Subjects -> ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS (Total: 23 journals)
Showing 1 - 8 of 8 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 112)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Foundations and Trends® in Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Advertising     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Advertising     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Advertising Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Consumer Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interactive Advertising     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Marketing Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Journal of Public Policy & Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Public Relations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Public Relations Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2174-3681
Published by Universidad de Málaga Homepage  [22 journals]
  • Portada / Cover

    • Authors: Isabel Ruiz-Mora
      Abstract: Portada / Cover
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Presentación: Relaciones Públicas en Centroamérica y el Caribe /
           Presentation: Public Relations in Central America and the Caribbean

    • Authors: Ana Almansa-Martínez
      Abstract: Presentación: Relaciones Públicas en Centroamérica y el CaribePresentation: Public Relations in Central America and the Caribbean Hilda María Saladrigas Medina ORCID ID Universidad de La Habana, Cubasaladrigas@fcom.uh.cuMargoth Mena Young   ORCID ID Universidad de Costa Ricamargoth.mena@ucr.ac.cr COORDINADORAS DEL NÚMERO
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Las Salas de Prensa Virtual como herramientas de Relaciones Públicas para
           la comunicación con los medios en Cuba. Un estado de la cuestión /
           Virtual Press Room as Public Relations tool for communication with media
           in Cuba. A state of affairs

    • Authors: Claudia Taboada Castell, Iker Merchán Mota, María José Cantalapiedra González
      Abstract: Las Relaciones Públicas han encontrado en las plataformas digitales un soporte idóneo para generar espacios de contacto e interactividad con sus públicos. El escenario institucional y comunicativo cubano ha visto un resurgir, en la última década, de los gabinetes y direcciones de comunicación que, debido a la digitalización y la convergencia hipermedia, están ampliando sus funciones tradicionales. Las Salas de Prensa Virtual emergen como recursos  para asistir a las instituciones en su afán por construir canales interactivos para el contacto con los medios y la ciudadanía, para gestionar los flujos informativos con los periodistas y propiciar el diálogo con los públicos de interés. La investigación evalúa la integración de estas herramientas en las webs de los órganos principales de la administración central del Estado cubano. La metodología utilizada es un análisis de contenido de corte cuantitativo, con base en un sistema categorial desarrollado y validado para estudios sobre Salas de Prensa Virtual por el Grupo Bitartez del Sistema Universitario Vasco. Los resultados del estudio indican que las SPV en el país caribeño funcionan como contenedor de archivos y contenidos corporativos, exaltando su función documental y divulgativa. Si bien facilitan, y en muchos casos centralizan, el acceso a información relevante y de calidad para el desarrollo de las prácticas periodísticas, adolecen de recursos para un intercambio bidireccional y nutrido entre periodistas y fuentes institucionales. Palabras claves: sala de prensa virtual, relaciones públicas, medios informativos, gabinetes de comunicación, direcciones de comunicación. AbstractPublic Relations have found in digital platforms an ideal device to build contact and interactivity with corporation's audiences. Within the field, new possibilities emerge to address the issue of generating interactivity with communication media, which has always been a core activity of Public Relations offices.  Over the last decade, the Cuban institutional and communicative scenario has witnessed an upsurge of Press Cabinets and Communication Offices, which are expanding their traditional functions mainly due to digitization and hypermedia convergence. Thus, new resources like Virtual Press Rooms aim to assist corporations in their quest to build interactive channels for contact with media and citizenship, to manage information flows with journalists and to promote the dialogue with the stakeholders. These tools are considered a natural evolvement of the traditional routines of communication offices to enhance interactive channels and nurtured relationships with press officers. Many researchers have pointed out the relevant role of Virtual Press Rooms as substitutes for common PR strategies like press kit and mailing.This research analyzes the integration of Virtual Press Rooms within the main organism of Cuban state’s central administration. This research has been carried out using a quantitative content analysis, based on a categorical system validated by the Bitartez Group of the Basque University System for developing similar researches in the field. The study assesses the common features of Virtual Press Rooms in Cuban corporations and its adaptation to Cuban journalistic and communicative landscape. The results of the study show that Cuban Online Press Rooms perform as a container for files and corporate content, while exalting a documentary function. In many cases, the informative role is prioritized, while the contents designed for media are relegated to less visible spaces within the website. Even though they improve the access to relevant and quality information that facilitates journalistic practices, they still lack of a better approach to nurture the interactions between journalists and corporate sources.The whole analysis shows that Cuban corporations do not take full advantage of digital capabilities to nurture the information flows and the interactions between the organization and their stakeholders. Whether it is suitable to assess that Cuban communication`s practices are, indeed, in a process of transition to the digital landscape, it is still relevant to find out if the limitations exposed in the previous paragraphs obey to some strategical and political-ideological conditioning factors.Keywords: virtual press room, Public Relations, communication media, press offices, communication offices.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • “El Caribe que nos une” Relaciones Públicas en Cuba: una mirada desde
           el Turismo / "The Caribbean that unites us". Public relations in Cuba: a
           tourism perspective

