The current study, which expects to fill in the gap in research on transgender sex workers in India, examines the sexual identity negotiation, risk perception and condom compliance, sexual health screening and testing behavior, contextual barriers to healthcare seeking, and barriers to community mobilization among this population. The study was conducted in the red-light districts of Kolkata and rural subdivisions of West Bengal, and Eastern India. Transgender sex workers comprise 15% of the sex workers’ populace in India, yet they are an understudied and underserved group in the commercial sex sector. It is anticipated that the study will help to formulate future programmatic interventions that can cater more effectively to the health needs of Indian transgender commercial sex workers, contribute to the HIV/STI risk reduction among this group, and reduce barriers to attaining health.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040036
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 508-514: Quota System in Japanese Politics,
           Healthcare, and Education: Women’s Rights and Equality

    • Authors: Eisuke Nakazawa, Akira Akabayashi
      First page: 508
      Abstract: The World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Index shows the serious nature of Japan’s gender gap. The gender gap with respect to political and economic participation is obvious. The percentage of women in the Diet (the national parliament) is significantly low, and few women hold management positions. Although not shown in the Gender Gap Index, there are hidden gender inequalities in education and health care in Japan. These gender inequalities are largely due to the remnants of Japan’s traditional family culture and customs. In order to empower Japanese women from the confines of the family and community, drastic measures guided by the principles of gender equality, diversity, and inclusion are needed. A quota system is one of the most important strategies to achieve this, and the time has come for Japan to seriously discuss the introduction of a quota system in politics, corporate culture, and university entrance examinations.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040037
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 515-532: How Context Matters: Change and Persistence
           of Homophobic Attitudes among Cameroonian Migrants in Switzerland

    • Authors: Frida Lyonga
      First page: 515
      Abstract: Debates on human rights in recent years have brought to the fore stark fault lines between African countries, where societal intolerance towards homosexuality is prevalent, and Western countries, which hold more tolerant views towards homosexuality. As contention rages around African identity and homosexuality, one interesting question calls for attention: how do the attitudes of Africans towards homosexuality evolve—or not—when they migrate from their home context to a more open society where homosexuality is widely accepted' This study draws on Herek’s ‘attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale’ (ATLG) to investigate homophobia among Cameroonians at home compared to Cameroonian migrants in Switzerland and uses in-depth interviews to understand the reasons for any change in or persistence of attitudes. Survey data shows that Cameroonian migrants in Switzerland portray significantly less homophobia compared to Cameroonians living at home. Qualitative analysis identified four factors that contributed to change in attitudes among Cameroonian migrants: (i) experiencing racial prejudice and xenophobia prompted self-reflection about their own prejudices towards others; (ii) witnessing, first-hand, the huge infrastructure and development gap between their host and home country exposed anti-homosexuality politics back home as a needless distraction from actual development priorities; (iii) greater opportunities to meet and interact with gay people in the host country challenged long-held home-grown stereotypes about homosexuality; and (iv) non-discrimination standards and codes of conduct in the workplace in the host country encouraged conformity and shifts towards greater tolerance.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040038
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 533-545: Gut Microsex/Genderome, Immunity and the
           Stress Response in the Sexes: An Updated Review

    • Authors: Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, George P. Chrousos
      First page: 533
      Abstract: Sex has been universally acknowledged as a confounding factor in every type of biological study, while there are strong sex differences in morbidity along the lifespan. Humans have almost identical genomes (99.2%), yet minor variance in their DNA produces remarkable phenotypic diversity across the human population. On the other hand, metagenomic analysis of the human microbiome is more variable, depending on the sex, lifestyle, geography, and age of individuals under study. Immune responses in humans also exhibit variations, with an especially striking sexual dimorphism, which is at play in several other physiologic processes. Sex steroids have noticeable effects on the composition of the human microbiome along the lifespan, accompanied by parallel changes in immunity and the stress response. Gut microsex/genderome, a recently coined term, defines the sexually dimorphic gut microbiome. Apart from the sex steroids, the stress hormones are also at play in the proliferation of microbes. This review summarizes the concept of gut microsex/genderome under the prism of recent studies on the interrelations of the sexually dimorphic microbiome with immunity and stress.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040039
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 546-563: A Multi-Methodological Exploration of
           Persecution Experiences and Related Injuries of Sexually Minoritized
           Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya

    • Authors: Lourence Misedah-Robinson, Vanessa Schick, Sheryl A. McCurdy, Johnny Michael Wilkerson, Solomon Wambua, Michael W. Ross
      First page: 546
      Abstract: Introduction: Sexually minoritized men in the East, Horn, and Central Africa continue to flee from their countries, because of actual or feared persecution, to neighboring Kenya to seek protection and safety. However, there is limited research on their experiences and needs. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the persecution experiences of gay and bisexual asylum seekers and refugees in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area. Methods: We adapted McAdam’s Life-Story Interview (LSI) to develop a semi-structured interview guide. We used the interview guide to conduct one-time anonymous in-depth interviews with 19 gay and bisexual men recruited by purposive sampling. The study also included a photovoice component and written reflections. We transcribed the interviews verbatim, uploaded them to NVivo 12 plus, and analyzed the data using Braun and Clarke’s six-step thematic analysis framework. Results: The mean age of the participants was 26, with the largest age group being 18–24 (n = 9, 47%). We found six major themes: (1) The Anti-Homosexuality Act, (2) death punishment, (3) physical abuse, (4) sexual violence, (5) discrimination, and (6) injuries. Conclusions: Continued multi-layered discrimination across borders may have adverse physical health outcomes for gay and bisexual asylum seekers and refugees in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area. Further collaborative strategies may help to understand and develop culturally sensitive interventions to improve their health and well-being.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040040
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 564-577: Catholic Arguments against Homosexual Acts
           and Relationships: Emotional Revulsion or Rational Argument'

    • Authors: Michael G. Lawler, Todd A. Salzman
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Most men engaging in homosexual sex have been socially construed as pariahs for much of human history, and women engaging in such sex in the modern age are subject to similar social disapproval. Same-sex marriage has, therefore, been similarly disapproved, and there are several arguments offered in objection to it. The thesis of this essay is that those arguments are not rationally probative and that they are, in fact, cloaks to hide the emotion of revulsion toward homosexual sex. We consider that emotion of revulsion, neuroscientific data related to it, and the arguments of the Catholic Church against homosexual acts, and conclude that those arguments arise, at least in part, from that emotion of revulsion and are not rationally probative.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040041
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 578-592: Does Pornography Misinform Consumers' The
           Association between Pornography Use and Porn-Congruent Sexual Health

