Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

MACHINERY (34 journals)

Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and TrendsĀ® in Electronic Design Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Terramechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Machine Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 217)
Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2504-4494
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 128: Chatter Mitigation in Turning Slender Components
           Using Viscous Fluids

    • Authors: Matas Griskevicius, Vishal Kharka, Zekai Murat Kilic
      First page: 128
      Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a novel viscous passive damping solution to mitigate the chatter vibrations issue in the context of turning thin-walled cylindrical shell components for aerospace and other industries. This study involves the use of two different viscous fluids, motor oil and silicone oil, which have viscosities of 102 cSt and 350 cSt, respectively, to fill the in-house developed tube components with the aim of improving machining performance. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) graphs were studied for chatter analysis, and surface roughness parameters such as average surface roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) were considered for studying the effectiveness of the viscous damping fluids. The results obtained with viscous damping were then compared with an undamped/unfilled tube with the same geometry. The cutting experiments showed that the motor oil reduced the excessive vibrations while silicone oil was able to eliminate them. For the tube with motor oil, the magnitude of the process sound at chatter frequency was reduced by 6.6 times as compared to an unfilled tube, whereas for the tube with silicone oil, the amplitude at chatter frequency was reduced by 14.8 times. Moreover, the surface quality of the tubes with motor oil and silicone oil shows almost equal improvement, indicating the need for future research on the type and amount of viscous fluids for implementing the concept in real cases.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040128
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 129: Evaluation of Porosity in AISI 316L Samples
           Processed by Laser Powder Directed Energy Deposition

    • Authors: Alessandro Salmi, Gabriele Piscopo, Adriano Nicola Pilagatti, Eleonora Atzeni
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Directed energy deposition-laser beam/powder (DED-LB/Powder) is an additive manufacturing process that is gaining popularity in the manufacturing industry due to its numerous advantages, particularly in repairing operations. However, its application is often limited to case studies due to some critical issues that need to be addressed, such as the degree of internal porosity. This paper investigates the effect of the most relevant process parameters of the DED-LB/Powder process on the level and distribution of porosity. Results indicate that, among the process parameters examined, porosity is less affected by travel speed and more influenced by powder mass flow rate and laser power. Additionally, a three-dimensional finite element transient model was introduced, which was able to predict the development and location of lack-of-fusion pores along the building direction.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040129
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 130: Enriching Laser Powder Bed Fusion Part Data Using
           Category Theory

    • Authors: Yuchu Qin, Shubhavardhan Ramadurga Narasimharaju, Qunfen Qi, Shan Lou, Wenhan Zeng, Paul J. Scott, Xiangqian Jiang
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a promising metal additive manufacturing technology for producing functional components. However, there are still a lot of obstacles to overcome before this technology is considered mature and trustworthy for wider industrial applications. One of the biggest obstacles is the difficulty in ensuring the repeatability of process and the reproducibility of products. To tackle this challenge, a prerequisite is to represent and communicate the data from the part realisation process in an unambiguous and rigorous manner. In this paper, a semantically enriched LPBF part data model is developed using a category theory-based modelling approach. Firstly, a set of objects and morphisms are created to construct categories for design, process planning, part build, post-processing, and qualification. Twenty functors are then established to communicate these categories. Finally, an application of the developed model is illustrated via the realisation of an LPBF truncheon.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040130
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 131: Optimizing Milling Parameters for Enhanced
           Machinability of 3D-Printed Materials: An Analysis of PLA, PETG, and
           Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced PETG

    • Authors: Mohamad El Mehtedi, Pasquale Buonadonna, Rayane El Mohtadi, Gabriela Loi, Francesco Aymerich, Mauro Carta
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is widely applied in various fields due to its affordability and ease of use. However, it faces challenges such as achieving high surface quality, precise dimensional tolerance, and overcoming anisotropic mechanical properties. This review analyzes and compares the machinability of 3D-printed PLA, PETG, and carbon-fiber-reinforced PETG, focusing on surface roughness and burr formation. A Design of Experiments (DoE) with a full-factorial design was used, considering three factors: rotation speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. Each factor had different levels: rotational speed at 3000, 5500, and 8000 rpm; feed rate at 400, 600, and 800 mm/min; and depth of cut at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm. Machinability was evaluated by roughness and burr height using a profilometer for all the materials under the same milling conditions. To evaluate the statistical significance of the influence of various processing parameters on surface roughness and burr formation in 3D-printed components made of three different materials—PLA, PETG, and carbon-fiber-reinforced PETG—an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted. This analysis investigated whether variations in rotational speed, feed rate, and depth of cut resulted in measurable and significant differences in machinability results. Results showed that milling parameters significantly affect roughness and burr formation, with optimal conditions for minimizing any misalignment highlighting the trade-offs in parameter selection. These results provide insights into the post-processing of FDM-printed materials with milling, indicating the need for a balanced approach to parameter selection based on application-specific requirements.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040131
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 132: Identification of the Mechanism Resulting in
           Regions of Degraded Toughness in A508 Grade 4N Manufactured Using Powder
           Metallurgy–Hot Isostatic Pressing

    • Authors: Colin D. Ridgeway, Terrance Nolan, Joeseph M. Pyle
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Powder metallurgy–hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP) is a form of advanced manufacturing that offers the ability to produce near-net shape components that are otherwise not achievable via conventional forging or wrought manufacturing. Accessing the design space of PM-HIP is dependent upon the ability to achieve uniform or known properties in finalized components, which has resulted in a number of programs aimed at identifying properties achievable via PM-HIP manufacturing. One result of these programs has been the consistent observation of a variation in toughness observed for the low-alloy steel ASTM A508 Grades 3 and 4N. While observed, the degree of variability and the mechanism resulting in the variability have not yet been fully defined. Thus, a systematic approach to evaluate the variation observed in impact toughness in PM-HIP ASTM A508 Grade 4N was proposed to elucidate the responsible metallurgical mechanism. Four unique billets manufactured from two heats of powder with different particle size distributions (PSDs) were fabricated and tested for impact toughness and tensile properties. The degradation in impact toughness was confirmed to be location-specific where the near-can region of all billets had reduced impact toughness relative to the interior of each billet. The mechanism driving the location-specific property development was identified to be mobile oxygen that follows the thermal gradient that develops during the HIP cycle and leads to a redistribution of mobile oxygen where oxygen is concentrated ~1” inboard of the original canister/billet interface. Redistributed oxygen then forms stable oxides along coincident prior particle and prior austenite grain boundaries, effectively reducing the impact toughness. With the mechanism now addressed, necessary actions can be taken to mitigate the effect of the oxygen redistribution, allowing for use in PM-HIP A508 Grade 4N in commercial industry.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040132
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 133: Effect of Lattice Structure on Mechanical
           Properties of Ti-6Al-4V-Ta Alloy for Improved Antibacterial Properties

    • Authors: Anel Zhumabekova, Malika Toleubekova, Tri Thanh Pham, Didier Talamona, Asma Perveen
      First page: 133
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of a tantalum addition and lattice structure design on the mechanical and antibacterial properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloys. TPMS lattice structures, such as Diamond, Gyroid, and Primitive, were generated by MSLattice 1.0 software and manufactured using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). The results indicate that Gyroid and Primitive structures at a 40% density exhibit superior ultimate compressive strength, which closely emulates bone’s biomechanical properties. To be precise, adding 8% tantalum (Ta) significantly increases the material’s elastic modulus and energy absorption, enhancing the material’s suitability for dynamic load-bearing implants. Nevertheless, the Ta treatment reduces bacterial biofilm formation, especially on Gyroid surfaces, suggesting its potential for infection management. Overall, all findings provide critical insights into the development of advanced implant materials, contributing to the fields of additive manufacturing, materials science, and biomedical engineering and paving the way for improved patient outcomes in orthopedic applications.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040133
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 134: Dissimilar Welding of Thick Ferritic/Austenitic
           Steels Plates Using Two Simultaneous Laser Beams in a Single Pass

    • Authors: Fabio Giudice, Severino Missori, Andrea Sili
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Dissimilar welds between ferritic and austenitic stainless steels are widely used in industrial applications. Taking into account the issues inherent to arc welding, such as the high heat input and the need to carry out multiple passes in the case of thick plates, a procedure with two simultaneous laser beams (working in a single pass) and consumable inserts as filler metal has been considered. Particular attention was paid to the choice of the filler metal (composition and amount), as well as welding parameters, which are crucial to obtain the right dilution necessary for a correct chemical composition in the weld zone. The first experimental investigations confirmed the achievement of a good weldability of the dissimilar pair ASTM A387 ferritic/AISI 304L austenitic steel, having ascertained that the microstructure of the weld zone is austenitic with a little amount of residual primary ferrite, which is the best condition to minimize the risk of hot cracking.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040134
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 135: Effects of δ Phase and Annealing Twins on
           Mechanical Properties and Impact Toughness of L-PBF Inconel 718