    • Authors: Yesenia Cabrera Estrada, Orlando Gutiérrez López
      Abstract: Las Relaciones Públicas han sido clasificadas en 6 etapas desde su surgimiento en Cuba (1956) hasta la fecha (2021). Sin embargo, no es hasta la tercera fase (1990-1998) que comienza el despertar de la disciplina, coincidiendo con la germinación de la especialidad en el escenario político, económico y social en que se encontraba el país en aquellos años. También la década de los 90 marcó pauta en el desarrollo del Turismo en Cuba, a partir de entonces se crearon o ampliaron varias instituciones turísticas como agencias de viajes, entidades hoteleras y extra-hoteleras, incluso el Ministerio de Turismo- en lo adelante MINTUTR-. Asimismo se establecieron varías vías de relaciones, lo cual permitió evidenciar el rol que desempeñó las Relaciones Públicas. Este binomio alcanzó cada vez más importancia, logrando además un sentido bidireccional, al punto que se le atribuye -en cierta medida- a las Relaciones Públicas el crecimiento exponencial del Turismo. Esta herramienta ha sido de vital importancia, ya que está presente en el ciclo de la experiencia del cliente en los 4 momentos claves: atracción, atención, fidelización y retroalimentación; y en donde se empodera la figura del relacionista público desde los graduados en el área comunicacional, hasta los que de alguna manera están en contacto directo con el cliente. En la investigación se realiza un diagnóstico fundamentalmente a partir de revisión bibliográfica y entrevistas con expertos, así mismo se arriban a resultados en los que se despliegan una serie de oportunidades esenciales para la mejora del Turismo mediante las Relaciones Públicas. De manera general,si se realza la confianza en el sector turístico y se tiene en cuenta la situación actual ocasionada por la COVID-19, se logrará el éxito en el desarrollo de las Relaciones Públicas en el Turismo en Cuba.Palabras Clave: Relaciones Públicas, Cuba, TurismoAbstractPublic Relations have been classified into 6 stages from its emergence in Cuba (1956) to date (2021); However, it was not until the third phase (1990-1998) that the discipline began to awaken, coinciding with the germination of the specialty in the political, economic and social scene in which the country found itself in those years. The 90s also set the tone in the development of Tourism in Cuba, from then on several tourist institutions were created or expanded such as travel agencies, hotel and extra-hotel entities, including the Ministry of Tourism - hereinafter MINTUTR- ; Likewise, various avenues of relations were established, which made it possible to demonstrate the role that Public Relations played on the island. This binomial became increasingly important, also achieving a bidirectional sense, to the point that the exponential growth of Tourism is attributed - to a certain extent - to Public Relations. A small diagnosis carried out during the investigative process, showed that there are a set of weaknesses in relation to the current attention of Public Relations in the territory, which need to be combated and take a series of measures for their improvement, much more so, if they are takes into account that the current situation in Cuba was exacerbated by the entire epidemiological scenario caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which results in further distancing from the competition. This tool has been of vital importance, since it is present in the customer experience cycle in the 4 key moments: attraction, attention, loyalty and feedback; and where the figure of the public relations officer is empowered from graduates in the communication area, to those who are in some way in direct contact with the client, since although they do not know the theory, it does add great value to their satisfaction, reaching even turning a product / service that did not deliver on its promise into a positive one. The aforementioned diagnosis is carried out mainly from: bibliographic review, interview with specialists from different tourism companies, business owners and the assessment of experts through a test on the purification or relevance of the problems obtained. From this, two great results are reached where a series of essential opportunities are displayed for the improvement of Public Relations from the tourist perspective. The first summarizes the concept of strong binomial that exists between Tourism and Public Relations, in such a way that, if the found weaknesses were solved, it would be possible to enhance the confidence of the tourism sector and therefore of Public Relations. This section is supported by 4 elements that are pointed out in order to achieve the success of this first task. These fundamentals are: structure, the education of the new public relations officer, interrelationships and competition. The second focuses on the change in behavior that has caused the impact of the pandemic, which puts in value not only the role of Public Relations, but also shows that they are facing a new challenge. In summary, the research makes it clear that, if the aforementioned actions are carried out, success will be achieved in the development of Public Relations in Tourism in Cuba.Keywords: Public Relation, Cuba, Tourism 
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Implementación de una estrategia de comunicación para posicionar las
           buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA): el caso de los productores de piña de
           la zona norte de Costa Rica/ Implementation of a communication strategy to
           adopt good agricultural practices (GAP)

    • Authors: Laura María Brenes-Alfaro, Dulce Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Acuña
      Abstract: En el marco del proyecto “Caracterización de las prácticas agrícolas y el uso y manejo de agroquímicos en el cultivo de piña, para la implementación de buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA)”, se elaboró e implementó una estrategia de comunicación con un componente educativo, relacionado con la agricultura y el ambiente, para impulsar la implementación de las BPA en la zona norte de Costa Rica. La metodología se realizó en tres etapas principales: diagnóstico, planteamiento y ejecución, y evaluación. A partir de los resultados del diagnóstico, se planteó el objetivo general y dos objetivos específicos. Para su logro, se definieron dos tácticas, las cuales constaban de una serie de acciones dirigidas a públicos meta identificados como principales o primarios. A esto se sumaron otras actividades de divulgación, capacitación, y de gestión de crisis.Como resultados, se elaboró una serie de productos informativos y educativos (videos, mensajes a través de WhatsApp, boletines, infografías, entre otros); se realizó gestión de prensa y diversas actividades en las comunidades, como un programa de capacitaciones, talleres en escuelas y una feria de BPA, que promovieron la producción sostenible del cultivo de piña y lograron posicionar las BPA a un amplio porcentaje del público meta.Como conclusiones se extrae que, de las tres prácticas agrícolas más implementadas por los productores, se identificó que dos fueron parte de las promocionadas por la campaña de comunicación, lo cual refleja una incidencia de la estrategia en la mejora de las prácticas agrícolas en la zona y aumentó el número de noticias positivas relacionadas con el cultivo de la piña, antes de la crisis. Una estrategia claramente establecida, cuyas tácticas impulsaron el posicionamiento del centro de investigación que lideraba el proyecto, permitió también enfrentar las diferentes fases de la situación de crisis que se presentó hacia el final del proyecto. Palabras claves: agricultura, ambiente, buenas prácticas agrícolas, estrategia de comunicación, cultivo de piña Abstract Based on the high use of agrochemicals and pressure on ecosystems from agricultural production, as well as complaints and social movements against pineapple crop in the northern region of Costa Rica, a communication strategy was articulated within the framework of the project “Characterization of agricultural practices and the use and management of agrochemicals in pineapple crop, for implementing good agricultural practices (GAP)”. The strategy focused on promoting agricultural and environmental education to help farmers in the implementation of GAPs in the northern region of Costa Rica.There are not many public relations studies about agriculture and rural areas in Latin America. However, public relations can contribute to community development, based on the search for relationships based on trust, mutual understanding, cooperation and a sense of belonging that could lay the foundations for promoting sustainable development.The methodology was carried out in three main stages: diagnosis, approach and execution, and evaluation of the strategy. In the initial stage, one of the main findings was the outstanding negativity in local and national media coverage of pineapple production. Based on the results of the diagnosis, four main problems to be addressed during the implementation stage were identified: 1) overdose of pesticides; 2) bad stubble management; 3) poor soil management; 4) disrespect for aquifer protection zones.For the second stage, we applied two tactics consisting of a set of tasks intended to target audiences identified as main or primary.  Also, a training program and crisis management activities were executed. The final stage consisted of the application of an evaluation questionnaire to 25 farmers participating in the training program.The results were several activities developed in the communities, including a series of informative and educational products (videos, key messages through WhatsApp, newsletters, infographics, a guide for the identification of pests and diseases in the pineapple crop); press management; workshops at local schools; and a GAPs Fair to promote the sustainable production of pineapple. The strategy promoted a training program, consisting of 34 talks, which was attended by 240 people: farmers, university students, agricultural products and tools sales personnel, people from cooperatives and interested members of the public. According to the final evaluation, 68 % of the training participants stated that their ability to produce pineapple using GAP improved during the last years; 40 % stated that environmental balance was the main benefit of implementing GAPs in pineapple crop, followed by economic savings (24 %). This shows that the message related to the environment was the prevailing one, consistent with the environmental and educational communication proposed by the strategy.As a conclusion, of the three most implemented agricultural practices by pineapple farmers, we identified that two were part of those promoted by the communication campaign. Thus, the project’s communication strategy had a strong incidence in the improvement of agricultural practices in the area and increased the number of positive notes related to the pineapple crop, before the crisis. We were able to impact the local production of pineapple through a clearly established strategy. Also, this allowed us to face the different phases of the crisi...
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Efectos del Covid-19 en el sector emprendedor costarricense / Effects of
           Covid-19 in the Costa Rican entrepreneurial sector