    • Authors: Dan J. Miller, Rory Stubbings-Laverty
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Pornography may contribute to sexual health illiteracy due to its often fantastical and unrealistic depictions of sex. This cross-sectional study investigated whether pornography use was associated with holding porn-congruent sexual health beliefs among a sample of 276 Australian and Singaporean university students (Mage = 23.03, SDage = 7.06, 67.9% female, 47.8% Australian). The majority of participants (95.5% of males and 58.9% of females) reported viewing pornography in the past six months. Perceived realism of pornography and prior sexual experience were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between pornography use frequency and sexual health beliefs. Pornography use frequency showed no zero-order association with sexual health beliefs in the overall sample (although a significant zero-order association was observed among female participants). However, a significant positive association between porn use and porn-congruent sexual health beliefs was found in the overall sample, after controlling for demographic variables. Neither perceived realism nor sexual experience were found to act as moderators. Interestingly, prior sexual experience showed a significant zero-order association with sexual health beliefs, such that prior sexual experience was associated with holding porn-congruent beliefs. Perceived realism was unrelated to porn-congruent sexual health beliefs. The study provides some preliminary support for pornography having a misinformation effect on the sexual health knowledge of consumers.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040042
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 593-607: The Rules of Attraction: An Empirical
           Critique of Pseudoscientific Theories about Sex in the Manosphere

    • Authors: Maddalena Cannito, Raffaella Ferrero Camoletto
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Academic research is dedicating growing attention to the phenomenon known as the manosphere, where genders and (hetero)sexual relations are explained according to the so-called Red Pill philosophy and LMS theory. In this article, we critically analyze these theories and their pseudoscientific assumptions using a Bourdieusian framework, and we analyze the empirical effects they have in the Incel and Red Pill Italian communities through the example of the “Aranzulla case”. By exploring the “Redpiller” blog and two Incel forums (“Forum of the uglies” and “Forum of the Incel”), we found that, on one hand, the Red Pill and LMS theories are strongly contradictory in themselves because, even if they combine socio-economic and biological theories to explain sexual relations, they assume a fixed vision of gender based on (supposedly) natural inclinations. On the other hand, our results show that these theories promote misogynistic content blaming women for men’s unsatisfaction, but they actually unveil intragender dynamics. Indeed, they produce tensions inside the manosphere, by creating hierarchies of masculinities, and around the possibility of escaping the biological destiny linked to the Incel condition.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3040043
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 325-335: The Health and Healthcare Outcomes of Trans
           and/or Non-Binary Adults in England: Protocol for an Analysis of Responses
           to the 2021 GP Patient Survey

    • Authors: Catherine L. Saunders, Jenny Lund, Amy M. Mason, Meg Roberts, Jack Smith, Robbie Duschinsky
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Background: The large-scale quantitative evidence base to understand and improve health and healthcare outcomes for people who are trans and/or non-binary is still developing, although what research there is suggests that risk of poor health is high, and experiences of healthcare services are often poor. In 2021 the GP Patient Survey, which is carried out annually to measure patient experience in primary care in England, added inclusive questions about gender identity and trans status for the first time. Methods: This protocol paper pre-registers the methods that we will use for this work for a secondary analysis of these data, including both the statistical analysis protocol and early patient and public involvement work, to answer the following three research questions: (1) What are the (a) demographic characteristics, (b) health conditions, and (c) healthcare experiences of trans and/or non-binary adults in England' (2) Was there any difference in whether people who are trans and/or non-binary had been asked to shield during the COVID-19 pandemic or not compared with all other survey responders' (3) Does the relationship between being trans and/or non-binary, and self-reported long-term mental health problems, autism and autistic spectrum disorder and learning disability vary by age, gender, ethnicity, deprivation, sexual orientation or region'
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 336-350: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance of
           the Sexually Aggressive Behaviors Scale across Male and Female Portuguese
           College Students

    • Authors: Bárbara Moreira, Pedro J. Rosa, Nélio Brazão, Joana Carvalho
      First page: 336
      Abstract: There is growing interest on the topic of Sexual Violence (SV) perpetrated by community samples; movements, as the Me Too, have triggered such focus. Researching the validity of core SV measures is now fundamental. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the structure of the Portuguese version of the Sexually Aggressive Behaviors Scale (SABS-PT) while testing for measurement invariance across gender. The SABS-PT was tested among a sample of 2540 Portuguese college students (48.5% males and 51.5% females). All participants identified as heterosexual, and their ages ranged between 18 and 39 years old. To assess the construct validity and test for measurement invariance across gender, single and multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses were performed. Results support the internal consistency and convergent/discriminant validity of the SABS-PT in relation to external variables. Overall, the findings suggest a good fit of data to the model. The partial scalar invariance of the measurement was obtained and further analyses on latent means differences indicated that men scored higher on SV compared to women. The SABS-PT may constitute a useful instrument for screening sexual initiation by aggressive means and associated risk factors and may play an important role as an outcome measure in programs preventing sexual violence.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 351-366: Health Behaviors and Behavior Change during
           Pregnancy: Theory-Based Investigation of Predictors and Interrelations

    • Authors: Nathalie Herzog-Petropaki, Christina Derksen, Sonia Lippke
      First page: 351
      Abstract: (1) Background: Preventing pregnancy complications and maternal deaths and helping women stay healthy before, during, and after pregnancy by means of sexual health and behavior is imperative. Previous research demonstrated that a lack of social support and perceived discrimination have adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. These determinants may impact health behavior as an important mediator of pregnancy outcomes. To better understand this relation, the Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) was applied. The research question was: how do predictors of health behavior, specifically intention, planning, self-efficacy, social support, and discrimination, interrelate with different health behaviors during pregnancy' (2) Methods: By means of qualitative interviews with ten pregnant women (20–39 years, mean = 28.6) from different cultural backgrounds, the predictors of health behaviors and experiences with pregnancy, including racial discrimination, were investigated. (3) Results: Not all women changed their unhealthy behaviors even though their higher-level goal was to ensure their baby’s and their own health. This appeared partially due to lack of social support, racial discrimination, and unexpected pregnancy side effects. The women who previously performed health behaviors revealed a healthier pattern with maintaining or even expanding their health behaviors, while those performing no health behavior in the past reported more obstacles with a healthy lifestyle. (4) Conclusions: Pregnant women appear to be having difficulties translating good intentions into behavior. The reasons include lack of support, fear, and insecurity, which impact self-efficacy and planning. Improvements in health behaviors were facilitated by specific circumstances, such as working from home. Policy and practice should take these aspects into account and help mobilize support and overcome discrimination by means of more rights and support for pregnant women while also empowering the individuals.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 367-384: Trauma Chronicity and the Long-Term Needs of
           Childhood Sexual Trauma Survivors