    • Authors: Wakshum Mekonnen Tucho, Bjorn Andre Ohm, Sebastian Andres Pedraza Canizalez, Andreas Egeland, Martin Bernard Mildt, Mette Lokna Nedreberg, Vidar Folke Hansen
      First page: 135
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of the δ phase and annealing twins on the hardness, tensile properties, and Charpy impact toughness of Inconel 718 fabricated using L-PBF were investigated. The as-printed components underwent two stages of heat treatment to modify their microstructure and phases. The δ phase was induced through solid-solution heat treatment at 980 °C for 1 h, while annealing twins were formed at 1100 °C for 3 h. Following precipitation hardening, specimens containing δ precipitates exhibited a higher ultimate tensile strength (13%), yield strength (27%), and hardness (12%) compared to those rich in annealing twins. The enhanced mechanical strength was attributed to the presence of δ precipitates and differences in the extent of recrystallization, leading to variations in the density of retained lattice defects, including subgrain boundaries and primary phases. Conversely, specimens with annealing twins demonstrated a significantly higher impact toughness (four times) and ductility (twice) than those with δ precipitates. Annealing twins were found to enhance plasticity by impeding dislocation movement, while δ precipitates reduced plasticity by acting as sites for void formation and crack propagation. Microstructural, compositional, phase, crystallographic, and fractographic analyses were conducted using OM, SEM, TEM, and XRD techniques to identify the factors influencing the observed differences. The results indicate that the heat treatment approach involving annealing twins can effectively enhance the ductility of Inconel 718 while maintaining the necessary mechanical strength.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040135
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 136: Heat Input Control Strategies in DED

    • Authors: Sergei Egorov, Fabian Soffel, Timo Schudeleit, Markus Bambach, Konrad Wegener
      First page: 136
      Abstract: In the context of directed energy deposition (DED), the production of complex components necessitates precise control of all processing parameters while mitigating undesirable factors like heat accumulation. This research seeks to explore and validate with various materials the impact of a geometry-based analytical model for minimizing heat input on the characteristics and structure of the resultant DED components. Furthermore, it aims to compare this approach with other established methods employed to avoid heat accumulation during production. The geometry of the fabricated specimens was assessed using a linear laser scanner, cross-sections were analyzed through optical microscopy, and the effect on mechanical properties was determined via microhardness measurements. The specimens manufactured using the developed analytical model exhibited superior geometric precision with lower energy consumption without compromising mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040136
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 137: Experimental Methodology to Identify Optimal
           Friction Stir Welding Parameters Based on Temperature Measurement

    • Authors: Moura Abboud, Laurent Dubourg, Guillaume Racineux, Olivier Kerbrat
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) is a widely employed welding process, in which advancing and rotational speeds consitute critical parameters shaping the welding outcome and affecting the temperature evolution. This work develops an experimental methodology to identify optimal FSW parameters based on real-time temperature measurement via a thermocouple integrated within the tool. Different rotational and welding speeds were tested on AA5083-H111 and AA6082-T6. Our results underscore the importance of attaining a minimum temperature threshold, specifically 0.65 times the solidus temperature, to ensure high-quality welds are reached. The latter are defined by combining temperature measurements with joint quality information obtained from cross-sectional views. Our research contributes to advancing the efficiency and effectiveness of friction stir welding in industrial settings. Furthermore, our findings suggest broad implications for the manufacturing industry, offering practical insights for enhancing weld quality and process optimization.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040137
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 138: Investigating Workpiece Deflection in Precise
           Electrochemical Machining of Turbine Blades

    • Authors: Elio Tchoupe Sambou, Daniel Lauwers, Timm Petersen, Tim Herrig, Andreas Klink, Matthias Meinke, Wolfgang Schröder
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Precise electrochemical machining (PECM) is being used increasingly to produce turbine blades (high-pressure compressors) from difficult-to-machine materials such as Inconel. However, the challenges associated with PECM are particularly pronounced for filigree workpieces characterized by high aspect ratios and thin-walled geometries. The need for high-pressure flushing within the working gap to renew the electrolyte poses a dilemma because it induces unwanted deflection in these thin-walled structures. This problem is intensified by the mechanical oscillation of the tool applied to promote flushing efficiency. The superposition of mechanical tool oscillation and turbulent flushing, which exacerbate fluid–structure interaction, has been identified as the essential cause of workpiece deflection. The aim of this paper is to present an experimental setup coupled with numerical methods to better investigate the phenomenon of workpiece deflection during PECM. In the first part of this work, a novel tool system for investigating the phenomenon of workpiece deflection in PECM is presented. The tool system combines typical PECM tool–workpiece arrangements for double-sided machining and a unique electrolytic mask that provides optical access to the working gap, allowing in situ measurements. After validating the tool system by experimental tests, the workpiece deflection is investigated using high-speed imaging. In a next step, analytical studies of the flushing conditions during machining operations are carried out. These investigations are followed by a structural investigation of the workpiece to improve the understanding of the deflection behavior of the workpiece. In addition, the effect on the blade tip caused by the continuously decreasing moment of inertia of the blade due to their thinning during machining is analyzed.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040138
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 139: Analysis of the Surface Quality and Temperature
           in Grinding of Acrylic-Based Resin

    • Authors: Syed Mustafa Haider, Abbas Hussain, Muntazir Abbas, Shaheryar Atta Khan, Shoaib Sarfraz
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Polymeric resins are becoming increasingly popular in medical and engineering applications due to their properties, such as their low weight, high strength, corrosion resistance, non-allergenicity, and extended service life. The grinding process is used to convert these materials into desired products, offering high accuracy and surface quality. However, grinding generates significant heat, which can potentially degrade the material. This study investigates the grinding of acrylic-based resins, specifically focusing on the interplay between the grind zone temperature and surface finish. The low glass transition temperature (57 °C) of the acrylic necessitates the precise control of the grinding parameters (spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and grinding wheel grain size), to maintain a low temperature and achieve high-quality machining. Thermal imaging and thermocouples were employed to measure the grind zone temperature under various grinding conditions. This study investigates the influence of four parameters: spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and grinding wheel grain size. The best surface finish (Ra: 2.5 µm) was obtained by using a finer-grained (80/Ø 0.18 mm) grinding wheel, combined with slightly adjusted parameters (spindle speed: 11.57 m/s, feed rate: 0.406 mm/rev, depth of cut: 1.00 mm), albeit with a slightly higher grind zone temperature (~54 °C). This study highlighted the importance of balancing the grind zone temperature and surface finish for the optimal grinding of acrylic-based resins. Further, this research finds that by carefully controlling the grinding parameters, it is possible to achieve both a high surface quality and prevent material degradation. The research findings could be highly valuable for optimizing the grinding process for various medical and engineering applications.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040139
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 140: Ensuring Melt Track Width Consistency and
           Crack-Free Conditions Using Interpass-Temperature-Dependent Process
           Parameters for Wire-Arc-Directed Energy-Deposited Inconel 718

    • Authors: Xavier A. Jimenez, Jie Song, Yao Fu, Albert C. To
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Melt track width can vary in a wire-arc-directed energy-deposited material (DED) using a constant set of process parameters, leading to a lower-quality build. In this work, a novel framework is proposed that uses the data from the process parameter development stage to create optimized process parameters for a target layer width at different interpass temperatures without hot cracking. Inconel 718 is used as the model material since it is known to suffer from hot cracking during DED processing. In the proposed framework, a process window containing a few sets of process parameters (torch travel speed and wire feed rate) is established for crack-free deposition of Inconel 718, and these parameters are used to create a small database. A linear regression model is then employed to generate interpass-temperature-specific optimized process parameters for a target melt track width. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can reduce the melt track width variation in the deposited walls from 12% to 3% error on average under different printing conditions. It also demonstrates that interpass temperature (IPT) can be used as a controlled variable and the optimized process parameters as initial values when applying control techniques to the process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040140
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 141: Lagrangian Finite Element Model Formulation and
           Experimental Validation of the Laser Impact Weld Process for Ti/Brass
           Joining

    • Authors: Serafino Caruso, Michela Sanguedolce, Giuseppe Serratore, Carmine De Bartolo, Luigino Filice, Domenico Umbrello
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Information on the flyer deformation during laser impact welding (LIW) is an important aspect to consider when high reliability of the welded components is required. For this reason, accurate numerical models simulating thermal and mechanical aspects are needed. In the present work, the cross-section morphology during LIW of Ti/Brass joints at varying laser pulse energies is modeled by a 2D finite element (FE) model. A hydrodynamic plasma pressure model able to describe the evolution of the pressure load step by step, taking into account the progressive deformation of the flyer, was implemented. Hence, this paper proposes an alternative method to the conventional node concentrated forces or predefined velocity as flyer boundary conditions. The levels of the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ), shear stress, and critical flyer velocity at the collision point were used as reference parameters to predict the success of the welding bond, distinguishing the welded area from the unwelded area. The model was validated by comparison with the experimental data, which showed the effectiveness of the proposed FE code in predicting the cross-section morphology of the welded materials. Moreover, practical industrial information such as variation in the flyer impact velocity, collision angle, and process temperatures was predicted by varying the process laser pulse energy according to the basic principle of the process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040141
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 142: Cost Modelling for Powder Bed Fusion and Directed
           Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    • Authors: Navneet Khanna, Harsh Salvi, Büşra Karaş, Ishrat Fairoz, Alborz Shokrani
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly used for fabricating parts directly from digital models, usually by depositing and bonding successive layers of various materials such as polymers, metals, ceramics, and composites. The design freedom and reduced material consumption for producing near-net-shaped components have made AM a popular choice across various industries, including the automotive and aerospace sectors. Despite its growing popularity, the accurate estimation of production time, productivity and cost remains a significant challenge due to the ambiguity surrounding the technology. Hence, reliable cost estimation models are necessary to guide decisions throughout product development activities. This paper provides a thorough analysis of the state of the art in cost models for AM with a specific focus on metal Directed Energy Deposition (DED) and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) processes. An overview of DED and PBF processes is presented to enhance the understanding of how process parameters impact the overall cost. Consequently, suitable costing techniques and significant cost contributors in AM have been identified and examined in-depth. Existing cost modelling approaches in the field of AM are critically evaluated, leading to the suggestion of a comprehensive cost breakdown including often-overlooked aspects. This study aims to contribute to the development of accurate cost prediction models in supporting decision making in the implementation of AM.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040142
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 143: Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of
           Transient-Liquid-Phase Bonded Inconel 617 to Stainless Steel 310 through
           Altering Process Parameters and Homogenisation

