Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1859 journals)
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SEXUALITY (59 journals)

Showing 1 - 59 of 59 Journals sorted alphabetically
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bagoas - Estudos gays: gêneros e sexualidades     Open Access  
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Gênero e Diversidade     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Transgender Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Gender and Power     Open Access  
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Psychosexual Health     Open Access  
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mandrágora     Open Access  
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Queer Cats Journal of LGBTQ Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Queer Studies in Media & Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Raheema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Screen Bodies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Experience, Perception, and Display     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sexes     Open Access  
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transgender Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whatever : A Transdisciplinary Journal of Queer Theories and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Reproduction Update
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.317
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1355-4786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2369
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [414 journals]
  • Corrigendum. IUI for unexplained infertility—a network meta-analysis
    • Authors: Danhof N; Wang R, van Wely M, et al.
      Pages: 424 - 424
      Abstract: Hum Reprod Update, 2020:26:1-15.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa061
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • IVF and other ART in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic
           landscape analysis
    • Authors: Chiware T; Vermeulen N, Blondeel K, et al.
      Pages: 213 - 228
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInfertility affects 48.5 million couples worldwide with a prevalence estimated at 3.5–16.7% in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and as high as 30–40% in Sub-Saharan Africa. ART services are not accessible to the majority of these infertile couples due to the high cost of treatments in addition to cultural, religious and legal barriers. Infertility and childlessness, particularly in LMIC, have devastating consequences, which has resulted in considerable interest in developing affordable IVF procedures. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the safety, efficiency and ability to replicate techniques under different field conditions, and how to integrate more affordable ART options into existing infrastructures.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review was performed to investigate the current availability of IVF in LMIC and which other ART options are under development. This work will unfold the landscape of available and potential ART services in LMIC and is a key element in positioning infertility more broadly in the Global Public Health Agenda.SEARCH METHODSA systematic literature search was performed of articles and gray literature on IVF and other ART options in LMIC published between January 2010 and January 2020. We selected studies on IVF and other ART treatments for infertile couples of reproductive age (18–44 years) from LMIC. The review was limited to articles published after 2010, based on the recent evolution in the field of ART practices in LMIC over the last decade. Citations from high-income countries, including data prior to 2010 and focusing on specialized ART procedures, were excluded. The literature search included PubMed, Popline, CINHAL, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus. No restrictions were applied with regard to study design or language. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, and extracted data. A search for gray literature was performed using the ‘Google’ search engine and specific databases (worldcat.org, greylit.org). In addition, the reference lists of included studies were assessed.OUTCOMESThe search of the electronic databases yielded 3769 citations. After review of the titles and abstracts, 283 studies were included. The full texts were reviewed and a further 199 articles were excluded. The gray literature search yielded 586 citations, most of which were excluded after screening the title, and the remaining documents were excluded after full-text assessment due to duplicate entries, not from LMIC, not relevant or no access to the full document. Eighty-four citations were included as part of the review and separated into regions. The majority of the studies were observational and qualitative studies. In general, ART services are available and described in several LMIC, ranging from advanced techniques in China to basic introduction of IVF in some African countries. Efforts to provide affordable ART treatments are described in feasibility studies and efficacy studies; however, most citations were of low to very low quality. We found no studies from LMIC reporting the implementation of low-cost ART that is effective, accessible and affordable to most of those in need of the services.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe World Health Organization is in a unique position to provide much needed guidance for infertility management in LMIC. This review provides insight into the landscape of ART in LMIC in various regions worldwide, which will guide efforts to improve the availability, quality, accessibility and acceptability of biomedical infertility care, including ART in these countries.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa047
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Mild versus conventional ovarian stimulation for IVF in poor, normal and
           hyper-responders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Datta A; Maheshwari A, Felix N, et al.