    • Authors: Ashley C. Schuyler, Joseph A. Catania
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Research has linked childhood sexual trauma (CST) with adverse adult outcomes (AAOs) that span physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Differences in conceptualizing and measuring CST, however, have inhibited the examination of trauma-related variables hypothesized to impact adult outcomes. We used National Sexual Health Survey (NSHS; 1995–1996) data to examine trauma chronicity (i.e., duration) and AAOs (domains: physical and mental health, close relationships, and achievement). The NSHS (N = 6537, 18–70 years) assessed duration using perpetrator-specific CST reports. Adjusting for background characteristics, we examined CST duration in relation to AAOs and CST-related help-seeking. Approximately 8% of participants reported CST. Chronic (vs. single-exposure) CST survivors were at substantially higher risk of experiencing AAOs [i.e., mean AAOs and specific AAOs (e.g., physical and emotional health problems, divorce/separation, and poverty)]. CST had direct effects on sexual dysfunction and satisfaction, and on relationship stressors which may impact sexual relationship quality. Although 62% of CST survivors did not seek help, those with more chronic CST histories reported a higher prevalence of trauma-related help-seeking. Our work underscores the importance of examining CST chronicity in relation to long-term developmental outcomes. Chronicity assessment may be an important screening tool in the therapeutic context and in broader community screening efforts.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 385-395: Cultural Safety for LGBTQIA+ People: A
           Narrative Review and Implications for Health Care in Malaysia

    • Authors: Kyle K. H. Tan, Sai Ang Ling
      First page: 385
      Abstract: LGBTQIA+ people in Malaysia constitute a marginalised population as they are subjected to cisheterosexism that permeates every layer of society. Cisheterosexist ideologies in Malaysia find their eligibility on secular and religious laws that criminalise LGBTQIA+ identities, which have detrimental consequences on LGBTQIA+ people’s mental health and their ability to access equitable health care. Existing literature has revealed limitations for healthcare providers to employ a blinded approach (i.e., treat everyone the same) and practise culturally competency when seeing LGBTQIA+ patients. In this narrative review, we compiled international evidence of culturally safe care for LGBTQIA+ people and outlined its relevance to interrogating power relationships within healthcare practices and structures. Our reviewed findings brought together five components of culturally safe care for LGBTQIA+ people: power-enhancing care; inclusive healthcare institutions; continuous education and research; promotion of visibility; and individualised care. These components set crucial milestones for healthcare providers to reflect on ways to equalise power dynamics in a provider–patient relationship. The applicability and implication of culturally safe healthcare in Malaysia are succinctly discussed.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 396-412: The Consequences of Gender Inequality on
           Latin America’s Economic Growth: Macroeconomic Evidence

    • Authors: Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Matheus Belucio, Emad Kazemzadeh, Yormy Eliana Melo Poveda, Nooshin Karimi Alavijeh, Renato Santiago
      First page: 396
      Abstract: This research analysed the effect of gender inequality on the economic growth of seventeen countries in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region from 1990 to 2016 using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model with fixed effects and a quantiles via moments model. Electricity consumption from new renewable energy sources, general government capital stock, private capital stock, trade openness, and urban population were used as control variables, and a battery of preliminary and post-estimation tests were conducted to guarantee the adequacy and suitability of both methodologies. The OLS model with fixed effects supports that gender inequality negatively affects gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The quantiles via moments (QvM) model confirms the results of the OLS model with fixed effects and reveals that with increasing quantiles (25th, 50th, and 75th), gender inequality leads to decreases in LAC countries’ growth. LAC countries’ policymakers and institutions should improve gender equality to reach a higher development level and a more prosperous society. Developing policies that contribute to increasing women’s participation in the labour market, reducing the gender pay gap, supporting women’s education and training, constructing a more women-friendly and less patriarchal society, and developing measures to limit violence against women and early pregnancy and maternal mortality rates and increase women’s decision-making positions, particularly in public policy decision making, must be implemented.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 413-433: Perceptions and Experiences of
           Pakistani-Descent Female Adolescents Living in Canada, on Developing
           Sexuality and Self-Identity

    • Authors: Neelam Saleem Punjani, Kathleen Hegadoren, Saima Hirani, Zubia Mumtaz, Margot Jackson, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou
      First page: 413
      Abstract: Immigrant adolescents make up a substantial proportion of newcomers to Canada. Most newcomer youth from South Asia aged 15 to 24 are from racialized “visible minority” backgrounds. The sexual health needs of female immigrant adolescents in Canada have been largely unmet and have increased in magnitude over the last few years. For immigrant female adolescents, the silence around issues of sexuality needs can affect their physical, emotional, sexual health, and overall well-being as well as their ability to reach their full potential. Evidence suggests that immigrant adolescents lack sexual and reproductive health knowledge and use fewer sexual health-related services and sex education resources than non-immigrant youth. In Pakistani immigrant adolescents, this difference appears to be associated with socio-cultural and religious practices. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the experience of developing sexuality and its relationship to well-being in middle- to late-female adolescents of Pakistani-descent, living in a large urban area in Canada. The study aimed to establish space for dialogue and to bridge the perceived cultural divide on issues of sexuality using the postmodern feminist lens, which often arises between individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Using the interpretive descriptive methodology, a purposive sample of 21 female adolescents who were of first- or second-generation Pakistan-descent was obtained. Participants included female adolescents aged from 14 to 19 years. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide and a timeline. A total of 21 first interviews and seven follow up interviews were conducted. The narratives and timelines presented in this study tell the story of female Pakistani adolescents, their narratives, and the timelines reflect the complexities of the sexuality of female adolescents and how they perceive and attribute meanings to their experiences. The study found that living in a bicultural world can cause significant stress and anxiety among female adolescents, especially when making personal life decisions related to sexuality. Moreover, silence around all aspects of female sexuality negatively affects the capacity for desire and pleasure. In addition, the intersection of gender and patriarchy have created layers of power and oppression in adolescent lives that tightly control their sexuality. The participants’ stories reveal the complex interaction of factors that influence the behavior of female adolescents related to sexuality and sexual health. These findings establish the need for cultural awareness while viewing each girl’s experience in relation to the intersectionality of social spheres such as race, ethnicity, culture, and religion. Finally, this study provides implications to policymakers to revise the existing policies and create youth-friendly policies for immigrant youth to draw attention to the hidden voices of female adolescents and increase the awareness of ways to address issues arising in evolving sexuality.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 434-444: Ownership, Enjoyment, Arousal Troubles, and
           Robust Education: Pleasure in LGBTQ+ Alt-Sex Members’ Responses to
           Consent Violations

