Subjects -> ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS (Total: 23 journals)
Showing 1 - 8 of 8 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 203)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Foundations and Trends® in Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advertising     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Advertising     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Advertising Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Consumer Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Interactive Advertising     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Marketing Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Journal of Public Policy & Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Public Relations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Opinião Pública     Open Access  
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Public Relations Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
RAE-eletrônica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Foundations and Trends® in Marketing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.448
Number of Followers: 18  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-0753 - ISSN (Online) 1555-0761
Published by Now Publishers Inc Homepage  [29 journals]
  • Aggregate Advertising Expenditure in the U.S. Economy: Measurement and
           Growth Issues in the Digital Era

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      Abstract: The two components of the advertising industry – the creative sector that develops and produces messages, and the communications sector that transmits messages via various media – have each been greatly affected by advances in creative design and communications technologies. As the media composition of advertising has changed in the last century for both local and national advertising – from newspapers, outdoor and radio advertising to network and cable television, and most recently to internet and digital media – so too has been transformed the very concept of advertising, its functionality and its measurement.We compare four sources of annual nominal U.S. aggregate advertising expenditure data – from the public sector Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Census Bureau Survey of Service Industries, and the private sector McCann-Erickson and Magna Global advertising agencies – that are available over various time periods. In nominal terms, we estimate the elasticity of advertising expenditures with respect to Gross Domestic Product, and find that this elasticity appears to have increased substantially beginning in the late 1990s – from about 1.4 to 1.9. The timing of this structural break coincides roughly with the decline of print, radio and network and cable television, and the dramatic increase in digital and internet-based advertising.To understand the forces underlying this structural break in nominal advertising expenditures, data on media-specific advertising prices are needed, thereby converting nominal to real advertising. However, currently annual U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index data on digital and many other advertising media prices are only available beginning in 2010. The availability of media-specific quality-constant price indexes would not only enable researchers to trace more completely the recent impact of digital and internet advertising, but would also facilitate contemporary and longstanding issues to be addressed surrounding the measurement of advertising effects, including how variations in the durability of response to advertising across media are related to inter-media price differentials, and why heterogeneity among firms and industries may arise with respect to the procyclicality of advertising policies.Suggested CitationAlvin J. Silk and Ernst R. Berndt (2021), "Aggregate Advertising Expenditure in the U.S. Economy: Measurement and Growth Issues in the Digital Era", Foundations and Trends® in Marketing: Vol. 15: No. 1, pp 1-85.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +020
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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