      Pages: 229 - 253
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDMild ovarian stimulation has emerged as an alternative to conventional IVF with the advantages of being more patient-friendly and less expensive. Inadequate data on pregnancy outcomes and concerns about the cycle cancellation rate (CCR) have prevented mild, or low-dose, IVF from gaining wide acceptance.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALETo evaluate parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF where comparisons were made between a mild (≤150 IU daily dose) and conventional stimulation in terms of clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness in patients described as poor, normal and non-polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) hyper-responders to IVF.SEARCH METHODSSearches with no language restrictions were performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane central, Pre-Medicine from January 1990 until April 2020, using pre-specified search terms. References of included studies were hand-searched as well as advance access articles to key journals. Only parallel-group RCTs that used ≤150 IU daily dose of gonadotrophin as mild-dose IVF (MD-IVF) and compared with a higher conventional dose (CD-IVF) were included. Studies were grouped under poor, normal or hyper-responders as described by the authors in their inclusion criteria. Women with PCOS were excluded in the hyper-responder group. The risk of bias was assessed as per Cochrane Handbook for the included studies. The quality of evidence (QoE) was assessed according to the GRADE system. PRISMA guidance was followed for review methodology.OUTCOMESA total of 31 RCTs were included in the analysis: 15 in the poor, 14 in the normal and 2 in the hyper-responder group. Live birth rates (LBRs) per randomisation were similar following use of MD-IVF in poor (relative risk (RR) 0.91 (CI 0.68, 1.22)), normal (RR 0.88 (CI 0.69, 1.12)) and hyper-responders (RR 0.98 (CI 0.79, 1.22)) when compared to CD-IVF. QoE was moderate. Cumulative LBRs (5 RCTs, n = 2037) also were similar in all three patient types (RR 0.96 (CI 0.86 1.07) (moderate QoE). Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was significantly less with MD-IVF than CD-IVF in both normal (RR 0.22 (CI 0.10, 0.50)) and hyper-responders (RR 0.47 (CI 0.31, 0.72)), with moderate QoE. The CCRs were comparable in poor (RR 1.33 (CI 0.96, 1.85)) and hyper-responders (RR 1.31 (CI 0.98, 1.77)) but increased with MD-IVF among normal responders (RR 2.08 (CI 1.38, 3.14)); all low to very low QoE. Although fewer oocytes were retrieved and fewer embryos created with MD-IVF, the proportion of high-grade embryos was similar in all three population types (low QoE). Compared to CD-IVF, MD-IVF was associated with less gonadotrophin use and lower cost.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThis updated review provides reassurance on using MD-IVF not only for the LBR per cycle but also for the cumulative LBR, with moderate QoE. With risks identified with ‘freeze-all’ strategies, it may be time to recommend mild-dose ovarian stimulation for IVF for all categories of women i.e. hyper, poor and normal responders to IVF.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa035
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Preconception genome medicine: current state and future perspectives to
           improve infertility diagnosis and reproductive and health outcomes based
           on individual genomic data
    • Authors: Capalbo A; Poli M, Riera-Escamilla A, et al.
      Pages: 254 - 279
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDOur genetic code is now readable, writable and hackable. The recent escalation of genome-wide sequencing (GS) applications in population diagnostics will not only enable the assessment of risks of transmitting well-defined monogenic disorders at preconceptional stages (i.e. carrier screening), but also facilitate identification of multifactorial genetic predispositions to sub-lethal pathologies, including those affecting reproductive fitness. Through GS, the acquisition and curation of reproductive-related findings will warrant the expansion of genetic assessment to new areas of genomic prediction of reproductive phenotypes, pharmacogenomics and molecular embryology, further boosting our knowledge and therapeutic tools for treating infertility and improving women’s health.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEIn this article, we review current knowledge and potential development of preconception genome analysis aimed at detecting reproductive and individual health risks (recessive genetic disease and medically actionable secondary findings) as well as anticipating specific reproductive outcomes, particularly in the context of IVF. The extension of reproductive genetic risk assessment to the general population and IVF couples will lead to the identification of couples who carry recessive mutations, as well as sub-lethal conditions prior to conception. This approach will provide increased reproductive autonomy to couples, particularly in those cases where preimplantation genetic testing is an available option to avoid the transmission of undesirable conditions. In addition, GS on prospective infertility patients will enable genome-wide association studies specific for infertility phenotypes such as predisposition to premature ovarian failure, increased risk of aneuploidies, complete oocyte immaturity or blastocyst development failure, thus empowering the development of true reproductive precision medicine.SEARCH METHODSSearches of the literature on PubMed Central included combinations of the following MeSH terms: human, genetics, genomics, variants, male, female, fertility, next generation sequencing, genome exome sequencing, expanded carrier screening, secondary findings, pharmacogenomics, controlled ovarian stimulation, preconception, genetics, genome-wide association studies, GWAS.OUTCOMESThrough PubMed Central queries, we identified a total of 1409 articles. The full list of articles was assessed for date of publication, limiting the search to studies published within the last 15 years (2004 onwards due to escalating research output of next-generation sequencing studies from that date). The remaining articles’ titles were assessed for pertinence to the topic, leaving a total of 644 articles. The use of preconception GS has the potential to identify inheritable genetic conditions concealed in the genome of around 4% of couples looking to conceive. Genomic information during reproductive age will also be useful to anticipate late-onset medically actionable conditions with strong genetic background in around 2–4% of all individuals. Genetic variants correlated with differential response to pharmaceutical treatment in IVF, and clear genotype–phenotype associations are found for aberrant sperm types, oocyte maturation, fertilization or pre- and post-implantation embryonic development. All currently known capabilities of GS at the preconception stage are reviewed along with persisting and forthcoming barriers for the implementation of precise reproductive medicine.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe expansion of sequencing analysis to additional monogenic and polygenic traits may enable the development of cost-effective preconception tests capable of identifying underlying genetic causes of infertility, which have been defined as ‘unexplained’ until now, thus leading to the development of a true personalized genomic medicine framework in reproductive health.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa044
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Nanoparticles in pregnancy: the next frontier in reproductive therapeutics
    • Authors: Pritchard N; Kaitu’u-Lino T, Harris L, et al.