    • Authors: Jessamyn Bowling, Susan Wright, Casey Mesaeh, J. Kevin Benson, Russell Stambaugh
      First page: 434
      Abstract: Background: Alt-sex practitioners are a diverse group with diverse unconventional sexual behaviors including consensual non-monogamy (CNM), kink, fetishism, and bondage/discipline dominance/submission, sadomasochism (BDSM). Perhaps because of their openness to non-normative sexuality, these communities often comprise a large proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, among others (LGBTQ+) individuals. LGBTQ+ individuals experience higher rates of sexual violence and consent violation than their cisgender, heterosexual peers both inside and outside of formalized alt-sex communities. Pleasure, including but not limited to sexual pleasure, is often a motivator for engaging in sexual and alt-sex activities. This study examines how consent violations influence pleasure among LGBTQ+ alt-sex members. Methods: We conducted an electronic one-time survey of LGBTQ+ alt-sex practitioners (N = 1354). In this study, we analyze open-ended responses for ways pleasure was described in response to questions about consent violations. We use thematic analyses in Dedoose online software. Results: Two subthemes emerged related to the violation itself, (a) pleasure as a motivator for violating consent and (b) pleasure in spite of consent violation. As the second theme that emerged, pleasure was a component of the aftereffects of the violation in two ways: (1) pleasure was reduced or inhibited by consent violations; (2) pleasure was a motivator for healing and advocacy. Conclusions: We discuss practical and research implications based on the complex relationships between violations and pleasure reported by participants.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 445-462: Sexualization and Dehumanization of Women by
           Social Media Users in Namibia

    • Authors: Bruno Venditto, Beatha Set, Rachel Ndinelao Amaambo
      First page: 445
      Abstract: The advancements in current sources of information and technology have resulted in our ‘real lives’ becoming inundated with and entangled with new media and ‘virtual’ environments. Social media promotes freedom of expression, and remains a largely unregulated interactive space, despite the various monitoring mechanisms introduced by social platform hosts and owners to control hate speech and other forms of abuse. It is becoming increasingly evident that the protection of anonymity on social media platforms promotes the proliferation of new forms of misogyny and offensive language directed towards women and individuals belonging to marginalised groups. This proliferation of online misogynistic hate speech ultimately exhibits oppressing mechanisms that aim to disempower, dehumanise and perpetuate gender-based violence against women. This paper discusses the results of exploring the use of dehumanising and abusive language expressed online, that targets prominent Namibian women in politics and business. The feminist theory, especially sexualization and objectification framework was employed to conceptually analyse depictions of dehumanisation of women in Namibia. Narratives from social media, such as Facebook and Twitter of public figures of Namibian women, were presented to justify cases of insulting and derogatory language. They expose the implications of sexualisation and dehumanisation of women’s human rights and freedom to participate actively in both public and social media spaces, and its potential to perpetuate gender-based violence in Namibia. The paper argues that contemporary social media has failed to create a conducive environment for critical and meaningful participation, which is free from sexualization, genderisation and dehumanisation, providing recommendations for the Namibian environment.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 463-476: Women Selling Sex in Russia: Analyzing
           Women’s Appraisal of Exploitation and Mistreatment Using Cognitive
           Dissonance and Cultural Sex Script Frameworks

    • Authors: Varvara Gulina, Lianne A. Urada, Veronika Odinokova, Maia Rusakova
      First page: 463
      Abstract: Globally, over a third of women have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. In Russia, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, and physical abuse of women are amongst the world’s highest. Applying cognitive dissonance theory and sexual script theory, this study explores whether women (n = 654) trading sex in Russia appraise their experiences of entering the commercial sex trade as voluntary or forced. Contributing client factors were also analyzed, including beatings (66%), rape (66%), and humiliation (86%) by clients. Multiple logistic regression assessed whether women who reported voluntarily entering the commercial sex trade were more likely to experience physical abuse but less likely to experience rape (AOR:1.37); were more likely to perceive men using them as decent/caring (AOR = 2.54); were more likely to sell sadistic/masochistic services (AOR: 2.31); and less likely to stop selling sex (AOR: 5.84). Implications of this study reveal the importance of intervention strategies that account for a woman’s unawareness of her own exploitation and mistreatment as well as the psychological barriers that prevent her from seeking help. The necessity of recognizing women selling sex as sufferers of coercion and abuse is also emphasized.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 477-491: University Students’ Sexual Identity
           Development as a Determinant of Sexual Self-Hood

    • Authors: B. J. Rye, Steven Hertz
      First page: 477
      Abstract: Sexual identity development was explored as a predictor of sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia using a student sample. Sexual identity development was operationalized using Worthington et al.’s Measure of Sexual Identity Development, which is theoretically based on Marcia’s identity model. Based on Worthington et al.’s scale, there are four sexual identity development domains: commitment to one’s sexual identity, exploration of one’s sexual identity, sexual orientation uncertainty, and synthesis/integration of one’s sexual identity. Several of Snell’s Sexual Self-Concept scales (e.g., sexual depression, sexual self-efficacy) and Tromovitch’s Comfort with Sexuality scales (e.g., comfort talking about sexuality, comfort with the sexual activities of others) were used to define sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia, respectively. A sample of students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a Canadian university completed these instruments. Results suggest that sexual identity development was strongly predictive of sexual self-concept scales, multivariately. Sexual identity development was also predictive of comfort with sexuality. Sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia were also related to each other. These relationships supported the idea that a positive sexual identity development process contributes to a favorable view of the sexual self. However, the study was cross-sectional and correlational, so conclusions about directionality are preliminary and causality cannot be inferred.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3030035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 229-243: Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function
           in Individuals with and without Sexual Partners

    • Authors: Sijia Huang, Caoyuan Niu, Pekka Santtila
      First page: 229
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between masturbation frequency and sexual dysfunction among men and women, focusing on individuals with and without regular sexual partners, and to determine whether sexual compatibility (e.g., similar sexual desire levels and a match between desired behaviors and behaviors one’s partner is willing to engage in) in the relationship affects masturbation frequency. Here, 12,271 Finnish men and women completed an online survey about masturbation frequency, sexual function, and sexual compatibility with their partner for those who were in a relationship. The results indicated that masturbation frequency was positively associated with overall sexual function for women. This was moderated by relationship status, meaning that more frequent masturbation was associated with better orgasmic function and sexual satisfaction in single women, whereas the opposite was true for women who were in a relationship. For men, more frequent masturbation was associated with better erectile function for single men, and better ejaculatory latency but worse orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and more symptoms of delayed ejaculation for men who were in a relationship. Lower sexual compatibility and sexual dysfunctions in the partner were associated with more frequent masturbation in both sexes. The associations between masturbation frequency and sexual function vary for single and partnered individuals, and are, for the latter group, further affected by sexual compatibility.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 244-253: The Midwifery Student’s Observations
           about the Implementation of International Guidelines and Protocols in
           Greek Maternity Hospitals