    • Authors: Laura Arce Chaves, Ramsés Alfaro Mora
      Abstract: Este estudio buscó investigar el impacto, las respuestas y demandas de apoyo en relación con recursos humanos, económicos, tecnológicos y estrategias de Relaciones Públicas centradas en comunicación digital como motor de comercialización de productos y servicios, necesarias ante la crisis provocada por el Covid-19. Los resultados mostraron información de un colectivo de emprendedores procedentes de bases de datos de aliados estratégicos al equipo de investigación, tales como cámaras gremiales y colegios profesionales además de empleadores de la Universidad Latina de Costa Rica, que de forma voluntaria dieron respuesta al instrumento digital de 36 preguntas validado a través del criterio experto y un piloto de prueba, se excluyeron aquellas empresas o emprendimientos que respondieron entre el 3 abril y el 7 de mayo del 2020.Se obtuvieron 138 respuestas, de emprendimientos localizados principalmente en la provincia de San José distribuidos de la siguiente manera, 50%, 84,7% de micro y pequeñas empresas y 9,3% de medianas y grandes, ubicadas en su mayoría en una etapa de desarrollo, el resto de los emprendimientos participantes se ubicaron en las etapas de inicio y madurez en su mayoría y cubren una amplia gama de sectores de actividad. El mayor número de emprendedores participantes se encontraron en el rango de edad de 30 a 40 años 38%. Finalmente, se constata que los efectos directos e indirectos del Covid19 en el sector emprendedor de la economía costarricense provocaron 55,7% de recortes en la jornada laboral como práctica en sus negocios para enfrentar la crisis y una disminución en 67% en el precio de sus productos o servicios, experimentando una transformación en la gestión y desarrollo de estrategias de Relaciones Públicas centradas principalmente digitales que hasta antes de esta fecha no eran habituales. Palabras clave: Relaciones Públicas, emprendimiento, COVID-19, desempleo, e-comerce, desarrollo económico y social AbstractThis study seeks to investigate the impact, responses and demands for support, in the face of the crisis caused by Covid 19, by entrepreneurs and organizations in the economic sectors, as well as the strategies considered to have the greatest impact on their business and that could consider necessary. The study took information from a survey that obtained a total of 138 responses, mainly located in the province of San José (50%), more than half (84.7%) include micro and small businesses and a (9, 3%) medium and large companies mostly located in a development stage in which the company achieves a degree of positioning in the market that guarantees its sustainability over time, the rest are located in the beginning and maturity stages mostly, they cover a wide range of sectors of activity. The largest number of participating entrepreneurs was found in the age range of 30 to 40 years (38%). Thus, it is found that the direct and indirect effects of covid 19 in the entrepreneurial sector of various sectors of the Costa Rican economy caused (55.7%) cuts in working hours as a practice in their businesses to face the crisis and a decrease in (67%) in the price of their products or services, experiencing a transformation in the management of business models that until before this date were usual. It is evident that the effects of the pandemic caused by COVID-19 had a strong impact on the Costa Rican productive sector, and the need for support from the businesspersons who have been affected is evident.Furthermore, for a country of 5.5 million inhabitants, the pandemic leaves more than 400 thousand people unemployed (16.4% + 11.1% underemployed), that is, 92 thousand more than before COVID 19. The worst hit groups are those of women and youth, leading them and the other unemployed to migrate to informality. 1,455 micro (1-5 employees), small (6-30 employees) and medium (31-100) closed. These companies have little chance of reopening, having to increase the figures of informality and in many cases, 2% of GDP in smuggling and illicit trade.The Costa Rican government must work to support new ventures that allow the insertion of new businesses in the formal sector, leading innovation, and competitive proposals to face new challenges.Access to soft loans, improvements in social security rates and differentiated fees for taxation should be part of the solutions. In addition, ensure that the minimum contributory rate of social security is modified for the payment for part-time work, so that the same companies hire personnel based on the hours worked and not for a single rate.It should be considered that Costa Rica is already part of the OCDE and that is going through a historic electoral process (26 presidential candidates), to put this problem in the sights of the candidates. The joint work between private sector, government, financial and educational institutions is a must. Costa Rica is walking at the edge of falling into an economic default and helping these initiatives could be a magic recipe for the economy. Keywords: Public Relations, entrepreneurship, COVID-19, unemployment, e-commerce, economic and social development
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Medición y evaluación de la comunicación en empresas seleccionadas del
           gremio de comunicadores de Cancún / Measurement and evaluation of
           communication in selected companies of the Cancun communicators union

