Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1830 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (270 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (100 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (59 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (1081 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (192 journals)

SEXUALITY (59 journals)

Showing 1 - 59 of 59 Journals sorted alphabetically
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bagoas - Estudos gays: gêneros e sexualidades     Open Access  
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Gênero e Diversidade     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Transgender Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Gender and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Psychosexual Health     Open Access  
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mandrágora     Open Access  
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Queer Cats Journal of LGBTQ Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Queer Studies in Media & Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Raheema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Screen Bodies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Experience, Perception, and Display     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sexes     Open Access  
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whatever : A Transdisciplinary Journal of Queer Theories and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Reproduction Update
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.317
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [416 journals]
  • Thank you to our reviewers – 2020
    • Pages: 431 - 432
      Abstract: While firmly established as one of the leading journals in the field of reproductive biology and medicine, Human Reproduction Update is not complacent and continually strives for improvement. The journal is acutely aware of the importance of high-quality peer review and its role in maintaining and enhancing the scientific quality and clinical relevance of the articles that we publish. For this reason, the Editorial Team of Human Reproduction Update would like to thank all those who have taken the time to review for us in 2020. We greatly appreciate this contribution to the ongoing success of the journal. Thank you.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmab012
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2021)
  • Embryo implantation in the laboratory: an update on current techniques
    • Authors: Ojosnegros S; Seriola A, Godeau A, et al.
      Pages: 501 - 530
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe embryo implantation process is crucial for the correct establishment and progress of pregnancy. During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm cells attach to the epithelium of the endometrium, triggering intense cell-to-cell crosstalk that leads to trophoblast outgrowth, invasion of the endometrial tissue, and formation of the placenta. However, this process, which is vital for embryo and foetal development in utero, is still elusive to experimentation because of its inaccessibility. Experimental implantation is cumbersome and impractical in adult animal models and is inconceivable in humans.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEA number of custom experimental solutions have been proposed to recreate different stages of the implantation process in vitro, by combining a human embryo (or a human embryo surrogate) and endometrial cells (or a surrogate for the endometrial tissue). In vitro models allow rapid high-throughput interrogation of embryos and cells, and efficient screening of molecules, such as cytokines, drugs, or transcription factors, that control embryo implantation and the receptivity of the endometrium. However, the broad selection of available in vitro systems makes it complicated to decide which system best fits the needs of a specific experiment or scientific question. To orient the reader, this review will explore the experimental options proposed in the literature, and classify them into amenable categories based on the embryo/cell pairs employed.The goal is to give an overview of the tools available to study the complex process of human embryo implantation, and explain the differences between them, including the advantages and disadvantages of each system.SEARCH METHODSWe performed a comprehensive review of the literature to come up with different categories that mimic the different stages of embryo implantation in vitro, ranging from initial blastocyst apposition to later stages of trophoblast invasion or gastrulation. We will also review recent breakthrough advances on stem cells and organoids, assembling embryo-like structures and endometrial tissues.OUTCOMESWe highlight the most relevant systems and describe the most significant experiments. We focus on in vitro systems that have contributed to the study of human reproduction by discovering molecules that control implantation, including hormones, signalling molecules, transcription factors and cytokines.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe momentum of this field is growing thanks to the use of stem cells to build embryo-like structures and endometrial tissues, and the use of bioengineering to extend the life of embryos in culture. We propose to merge bioengineering methods derived from the fields of stem cells and reproduction to develop new systems covering a wider window of the implantation process.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa054
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2021)
  • FoxO1 is a cell-specific core transcription factor for endometrial
           remodeling and homeostasis during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy
    • Authors: Adiguzel D; Celik-Ozenci C.