    • Authors: Arash Dehghan, Rahmatollah Emadi, Yunes Asghari, Hosein Emadi, Saeid Lotfian
      First page: 143
      Abstract: This study investigated the impact of temperature, time, and homogenisation on the transient liquid phase bonding of Inconel 617 to stainless steel 310, employing AWS BNI2 foil as an interlayer. Nine test series were conducted at temperatures of 1050 °C and 1100 °C, with bonding durations ranging from 10 to 60 min. The homogenisation process was carried out on specimens that underwent full isothermal solidification at a temperature of 1170 °C for 180 min. The microscopic analysis indicated that extending the time and raising the bonding temperature resulted in the extension of the isothermal solidified zone, accompanied by a reduction in the quantity of eutectic phases. Complete isothermal solidification was seen exclusively in samples bonded at temperatures of 1050 °C for 60 min and 1100 °C for a duration of 50 min. The size of the diffusion-affected zone expanded as the bonding temperature and duration rose, but the presence of brittle intermetallic phases diminished. The microstructure of the homogenised sample indicated that the diffusion-affected zone had been almost completely eliminated. Hardness variations indicated heightened hardness in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) and athermal solidified zone (ASZ). Shear strength is maximised in homogenised specimens with minimised ASZ.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040143
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 144: Digital Image Correlation for Elastic Strain
           Evaluation during Focused Ion Beam Ring-Core Milling

    • Authors: Fatih Uzun, Alexander M. Korsunsky
      First page: 144
      Abstract: The utilization of the focused ion beam digital image correlation (FIB-DIC) technique for measuring in-plane displacements and the employment of the height digital image correlation (hDIC) technique as two-step DIC for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane displacements within the region of interest are detailed in this paper. Consideration is given to the microscopy data’s measurement scale and resolution to confirming the capability of both techniques to conduct micro-scale correlations with nano-scale sensitivity, thereby making it suitable for investigating the residual elastic strains formed due to processing. The sequential correlation procedure of the FIB-DIC technique has been optimized to achieve a balance between accuracy and performance for correlating sequential scanning electron microscope images. Conversely, the hDIC technique prioritizes the accurate correlation of SEM images directly with the reference state without a sequential procedure and offers optimal computational performance through advanced parallel computing tools, particularly suited for correlating profilometry data related to large-scale displacements. In this study, the algorithm of the hDIC technique is applied as two-step DIC to evaluate the elastic strain relaxation on the surface of a ring-core drilled using focused ion beam. Both techniques are utilized to correlate the same scanning electron microscope images collected during the monitoring of the ring drilling process. A comparison of the correlation results of both techniques is undertaken regarding the quantification of the near-surface residual elastic strains, with the analysis conducted to discern the superior accuracy of the hDIC algorithm. Furthermore, the distinctions between the two techniques are delineated and discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040144
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 145: Selective Sheet Extrusion: A Novel Manufacturing
           Process for Large-Format Material Extrusion

    • Authors: Brian Parrott, Angelica Coronado Preciado, Eric Feron
      First page: 145
      Abstract: The trade-off between resolution and speed represents a significant challenge when extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) is used for large-format additive manufacturing (LFAM). This paper presents an analysis of a new material extrusion process, named selective sheet extrusion (SSE), that aims to decouple these parameters. Unlike traditional single-nozzle material extrusion processes, SSE utilizes a single, very wide nozzle through which extrusion is controlled by an array of dynamically actuated teeth at the nozzle outlet. This allows the system to deposit a selectively structured sheet of material with each pass, potentially enabling the deposition of an entire layer of a part in a single pass. An analysis of the theoretical performance of the SSE technology, in terms of speed and material efficiency in comparison with single-nozzle extrusion systems, predicted speed increases of 2–3 times for the geometries that were explored. The analysis was then validated through experimental work that indicated a normalized improvement in print speed of between 2.3 and 2.5 times using a proof-of-concept SSE prototype. The SSE concept expands the opportunity frontier of LFAM technologies by enabling enhanced print speeds, while maintaining higher resolutions at scale. This enhancement in speed and/or resolution could have significant benefits, especially in large-scale prints that benefit from enhanced internal resolution.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040145
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 146: Effect of Scanning Strategy on the Microstructure
           and Load-Bearing Characteristics of Additive Manufactured Parts

    • Authors: S. Silva Sajin Jose, Santosh Kr. Mishra, Ram Krishna Upadhyay
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing has witnessed significant growth in recent years, revolutionizing the automotive and aerospace industries amongst others. Despite the use of additive manufacturing for creating complex geometries and reducing material consumption, there is a critical need to enhance the mechanical properties of manufactured parts to broaden their industrial applications. In this work, AISI 316L stainless steel is used to fabricate parts using three different strategies of the additively manufactured Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) technique, i.e., continuous, alternate, and island. This study aims to identify methods to optimize grain orientation and compaction support provided to the material under load, which influence the frictional and wear properties of the manufactured parts. The load-bearing capacity is evaluated by measuring the frictional and wear properties. The wear patch track is also examined to establish the physical mechanisms at the surface interface that lead to the smooth transition in response to the load. Grain orientation is compared across different strategies using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) maps, and the influence of surface roughness on sliding behavior is also evaluated. The results demonstrate that the island scanning strategy yields the best performance for load-bearing applications, exhibiting superior grain orientation and hardness in the additively manufactured parts.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040146
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 147: A Workflow for the Compensation of Substrate
           Defects When Overprinting in Extrusion-Based Processes

    • Authors: Fynn Atzler, Simon Hümbert, Heinz Voggenreiter
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is used in industrial applications to manufacture complex parts in a short time frame and with reduced costs. Recently, the overprinting of continuous fibre-reinforced laminates has been discussed to produce high-performance, functional structures. A hybrid process combining FGF with Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) was developed to implement this approach, where an additively manufactured structure is bonded in situ onto a thermoplastic laminate. However, this combination places great demands on process control, especially in the first printing layer. When 3D printing onto a laminate, the height of the first printed layer is decisive to the shear strength of the bonding. Manufacturing-induced surface defects of a laminate, like thermal warpage, gaps, and tape overlaps, can result in deviations from the ideal geometry and thus impair the bonding strength when left uncompensated. This study, therefore, proposes a novel process flow that uses a 3D scan of a laminate to adjust the geometry of the additively manufactured structure to achieve a constant layer height in the 3D print and, thus, constant mechanical properties. For the above-listed surface defects, only thermal warpage was found to have a significant effect on the bonding strength.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040147
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 148: Effects of Layer Thickness and Compaction
           Thickness on Green Part Density in Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing
           of Silicon Carbide: Designed Experiments

    • Authors: Mostafa Meraj Pasha, Md Shakil Arman, Fahim Khan, Zhijian Pei, Stephen Kachur
      First page: 148
      Abstract: This paper reports on an experimental investigation that used a full factorial design to study the main effects and the interaction effect of layer thickness and compaction thickness on the green part density in the binder jetting additive manufacturing of silicon carbide. A two-variable, two-level full factorial design was employed. The results show that the green part density was higher at the low level of layer thickness and at the high level of compaction thickness. These results can be useful in selecting the values of printing variables, enabling the fabrication of green parts with a desirable density that is crucial for advanced ceramic applications.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040148
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 149: The Influence of the Process Conditions on the
           Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Damage of the Rolls in the Twin-Roll Casting
           Process of Aluminum Alloys