    • Authors: Magda Rivero Hernández
      Abstract: Este trabajo indagó acerca de cómo usan la medición y evaluación algunos profesionales seleccionados del gremio de comunicadores en Cancún agrupados en la Asociación de Relaciones Públicas del Caribe Mexicano (ARPCM). A partir del empleo de métodos como la revisión bibliográfica y documental, y una entrevista semiestructurada a 22 sujetos, se conocieron las prácticas, indicadores y herramientas que utilizan para evaluar. Los resultados arrojaron que ellos le dan la importancia que merecen a estos temas, pero no están totalmente satisfechos con la forma en que lo llevan a la práctica. Por otra parte, cuentan con indicadores de evaluación asociados a sus objetivos de comunicación, pero la prevalencia está en la medición de productos y efectos, en lugar de resultados e impactos de la comunicación; así como ponen el foco en informar sobre actividades en lugar de metas, objetivos y resultados que se correlacionen con los de la organización. En momentos de la llamada “nueva normalidad” se han priorizado las acciones, los mensajes, los nuevos medios, pero aún queda por hacer en el mejoramiento de la evaluación de los mismos, por lo que en lo adelante, habrá que poner el énfasis en ello. Por todo lo anterior, se concluye que todavía queda un tramo largo por recorrer en este sentido por parte de los entrevistados. Palabras clave: Medición y evaluación, indicadores, productos, resultados, impacto Abstract This paper inquired about how some selected professionals from the guild of communicators in Cancún grouped in the Association of Public Relations of Mexican Caribbean (ARPCM for its initials in Spanish) use measurement and evaluation. The research approach is qualitative, since the interest was to deepen in the phenomenon studied. A bibliographic and documentary review was used to form the theorical basis, as well as a semi-structured interview conducted virtually (which was recorded and subsequently transcribed) to a non-probabilistic purposive sample. Twenty-two subjects belonging to the ARPCM were chosen who met the following conditions: to be an active member of the Association in June 2021, that the terms Public Relations, Communication or Institutional Image appeared in the title of their position, and that they had been in the position for more than three years. Out of a population of 70 active members, 22 were selected: 2 belonging to civil associations, 5 to consulting agencies, 2 to hotels, 2 to restaurants, 3 to recreational parks, 2 to real estate agencies. 2 to travel agencies and 4 representing universities, from which 13 were women and 9 were men. Among the issues on which the interview focused were their conception of measurement and evaluation, whether they were doing it, and their satisfaction with the way in which they were currently carrying out this measurement and evaluation process. Also, there were inquiries about the indicators they used and if they were associated with their communication objectives, the main methods and the use given to the results, as well as the evaluation of the internal communication, indicators employed, among others.  The results showed that they give the importance that these issues deserved, but are not completely satisfied with the way they put them into practice. On the other hand, they have evaluation indicators associated with their communication objectives, but the prevalence is on the measurement of products and effects, instead of results and impacts of communication; as well as they focus on reporting activities instead of goals, objectives and results that are correlated with those of the organization. At times of the so-called “new normality”, priority has been given to actions, messages, new media, but there is still something to be done for improvement in their evaluation; which is why, in the future, emphasis will have to be placed on this. Particularly, in improving knowledge about planning, goals, objectives, metrics, indicators, and their scope, as well as the possibilities to determine effects on the organization´s audiences. In view of the above, it is concluded that there is still a long way to go for the guild of communicators in Cancún in this regard.Keywords: Measurement and evaluation, indicators, products, results and impact 
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • La evaluación de lo público: prácticas y comunicación en las
           instituciones públicas costarricenses / Evaluation of public matters:
           practices and communication in Costa Rican public institutions