      Pages: 570 - 583
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEndometrium is a vital multicellular tissue for progression of pregnancy. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor plays an important role in the endometrium as it regulates various cellular processes with its unique expression in different cell types.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review focuses on the role of FoxO1 in endometrium with a particular emphasis on FoxO1 signaling in individual endometrial cell types during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.SEARCH METHODSA literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to select studies reporting the role of FoxO1 in endometrium using the keywords: FoxO1, endometrium, menstrual cycle, early pregnancy, endometrial receptivity, implantation, decidualization, angiogenesis and neoplasia. Papers published before October 2020 were selected. Drawing on advances in laboratory science and preclinical studies, we performed a narrative review of the scientific literature to provide a timely update on the roles of FoxO1 during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.OUTCOMESFoxO1 is considered to be a decidualization marker in endometrial stromal cells, mainly because it regulates the transcription of decidual prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 genes. Importantly, 507 of 3405 genes that are specifically regulated during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells are expressed abnormally as a result of FOXO1 reduction. Epithelial FoxO1 is currently accepted as a novel endometrial receptivity marker for humans and mice owing to its timely and specific expression at the window of implantation. On the other hand, FOXO1 is essential in endometrial epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation to achieve endometrial homeostasis since loss of function of FOXO1 causes endometrial neoplasia. Last but not least, FoxO1 seems to act like a navigator molecule for embryo homing owing to its notably decreased nuclear expression in endometrial luminal epithelial cells, specifically at the blastocyst attachment region, which results in differentiation, entosis and apoptosis of endometrial epithelial cells during the peri-implantation period. In endothelium, FoxO1 expression coincides with the timing of increased vascular permeabilization during early pregnancy. There are limited data regarding the importance of FoxO1 upregulation in endometrial endothelial cells, therefore, it is time to investigate the role of endothelial FoxO1, which is the missing piece in the puzzle of the enigmatic endometrium. Another missing piece in the puzzle for the role of FoxO1 is on embryo development.WIDER IMPLICATIONSFoxO1 is a cell-specific core transcription factor involved in efficient endometrial remodeling during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. A better understanding of the role of FoxO1 as a decidualization marker, as an emerging marker of endometrial receptivity, and as a therapeutic target to prevent endometrial neoplasia could help us to make sense of endometrial biology and thus to improve the outcomes of ART in the clinic.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa060
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2021)
  • Fertility restoration in azoospermic cancer survivors from testicular
           VSELs that survive oncotherapy upon transplanting MSCs
    • Authors: Bhartiya D; Hinduja I.
      Pages: 619 - 620
      Abstract: Sir
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmab006
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2021)
  • Reply: Fertility restoration in azoospermic cancer survivors from
           testicular VSELs that survive oncotherapy upon transplanting MSCs
    • Authors: Wyns C; Kanbar M.
      Pages: 621 - 622
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmab007
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2021)
  • Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys: lessons learned from the past
           and update on remaining challenges towards clinical translation
    • Authors: Wyns C; Kanbar M, Giudice M, et al.
      Pages: 433 - 459
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDChildhood cancer incidence and survivorship are both on the rise. However, many lifesaving treatments threaten the prepubertal testis. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT), containing spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), as a fertility preservation (FP) option for this population is increasingly proposed worldwide. Recent achievements notably the birth of non-human primate (NHP) progeny using sperm developed in frozen-thawed ITT autografts has given proof of principle of the reproductive potential of banked ITT. Outlining the current state of the art on FP for prepubertal boys is crucial as some of the boys who have cryopreserved ITT since the early 2000s are now in their reproductive age and are already seeking answers with regards to their fertility.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEIn the light of past decade achievements and observations, this review aims to provide insight into relevant questions for clinicians involved in FP programmes. Have the indications for FP for prepubertal boys changed over time' What is key for patient counselling and ITT sampling based on the latest achievements in animals and research performed with human ITT' How far are we from clinical application of methods to restore reproductive capacity with cryostored ITT'SEARCH METHODSAn extensive search for articles published in English or French since January 2010 to June 2020 using keywords relevant to the topic of FP for prepubertal boys was made in the MEDLINE database through PubMed. Original articles on fertility preservation with emphasis on those involving prepubertal testicular tissue, as well as comprehensive and systematic reviews were included. Papers with redundancy of information or with an absence of a relevant link for future clinical application were excluded. Papers on alternative sources of stem cells besides SSCs were excluded.OUTCOMESPreliminary follow-up data indicate that around 27% of boys who have undergone testicular sampling as an FP measure have proved azoospermic and must therefore solely rely on their cryostored ITT to ensure biologic parenthood. Auto-transplantation of ITT appears to be the first technique that could enter pilot clinical trials but should be restricted to tissue free of malignant cells. While in vitro spermatogenesis circumvents the risk linked to cancer cell contamination and has led to offspring in mice, complete spermatogenesis has not been achieved with human ITT. However, generation of haploid germ cells paves the way to further studies aimed at completing the final maturation of germ cells and increasing the efficiency of the processes.WIDER IMPLICATIONSDespite all the research done to date, FP for prepubertal boys remains a relatively young field and is often challenging to healthcare providers, patients and parents. As cryopreservation of ITT is now likely to expand further, it is important not only to acknowledge some of the research questions raised on the topic, e.g. the epigenetic and genetic integrity of gametes derived from strategies to restore fertility with banked ITT but also to provide healthcare professionals worldwide with updated knowledge to launch proper multicollaborative care pathways in the field and address clinical issues that will come-up when aiming for the child’s best interest.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa050
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
  • Maternal and neonatal outcome and children’s development after medically
           assisted reproduction with in-vitro matured oocytes—a systematic review
           and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Strowitzki T; Bruckner T, Roesner S.