    • Authors: Eirini Orovou, Marinela Ymeraj, Marsida Lilo, Evangelia Antoniou
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Background: Childbirth is a unique experience ina woman’s life and always remains indelibly engraved in her memory. For this reason, it is necessary to ensure appropriate conditions to have a positive birth experience. Thus, guidelines and protocols have been developed by major international organizations that aim to promote normal labor and better care for the mother and fetus without unnecessary interventions. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the international guidelines and protocols are observed in Greek maternity hospitals. Methods: The study involved 124 male and female students from the three departments of Midwifery: University of West Attica, International Hellenic University and University Western Macedonia, which completed an equal number of self-report questionnaires with their socio-demographic data and were then asked to answer questions posed by instructions for normal childbirth. Results: It was observed that many of the guidelines are not followed, such as grooming and enema, prohibition of feeding and fluid intake, application of pressure on the bottom of the uterus, frequent vaginal examination, prohibition in the presence of sessions, continuous cardiotocographic follow-up in low-risk pregnancies, termination of delivery only in a supine gynecological position, routine perineotomy and immediate ligation of the umbilical cord. Conclusions: The purpose of the guidelines is to maintain the natural course of childbirth by avoiding a series of unnecessary acts that alter the naturalness and undermine the rights of women in childbirth.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 254-266: Casual Sex and Sexlessness in Japan: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Shoko Konishi, Yoshie Moriki, Fumiko Kariya, Manabu Akagawa
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Low fertility has persisted in Japan for decades. Sexless marriages may indirectly contribute to low fertility. Inactive sexual lives within intimate and committed relationships may be linked to sexual activity outside such relationships, called “casual sex”. This study aimed to explore the correlates of casual sex and sexlessness. A web-based questionnaire survey was conducted among married and single men (n = 4000) aged 20–54 years in Japan. Sexlessness were reported by 56% of men, whereas 11% had had casual sex and 31% had had non-casual sex (with spouse, fiancé, or girlfriends/boyfriends) in the last month. Among married men, higher income and long working hours were positively associated with casual sex. Regarding never-married men: those with lower educational status and without full-time jobs were more likely to report casual sex, those in rural areas were more likely to be sexless than those in urban and suburban areas, and those with depression were more likely to be sexless than those without depression. Matching app use was strongly associated with casual sex among married and never-married men, suggesting that such tools may facilitate sexual activity outside committed and intimate relationships. Sexual behavior is closely linked to one’s social and economic environment and health status.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 267-281: Factors Influencing Sexual Health Service
           Use by South Asian Immigrant Men Living in Ontario, Canada: A Qualitative

    • Authors: Yamin Tauseef Jahangir, Elena Neiterman, Craig R. Janes, Samantha B. Meyer
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Introduction: South Asian communities comprise one of the fastest-growing populations in Canada, but there is a paucity of research on if and how immigrant men use sexual health services. Objectives: Our study aimed to understand factors influencing sexual health service use by South Asian immigrant men living in Ontario, Canada. Methods: An interpretive description (ID) research methodology was used, followed by Braun and Clarke’s thematic guidelines to collect and analyze data. Altogether, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted between May and July 2021 with South Asian immigrant men between 20 and 45 years of age in Ontario. Results: We found that culture shaped the overall perception and use of sexual health services, while the perceived severity of sexual illness also affected the utilization of preventative care. Moreover, there are taboos about sexual health, and while sex positivity and sex negativity exist, sexual health information is shared with trusted sources. We also found South Asian men shared sexual health more openly by following a lifestyle that normalizes sexual health discussions rather than South Asian cultural norms. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the individual, structural and cultural determinants of health influencing sexual health service use to strengthen existing health communication strategies to improve service utilization for diverse communities in Canada.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 282-297: Adolescence and Postpartum: Two Life Periods
           to Deepen Our Understanding of the Complexity of Female Rat Sexual

    • Authors: Daniella Agrati
      First page: 282
      Abstract: The sexual behavior of the female rat has been extensively studied and used as a model for human female sexuality. The development of models that focus on sexual interaction from the female’s perspective has demonstrated the complexity of this behavior, in which motivational and affective aspects have great relevance. This review describes, from a historical perspective, some of the studies that have shed light on this complexity and presents the potential of two periods in the female’s life to expand our understanding of sexual behavior: adolescence and postpartum estrus. Cycling adolescent female rats can express sexual behavior even though some of the underlying circuitry is still developing. Therefore, this is an ideal time for studying the ontogeny of sexual behavior, the interaction of sexual and social motivations, and the neuroendocrine changes that lead to adult behavior. Female rats also show a fertile estrus a few hours after parturition. During this period, rats are simultaneously sexually and maternally motivated, making postpartum estrus an excellent model for exploring the interaction of these two social motivations. What we know so far about female sexual behavior in these unique periods of life reaffirms its richness and shows that much remains to be known.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 298-307: Hypersexual Behavior and Depression Symptoms
           among Dating App Users

    • Authors: Giacomo Ciocca, Lilybeth Fontanesi, Antonella Robilotta, Erika Limoncin, Filippo Maria Nimbi, Daniele Mollaioli, Andrea Sansone, Elena Colonnello, Chiara Simonelli, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Emmanuele A. Jannini
      First page: 298
      Abstract: The use of Dating Applications (DAs) is widespread, and in some cases could be associated with psychosexological issues. Hence, we decided to investigate hypersexual behavior and depression symptoms among DA users and non-users. We recruited a snowball convenience sample of 1000 subjects through an online platform in 2020 for a cross-sectional study. One hundred and nineteen (11.9%) were classified as DA users and 881 as non-users. All subjects completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI), to assess hypersexuality, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to evaluate depression symptoms. We primarily found higher levels of hypersexual behavior and depression symptoms in DA users compared to non-users. In particular, HBI Total (users = 42.27 ± 16.37 vs. non-users = 31.85 ± 12.06; p < 0.0001), HBI Coping (users = 17.92 ± 8.01 vs. non-users = 13.52 ± 6.03; p < 0.0001), HBI Control (users = 14.73 ± 6.68 vs. non-users = 10.71 ± 4.95; p < 0.0001), HBI Consequences (users = 9.62 ± 4.33 vs. non-users = 7.60 ± 3.37; p < 0.0001), PHQ-9 Depression (users = 12.82 ± 6.64 vs. nonusers = 10.05 ± 5.84; p < 0.0001). On the whole, we found that hypersexual behavior and depression symptoms strongly characterize DAs users; this evidence could represent an important associated factor in DA use for sexual purposes.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 308-324: ‘We Want to Help but We Don’t
           Know What to Do’: Service Providers Working with Indigenous LGBTIQ+
           Youth in Australia