      Pages: 280 - 304
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDNanotechnology involves the engineering of structures on a molecular level. Nanomedicine and nano-delivery systems have been designed to deliver therapeutic agents to a target site or organ in a controlled manner, maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-target effects of the therapeutic agent administered. In both reproductive medicine and obstetrics, developing innovative therapeutics is often tempered by fears of damage to the gamete, embryo or developing foetus or of negatively impacting a woman’s reproductive potential. Thus, nanomedicine delivery systems may provide alternative targeted intervention strategies, treating the source of the disease and minimizing long-term consequences for the mother and/or her foetus.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review summarizes the current state of nanomedicine technology in reproductive medicine and obstetrics, including safety, potential applications, future directions and the hurdles for translation.SEARCH METHODSA comprehensive electronic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed to identify studies published in English up until February 2020. Relevant keywords were used to obtain information regarding use of nanoparticle technology in fertility and gene therapy, early pregnancy complications (ectopic pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic disease) and obstetric complications (preeclampsia, foetal growth restriction, preterm birth and gestational diabetes) and for selective treatment of the mother or foetus. Safety of specific nanoparticles to the gamete, embryo and foetus was also investigated.OUTCOMESPre-clinical research in the development of nanoparticle therapeutic delivery is being undertaken in many fields of reproductive medicine. Non-hormonal-targeted nanoparticle therapy for fibroids and endometriosis may provide fertility-sparing medical management. Delivery of interventions via nanotechnology provides opportunities for gene manipulation and delivery in mammalian gametes. Targeting cytotoxic treatments to early pregnancy tissue provides an alternative approach to manage ectopic pregnancies and gestational trophoblastic disease. In pregnancy, nanotherapeutic delivery offers options to stably deliver silencing RNA and microRNA inhibitors to the placenta to regulate gene expression, opening doors to novel genetic treatments for preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. Restricting delivery of teratogenic drugs to the maternal compartment (such as warfarin) may reduce risks to the foetus. Alternatively, targeted delivery of drugs to the foetus (such as those to treat foetal arrythmias) may minimize side effects for the mother.WIDER IMPLICATIONSWe expect that further development of targeted therapies using nanoparticles in a reproductive setting has promise to eventually allow safe and directed treatments for conditions impacting the health and reproductive capacity of women and for the management of pregnancy and serious pregnancy complications.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa049
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The other face of advanced paternal age: a scoping review of its
           terminological, social, public health, psychological, ethical and
           regulatory aspects
    • Authors: Couture V; Delisle S, Mercier A, et al.
      Pages: 305 - 323
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThere is a global tendency for parents to conceive children later in life. The maternal dimension of the postponement transition has been thoroughly studied, but interest in the paternal side is more recent. For the moment, most literature reviews on the topic have focused on the consequences of advanced paternal age (APA) on fertility, pregnancy and the health of the child.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe present review seeks to move the focus away from the biological and medical dimensions of APA and synthesise the knowledge of the other face of APA.SEARCH METHODSWe used the scoping review methodology. Searches of interdisciplinary articles databases were performed with keywords pertaining to APA and its dimensions outside of biology and medicine. We included scientific articles, original research, essays, commentaries and editorials in the sample. The final sample of 177 documents was analysed with qualitative thematic analysis.OUTCOMESWe identified six themes highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of APA research. The ‘terminological aspects’ highlight the lack of consensus on the definition of APA and the strategies developed to offer alternatives. The ‘social aspects’ focus on the postponement transition towards reproducing later in life and its cultural dimensions. The ‘public health aspects’ refer to attempts to analyse APA as a problem with wider health and economic implications. The ‘psychological aspects’ focus on the consequences of APA and older fatherhood on psychological characteristics of the child. The ‘ethical aspects’ reflect on issues of APA emerging at the intersection of parental autonomy, children’s welfare and social responsibility. The ‘regulatory aspects’ group different suggestions to collectively approach the implications of APA. Our results show that the field of APA is still in the making and that evidence is lacking to fully address the issues of APA. The review suggests promising avenues of research such as introducing the voice of fathers of advanced age into the research agenda.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe results of this review will be useful for developing policies and preconception health interventions that consider and include prospective fathers of advanced age.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa046
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Neurophysiology of cognitive behavioural therapy, deep breathing and
           progressive muscle relaxation used in conjunction with ART treatments: a
           narrative review
    • Authors: Raad G; Tanios J, Azoury J, et al.