    • Authors: Ratibor Shevchenko, Nicola Zani, Angelo Mazzù
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Twin-roll casting is a technology for the production of thin strips directly from liquid metal by combining continuous casting with hot rolling in a single step. The thermo-mechanical cyclic interaction with the solidifying strip causes fatigue crack formation at the outer surface of the rolls. A 2D FEM model with Eulerian boundary conditions and the interference fit load on the rolls was defined. The influence of the roll–strip thermal contact, the inlet temperature of the liquid aluminum, the efficiency of the water cooling and the production rate on the fatigue damage of the rolls was analyzed with a parametric study. The maximum temperature of the rolls, the maximum contact pressure, the accumulated plastic strain and the equivalent strain computed (considering a multiaxial out-of-phase fatigue criterion) were considered to investigate the thermo-mechanical fatigue load on the rolls. The results showed that, in the considered range, the most influential parameters on the fatigue mechanism are the heat contact conductance coefficient, which dominates the thermo-mechanical load, and the tangential velocity of the rolls, which contributes to the thermal field and determines the roll–strip mechanical contact interaction.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040149
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 150: Monitoring of the Weld Pool, Keyhole Morphology
           and Material Penetration State in Near-Infrared and Blue Composite Laser
           Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    • Authors: Wei Wei, Yang Liu, Haolin Deng, Zhilin Wei, Tingshuang Wang, Guangxian Li
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The laser welding of magnesium alloys presents challenges attributed to their low laser-absorbing efficiency, resulting in instabilities during the welding process and substandard welding quality. Furthermore, the complexity of signals during laser welding processes makes it difficult to accurately monitor the molten state of magnesium alloys. In this study, magnesium alloys were welded using near-infrared and blue lasers. By varying the power of the near-infrared laser, the energy absorption pattern of magnesium alloys toward the composite laser was investigated. The U-Net model was employed for the segmentation of welding images to accurately extract the features of the melt pool and keyhole. Subsequently, the penetrating states were predicted using the convolutional neural network (CNN), and the novel approach employing Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features + a backpropagation (BP) neural network was applied for comparison. The extracted images achieved MPA and MIoU values of 89.54% and 81.81%, and the prediction accuracy of the model can reach up to 100%. The applicability of the two monitoring approaches in different scenarios was discussed, providing guidance for the quality of magnesium welding.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040150
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 151: Investigation of Metal Powder Blending for
           PBF-LB/M Using Particle Tracing with Ti-6Al-4V

    • Authors: Ina Ludwig, Anatol Gerassimenko, Philipp Imgrund
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) is the most used additive manufacturing (AM) technology for metal parts. Nevertheless, challenges persist in effectively managing metal powder, particularly in blending methodologies in the choice of blenders as well as in the verification of blend results. In this study, a bespoke laboratory-scale AM blender is developed, tailored to address these challenges, prioritizing low-impact blending to mitigate powder degradation. As a blending type, a V-shape tumbling geometry meeting the requirements for laboratory AM usage is chosen based on a literature assessment. The implementation of thermal oxidation as a powder marking technique enables particle tracing. Blending validation is achieved using light microscopy for area measurement based on binary image processing. The powder size and shape remain unaffected after marking and blending. Only a small narrowing of the particle size distribution is detected after 180 min of blending. The V-shape tumbling blender efficiently yields a completely random state in under 10 min for rotational speeds of 20, 40, and 60 rounds per minute. In conclusion, this research underscores the critical role of blender selection in AM and advocates for continued exploration to refine powder blending practices, with the aim of advancing the capabilities and competitiveness of AM technologies.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040151
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 152: Experimental and FEA Simulations Using ANSYS on
           the Mechanical Properties of Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)
           3D-Printed Woven Jute Fiber-Reinforced PLA Laminates

    • Authors: Sazidur R. Shahriar, Lai Jiang, Jaejong Park, Md Shariful Islam, Bryan Perez, Xiaobo Peng
      First page: 152
      Abstract: The mechanical properties of woven jute fiber-reinforced PLA polymer laminates additively manufactured through Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) technology are simulated using the finite element method in this work. Woven jute fiber reinforcements are used to strengthen bio-thermoplastic PLA polymers in creating highly biodegradable composite structures that can serve as one of the environmentally friendly alternatives for synthetic composites. A LOM 3D printer prototype was designed and built by the authors. All woven jute/PLA biocomposite laminated specimens made using the built prototype in this study had their tensile and flexural properties measured using ASTM test standards. These laminated structures were modeled using the ANSYS Mechanical Composite PrepPost (ACP) module, and then both testing processes were simulated using the experimentally measured input values. The FEA simulation results indicated a close match with experimental results, with a maximum difference of 9.18%. This study served as an exemplary case study using the FEA method to predict the mechanical behaviors of biocomposite laminate materials made through a novel manufacturing process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040152
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 153: Property Evaluation of AA2014 Reinforced with
           Synthesized Novel Mixture Processed through Squeeze Casting Technique

    • Authors: Venkatraman Manokaran, Anthony Xavior Michael
      First page: 153
      Abstract: Aluminum alloy–graphene metal matrix composite is largely used for structural applications in the aerospace and space exploration sector. In this work, the preprocessed powder particles (AA 2014 and graphene) were used as a reinforcement material in a squeeze casting process. The powder mixture contained aluminum alloy powder 2014 with an average particle size of 25 μm and 0.5 wt% graphene nano powder (Grnp) with 10 nm (average) particle size. The powder mixture was mixed using the high-energy planetary ball milling (HEPBM) technique. The experimental results indicated that the novel mixture (AA 2014 and graphene powder) acted as a transporting agent of graphene particles, allowing them to disperse homogeneously in the stir pool in the final cast, resulting in the production of an isotropic composite material that could be considered for launch vehicle structural applications. Homogeneous dispersion of the graphene nanoparticles enhanced the interfacial bonding of 2014 matrix material, which resulted in particulate strengthening and the formation of a fine-grained microstructure in the casted composite plate. The mechanical properties of 0.5 wt% graphene-reinforced, hot-rolled composite plate was strengthened by the T6 condition. When compared to the values of unreinforced parent alloy, the ultimate tensile strength and the hardness value of the composite plate were found to be 420 MPa and 123 HRB, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8040153
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 85: Telemetry System to Monitor Elastic Torque on
           Rolling Stand Spindles

    • Authors: Stanislav S. Voronin, Boris M. Loginov, Olga A. Gasiyarova, Sergey A. Evdokimov, Alexander S. Karandaev, Vadim R. Khramshin
      First page: 85
      Abstract: This article outlines the relevance of building online telemetry systems for online monitoring of the technical conditions of rolling mill equipment. Electromechanical systems of the horizontal stand of the plate Mill 5000 are described, when operating in harsh conditions caused by the shock loading when workpieces enter the stand. It is noted that dynamic torque overloads, exceeding the rated motor torque by many-fold, cause the fatigue failure of spindle joints and breakage of rolls. In this regard, the development and implementation of systems for monitoring the elastic torque on spindles are extremely urgent. This issue has long been studied, but the references provide no information on the building principles and hardware composition of such systems. The use of strain gauges connected according to a balanced bridge circuit to measure the elastic torque is justified. This paper’s contribution is the proposed modular principle for building a telemetry monitoring system based on the analysis of known techniques for measuring and transmitting diagnostic data. The developed system structure is provided and the concept of data transfer and processing are explained. This article suggests the inductive power supply of a measuring unit mounted on a shaft without the use of batteries. A hardware structure was developed to be applied in a system for measuring, transmitting, and visualizing signals proportional to the elastic torque, manufactured on the basis of data measuring instruments by leading companies. The specifics of placement and connection of strain gauges are considered. The hardware providing a wireless power supply to the signal encoder and digital data transfer between the transmitter and receiver is described. The results of implementing the system on Mill 5000 are provided. The installation of a telemetry ring and a receiving head for the inductive power supply and data reception is shown. An experimental assessment of the elastic torques occurring when workpieces enter the cage was obtained by implementing a drive control algorithm which provided biting in the drive acceleration mode. The reliability of measuring the elastic torque with an error not exceeding ±5% and the reduction of dynamic loads on the spindle by 1.3–1.5 times due to the elimination of impacts from closing angular gaps in spindle joints was confirmed. This increases the service life of mechanical equipment and reduces the cost of eliminating the accident aftermath. The prospect of modifying the developed system into a cyber-physical system for monitoring the rolling mill’s mechatronic equipment conditions is shown.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030085
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 86: Enhanced Energy Absorption with Bioinspired
           Composite Triply Periodic Minimal Surface Gyroid Lattices Fabricated via
           Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)

    • Authors: Dawit Bogale Alemayehu, Masahiro Todoh
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Bio-inspired gyroid triply periodic minimum surface (TPMS) lattice structures have been the focus of research in automotive engineering because they can absorb a lot of energy and have wider plateau ranges. The main challenge is determining the optimal energy absorption capacity and accurately capturing plastic plateau areas using finite element analysis (FEA). Using nTop’s Boolean subtraction method, this study combined walled TPMS gyroid structures with a normal TPMS gyroid lattice. This made a composite TPMS gyroid lattice (CTG) with relative densities ranging from 14% to 54%. Using ideaMaker 4.2.3 (3DRaise Pro 2) software and the fused deposition modeling (FDM) Raise3D Pro 2 3D printer to print polylactic acid (PLA) bioplastics in 1.75 mm filament made it possible to slice computer-aided design (CAD) models and fabricate 36 lattice samples precisely using a layer-by-layer technique. Shimadzu 100 kN testing equipment was utilized for the mechanical compression experiments. The finite element approach validates the results of mechanical compression testing. Further, a composite CTG was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) before and after compression testing. The composite TPMS gyroid lattice showed potential as shock absorbers for vehicles with relative densities of 33%, 38%, and 54%. The Gibson–Ashby model showed that the composite TPMS gyroid lattice deformed mainly by bending, and the size effect was seen when the relative densities were less than 15%. The lattice’s relative density had a significant impact on its ability to absorb energy. The research also explored the use of these innovative foam-like composite TPMS gyroid lattices in high-speed crash box scenarios to potentially enhance vehicle safety and performance. The structures have tremendous potential to improve vehicle safety by acting as advanced shock absorbers, which are particularly effective at higher relative densities.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030086
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 87: An Experimental Procedure to Study the High-Speed
           Orthogonal Cutting of Unidirectional GFRP