    • Authors: Diana Gabriela Acosta Salazar
      Abstract: La práctica de la evaluación en el sistema estatal costarricense está regida por un entramado normativo y procedimental exhaustivo. Sin embargo, esta plataforma no ha regido necesariamente la ejecución de la comunicación en las instituciones. De acuerdo con un estudio realizado en instituciones costarricenses entre 2019-2020,  primero con encuesta entre las unidades de comunicación (43) y luego con entrevistas a jefaturas de planificación de las instituciones e instituciones rectoras (22), se identificaron prácticas poco rigurosas de evaluación en las unidades de comunicación estatales, donde no existe obligación de realizar planificación operativa de sus actividades anuales, de aplicar evaluaciones sistemáticas, ni tampoco están obligadas a elaborar informes sobre las labores ejecutadas. Esta praxis de las unidades está permeada por el ejercicio macro institucional que utiliza matrices y formatos cuantitativos que registran cumplimiento más no evalúan efectos, cambios o impacto de sus actividades, lo que resta visibilidad al valor público que aporta el sector estatal, a lo que se suma igualmente el trabajo que se realiza desde las unidades de comunicación. La verdadera evaluación en el Estado queda circunscrita a pocos proyectos gubernamentales inscritos dentro del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y no a una acción cotidiana en todo el sistema estatal. Este conjunto de prácticas produce poco o ninguna influencia de las unidades de comunicación en el proceso de toma de decisiones institucional, lo que les resta protagonismo estratégico y coloca sus actividades en un nivel netamente operativo.Palabras claves: relaciones públicas, medición, resultados, gobierno costarricense, planificaciónAbstractThe evaluation was not until a little more than two decades ago a relevant matter for public activity, concentrated in execution and guided by intuition, public approval or some data to record success in government work. This story has changed due to an increasingly demanding national and international context requiering  transparency of public actions, efficiency in activities that each government in turn prioritizes, and of course, the effectiveness of what is proposed. The practice of evaluation in the Costa Rican state system is governed by an exhaustive normative and procedural framework. However, this platform has not necessarily ruled the execution of communication in the institutions. According to a study performed out in Costa Rican institutions between 2019-2020, first with a mapping of the communication units carried out with a survey (43) examining their operation, projects they execute and some evaluation practices they carry out; lack of rigorous evaluation practices were identified. Furthermore, these units there has no obligation to carry out operational planning of their annual activities, to apply systematic evaluations, nor are they obliged to prepare reports on the work carried out. Subsequently, an inquiry was conducted through interviews (22) with planning heads of the institutions and governing bodies to learn about the evaluation regulations, the formats and platforms used, inter-institutional link for evaluation and the scope of the mandatory nature of this function. The results suggest that the praxis of the units is dominated by the macro-institutional planning exercise that uses matrices and quantitative formats that record compliance but do not evaluate effects, changes, or impact of their activities, which reduces visibility of the public value provided by state sector, and to which is also added the work accomplish by the communication units. The true evaluation in the State is limited to a few government projects registered within the National Development Plan and not to a daily action in the entire state system. Some of the planning offices even indicate that neither planning, and even less evaluation, constitute a resource that is considered as strategic, conversely, they are seen more as an operational, compliance and organization resource, and for the different areas the filling of matrices and formats to record the execution of their tasks is an additional burden. In fact, one of the difficulties raised by these offices is the planning of their annual programs with objectives that can be evaluated, a position that is also recognized by the Contraloria General de la Republica (Comptroller General of the Republic), which indicates the absence, in a relevant percentage, of objectives in public institution programs. For the communication units, this set of practices produces inertia in the communicative action, little or no influence of the communication units in the institutional decision-making process, and an operational focus on execution, which reduces their strategic role. It is also clear that there is a predominance in the use of techniques and tools for reporting results in communication that does not correspond to evaluation, measurement is used with greater emphasis, and even in some cases the use of reportings which not apply to neither of the two processes.Keywords: public relations, measurement, results, Costa Rican government, planning
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Producción científica en Relaciones Públicas a través de las revistas
           de mayor impacto del Caribe Latinoamericano / Scientific production in
           Public Relations through the journals with the greatest impact in the
           Latin American Caribbean

    • Authors: Rocío Chamizo Sánchez, Ruth Gómez de Travesedo Rojas, Marta Gil Ramírez
      Abstract: Las Relaciones Públicas constituyen un campo profesional que viene experimentando una gran expansión en América Latina (Arzuaga-Williams, 2019). Su análisis a nivel académico es, sin embargo, incipiente y se focaliza más hacia su carácter instrumental (Cuenca et al., 2019), que hacia el examen de la disciplina como ciencia. Los estudios bibliométricos son una eficiente herramienta para conocer el volumen y la calidad de la producción científica, pero estos son aún escasos en relación al análisis de las relaciones públicas en el ámbito académico en general (Ramos et. al, 2014), y en el latinoamericano en particular. Esta investigación propone determinar cuál es la situación de la producción científica sobre relaciones públicas que proyectan las revistas con mayor índice de impacto del Caribe latinoamericano. Desde una perspectiva bibliométrica, se emplea el análisis de contenido para examinar los artículos publicados por las revistas Comunicación y Sociedad (México), Palabra Clave y Signo y Pensamiento (Colombia), en el periodo de 2010 a 2020. Los resultados apuntan, en sintonía con investigaciones previas (Castillo-Esparcia et al., 2020; Navarro-Beltrán et al., 2020), a una insuficiente producción científica que logre posicionar a las relaciones públicas al mismo nivel que otras ramas de las Ciencias de la Comunicación. El uso particular de la terminología en la producción científica caribeña, que excluye la expresión “relaciones públicas” como referente, puede ser un factor determinante en la menor visibilidad internacional de este tipo de investigaciones. Al margen de la todavía irrelevante posición de la producción científica, los hallazgos permiten perfilar su caracterización, que se define por: la prevalencia de autoría colectiva sin especial distinción del sexo de los firmantes, la comunicación organizacional y política como principales focos de atención, y la preponderancia de estudios empíricos de carácter cualitativo. Palabras clave: relaciones públicas, comunicación, bibliometría, revistas científicas, Caribe Abstract Scientific production in Latin America and the Caribbean has experienced great growth in recent years(Álvarez-Muñoz y Pérez-Montoro, 2016; Santa y Herrero, 2010), due in part to the increase in publicinvestment in science in these countries and the indexing of their journals in global (Scopus or Wos) andregional (Latindex or Redalyc) databases of bibliographic references. However, in communication, the publication of academic articles is still embryonic. There are several academic studies (Flores-García y Becerril-García, 2020; López- Ornelas et al., 2017; Rogel-Salazar et al., 2017) that highlight the scarce of disclosure of scientific knowledge in this region, remarking the limited presence of communication journals published in Latin America and indexed in databases. In the specific area of public relations, the conceptualization and recognition of this discipline in the academic and professional field has been increasing since the mid-twentieth century. However, despite the progress experienced, the small number of existing studies on the subject in these journals, justify this investigation line. In this sense, this research, within the framework of bibliometric studies, proposes to determine the position occupied by public relations in the academic production about communication of the main journals of the Latin American Caribbean in the last ten years (2010-2020); as well as analyzing the main characteristics of these publications by examining the areas of knowledge of the published texts, the institutions from which they come or its authorship, among other aspects such as the object of study and the methodological procedure used in the research. The scientific journals that make up the sample (Comunicación y Sociedad, from Mexico, Palabra Clave and Signo y Pensamiento, both from Colombia) have been selected based on representativeness criteria such as the impact index in the Scopus bibliographic database and the geographical scope of the Latin American Caribbean. The results indicate that the discipline of public relations is marginal in the overall scientific production in communication in the Latin American Caribbean. Most of the texts published by the journals with the highest impact index in the region focus on fields related to communication but are far removed from the specific area of public relations. However, it is noticeable that in recent years greater attention has been paid to this discipline, with an increase in scientific production in the period between 2016 and 2020.The findings obtained also allow us to establish a profile of the scientific production on public relations disseminated in the decade from 2010 to 2020 by the leading journals in the Latin American Caribbean. A collective authorship, balanced in terms of the sex of the signatories, mainly from universities in Latin America and Spain, and the use of empirical approaches from a qualitative perspective, define the type of academic production analysed. Despite the limitations that this research presents when it comes to extrapolating the results to the whole of the scientific production on public relations in territories othe...
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Museus Corporativos como Ferramentas de Comunicação Interna no Curso da
           Memória Organizacional / Corporate museums as tools for Internal
           communication in the orientation of Organizational Memory