    • Authors: Corrinne T. Sullivan, Duy Tran, William Trewlynn, Kim Spurway, John Leha, Linda Briskman, Karen Soldatic
      First page: 308
      Abstract: Access to adequate and appropriate service provision has a direct positive impact on health and wellbeing. Experiences of inaccessible, discriminatory, and culturally unsafe services and/or service providers are considered a root cause for the health inequalities that exist among Indigenous queer youth. Experiences of discrimination and cultural inappropriateness are commonplace, with Indigenous queer youth noting issues related to access to services and treatment, stereotyping, and a lack of quality in the care provided, which discourage Indigenous people from accessing care. This paper examines the perspectives of Indigenous LGBTIQ+ youth and health service providers to identify what challenges, obstacles and opportunities are currently being faced and what could be implemented to improve the health and wellbeing outcomes for Indigenous LGBTIQ+ youth in the future.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3020024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 20-39: Obesity, Body Image Dissatisfaction, and
           Sexual Dysfunction: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Sean M. McNabney
      First page: 20
      Abstract: With approximately two-thirds of the United States adult population classified as overweight or obese, obesity remains a critical public health concern. Obesity not only contributes to several health complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the condition is also associated with sexual dysfunction in both women and men. Despite evidence linking obesity and its concomitant pathophysiology to sexual problems, the potential roles of psychosocial factors such as body image are understudied. This narrative review evaluates the research linkages between obesity and sexual dysfunction, with particular attention to the potential effects of body image dissatisfaction. A literature search of biomedical and psychological databases was used to identify research pertaining to obesity, sexual function, and/or body image constructs. The pathophysiological effects of obesity on sexual function are well-documented in mechanistic studies and animal trials, often with corroboration in human clinical samples. However, very few studies examine obesity, body image, and sexual function in tandem. Body image dissatisfaction appears to independently impinge upon the sexual response cycle and mental health outcomes, irrespective of body weight. While obesity is often associated with negative body image appraisal, it is unclear whether these constructs exert additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects on sexual responsivity. Additionally, overweight/obese individuals who exhibit higher levels of body image satisfaction or self-confidence appear to be protected from the deleterious effects of obesity on sexual satisfaction, at least to some extent. Greater reliance upon conceptual/theoretical models from the body image literature may better clarify the relationships between these constructs.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 40-48: Assessing Sexual Behavior Patterns among
           Student Athletes of Senior High Schools in the Upper East Region, Ghana

    • Authors: Mahama Mubarik, John Elvis Hagan, Akaribo William Aduko, Kasenyi Sulley Abubakari, Oladokun Michael Yemisi, Prosper Asabia
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual behavior patterns of student athletes of senior high schools in the Upper East Region of Ghana and to assess the differences in sexual behavior patterns between male and females. A sample of 400 student athletes using a convenience sampling technique from public senior high schools was drawn to complete a self-designed research study. Descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test tool were used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that student athletes practiced various forms of sexual behaviors such as celibacy, foreplay, vaginal-penile sex, sexual fantasy, masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex. The Chi-square analysis showed significant gender differences in prevalence of masturbation (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 4.6962, probability = 0.030) and sexual fantasy (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 6.8477, probability = 0.009), but not vaginal-penile intercourse (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 1.3197, probability = 0.251) and celibacy (χ2, (1, n = 400) = 0.0721, probability = 0.788). The study concludes that student athletes of senior high schools might be vulnerable to unplanned parenthood and are at risk of STIs, including HIV. Regular health promotion campaigns on sexual risk-taking behaviors are required to help reduce the prevalence of student athletes’ indulgence in risky sexual behavior patterns that can harm their health. It is essential to implement gender-specific interventions (e.g., decision-making skills) when addressing the problems of sexual behaviors among the student athletes in the region.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 49-58: Dating Violence in Adolescence: Comparison
           between Scholars and Adolescents in Residential Care

    • Authors: Maria Dosil-Santamaria, Joana Jaureguizar, Elena Bernaras
      First page: 49
      Abstract: (1) Background: Dating violence (DV) among adolescents constitutes a serious problem, not only because of the magnitude of the phenomenon, but also because of the seriousness of the personal and social consequences derived from it. The objectives of this study were the following: to analyze the prevalence of DV among adolescents in residential care and in schools, according to sex, age and origin, and to analyze the prevalence of the types of violence and victimization, according to the residential care resource and the school. (2) Methods: The sample consisted of adolescents in residential care in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (Spain) (n = 271) and adolescents in schools (n = 268) aged between 12 and 17 years. (3) Results: The results showed a higher prevalence of DV in adolescents in residential care than that found in other studies with a normative sample. (4) Conclusions: These results support the need for work and research with these minors in residential care. It also gives an important weight to sociodemographic variables, such as age and sex, and also to the types of violence and victimization, i.e., variables to be taken into account in the intervention with adolescents. Future educational programs should consider DV prevention and children in residential care.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 59-67: Sexual Receptivity Signal of Lordosis Posture
           and Intra-Sexual Competition in Women

    • Authors: Farid Pazhoohi, Ray Garza, Alan Kingstone
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that women may use self-enhancement strategies to compete with one other. Lumbar curvature in women is considered to enhance a woman′s attractiveness, potentially due to its role in bipedal fetal load and sexual receptiveness. The current study investigated the role of lumbar curvature on women’s perceptions of sexual receptiveness as well as its role in women’s intrasexual competitiveness. Study 1 (N = 138) tested and confirmed that women’s intrasexual competition influences their perception of sexual receptivity of women as a function of lordosis posture depicted in a standing posture. Study 2 (N = 69) replicated these results and extended them to other postures, namely, the quadruped and supine positions. Study 3 (N = 106), using a two-alternative forced-choice task, revealed that other women perceive relatively larger arched-back postures as more threatening to their relationship and frequently as being more attractive. Collectively, this work suggests that women consider a lordotic posture in other women as a signal of sexual receptivity and perceive it as a threat to their relationship. This research provides robust support for the sexually receptivity hypothesis of lumbar curvature, questioning the alternative morphological vertebral wedging hypothesis.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 68-77: Dyadic Satisfaction and Shared Affectivity Are
           Associated with Psycho-Sexual Functioning in Elderly Men and Women

    • Authors: Erika Limoncin, Daniele Mollaioli, Andrea Sansone, Elena Colonnello, Giacomo Ciocca, Giancarlo Balercia, Nguyễn Hoài Bắc, Thắng Nguyễn Cao, Emmanuele Angelo Jannini
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Objectives The quality of sexual life of elderly people represents an understudied topic of sexual medicine and of psycho-sexology. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of specific psycho-relational variables, such as intimacy, increased affective gestures towards a partner (AGtP), daily shared activities, and dyadic satisfaction, with the psychosexual wellbeing of elderly people, expressed in terms of sexual satisfaction. Methods: A cohort of elderly people was selected from a sample of a broader study evaluating the role of sexual activity in protecting the emotional wellbeing of a population subjected to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, the presence of sexual dysfunctions, the emotional wellbeing (i.e., absence of anxiety and/or depression), and the quality of the partners’ relationships were studied. For the study’s purpose, the Sexual Health Inventory for Males (SHIM), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Orgasmometer and the Orgasmometer-F, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale were adopted. Results: A group of 124 elderly subjects (≥60) was selected for the study’s purposes. Among these, 84% were males (120/124), and 16% were females (20/124). All the subjects declared to be in a stable relationship and to be sexually active during the first lockdown period. Gender differences were found for the Dyadic Satisfaction subscale (males: 37.04 ± 6.57; females: 32.85 ± 10.04; p < 0.05) and the Orgasmometer (males: 7.64 ± 1.30; females: 6.60 ± 2.46; p < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed the association between higher Orgasmometer scores and: (i) the absence of sexual dysfunctions (β = −1.213; SE = 0.271; p < 0.0001), (ii) higher dyadic satisfaction (β = 0.042; SE = 0.019; p < 0.05), and (iii) reduced shared activities with partner (β = −0.463; SE = 0.143; p < 0.01) and increased affective gestures towards partner (DAS measured AGtP) (β = 0.595; SE = 0.065; p < 0.0001). Post hoc analysis of ANCOVA with the Bonferroni correction method showed a significant difference in the Orgasmometer scores between subjects with and without sexual dysfunction (mean difference: 2.102; SE = 0.340; pBonf < 0.001), with healthy subjects reporting higher scores compared to dysfunctional ones. Conclusions: It is reasonable to suppose that, beyond the presence of sexual dysfunctions, the sexual health of elderly people may benefit from the quality of the relationship, and, specifically, from the presence of affective gestures towards the partner and the dyadic satisfaction. To the contrary, the quantity of time spent together, sharing specific activities, may be considered a factor worsening relational and sexual health. These data should be considered during the evaluation of sexual health among elderly people.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 78-96: Beyond the Screen: Violence and Aggression
           towards Women within an Excepted Online Space