    • Authors: Martina Panico, Luca Boccarusso, Antonio Formisano, Giuseppe Villani, Antonio Langella
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to establish a valid procedure for better understanding all of the phenomena associated with the high-speed machining of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites. Both rectangular and circular specimens were machined at high cutting speeds (up to 50 m/min) in order to understand what occurred for all values of fiber orientation angles during machining operations. An innovative testing methodology was proposed and studied to investigate the phenomenon of burr formation and thus understand how to avoid it during machining operations. To this end, the forces arising during the machining process and the roughness of the resulting surface were carefully studied and correlated with the cutting angle. Additionally, the cutting surface and chip morphology formed during cutting tests were examined using a high-speed camera. Close correlations were found between the variations in the cutting forces’ signals and the trends of the surface roughness and the morphology of the machined surface.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030087
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 88: Evaluating the Influence of Tool Material on the
           Performance of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welds in AA2029

    • Authors: Ruth Belnap, Taylor Smith, Paul Blackhurst, Josef Cobb, Heath Misak, John Bosker, Yuri Hovanski
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Joining high strength 2xxx series aluminum is known to be complex and difficult; these alloys are traditionally considered non-weldable for fusion welding. This paper describes details on welding AA2029-T8 for skin-stiffened structures using refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW). RFSSW is a solid-state process invented in the early 2000s that produces spot welds that are strong, lightweight, flush, and hermetic. Cycle times between 1 and 3 s are discussed, and process forces within a range of 8 to 14 kN are demonstrated. Furthermore, lap-shear quasi-static tensile strengths are shown to be between 10 kN and 12 kN in 9 mm diameter spots. A comparison of the performance of RFSSW welds made with various tool materials—which include H13 tool steel, tungsten carbide, and MP159—is detailed. Comparisons of parameters, weld consolidation, and heat-affected zones are presented with discussion related to heat generation specific to each tool material.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030088
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 89: Reducing Oxidation during Direct Metal Deposition
           Process: Effects on Ti6Al4V Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    • Authors: Dominik Keller, Konrad Wegener
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The production of materials with a high affinity for oxidation using the direct metal deposition (DMD) process requires an extended process examination that goes beyond the usual, purely energetic consideration, with the aim of providing sufficient energy to melt the substrate and the powder material supplied. This is because the DMD process does not allow any conclusions to be drawn as to whether it and its respective selected parameters result in an oxidation critical process. To assess this, a superposition of the temperature field with the existing spatial oxygen concentration is required. This work uses this approach to develop an oxidation model that reduces oxidation during the DMD process. In addition to the numerical model, an analytical model is derived, with which the temperature of a material element can be calculated analytically and the resulting boundary oxygen concentration calculated using Fick’s 2nd law. The model also takes into account two-stage oxidation kinetics for Ti alloys. The effect of too high a travel speed (with the same specific energy of the other experiments) is shown visually in the numerical calculation of the temperature field. However, if the process model is taken into account, the components do fulfil the specified requirements. Finally, the effect of oxidation on the microstructure, microhardness, ultimate strength, yield strength and elongation at failure of Ti6Al4V structures produced using DMD is also investigated, and further supports our conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the proposed model.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030089
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 90: An Experiment-Based Variable Compensation Method
           to Improve the Geometric Accuracy of Sub-Mm Features Fabricated by
           Stereolithography (SLA)

    • Authors: Francesco Modica, Vito Basile, Irene Fassi
      First page: 90
      Abstract: In this paper, we present an experimental procedure to enhance the dimensional accuracy of fabrication via stereolithography (SLA) of features at the sub-mm scale. Deviations in sub-mm hemispherical cavity diameters were detected and measured on customized samples by confocal microscopy. The characterization and experimental observations of samples allowed the identification of inaccuracy sources, mainly due to the laser beam scanning strategy and the incomplete removal of uncured liquid resin in post-processing (i.e., IPA washing). As a technology baseline, the measured dimensional errors on cavity diameters were up to −46%. A compensation method was defined and implemented, resulting in relevant improvements in dimensional accuracy. However, measurements on sub-mm cavities having different sizes revealed that a constant compensation parameter (i.e., C = 85, 96, 120 μm) is not fully effective at the sub-mm scale, where average errors remain at −24%, −18.8%, and −16% for compensations equal to 85, 96 and 120 μm, respectively. A further experimental campaign allowed the identification of an effective nonlinear compensation law where the compensation parameter depends on the sub-mm feature size C = f(D). Results show a sharp improvement in dimensional accuracy on sub-mm cavity fabrication, with errors consistently below +8.2%. The proposed method can be extended for the fabrication of any sub-mm features without restrictions on the specific technology implementation.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030090
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 91: Effect of Flashlamp Heating System Parameters on
           the Wedge Peel Strength of Thermoplastic Carbon Fiber Tape in the
           Automated Tape Placement Process

    • Authors: Alexander Legenstein, Ewald Fauster
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Laser-assisted automated tape placement systems are currently the state of the art regarding thermoplastic tape placement. Flashlamp heating systems are rather new in this field of application and offer high energy density with low safety requirements and moderate costs compared to laser-assisted automated tape placement systems. In this study, the effect of processing parameters on interlaminar bonding of carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 tapes is investigated using a flashlamp heating system. The temperature during placement is monitored using an infrared camera, and the bonding strength is characterized by a wedge peel test. The bonding quality of the tapes placed between 210 °C and 330 °C at a lay-up speed of 50 mm/s is investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and micrographs are used to investigate the material properties and effects of the processing conditions on the thermophysical properties and geometric properties of the tape. No significant changes in the thermophysical or geometric properties were found. Moisture within the tapes and staining of the quartz guides of the flashlamp system have significant influence on the bonding strength. The highest wedge peel strength of dried tapes was found at around 330 °C.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030091
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 92: Analysis of Tool Load Concerning the
           Cross-Sectional Size of Removed Material

    • Authors: Peter Kozový, Miroslav Matuš, Vladimír Bechný, Jozef Holubják, Richard Joch, Michal Šajgalík
      First page: 92
      Abstract: High-feed milling (HFM) represents a progressive manufacturing technology that has recently found widespread application across various industries. HFM is characterized by high machining speed, reduced cycle times, increased overall productivity, and increased tool life. Due to its versatility, HFM is a suitable technology for the application of various materials. The study deals with experimental analysis of cutting forces, machined surface integrity, and statistical evaluation in high-feed machining. In the present study, nickel-copper-based alloy (Monel) was chosen as the machined material, employing HFM with a monolithic ceramic milling cutter. The Monel material is characterized by its excellent mechanical properties and chemical resistance in harsh environments. During machining, cutting forces were recorded in three mutually perpendicular directions. This paper delves into the analysis of the impact of the depth of cut (ap), width of cut (ae), and lead-in angle (ε). The chosen evaluation characteristics encompass the tool load, primary profile, and the attained roughness of the machined surface. It is noteworthy that the technology under consideration predominantly aligns with the roughing phase of the manufacturing process. Additionally, the investigation incorporates a statistical analysis of the response surface pertaining to the cutting force components, namely Fx, Fy, Fz, and the resultant cutting force F.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030092
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 93: Development of Hot-Wire Laser Additive
           

    • Authors: Keita Marumoto, Takahiro Horai, Daiji Morita, Chisako Oda, Takafumi Fujii, Takashi Yuzawa, Ryogo Koba, Motomichi Yamamoto
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the interface between dissimilar materials causes considerable problems. In this study, a multi-material additive manufacturing technique that employs a diode laser and the hot-wire method was developed for stainless steel/aluminum alloys. An Al-Mg aluminum alloy filler wire (JIS 5183-WY) was fed on an austenitic stainless-steel plate (JIS SUS304) while varying the laser power and process speed and using paste-type flux and flux-cored wire. The effects of laser power and process speed on phenomena during manufacturing and IMC formation were investigated. Finally, the wall-type multilayer specimens were fabricated under optimized conditions. The suppression of IMC formation to a thickness of less than 2 μm was achieved in the specimens, along with a high interfacial strength of over 120 MPa on average.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030093
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 94: Verifying the Accuracy of 3D-Printed Objects Using
           an Image Processing System