    • Authors: Jardeline Eunice dos Santos, Fernando Luiz Nobre Cavalcante
      Abstract: ResumoIdentifica o potencial dos museus corporativos como iniciativas de memória organizacional, bem assim a contribuição desses espaços para a comunicação interna como ativos de fortalecimento da cultura de uma empresa. Nesta pesquisa qualitativa, realizou-se um estudo bibliográfico, no qual foram estruturados em tabela os resultados de aplicação de questionário, bem como se procedeu à análise de dados e informações institucionais coletadas sobre seis museus corporativos, que pertencem e são operados por tradicionais organizações privadas, instaladas há mais de 40 anos em Fortaleza e municípios vizinhos, no Estado do Ceará. Dentre as contribuições oferecidas para os estudos acadêmicos e atuação profissional, estão: uma proposta inédita, ainda não encontrada na literatura, de classificação de potencial explorado pela área de comunicação interna (baixo, bom e alto); possibilidades de uso estratégico dessa memória organizacional pelas áreas de comunicação interna, relações públicas e RH, como em aderir a projetos de isenções de impostos; além da relação direta e, então estratégica, dos projetos de museus corporativos à alta gestão das iniciativas estudadas.Palavras-chave: Memória Organizacional, Museus Corporativos, Comunicação Interna, Cultura OrganizacionalAbstractThis work aims to identify the potential of corporate museums as organizational memory initiatives, as well as the contribution of these spaces to internal communication as assets to strengthen a company's culture. In this qualitative research, we conducted a bibliographic study, in which we identified in the literature since the need for the feeling of belonging to society; the advent of the “memory culture” phenomenon; the formalization of the past in places of memory; and the interface of these social movements within organizations - with the rise of corporate museums. As an intersection of structuring the past, in Brazil and in the world, there are historical periods marked by changes in power and political freedoms. To understand and identify this process, we analyzed six corporate museums, which are owned and operated by traditional private organizations, installed over 40 years ago in Fortaleza and neighboring municipalities, in the state of Ceará. Thus, we structured the results of applying a semi-structured questionnaire in a table, which was sent by e-mail to those responsible for these memory spaces. The questions were constructed, aligned with the theoretical concepts presented and in search of the specific objectives to identify: the potential contribution of these corporate museums as a tool of internal communication in the management of people; understand the role of these spaces in the development and consolidation of the sense of identification and belonging of the internal public, through the transmission of institutional values. We also structured the analysis of data and institutional information collected in the table, characterizing each museum. Thus, by mapping the type of collection, the place where they work and the directions of the narrative exposed in the analyzed spaces, it is possible to dimension perspectives for the questioning of an organization, after all, “Museum, for what' ”. In other words, what is the intention of each memory space, what message do want to strengthen with visitors, for example. Still, among the contributions presented for academic studies and professional performance, are: an unprecedented proposal, not found in the literature, for the classification of potential explored by the internal communication area (low, good and high). Regarding this classification, it is worth mentioning that we were guided by the purpose of finding perspectives for academic studies, as well as for professional performance in organizational communication, not having the objective, therefore, to tax any evidence found, right or wrong, but rather to give light to the opportunities already understood and explored by the internal communication, human resources and public relations sectors of one organization, but not yet strengthened in another. In our studies, we have also identified the possibilities of strategic use of this organizational memory by the areas of internal communication, public relations and HR, such as tax exemptions, in addition to the direct relationship of corporate museum projects to the high management of the initiatives studied. The literature and the studied spaces also showed us that the memory of a company, as well as its organizational culture, can be seen as a strategic element, of affirmation and positioning in the market in times of great changes. Understanding the internal public and its potential to multiply organizational culture is also a possible and necessary look at companies memory projects. We also bring the contribution that, in order to be strategic in strengthening ties and for the perpetuation of institutional values ​​in the internal environment, the corporate museum needs to be aligned with the effort to consolidate the collective memory of the social context in which the organization is inserted.Keywords: Organizational Memory, Corporate Museums, Internal Communication, Organizational Culture
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Comunicación corporativa durante la pandemia Un análisis de las portadas
           de la prensa económica española durante el 2020 / Corporate
           communication during the pandemic An analysis of the front pages of the
           Spanish business press in 2020