    • Authors: Shireen Bernstein, Wayne A. Warburton, Kay Bussey, Naomi Sweller
      First page: 78
      Abstract: This theoretical review explores the possibility that the consumption of internet pornography (IP) represents a credible risk factor in the perpetration of aggression and violence against women. Sexual violence, abuse, and degradation of women is commonly depicted in mainstream heterosexual IP. Despite the violent tenor, the effect this material may have on beliefs, attitudes and behaviors is understudied, as are the reasons why violent and degrading IP is so widely viewed, enjoyed, and accepted. Both theory and empirical findings support the contention that depictions of violence in IP may contribute to real world aggression and violence against women, with two relevant spheres of inquiry proposed in this theoretical review. The first considers IP as a ‘zone of cultural exception’, in which the perpetration of violent and degrading acts against women are eroticized and celebrated, despite such behaviors being considered antisocial in wider society. It is suggested that this excepted status is enabled by the operation of the third person effect to negate the detrimental effects of IP. The second explores the objectification and dehumanization of women in IP and the use of moral disengagement by viewers to enable their disavowal of any harm in the depicted violence.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 97: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Sexes in 2021

    • Authors: Sexes Editorial Office Sexes Editorial Office
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 98-114: Sexual and Reproductive Health Service
           Provision to Adolescents in Edmonton: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of
           Adolescents’ and Service Providers’ Experiences

    • Authors: Eliza Vass, Zia Bhanji, Bisi Adewale, Salima Meherali
      First page: 98
      Abstract: The goal of adolescent sexual reproductive health (SRH) services is to provide information, education and healthcare to promote safe health practices and protect adolescents from negative health outcomes; however, access to timely, effective, and affordable SRH services by adolescents in Edmonton, Canada remains relatively unknown. Our study sought to understand the perspectives and experiences of adolescent girls and service providers in relation to availability, accessibility, and quality of SRH services available in Edmonton. The study objectives were to explore SRH services adolescents seek, uncover barriers in accessing SRH services and identify areas to improve accessibility. Qualitative description design was employed to conduct this study. Five service providers specializing in SRH, and eight females (ages 17–20 years) that access SRH services were recruited from the Alberta Health Services Birth Control Centre (BCC). Semi-structured interviews took place via Zoom. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO software. Findings consisted of four primary themes: (1) views and current SRH practices; (2) barriers to accessibility; (3) the effects of COVID-19 on accessibility; (4) identified gaps in SRH care. The findings from our study support the development of knowledge translation strategies and make recommendations to improve the present quality of SRH services in Edmonton.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 115-133: Do Pornography Use and Masturbation
           Frequency Play a Role in Delayed/Inhibited Ejaculation during Partnered
           Sex' A Comprehensive and Detailed Analysis

    • Authors: David L. Rowland, Abigail L. Morrow, Benjamin D. Hamilton, Krisztina Hevesi
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on sexual response during partnered sex has been controversial, the result of mixed and inconsistent findings. However, studies investigating this relationship have often suffered from methodological shortcomings. We investigated the role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on both the occurrence and severity of delayed/inhibited ejaculation (DE), an increasingly common sexual problem among men. We did so in a large (nonclinical) multinational sample of cisgender men (N = 2332; mean age = 40.3, SE = 0.31) within a multivariate context that relied on multiple (and, when possible, standardized) assessments of sexual dysfunctions while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results indicated a weak, inconsistent, and sometimes absent association between the frequency of pornography use and DE symptomology and/or severity. In contrast, both poorer erectile functioning and anxiety/depression represented consistent and strong predictors of DE and, to a lesser extent, DE severity. Other factors, including relationship satisfaction, sexual interest, and masturbation frequency, were significantly though moderately to weakly associated with DE. In conclusion, associations (or sometimes lack thereof) between masturbation frequency, pornography use, and delayed ejaculation are more clearly understood when analyzed in a multivariate context that controls for possible confounding effects.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 134-140: Anne’s Secret: Teaching Children to
           Protect Themselves from Child Sexual Abuse Using Animated Cartoons

    • Authors: Pilar Rueda, Marta Ferragut, M. Victoria Cerezo, Isabel Calvo, Margarita Ortiz-Tallo
      First page: 134
      Abstract: This paper presents an innovative methodology for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA): animated cartoons. CSA is a political, social, educational, and psychological problem that affects many children according to the World Health Organization (WHO). That is why prevention becomes an essential tool for the protection of children. Children are increasingly accustomed to the use of digital media, both for learning and for entertainment. In response to this evolution on how information is transmitted and according to the tradition that cartoons have always had of transmitting values such as friendship, ecology, or solidarity, a 15-minute long video was developed. This video is an animated cartoon, presenting a story. It is composed of music, six friends, and three fantasy characters, and it was designed for children to learn resources to ask for help in case they are suffering CSA. The video is accompanied by a workbook through which both children and adults reinforce what they have learned in the cartoons and learn additional keys for their protection. Data from the first pilot studies carried out to test the effectiveness of this methodology are also presented, with promising results.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 141-163: Sex Differences in Anxiety and Depression:
           What Can (and Cannot) Preclinical Studies Tell Us'