    • Authors: Okamoto, Ura
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Image processing systems can be used to measure the accuracy of 3D-printed objects. These systems must compare images of the CAD model of the object to be printed with its 3D-printed counterparts to identify any discrepancies. Consequently, the integrity of the accuracy measurement process is heavily dependent on the image processing settings chosen. This study focuses on this issue by developing a customized image processing system. The system generates binary images of a given CAD model and its 3D-printed counterparts and then compares them pixel by pixel to determine the accuracy. Users can experiment with various image processing settings, such as grayscale to binary image conversion threshold, noise reduction parameters, masking parameters, and pixel-fineness adjustment parameters, to see how they affect accuracy. The study concludes that the grayscale to binary image conversion threshold has the most significant impact on accuracy and that the optimal threshold varies depending on the color of the 3D-printed object. The system can also effectively eliminate noise (filament marks) during image processing, ensuring accurate measurements. Additionally, the system can measure the accuracy of highly complex porous structures where the pore size, depth, and distribution are random. The insights gained from this study can be used to develop intelligent systems for the metrology of additive manufacturing.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030094
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 95: Condition Monitoring in Additive Manufacturing: A
           Critical Review of Different Approaches

    • Authors: Khalil Khanafer, Junqian Cao, Hussein Kokash
      First page: 95
      Abstract: This critical review provides a comprehensive analysis of various condition monitoring techniques pivotal in additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The reliability and quality of AM components are contingent upon the precise control of numerous parameters and the timely detection of potential defects, such as lamination, cracks, and porosity. This paper emphasizes the significance of in situ monitoring systems—optical, thermal, and acoustic—which continuously evaluate the integrity of the manufacturing process. Optical techniques employing high-speed cameras and laser scanners provide real-time, non-contact assessments of the AM process, facilitating the early detection of layer misalignment and surface anomalies. Simultaneously, thermal imaging techniques, such as infrared sensing, play a crucial role in monitoring complex thermal gradients, contributing to defect detection and process control. Acoustic monitoring methods augmented by advancements in audio analysis and machine learning offer cost-effective solutions for discerning the acoustic signatures of AM machinery amidst variable operational conditions. Finally, machine learning is considered an efficient technique for data processing and has shown great promise in feature extraction.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030095
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 96: A Review on Fusion Welding of Dissimilar
           Ferritic/Austenitic Steels: Processing and Weld Zone Metallurgy

    • Authors: Fabio Giudice, Severino Missori, Cristina Scolaro, Andrea Sili
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Dissimilar welds between ferritic and austenitic steels represent a good solution for exploiting the best performance of stainless steels at high and low temperatures and in aggressive environments, while minimizing costs. Therefore, they are widely used in nuclear and petrochemical plants; however, due to the different properties of the steels involved, the welding process can be challenging. Fusion welding can be specifically applied to connect low-carbon or low-alloy steels with high-alloy steels, which have similar melting points. The welding of thick plates can be performed with an electric arc in multiple passes or in a single pass by means of laser beam equipment. Since the microstructure and, consequently, the mechanical properties of the weld are closely related to the composition, the choice of the filler metal and processing parameters, which in turn affect the dilution rate, plays a fundamental role. Numerous technical solutions have been proposed for welding dissimilar steels and much research has developed on welding metallurgy; therefore, this article is aimed at a review of the most recent scientific literature on issues relating to the fusion welding of ferritic/austenitic steels. Two specific sections are dedicated, respectively, to electric arc and laser beam welding; finally, metallurgical issues, related to dilution and thermal field are debated in the discussion section.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030096
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 97: Development of Multi-Part Field-Shapers for
           Magnetic Pulse Welding Using Nanostructured Cu-Nb Composite

    • Authors: Evgeny Zaytsev, Vasiliy Krutikov, Alexey Spirin, Sergey Paranin
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) employs a strong pulsed magnetic field to accelerate parts against each other, thus forming an impact joint. Single-turn tool coils and field-shapers (FSs) used in MPW operate under the most demanding conditions, such as magnetic fields of 40–50 T with periods lasting tens of microseconds. With the use of conventional copper and bronze coils, intense thermo-mechanical stresses lead to the rapid degradation of the working bore. This work aimed to improve the efficiency of field-shapers and focused on the development of two- and four-slit FSs with a nanocomposite Cu 18Nb brazed wire acting as an inner current-carrying layer. The measured ratios of the magnetic field to the discharge current were 56.3 and 50.6 T/MA for the two- and four-slit FSs, respectively. FEM calculations of the magnetic field generated showed variations of 6–9% and 3% for the two- and four-slit FSs, respectively. The ovality percentages following copper tube compression were 27% and 7% for the two- and four-slit FSs, respectively. The measured deviations in the weld-joining length were 11% and 1.4% in the two- and four-slit FSs, respectively. Compared to the previous experiments on an entirely steel inductor, the novel FS showed significantly better results in terms of its efficiency and the homogeneity of its magnetic field.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030097
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 98: Transfer Learning-Based Artificial Neural Network
           for Predicting Weld Line Occurrence through Process Simulations and
           Molding Trials

    • Authors: Giacomo Baruffa, Andrea Pieressa, Marco Sorgato, Giovanni Lucchetta
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Optimizing process parameters to minimize defects remains an important challenge in injection molding (IM). Machine learning (ML) techniques offer promise in this regard, but their application often requires extensive datasets. Transfer learning (TL) emerges as a solution to this problem, leveraging knowledge from related tasks to enhance model training and performance. This study explores TL’s viability in predicting weld line visibility in injection-molded components using artificial neural networks (ANNs). TL techniques are employed to transfer knowledge between datasets related to different components. Furthermore, both source datasets obtained from simulations and experimental tests are used during the study. In order to use process simulations to obtain data regarding the presence of surface defects, it was necessary to correlate an output variable of the simulations with the experimental observations. The results demonstrate TL’s efficacy in reducing the data required for training predictive models, with simulations proving to be a cost-effective alternative to experimental data. TL from simulations achieves comparable predictive metric values to those of the non-pre-trained network, but with an 83% reduction in the required data for the target dataset. Overall, transfer learning shows promise in streamlining injection molding optimization and reducing manufacturing costs.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030098
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 99: Exploring Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) as an AI Tool
           for Optimising GMA-WAAM Path Planning

    • Authors: Rafael Pereira Ferreira, Emil Schubert, Américo Scotti
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Conventional path-planning strategies for GMA-WAAM may encounter challenges related to geometrical features when printing complex-shaped builds. One alternative to mitigate geometry-related flaws is to use algorithms that optimise trajectory choices—for instance, using heuristics to find the most efficient trajectory. The algorithm can assess several trajectory strategies, such as contour, zigzag, raster, and even space-filling, to search for the best strategy according to the case. However, handling complex geometries by this means poses computational efficiency concerns. This research aimed to explore the potential of machine learning techniques as a solution to increase the computational efficiency of such algorithms. First, reinforcement learning (RL) concepts are introduced and compared with supervised machining learning concepts. The Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) problem is explained and justified as a choice within the RL techniques. As a case study, a space-filling strategy was chosen to have this machining learning optimisation artifice in its algorithm for GMA-AM printing. Computational and experimental validations were conducted, demonstrating that adding MAB in the algorithm helped to achieve shorter trajectories, using fewer iterations than the original algorithm, potentially reducing printing time. These findings position the RL techniques, particularly MAB, as a promising machining learning solution to address setbacks in the space-filling strategy applied.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030099
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 100: Faster Evaluation of Dimensional Machine
           Performance in Additive Manufacturing by Using COMPAQT Parts

    • Authors: Laurent Spitaels, Endika Nieto Fuentes, Valentin Dambly, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre, Pedro-José Arrazola, François Ducobu
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Knowing the tolerance interval capabilities (TICs) of a manufacturing process is of prime interest, especially if specifications link the manufacturer to a customer. These TICs can be determined using the machine performance concept of ISO 22514. However, few works have applied this to Additive Manufacturing printers, while testing most of the printing area as recommended takes a very long time (nearly 1 month is common). This paper, by proposing a novel part design called COMPAQT (Component for Machine Performances Assessment in Quick Time), aims at giving the same level of printing area coverage, while keeping the manufacturing time below 24 h. The method was successfully tested on a material extrusion printer. It allowed the determination of potential and real machine tolerance interval capabilities. Independently of the feature size, those aligned with the X axis achieved lower TICs than those aligned with the Y axis, while the Z axis exhibited the best performance. The measurements specific to one part exhibited a systematic error centered around 0 mm ± 0.050 mm, while those involving two parts reached up to 0.314 mm of deviation. COMPAQT can be used in two applications: evaluating printer tolerance interval capabilities and tracking its long-term performance by incorporating it into batches of other parts.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030100
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 101: A Study on Powder Spreading Quality in Powder Bed
           Fusion Processes Using Discrete Element Method Simulation