      Pages: 460 - 473
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDIVM was implemented in medically assisted reproduction 25 years ago. IVM does not involve controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and is mainly indicated in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, in particular in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); it is also an acknowledged option in fertility protection. However, the in-vitro culture of immature oocytes raises concerns over their developmental potential and the putative impact on children’s health. Although an increasing number of studies on obstetric and neonatal outcomes of IVM children and their development have been published in recent years, study designs are difficult to compare, since IVM is used in women with various indications and IVM protocols do not follow the same standards.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence from IVM children of an impact of in-vitro culture of immature oocytes. Primary outcome parameters were birthweight and children’s development up to the age of 2 years. We also compared pregnancy pathologies and the outcome of IVM children and COS children in relation to maternal indications, in particular PCOS, and to the type of IVM protocols with or without ovulation trigger as the secondary outcome parameters. IVM is an accepted clinical option for many centres; however, a comprehensive analysis of the available data is needed to establish whether the use of human oocytes that are fully matured in vitro is safe for both children and their mothers.SEARCH METHODSGoogle Scholar and PubMed were used for identifying peer-reviewed original articles and reviews through January 2020. A total of 191 studies were screened and 16 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Studies were stratified according to indications, the use of an ovulation trigger and multiplicity.OUTCOMESBirthweights of IVM singletons and multiples were comparable to their respective COS controls: birthweights were also similar if the analysis was restricted to mothers with PCOS. IVM children had a comparable birthweight to COS children, irrespective of whether an ovulation trigger was used in IVM cycles or not. The frequency of gestational diabetes (GD) in singleton pregnancies was comparable between IVM and COS, regardless of infertility background. There was also no difference in GD frequency between IVM and COS, if an hCG ovulation trigger in IVM cycles was used or not. Hypertensive disorders in singleton pregnancies of women with PCOS were significantly more frequent after IVM compared to COS, in particular if IVM cycles were performed only with in-vitro matured oocytes. There was no difference in the preterm birth rate of singleton pregnancies between IVM and COS. Preterm birth rates were still similar if only women diagnosed with PCOS were compared and whether an ovulation trigger in IVM was used or not. The malformation rate in IVM children did not differ in COS children versus children after natural conception. At the age of 2 years, IVM singletons showed similar anthropometric and mental development compared to COS children or children from natural conception.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe higher incidence of hypertensive disorders in IVM pregnancies needs monitoring during pregnancy. Current data on the development of IVM children are encouraging, although the quality of many studies is limited and long-term data beyond 2 years are scarce. Further studies should be based on generally accepted IVM protocols. Studies on long-term outcomes beyond 2 years are needed to search for potential long-time sequelae of IVM.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa056
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
  • Risk of foetal harm with letrozole use in fertility treatment: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Pundir J; Achilli C, Bhide P, et al.
      Pages: 474 - 485
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe aromatase inhibitor letrozole is increasingly recommended for ovulation induction, as it is more effective with fewer side-effects than other agents. But many clinicians are reluctant to use the drug for fertility treatment due to a strong-label warning against its use, which warns about congenital malformation risk to the foetus in women seeking pregnancy.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this study was to determine the risks of congenital malformations and pregnancy loss with letrozole compared with clomiphene primarily, and with other fertility drugs and natural conception.SEARCH METHODSA systematic review and meta-analysis using PRISMA harms guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and other sources from inception until January 2020, with the MeSH words for ‘letrozole’ and pregnancy OR foetal/neonatal outcome. We included studies reported on congenital malformations in foetuses born to mothers conceived after fertility treatment, with letrozole versus clomiphene, placebo, gonadotrophins, metformin, natural conception or other agents, from randomised trials, comparative cohort studies and non-comparative observational cohorts. Quality of the studies was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool and Newcastle Ottawa Scale. The McMaster tool was used to assess the quality of reported harm for foetal congenital malformations in the studies. We compared the absolute risk of events using risk difference measures and pooled the findings using a fixed-effect model. We evaluated the statistical heterogeneity using forest plots and the I2 statistic and funnel plot to assess publication bias. We assessed the strength of evidence for congenital malformation