      Pages: 324 - 338
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInfertility is defined as the failure to achieve clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. It could be due to male or female factors, each requiring different treatment options. ART treatment exposes couples to numerous psychological stressors. Therefore, it has been recommended by the ESHRE Psychology and Counselling Guideline Development Group recently that psychosocial support should be offered as a complementary therapy during infertility treatments. In this context, the efficiency of different psychological interventions, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), deep breathing (DB), and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), was evaluated in several clinical trials in terms of couples’ mental health and pregnancy outcomes.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThe neurophysiology of CBT, DB and PMR, which are used in interventional studies, in both men and women undergoing ART, has not yet been fully elucidated. This review represents a comprehensive report, aiming to collate novel insights into the neurobiological processes and physiological mechanisms that occur during the practice of CBT, DB and PMR.SEARCH METHODSPubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were interrogated to conduct this comprehensive literature review. The search was carried out using combinations of MeSH terms and keywords: infertility, assisted reproductive techniques, IVF, ICSI, emotions, psychological stress, cognitive behavioural therapy, mind-body therapies and relaxation. Relevant information related to the mechanism of action of stress management techniques were obtained from original articles and reviews published in English without taking into consideration the time of publication. Moreover, as it was not the major focus of the review, only recent systematic reviews (2015–2019) pinpointing the effects of psychological interventions on infertility treatment outcomes were also retrieved from the above-mentioned databases.OUTCOMESCBT, DB and PMR may modify the activity of stress-related brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus, as demonstrated by functional MRI and electroencephalogram studies. Furthermore, applying these techniques was associated with mood improvements and a decline in stress biomarkers, and, hypothetically, reducing stress biomarkers attenuates the stress-induced effects on ART outcomes.WIDER IMPLICATIONSIncreasing the knowledge of fertility staff, researchers and physicians regarding the mechanisms of action of these stress management techniques has several advantages. For instance, understanding the underlying neurophysiological pathways would assist practitioners to engage ART couples in the practice of these techniques. Also, it may enhance the quality of the support programmes and psychological research. Accordingly, this will ensure that these interventions reach their full potential and therefore improve clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa048
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Persistent organic pollutants and couple fecundability: a systematic
           review
    • Authors: Kahn L; Harley K, Siegel E, et al.
      Pages: 339 - 366
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDespite increasing regulation, exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remains a serious public health concern due to their accumulation in the environment and ability to biomagnify up the food chain. POPs are associated with endocrine-disrupting effects including adverse reproductive outcomes that could affect fecundability, i.e. the capacity to conceive a pregnancy, quantified as time to pregnancy (TTP).OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEResults of epidemiologic studies that examine the impact of various chemical classes of POPs on TTP have not been synthesised. We undertook a systematic review to summarise the strength of evidence for associations of four common groups of POPs with couple fecundability and to identify gaps and limitations in the literature in order to inform policy decisions and future research.SEARCH METHODSWe performed an electronic search of literature published between 1 January 2007 and 6 August 2019 in MEDLINE, EMBASE.com, Global Health, DART/TOXLINE and POPLINE. We included empirical research papers that examined human exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides, brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated organic compounds and/or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and considered TTP or fecundability as an outcome. Standardised forms for screening, data extraction and study quality were developed using DistillerSR software, and all reviews were completed in duplicate. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess risk of bias and devised additional quality metrics based on specific methodological features of fecundability studies.OUTCOMESThe search returned 4573 articles, and 28 papers from 19 different studies met inclusion criteria. Among them, four studies measured TTP prospectively, three had data on participants’ prenatal exposure, three examined associations in both male and female partners and one focused exclusively on males. Analyses varied widely in terms of exposure characterisation, precluding a meta-analytic approach. Evidence was strongest for adverse associations of female exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls with TTP, with some additional support for associations of female exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and PFAS with longer TTP. Our review provided little or no support for associations between female exposure to OC pesticides or male exposure to any of the POP groups and TTP.WIDER IMPLICATIONSEvidence suggests that female exposure to at least some POPs may reduce fecundability. Although many of these chemicals are no longer in production, they are still detectable in human biosamples because of their persistence in the environment. Replacement chemicals that are being introduced as older ones are restricted may have similar reproductive consequences. Future studies should examine these newer POPs, assess interactions between POPs and other chemical and non-chemical exposures, investigate how POPs are distributed in and metabolised by the human body and focus on populations that may be disproportionately exposed.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa037
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Plants as source of new therapies for endometriosis: a review of
           preclinical and clinical studies
    • Authors: Meresman G; Götte M, Laschke M.