    • Authors: Panagiotis Avrampos, George-Christopher Vosniakos
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Powder deposition is a very important aspect of PBF-based additive manufacturing processes. Discrete Element Method (DEM) is commonly utilized by researchers to examine the physically complex aspects of powder-spreading methods. This work focuses on vibration-assisted doctor blade powder recoating. The aim of this work is to use experiment-verified DEM simulations in combination with Taguchi Design of Experiments (DoE) to identify optimum spreading parameters based on robust layer quality criteria. The verification of the used powder model is performed via angle of repose and angle of avalanche simulation–experiment cross-checking. Then, four criteria, namely layer thickness deviation, surface coverage ratio, surface root-mean-square roughness and true packing density, are defined. It has been proven that the doctor blade’s translational speed plays the most important role in defining the quality of the deposited layer. The true packing density was found to be unaffected by the spreading parameters. The vertical vibration of the doctor blade recoater was found to have a beneficial effect on the quality of the deposited layer. Ultimately, a weighted mean quality criteria analysis is mapped out. Skewness and kurtosis were proven to function as effective indicators of layer quality, showing a linear relation to the weighted means of the defined quality criteria. The specific weights that optimize this linearity were identified.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030101
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 102: Digital Twin Modeling for Smart Injection Molding

    • Authors: Sara Nasiri, Mohammad Reza Khosravani, Tamara Reinicke, Jivka Ovtcharova
      First page: 102
      Abstract: In traditional injection molding, each level of the process has its own monitoring and improvement initiatives. But in the upcoming industrial revolution, it is important to establish connections and communication among all stages, as changes in one stage might have an impact on others. To address this issue, digital twins (DTs) are introduced as virtual models that replicate the entire injection molding process. This paper focuses on the data and technology needed to build a DT model for injection molding. Each stage can have its own DT, which are integrated into a comprehensive model of the process. DTs enable the smart automation of production processes and data collection, reducing manual efforts in supervising and controlling production systems. However, implementing DTs is challenging and requires effort for conception and integration with the represented systems. To mitigate this, the current work presents a model for systematic knowledge-based engineering for the DTs of injection molding. This model includes fault detection systems, 3D printing, and system integration to automate development activities. Based on knowledge engineering, data analysis, and data mapping, the proposed DT model allows fault detection, prognostic maintenance, and predictive manufacturing.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030102
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 103: Revealing the Mechanisms of Smoke during Electron
           Beam–Powder Bed Fusion by High-Speed Synchrotron Radiography

    • Authors: Jihui Ye, Nick Semjatov, Pidassa Bidola, Greta Lindwall, Carolin Körner
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Electron beam–powder bed fusion (PBF-EB) is an additive manufacturing process that utilizes an electron beam as the heat source to enable material fusion. However, the use of a charge-carrying heat source can sometimes result in sudden powder explosions, usually referred to as “Smoke”, which can lead to process instability or termination. This experimental study investigated the initiation and propagation of Smoke using in situ high-speed synchrotron radiography. The results reveal two key mechanisms for Smoke evolution. In the first step, the beam–powder bed interaction creates electrically isolated particles in the atmosphere. Subsequently, these isolated particles get charged either by direct irradiation by the beam or indirectly by back-scattered electrons. These particles are accelerated by electric repulsion, and new particles in the atmosphere are produced when they impinge on the powder bed. This is the onset of the avalanche process known as Smoke. Based on this understanding, the dependence of Smoke on process parameters such as beam returning time, beam diameter, etc., can be rationalized.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030103
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 104: Real-Size Reconstruction of Porous Media Using
           the Example of Fused Filament Fabrication 3D-Printed Rock Analogues

    • Authors: Alexander A. Oskolkov, Alexander A. Kochnev, Sergey N. Krivoshchekov, Yan V. Savitsky
      First page: 104
      Abstract: The multi-scale study of rock properties is a necessary step in the planning of oil and gas reservoir developments. The amount of core samples available for research is usually limited, and some of the samples can be distracted. The investigation of core reconstruction possibilities is an important task. An approach to the real-size reconstruction of porous media with a given (target) porosity and permeability by controlling the parameters of FFF 3D printing using CT images of the original core is proposed. Real-size synthetic core specimens based on CT images were manufactured using FFF 3D printing. The possibility of reconstructing the reservoir properties of a sandstone core sample was proven. The results of gas porometry measurements showed that the porosity of specimens No.32 and No.46 was 13.5% and 12.8%, and the permeability was 442.3 mD and 337.8 mD, respectively. The porosity of the original core was 14% and permeability was 271 mD. It was found that changing the layer height and nozzle diameter, as well as the retract and restart distances, has a direct effect on the porosity and permeability of synthetic specimens. This study shows that porosity and permeability of synthetic specimens depend on the flow of the material and the percentage of overlap between the infill and the outer wall.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030104
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 105: Experimental Evidence on Incremental Formed
           Polymer Sheets Using a Stair Toolpath Strategy

    • Authors: Antonio Formisano, Luca Boccarusso, Dario De Fazio, Massimo Durante
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Incremental sheet forming represents a relatively recent technology, similar to the layered manufacturing principle of the rapid prototype approach; it is very suitable for small series production and guarantees cost-effectiveness because it does not require dedicated equipment. Research has initially shown that this process is effective in metal materials capable of withstanding plastic deformation but, in recent years, the interest in this technique has been increasing for the manufacture of complex polymer sheet components as an alternative to the conventional technologies, based on heating–shaping–cooling manufacturing routes. Conversely, incrementally formed polymer sheets can suffer from some peculiar defects, like, for example, twisting. To reduce the risk of this phenomenon, the occurrence of failures and poor surface quality, a viable way is to choose toolpath strategies that make the tool/sheet contact conditions less severe; this represents one of the main goals of the present research. Polycarbonate sheets were worked using incremental forming; in detail, cone frusta with a fixed-wall angle were manufactured with different toolpaths based on a reference and a stair strategy, in lubricated and dry conditions. The forming forces, the forming time, the twist angle, and the mean roughness were monitored. The analysis of the results highlighted that a stair toolpath involving an alternation of diagonal up and vertical down steps represents a useful strategy to mitigate the occurrence of the twisting phenomenon in incremental formed thermoplastic sheets and a viable way of improving the process towards a green manufacturing process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030105
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 106: Optimization of the FDM Processing Parameters on
           the Compressive Properties of ABS Objects for the Production of
           High-Heeled Shoes

    • Authors: Suzana Kutnjak-Mravlinčić, Damir Godec, Ana Pilipović, Ana Sutlović
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The influence of 3D printing parameters on compressive properties is an important factor in the application of additive manufacturing processes for products subjected to compressive loads in use. In this study, the compressive strength and compressive modulus of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) test specimens fabricated using the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process were investigated with the aim of producing products of high-heeled shoes for women. The experimental part of the study includes a central composite experimental design to optimize the main 3D printing parameters (layer thickness, infill density, and extrusion temperature) and the infill geometry (honeycomb and linear at a 45° angle—L45) to achieve maximum printing properties of the 3D-printed products. The results show that the infill density has the greatest influence on the printing properties, followed by the layer thickness and, finally, the extrusion temperature as the least influential factor. The linear infill at a 45° angle resulted in higher compressive strength and lower compressive modulus values compared to the honeycomb infill. By optimizing the results, the maximum compressive strength (that of L45 is 41 N/mm2 and that of honeycomb 35 N/mm2) and modulus (that of L45 is 918 N/mm2 and that of honeycomb is 868 N/mm2) for both types of infill is obtained at a layer thickness of 0.1 mm and infill density of 40%, while the temperature for L45 can be in the range of 209 °C to 254 °C, but for the honeycomb infill, the processing temperature is 255 °C. Additionally, the study highlights the potential for sustainable manufacturing practices and the integration of advanced 3D printing technologies to enhance the efficiency and eco-friendliness of the production process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030106
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 107: A Data-Driven Approach for Cutting Force
           Prediction in FEM Machining Simulations Using Gradient Boosted Machines

    • Authors: Tim Reeber, Jan Wolf, Hans-Christian Möhring
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Cutting simulations via the Finite Element Method (FEM) have recently gained more significance due to ever increasing computational performance and thus better resulting accuracy. However, these simulations are still time consuming and therefore cannot be deployed for an in situ evaluation of the machining processes in an industrial environment. This is due to the high non-linear nature of FEM simulations of machining processes, which require considerable computational resources. On the other hand, machine learning methods are known to capture complex non-linear behaviors. One of the most widely applied material models in cutting simulations is the Johnson–Cook material model, which has a great influence on the output of the cutting simulations and contributes to the non-linear behavior of the models, but its influence on cutting forces is sometimes difficult to assess beforehand. Therefore, this research aims to capture the highly non-linear behavior of the material model by using a dataset of multiple short-duration cutting simulations from Abaqus to learn the relationship of the Johnson–Cook material model parameters and the resulting cutting forces for a constant set of cutting conditions. The goal is to shorten the time to simulate cutting forces by encapsulating complex cutting conditions in dependence of material parameters in a single model. A total of five different models are trained and the performance is evaluated. The results show that Gradient Boosted Machines capture the influence of varying material model parameters the best and enable good predictions of cutting forces as well as deliver insights into the relevance of the material parameters for the cutting and thrust forces in orthogonal cutting.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030107
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 108: Tool Wear Monitoring In Micro-Milling Based on
           Digital Twin Technology with an Extended Kalman Filter