and pregnancy loss as per the GRADE recommendations and with the Fragility index.OUTCOMESWe included 46 studies (18 randomised trials; 21 comparative cohorts; 7 non-comparative cohorts). Overall 2.15% (101/4697; 95% CI 1.7 to 2.5) of babies conceived on letrozole for fertility treatment had congenital foetal malformations. We did not observe a significant increase in congenital malformations with letrozole versus clomiphene in the randomised trials (risk difference (RD) 0.01, 95% CI −0.02, 0.03; I2 = 0%; 14 studies) and found a significant reduction in the cohort studies (RD −0.02, 95% CI −0.04, −0.01; I2 = 0%, 11 studies). The fragility index was 44% (7/16) (either an increase in the intervention arm or a decrease in control arm was needed to alter the results). The risks of pregnancy loss were not increased with letrozole versus clomiphene in the 14 randomised trials (RD −0.01, 95% CI −0.06, 0.04; I2 = 0%), and the risks were reduced in the six cohort studies (RD −0.09, 95% CI −0.17, −0.00; I2 = 68%). The GRADE quality of evidence was low to moderate for congenital malformations and pregnancy loss. We did not find any increased congenital malformation risk with letrozole versus gonadotrophins, natural conception or natural cycle ART, but the number of studies was small.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThere is no evidence that letrozole increases the risk of congenital foetal malformation or pregnancy loss compared with clomiphene, natural conception or other fertility agents, to warrant warning against its use. Given its therapeutic benefits and lack of evidence of harm to the foetus, clinicians should consider letrozole as first-line agent for ovulation induction.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa055
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
  • Is there an association between paternal age and aneuploidy' Evidence
           from young donor oocyte-derived embryos: a systematic review and
           individual patient data meta-analysis
    • Authors: Dviri M; Madjunkova S, Koziarz A, et al.
      Pages: 486 - 500
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDelayed parenthood, by both women and men, has become more common in developed countries. The adverse effect of advanced maternal age on embryo aneuploidy and reproductive outcomes is well known. However, whether there is an association between paternal age (PA) and embryonic chromosomal aberrations remains controversial. Oocyte donation (OD) is often utilized to minimize maternal age effects on oocyte and embryo aneuploidy, thus providing an optimal model to assess the effect of PA. Several studies have revealed a higher than expected rate of aneuploidy in embryos derived from young oocyte donors, which warrants examination as to whether this may be attributed to advanced PA (APA).OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe objective of this systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis is to evaluate existing evidence regarding an association between PA and chromosomal aberrations in an OD model.SEARCH METHODSThis review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from inception through March 2020 using the (MeSH) terms: chromosome aberrations, preimplantation genetic screening and IVF. Original research articles, reporting on the types and/or frequency of chromosomal aberrations in embryos derived from donor oocytes, including data regarding PA, were included. Studies reporting results of IVF cycles using only autologous oocytes were excluded. Quality appraisal of included studies was conducted independently by two reviewers using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment Scale. A one-stage IPD meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether an association exists between PA and aneuploidy. Meta-analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model to account for clustering of embryos within patients and clustering of patients within studies.OUTCOMESThe search identified 13 032 references, independently screened by 2 reviewers, yielding 6 studies encompassing a total of 2637 IVF-OD cycles (n = 20 024 embryos). Two ‘low’ quality studies using FISH to screen 12 chromosomes on Day 3 embryos (n = 649) reported higher total aneuploidy rates and specifically higher rates of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 in men ≥50 years. One ‘moderate’ and three ‘high’ quality studies, which used 24-chromosome screening, found no association between PA and aneuploidy in Day 5/6 embryos (n = 12 559). The IPD meta-analysis, which included three ‘high’ quality studies (n = 10 830 Day 5/6 embryos), found no significant effect of PA on the rate of aneuploidy (odds ratio (OR) 0.97 per decade of age, 95% CI 0.91–1.03), which was robust to sensitivity analyses. There was no association between PA and individual chromosome aneuploidy or segmental aberrations, including for chromosomes X and Y (OR 1.06 per decade of age, 95% CI 0.92–1.21). Monosomy was most frequent for chromosome 16 (217/10802, 2.01%, 95% CI 1.76–2.29%) and trisomy was also most frequent for chromosome 16 (194/10802, 1.80%, 95% CI 1.56–2.06%).WIDER IMPLICATIONSWe conclude, based on the available evidence, that APA is not associated with higher rates of aneuploidy in embryos derived from OD. These results will help fertility practitioners when providing preconception counselling, particularly to older men who desire to have a child.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa052
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
  • Adaptations of the human placenta to hypoxia: opportunities for
           interventions in fetal growth restriction
    • Authors: Colson A; Sonveaux P, Debiève F, et al.