      Pages: 367 - 392
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDGiven the disadvantages and limitations of current endometriosis therapy, there is a progressive increase in studies focusing on plant-derived agents as a natural treatment option with the intention of achieving high efficiency, avoiding adverse effects and preserving the chance for successful pregnancy. The heterogeneity of these studies in terms of evaluated agents, applied approaches and outcomes illustrates the need for an up-to-date summary and critical view on this rapidly growing field in endometriosis research.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEThis review provides a comprehensive overview of plant-derived agents and natural treatment strategies that are under preclinical or clinical investigation and critically evaluates their potential for future endometriosis therapy.SEARCH METHODSAn English language PubMed literature search was performed using variations of the terms ‘endometriosis’, ‘natural therapy’, ‘herb/herbal’, ‘plant’, ‘flavonoid’, ‘polyphenol’, ‘phytochemical’, ‘bioactive’, ‘Kampo’ and ‘Chinese medicine’. It included both animal and human studies. Moreover, the Clinicaltrials.gov database was searched with the term ‘endometriosis’ for clinical trials on plant-derived agents. No restriction was set for the publication date.OUTCOMESNatural therapies can be assigned to three categories: (i) herbal extracts, (ii) specific plant-derived bioactive compounds and (iii) Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Agents of the first category have been shown to exert anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidant effects on endometrial cells and endometriotic lesions. However, the existing evidence supporting their use in endometriosis therapy is quite limited. The most studied specific plant-derived bioactive compounds are resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, puerarin, ginsenosides, xanthohumol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, quercetin, apigenin, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, wogonin, baicalein, parthenolide, andrographolide and cannabinoids, with solid evidence about their inhibitory activity in experimental endometriosis models. Their mechanisms of action include pleiotropic effects on known signalling effectors: oestrogen receptor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1 and -6, tumour necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, nuclear factor-kappa B, matrix metalloproteinases as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related proteins. Numerous studies suggest that treatment with CHM is a good choice for endometriosis management. Even under clinical conditions, this approach has already been shown to decrease the size of endometriotic lesions, alleviate chronic pelvic pain and reduce postoperative recurrence rates.WIDER IMPLICATIONSThe necessity to manage endometriosis as a chronic disease highlights the importance of identifying novel and affordable long-term safety therapeutics. For this purpose, natural plant-derived agents represent promising candidates. Many of these agents exhibit a pleiotropic action profile, which simultaneously inhibits fundamental processes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, such as proliferation, inflammation, ROS formation and angiogenesis. Hence, their inclusion into multimodal treatment concepts may essentially contribute to increase the therapeutic efficiency and reduce the side effects of future endometriosis therapy.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Oct 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa039
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Endometriosis and cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Kvaskoff M; Mahamat-Saleh Y, Farland L, et al.
      Pages: 393 - 420
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDEndometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation.OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALEWe conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians.SEARCH METHODSWe searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool.OUTCOMESForty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a ‘serious’/‘critical’ risk of bias, and the remaining 23 ‘low’/‘moderate’. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68–2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82–4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82–2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger’s and Begg’s P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24–1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00–1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87–1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97–1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72–1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97–1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24–2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56–0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies.WIDER IMPLICATIONSEndometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies—and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa045
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Will Single-Cell RNAseq decipher stem cells biology in normal and
           cancerous tissues'
    • Authors: Bhartiya D; Kausik A, Singh P, et al.
      Pages: 421 - 421
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa058
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Reply: Will Single-Cell RNAseq decipher stem cells biology in normal and
           cancerous tissues'
    • Authors: Kee K.
      Pages: 423 - 423
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa059
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2020)
       
 
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