    • Authors: Franco Rafael Mir, María Angélica Rivarola
      First page: 141
      Abstract: In recent years, the gender perspective in scientific research and sex differences in biological studies on emotional disorders have become increasingly important. However, sex bias in basic research on anxiety and depression is still far from being covered. This review addresses the study of sex differences in the field of anxiety and depression using animal models that consider this issue so far. What can preclinical studies tell us and what are their main limitations' First, we describe the behavioral tests most frequently used in preclinical research to assess depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Then, we analyze the main findings, strengths, and weaknesses of rodent models of anxiety and depression, dividing them into three main categories: sex chromosome complement-biased sex differences; gonadal hormone-biased sex differences; environmental-biased sex differences. Regardless of the animal model used, none can reproduce all the characteristics of such complex and multifactorial pathologies as anxiety and depressive disorders; however, each animal model contributes to elucidating the bases that underlie these disorders. The importance is highlighted of considering sex differences in the responses that emerge from each model.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 164-177: A Longitudinal Look at Family Communication
           about Sexual Issues

    • Authors: Jennifer M. Grossman, Amanda M. Richer
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Parent–child communication about sex and relationships can protect adolescents from risky sexual behaviors, but few studies investigate how family talk may change over the course of development from adolescence to emerging adulthood. This current study uses thematic analysis to explore continuity and change in perceived talk with parents about sex and relationships, following a United States sample of 15 adolescent participants over three time points: early adolescence (age 13–14), middle adolescence (age 15–16), and emerging adulthood (age 20–21). Analyses addressed participants’ experiences of talk with parents about sex and relationships (comfort, engagement) and the content of talk: dating and relationships, pregnancy and parenting, protection, STIs, and sexual behavior. Findings show that family communication about sex and relationships extends from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, but changes in content to reflect shifts in adolescent and emerging adult development. Further, while positive engagement and comfort with talk about sex remain relatively high over time, participants’ discomfort and negative engagement appear to increase, highlighting challenges for ongoing family communication. These findings suggest a meaningful, ongoing role for parents in family communication about sex and relationships as their children develop, and suggest some opportunities and challenges that parents may face through this process.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 178-188: Similar Sexual Behaviour yet Different
           Outcomes: Comparing Trans and Gender Diverse and Cis PrEP Users in Germany
           Based on the Outcomes of the PrApp Study

    • Authors: Max Nicolai Appenroth, Ulrich Marcus, Stefan Albrecht, Klaus Jansen, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Viviane Bremer, Uwe Koppe
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Little knowledge about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in trans and gender diverse (TGD) communities in Germany exists. The PrApp Study collected data on PrEP use and sexual behaviour among PrEP users in Germany. Descriptive methods and logistic regression were used to describe PrEP use among TGD and cis persons. A total of 4350 PrEP users in Germany were included, with 65 (1.5%) identified as TGD. Compared to cis participants, TGD participants were younger (median age 29 vs. 37 years) and more likely to have a lower income (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4–8.2) and be born outside Germany (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.3–4.5). On-demand PrEP use was higher in TGD participants (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0–3.5) and numerically more TGD obtained PrEP from informal sources (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9–3.5). Testing behaviour, condom use, and number of sexual partners were comparable between both groups. Socioeconomic disparities may constitute structural barriers for TGD people to access PrEP, leading to more informal and on-demand use. PrEP providers need to reduce access barriers for TGD PrEP users and provide information on safe PrEP use for this population.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 189-208: Participatory Action Research for Adolescent
           Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Zohra S Lassi, Ebony Grace Neideck, Bridget Mary Aylward, Prabha H. Andraweera, Salima Meherali
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Introduction: Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions are essential for the health of adolescents (10–19 years). Co-designing is a participatory approach to research, allowing for collaboration with academic and non-academic stakeholders in intervention development. Participatory action research (PAR) involves stakeholders throughout the planning, action, observation, and reflection stages of research. Current knowledge indicates that co-producing SRH interventions with adolescents increases a feeling of ownership, setting the scene for intervention adoption in implementation settings. Objectives: This scoping review aims to understand the extent of adolescents’ participation in PAR steps for co-designed SRH interventions, including the barriers and facilitators in co-designing of SRH intervention, as well as its effectiveness on adolescents’ SRH outcomes. Methods: Database searching of PubMed, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and organisational websites was performed, identifying 439 studies. Results: Upon screening, 30 studies (published between 2006–2021) met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis identified that adolescents were involved in the planning and action stages of the interventions, but not in the observation and reflection stages. Although the review identified the barriers and facilitators for co-designing SRF interventions, none of the included studies reported on the effectiveness of co-designing SRH interventions with adolescents; therefore, meta-analysis was not performed. Conclusions: While no specific outcome of the interventions was reported, all papers agreed that adolescent co-designing in ASRH interventions should occur at all stages to increase understanding of local perceptions and develop a successful intervention.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 209-218: Sports Activity Levels of Sexual Minority
           Groups in Germany

    • Authors: Johannes Müller, Hannes Delto, Nicola Böhlke, Michael Mutz
      First page: 209
      Abstract: It is widely assumed that LGBT+ people may feel insecure and unwelcome in sports settings, which are often characterized by a binary gender order and a culture of heteronormativity. Previous research also suggests that LGBT+ individuals experience homophobia in the context of sport. Despite these findings, reliable quantitative data on the sports participation levels of sexual minority groups are scarce. The paper addresses this academic void by analyzing sports activity data of sexual minority groups. The 2019 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study is analyzed, which includes a novel LGBT+ boost sample of respondents who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or non-binary with regard to gender. The analysis of this sample shows that sports activity levels (with regard to frequency and duration) of homo- and bisexual individuals are comparable to the heterosexual majority. Although findings show that a high share of homo- and bisexual individuals experience sexual discrimination, discrimination is not associated with lower participation rates in sports. We thus conclude that the domain of sport—although by no means free of discrimination—offers sufficient participation opportunities for LGBT+ people.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sexes, Vol. 3, Pages 219-228: Immigrants’ Length of Residence and
           Stalking Victimization in Canada: A Gendered Analysis

    • Authors: Joseph A. Braimah, Emmanuel Kyeremeh, Eugena Kwon, Roger Antabe, Yujiro Sano, Bradley P. Stoner
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Although previous studies have explored the role of gender on stalking victimization, we know very little about how female and male immigrants are exposed to stalking victimization over time after their arrival to their host society. To address this void in the literature, we use the 2014 Canada General Social Survey to compare stalking victimization among native-born individuals, recent immigrants (those who have been in Canada for fewer than 10 years), and established immigrants (those who have been in Canada for 10 years or more) separately for women and men. Applying gender-specific complementary log-log models, we find that female (OR = 0.63, p < 0.05) and male (OR = 0.46, p < 0.01) recent immigrants are less likely to experience stalking victimization than their native-born counterparts. We also find that female established immigrants (OR = 0.65, p < 0.05) are less likely to experience stalking victimization than their native-born counterparts although there is no significance difference for male established immigrants (OR = 1.01, p > 0.05). Overall, this study points to the importance of understanding the intersection between immigrants’ length of residence and gender in the context of stalking victimization in Canada. Based on these findings, we discuss several implications for policymakers and directions for future research.
      Citation: Sexes
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sexes3010017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
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