      Pages: 531 - 569
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe placenta is the functional interface between the mother and the fetus during pregnancy, and a critical determinant of fetal growth and life-long health. In the first trimester, it develops under a low-oxygen environment, which is essential for the conceptus who has little defense against reactive oxygen species produced during oxidative metabolism. However, failure of invasive trophoblasts to sufficiently remodel uterine arteries toward dilated vessels by the end of the first trimester can lead to reduced/intermittent blood flow, persistent hypoxia and oxidative stress in the placenta with consequences for fetal growth. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is observed in ∼10% of pregnancies and is frequently seen in association with other pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia (PE). FGR is one of the main challenges for obstetricians and pediatricians, as smaller fetuses have greater perinatal risks of morbidity and mortality and postnatal risks of neurodevelopmental and cardio-metabolic disorders.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this review was to examine the importance of placental responses to changing oxygen environments during abnormal pregnancy in terms of cellular, molecular and functional changes in order to highlight new therapeutic pathways, and to pinpoint approaches aimed at enhancing oxygen supply and/or mitigating oxidative stress in the placenta as a mean of optimizing fetal growth.SEARCH METHODSAn extensive online search of peer-reviewed articles using PubMed was performed with combinations of search terms including pregnancy, placenta, trophoblast, oxygen, hypoxia, high altitude, FGR and PE (last updated in May 2020).OUTCOMESTrophoblast differentiation and placental establishment are governed by oxygen availability/hypoxia in early pregnancy. The placental response to late gestational hypoxia includes changes in syncytialization, mitochondrial functions, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hormone production, nutrient handling and angiogenic factor secretion. The nature of these changes depends on the extent of hypoxia, with some responses appearing adaptive and others appearing detrimental to the placental support of fetal growth. Emerging approaches that aim to increase placental oxygen supply and/or reduce the impacts of excessive oxidative stress are promising for their potential to prevent/treat FGR.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThere are many risks and challenges of intervening during pregnancy that must be considered. The establishment of human trophoblast stem cell lines and organoids will allow further mechanistic studies of the effects of hypoxia and may lead to advanced screening of drugs for use in pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency/hypoxia. Since no treatments are currently available, a better understanding of placental adaptations to hypoxia would help to develop therapies or repurpose drugs to optimize placental function and fetal growth, with life-long benefits to human health.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa053
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
  • Endometrial function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a
           comprehensive review
    • Authors: Palomba S; Piltonen T, Giudice L.
      Pages: 584 - 618
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. An endometrial component has been suggested to contribute to subfertility and poor reproductive outcomes in affected women.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe aim of this review was to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support that endometrial function is altered in women with PCOS, whether clinical features of PCOS affect the endometrium, and whether there are evidence-based interventions to improve endometrial dysfunction in PCOS women.SEARCH METHODSAn extensive literature search was performed from 1970 up to July 2020 using PubMed and Web of Science without language restriction. The search included all titles and abstracts assessing a relationship between PCOS and endometrial function, the role played by clinical and biochemical/hormonal factors related to PCOS and endometrial function, and the potential interventions aimed to improve endometrial function in women with PCOS. All published papers were included if considered relevant. Studies having a specific topic/hypothesis regarding endometrial cancer/hyperplasia in women with PCOS were excluded from the analysis.OUTCOMESExperimental and clinical data suggest that the endometrium differs in women with PCOS when compared to healthy controls. Clinical characteristics related to the syndrome, alone and/or in combination, may contribute to dysregulation of endometrial expression of sex hormone receptors and co-receptors, increase endometrial insulin-resistance with impaired glucose transport and utilization, and result in chronic low-grade inflammation, immune dysfunction, altered uterine vascularity, abnormal endometrial gene expression and cellular abnormalities in women with PCOS. Among several interventions to improve endometrial function in women with PCOS, to date, only lifestyle modification, metformin and bariatric surgery have the highest scientific evidence for clinical benefit.WIDER IMPLICATIONSEndometrial dysfunction and abnormal trophoblast invasion and placentation in PCOS women can predispose to miscarriage and pregnancy complications. Thus, patients and their health care providers should advise about these risks. Although currently no intervention can be universally recommended to reverse endometrial dysfunction in PCOS women, lifestyle modifications and metformin may improve underlying endometrial dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes in obese and/or insulin resistant patients. Bariatric surgery has shown its efficacy in severely obese PCOS patients, but a careful evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio is warranted. Large scale randomized controlled clinical trials should address these possibilities.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa051
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2020)
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