    • Authors: Francisco Leslie López del Castillo Wilderbeek
      Abstract: La pandemia por la COVID-19 llegada en 2020 ha afectado a todo el panorama mediático y, por tanto, también a la comunicación corporativa. El propósito de esta investigación ha sido analizar los temas principales de portada de los tres diarios económicos españoles durante el 2020 para evaluar si la pandemia ha condicionado la comunicación corporativa de las organizaciones y si procede, en qué medida ha sido. El análisis se ha llevado a cabo aplicando análisis de contenido de las portadas en medios económicos españoles de referencia: quality papers (Alvarado, 2008). Los resultados obtenidos señalan que la crisis sanitaria ha absorbido los temas principales de las portadas de los diarios económicos hasta dejar sólo la mitad de cobertura disponible para otros temas. Dentro de este fenómeno de apropiación los efectos en el empleo tuvieron el mayor protagonismo con un 10% de presencia en todos los titulares analizados. Por otro lado, en el espacio no ocupado por la pandemia se observó que la cobertura sobre la fusión Caixabank – Bankia fue la más relevante en comparación con la cobertura del resto de organizaciones. La conclusión más importante que puede extraerse de esta investigación es que la comunicación corporativa de las organizaciones no desapareció durante el 2020 pese a los estragos de la pandemia aunque sí se redujo en un 50%. Este hallazgo indica que se intensificó la presión para que las organizaciones pudieran trasladar sus mensajes. De la misma forma la cobertura lograda en las portadas mantuvo un enfoque empresarial y no fue un camino para la difusión de los esfuerzos en RSC. Palabras clave: pandemia, COVID-19, comunicación corporativa, portadas, medios económicos, titularesAbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic that arrived in 2020 has affected the entire media landscape and corporate communication. This research has analysed the main topics on the front pages of the three Spanish economic newspapers during 2020: Expansión, Cinco Días and El Economista. The evaluation of the main front page topics has made it possible to quantify the extent to which the pandemic has displaced the coverage devoted to corporate communications in organizations. In addition, it has been possible to observe which organizations have successfully spreading their messages and which specific issues have been most related to the pandemic.The results obtained show that the health crisis has absorbed the main topics of the front pages of the economic newspapers, leaving only half of the coverage available for other topics. Within this phenomenon of absorption, the effects on employment had the greatest prominence with a 10% presence in all the headlines analysed. The coverage on unemployment is especially important if it is related to the tourism sector, which was the industry with the highest presence on the front pages (36.6% of all topics categorized as COVID-19). The significant presence of both topics indirectly points to the important weight of tourism in the Spanish economy. However, it is not possible to state that all related topics were negative because there was also coverage focused on economic recovery (4.4%).On the other hand, in the space not occupied by the pandemic, it was observed that the coverage of the Caixabank - Bankia merger was the most important in comparison with the coverage of the rest of the organizations. This business initiative achieved 2.65% of front-page topics since the pandemic began, in a scenario that was very limited. In general, mergers and acquisitions were the most important topic in 2020, as the second most covered specific topic was the failed merger between Banc Sabadell and BBVA. Telefonica was also among the companies with the most front-page coverage, although with a greater diversity of topics. The rest of the companies analysed also showed a wide variety of corporate topics as dividend management, cash flow movements and business diversification.It was also noted that the coverage achieved on the front pages maintained a business focus and wasn’t a vehicle for disseminating CSR efforts related to the pandemic. This is a very significant result because much recent literature has argued that during the pandemic, CSR has played an important role in the communication strategies of organizations. However, it seems that these actions have not been enough important to get a prominent position on the front page of Spanish business newspapers.The most important conclusion that can be drawn from this research is that corporate communication by organizations did not disappear during 2020 despite the ravages of the pandemic but was reduced by 50%. This reduction also shows a very important effect to take into consideration. During the year 2020 organizations had to work much harder to be in the spotlight even though the economic coverage of the analysed media did not completely disappear because of the pandemic. Keywords: pandemic, COVID-19, corporate communication, front page, business press, headlines
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Directivos ante situaciones de crisis. El uso de LinkedIn por parte de la
           CEO de Metro de Madrid durante la borrasca Filomena / Senior managers in
           crisis situations. The use of LinkedIn by the CEO of Metro de Madrid
           during the storm Filomena

    • Authors: Juan Pedro Molina Cañabate, Guillem Suau-Gomila
      Abstract: La intensa nevada provocada por la borrasca Filomena paralizó España los primeros días de enero de 2021 y provocó pérdidas millonarias en una economía ya de por sí muy debilitada por la crisis del COVID-19. Tan sólo en Madrid, el consistorio de la ciudad estimó que las pérdidas rondarían los 1.398 millones de euros. La ciudad sufrió un fuerte colapso, con problemas de movilidad y abastecimiento. Sólo algunos servicios, como Metro, siguieron funcionando. La consejera delegada de esta Compañía, Silvia Roldán, escribió un post diario en LinkedIn para explicar a los usuarios a qué problemas se enfrentaban día a día y cómo se solucionaban. El presente artículo hace una revisión teórica de la comunicación de crisis e investiga de forma empírica y semántica las publicaciones de Roldán, mediante un análisis de contenido y una entrevista en profundidad. El objetivo de la investigación es doble. Primero: poner de manifiesto que, en un contexto de crisis, la comunicación directa entre un directivo o directiva con sus públicos reduce la incertidumbre y ayuda a recuperar el equilibrio institucional. Segundo: hallar un modelo paradigmático en este tipo de comunicaciones y de gestión de relaciones con stakeholders específicos.Este trabajo forma parte del proyecto de investigación "Comunicación de crisis y emergencias en medios sociales. Estudio de su uso en España y diseño de protocolos de información para instituciones y medios de comunicación (COMCRISIS - PID2019-109064GB-I00)" financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación del Gobierno de España.Palabras clave: Comunicación, Metro Madrid, LinkedIn, crisis, FilomenaAbstractIn January 2021, the storm Filomena paralysed Spain. One of the most affected cities was Madrid, which suffered a general collapse for several days. Metro de Madrid (underground railway company and one of the most popular public services in the city) continued to provide service to its users. Silvia Roldan (CEO of Metro de Madrid) wrote a daily post on LinkedIn to explain to users what problems they were facing, how they were being solved and how the service was ensured.Metro de Madrid is an underground railway company that was inaugurated in 1919. It extends over 294 kilometres distributed in 302 stations. It employs 7,000 persons. Other data of Metro de Madrid are: 2,400 cars, 8,758 security cameras, 1,263 vending machines, 2,424 tele-indicators, 1,703 escalators, 541 lifts and 5,386 intercoms. "LinkedIn is a social network that has a great attraction, you are addressing a professional audience, which judges you on the basis of the work you do", says the CEO of Metro de Madrid in an interview conducted to illustrate this research.This research is based on two hypotheses: 1) In a crisis context, direct communication between a company's executive and stakeholders reduces uncertainty and helps to restore institutional equilibrium; and 2) It is possible to find a paradigmatic model in this type of communication with specific stakeholders.This research carried out a quantitative and qualitative analysis using a content analysis of Roldan’s posts on LinkedIn during this crisis and an interview with the CEO of Metro de Madrid. This case gives us some lessons in communication as main results. LinkedIn is an optimal platform for crisis communication, especially if we want to transmit moderately long messages, with nuances, aimed at a professional audience willing to listen and dialogue.Roldan’s colloquial and friendly tone used in her posts are justified in this case (Filomena crisis). She is CEO of the company, direct witness of the facts and responsible for the solutions that are implemented. She uses the first-person narrative, which produces closeness and is a good remedy against uncertainty. It complements institutional messages, transmitted through institutional media and channels, which use a more aseptic and formal tone. The use of photographs in the published posts establishes an emotional links between the author of the post and readers. Readers feel like a direct witness of the facts, especially when the photograph is a subjective close-up.LinkedIn, despite not being Metro de Madrid's main communication channel, is a useful and valuable platform for communicating in emergency situations, even in a more personal and less institutional way than other platforms. Perhaps its greatest virtue is to target a professional and specialised audience, which can be proactive in the resolution of an emergency. The use of LinkedIn in emergency situations is still under-researched compared to other social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp or Instagram.This article is part of the competitive research project: “Crisis and emergency communication in Social Media. Study of its use in Spain and design of information protocols for institutions and media (COMCRISIS - PID2019-109064GB-I00)” granted and funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of the Spanish Government. Keywords: Communication, Metro Madrid, LinkedIn, crisis, Filomena
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • A comunicação pública digital da Câmara Municipal de Itapevi no
           Facebook e as possibilidades de letramento político / The digital public
           communication of the Municipality of Itapevi on Facebook and the
           possibilities of political literacy

    • Authors: Marcelo Simões Damasceno, Luiz Alberto De Farias
      Abstract: O estudo objetiva apresentar uma análise da página da Câmara Municipal de Itapevi – São Paulo (Brasil), observando dez das 683 postagens realizadas entre janeiro e dezembro de 2019, quando o perfil da instituição teve um crescimento no número de seguidores, para observar a existência de elementos do letramento político na comunicação praticada pela instituição. A investigação está concentrada em identificar elementos que possam contribuir com conhecimento do cidadão e grupos sobre o processo legislativo, participação, cidadania, entre outros temas centrais que atraíram a atenção dos seguidores na página. O levantamento quantiqualitativo indica que a página da Câmara possui um potencial para fomentar o debate de pautas do interesse público e de estimular a participação cívica das pessoas. Palavras clave: Câmara Municipal de Itapevi, Letramento Político, Comunicação Pública, Redes Sociais, FacebookAbstractThe following study seeks to understand how the Facebook page of the City Council of Itapevi, Brazil, made political literacy possible through political education, discussions on the political agenda, and mobilization in its communication on the social network. The corpus of the analysis brings together 683 publications made in 2019, a period in which the page showed an increase in audience compared to the previous year (2018). The quantitative research, though with a qualitative look, identified posts that made political knowledge possible to the citizen, as well as interviews to understand the use of the social network by the institution. An appropriate analysis to understand the use of the network by the public body, since the latest survey by DataSenado shows that 74% of Brazilians have or have had a social network - Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, or Twitter. A significant number, especially when compared to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), from 2019, indicates that two-thirds of the country's population (69.8%) have an internet connection. These numbers drive the research of communicologists and political scientists, who seek to understand how this communication network is being part of people's daily lives. Mainly taking into account that the internet, and especially social networks, are becoming a space where different people connect, share content and participate in the political debate a few clicks away. The internet's expansion in Brazil and the number of people connected to networks made different public bodies create profiles on social networks to interact with people. A new channel that aims to establish a rapprochement with this digital audience, ensure transparency in management and encourage the participation of everyone in the decision-making process. As occurred at the City Council of Itapevi (CMI, in Portuguese). However, to guarantee a minimum of success in this digital endeavor, the information available on the networks must be of public interest and its content must be accessible, allowing citizens to understand how public authorities work and to know the process of choosing representatives. A knowledge that can be shared with the citizen through political literacy, as highlighted by Cosson (2016:  51): “these are knowledge related to the functioning of the State, with an emphasis on democratic mechanisms, which involves, on one hand, a knowledge about elections, parties and institutions, and on the other hand, the rights and duties of the citizen”. Therefore, the article was divided into four parts, in addition to the final considerations. The first seeks to clarify the difference between public and political communication; the second addresses how Facebook has supported CMI's communication strategy. Furthermore, there is a literature review on political literacy. Finally, the objective of this study: an analysis of the possibility of political literacy through publications made on the CMI profile on Facebook, in 2019, which concludes that the page is a virtual space for debate and public expression in the city, with growth potential for the promotion of citizenship and political knowledge. The study is based on publications in the areas of public communication (Matos, 2000; Marques, 2011; Correia, Ferreira y Santo, 2010), social networks (Recuero, 2010; Ferrari, 2010, Silva, 2017), and political literacy (Cosson, 2020; Biesta, Lawly e Kelly 2009).Keywords: Itapevi City Council, Political literacy, Public communication, Social networks, Facebook  
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
  • Reseña del libro A Transnational History of the Internet in Central
           America, 1985–2000: Networks, Integration and Development/ Book Review A
           Transnational History of the Internet in Central America, 1985–2000:
           Networks, Integration and Development

    • Authors: Margarita Marroquín Parducci
      Abstract: “In an era in which the need to protect borders has often been defended, remembering a historical moment that sought to overcome them is also, in essence, a political act in itself” (Siles, 2020: 10). Ignacio Siles, catedrático en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), nos presenta un acto político hecho libro que contextualiza lo que ocurría en Centroamérica durante los años en que se fue facilitando la conexión a internet en la región. Siles es doctor en Medios, Tecnología y Sociedad por la Universidad de Northwestern, tras una maestría en Comunicación por la Universidad de Montreal, y una licenciatura en Ciencias de la Comunicación por la Universidad de Costa Rica, donde actualmente es profesor.

      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
       
 
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