    • Authors: Christiand, Gandjar Kiswanto, Ario Sunar Baskoro, Zulhendri Hasymi, Tae Jo Ko
      First page: 108
      Abstract: In order to avoid catastrophic events that degrade the quality of machined products, such as tool breakage, it is vital to have a prognostic system for monitoring tool wear during the micro-milling process. Despite the long history of the tool wear monitoring field, creating such a system to track, monitor, and foresee the rapid progression of tool wear still needs to be improved in the application of micro-milling. On the other hand, digital twin technology has recently become widely recognized as significant in manufacturing and, notably, within the Industry 4.0 ecosystem. Digital twin technology is considered a potential breakthrough in developing a prognostic tool wear monitoring system, as it enables the tracking, monitoring, and prediction of the dynamics of a twinned object, e.g., a CNC machine tool. However, few works have explored the digital twin technology for tool wear monitoring, particularly in the micro-milling field. This paper presents a novel tool wear monitoring system for micro-milling machining based on digital twin technology and an extended Kalman filter framework. The proposed system provides wear progression notifications to assist the user in making decisions related to the machining process. In an evaluation using four machining datasets of slot micro-milling, the proposed system achieved a maximum error mean of 0.038 mm from the actual wear value. The proposed system brings a promising opportunity to widen the utilization of digital twin technology with the extended Kalman filter framework for seamless data integration for wear monitoring service.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030108
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 109: Milling Stability Modeling by Sample Partitioning
           with Chatter Frequency-Based Test Point Selection

    • Authors: Tony Schmitz
      First page: 109
      Abstract: This paper describes a sample partitioning approach to retain or reject samples from an initial distribution of stability maps using milling test results. The stability maps are calculated using distributions of uncertain modal parameters that represent the tool tip frequency response functions and cutting force model coefficients. Test points for sample partitioning are selected using either (1) the combination of spindle speed and mean axial depth from the available samples that provides the high material removal rate, or (2) a spindle speed based on the chatter frequency and mean axial depth at that spindle speed. The latter is selected when an unstable (chatter) result is obtained from a test. Because the stability model input parameters are also partitioned using the test results, their uncertainty is reduced using a limited number of tests and the milling stability model accuracy is increased. A case study is provided to evaluate the algorithm.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030109
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 110: Microstructure and Thermal Mechanical Behavior of
           Arc-Welded Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6

    • Authors: Zeli Arhumah, Xuan-Tan Pham
      First page: 110
      Abstract: In this study, the welding thermal cycle, as well as the microstructural and mechanical properties of welded AA6061-T6 plates, were studied. The plates were prepared and bead-on-plate welded using gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Numerical simulations using SYSWELD® were performed to obtain the thermal distribution in the welded plates. The numerical heat source was calibrated using the temperatures obtained from the experimental work and the geometry of the melting pool. The mechanical properties were obtained through microhardness tests and were correlated with the welding thermal cycle. Moreover, the mechanical behavior and local deformation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) were investigated using micro-flat tensile (MFT) tests with digital image correlation (DIC). The mechanical properties of the subzones in the HAZ were then correlated with the welding thermal cycle and with the microstructure of the HAZ. It was observed that the welding thermal cycle produced microstructural variations across the HAZ, which significantly affected the mechanical behavior of the HAZ subzones. The results revealed that MFT tests with the DIC technique are an excellent tool for studying the local mechanical behavior change in AA6061-T6 welded parts due to the welding heat.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030110
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 111: Green Innovation Practices: A Case Study in a
           Foundry

    • Authors: Gianluca Fratta, Ivan Stefani, Sara Tapola, Stefano Saetta
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The foundry industry is responsible for the production of several potentially polluting and hazardous compounds. One of the major sources of pollution is the use of organic binders for the manufacturing of sand cores and sand moulds. To address this problem, in recent years, the use of low-emission products, known as inorganic binders, has been proposed. Their use in ferrous foundries, otherwise, is limited due to some problematic features that complicate their introduction in the manufacturing process, as often happens when a breakthrough innovation is introduced. In light of this, the aim of this work is to provide a Green Innovation Practice (GIP) to manage the introduction of green breakthrough innovations, as previously described, within an existing productive context. This practice was applied to better manage the experimental phase of the Green Casting Life Project, which aims to evaluate the possibility of using inorganic binders for the production of ferrous castings. After describing the state of the art of GIPs and their application in manufacturing contexts, the paper described the proposed GIP and its application to a real case consisting of testing inorganic binders in a ferrous foundry.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030111
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 112: Electrical Smoothing of the Powder Bed Surface in
           Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion of Metals

    • Authors: Andreas Hofmann, Tim Grotz, Nico Köstler, Alexander Mahr, Frank Döpper
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Achieving a homogeneous and uniform powder bed surface as well as a defined, uniform layer thickness is crucial for achieving reproducible component properties that meet requirements when powder bed fusion of metals with a laser beam. The existing recoating processes cause wear of the recoater blade due to protruded, melted obstacles, which affects the powder bed surface quality locally. Impairments to the powder bed surface quality have a negative effect on the resulting component properties such as surface quality and relative density. This can lead either to scrapped components or to additional work steps such as surface reworking. In this work, an electric smoother is presented with which a wear-free and contactless smoothing of the powder bed can be realized. The achievable powder bed surface quality was analyzed using optical profilometry. It was found that the electric smoother can compensate for impairments in the powder bed surface and achieve a reproducible surface quality of the powder bed regardless of the initial extent of the impairments. Consequently, the electric smoother offers a promising opportunity to reduce the scrap rate in PBF-LB/M and to increase component quality.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030112
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 113: Performance Analysis of Helical Milling and
           Drilling Operations While Machining Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum
           Laminates

    • Authors: Gururaj Bolar, Anoop Aroor Dinesh, Ashwin Polishetty, Raviraj Shetty, Anupama Hiremath, V. L. Neelakantha
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Being a difficult-to-cut material, Fiber Metal Laminates (FML) often pose challenges during conventional drilling and require judicious selection of machining parameters to ensure defect-free laminates that can serve reliably during their service lifetime. Helical milling is a promising technique for producing good-quality holes and is preferred over conventional drilling. The paper compares conventional drilling with the helical milling technique for producing holes in carbon fiber-reinforced aluminum laminates. The effect of machining parameters, such as cutting speed and axial feed, on the magnitude of cutting force and the machining temperature during conventional drilling as well as helical milling is studied. It was observed that the thrust force produced during machining reduces considerably during helical milling in comparison to conventional drilling at a constant axial feed rate. The highest machining temperature recorded for helical milling was much lower in comparison to the highest machining temperature measured during conventional drilling. The machining temperatures recorded during helical milling were well below the glass transition temperature of the epoxy used in carbon fiber prepreg, hence protecting the prepreg from thermal degradation during the hole-making process. The surface roughness of the holes produced by both techniques is measured, and the surface morphology of the drilled holes is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. The surface roughness of the helical-milled holes was lower than that for holes produced by conventional drilling. Scanning electron microscope images provided insights into the interaction of the hole surface with the chips during the chip evacuation stage under different speeds and feed rates. The microhardness of the aluminum layers increased after processing holes using drilling and helical milling operations. The axial feed/axial pitch had minimal influence on the microhardness increase in comparison to the cutting speed.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030113
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 114: Monitoring Variability in Melt Pool
           Spatiotemporal Dynamics (VIMPS): Towards Proactive Humping Detection in
           Additive Manufacturing

    • Authors: Mohamed Abubakr Hassan, Mahmoud Hassan, Chi-Guhn Lee, Ahmad Sadek
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Humping is a common defect in direct energy deposition processes that reduces the geometric integrity of printed products. The available literature on humping detection is deemed reactive, as they focus on detecting late-stage melt pool spatial abnormalities. Therefore, this work introduces a novel, proactive indicator designed to detect early-stage spatiotemporal abnormalities. Specifically, the proposed indicator monitors the variability of instantaneous melt pool solidification-front speed (VIMPS). The solidification front dynamics quantify the intensity of cyclic melt pool elongation induced by early-stage humping. VIMPS tracks the solidification front dynamics based on the variance in the melt pool infrared radiations. Qualitative and quantitive analysis of the collected infrared data confirms VIMPS’s utility in reflecting the intricate humping-induced dynamics and defects. Experimental results proved VIMPS’ proactivity. By capturing early spatiotemporal abnormalities, VIMPS predicted humping by up to 10 s before any significant geometric defects. In contrast, current spatial abnormality-based methods failed to detect humping until 20 s after significant geometric defects had occurred. VIMPS’ proactive detection capabilities enable effective direct energy deposition control, boosting the process’s productivity and quality.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030114
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 115: A Comparative Study of Different Milling
           Strategies on Productivity, Tool Wear, Surface Roughness, and Vibration

    • Authors: Francisco J. G. Silva, Rui P. Martinho, Luís L. Magalhães, Filipe Fernandes, Rita C. M. Sales-Contini, Luís M. Durão, Rafaela C. B. Casais, Vitor F. C. Sousa
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Strategies for obtaining deep slots in soft materials can vary significantly. Conventionally, the tool travels along the slot, removing material mainly with the side cutting edges. However, a “plunge milling” strategy is also possible, performing the cut vertically, taking advantage of the tip cutting edges that almost reach the center of the tool. Although both strategies are already commonly used, there is a clear gap in the literature in studies that compare tool wear, surface roughness, and productivity in each case. This paper describes an experimental study comparing the milling of deep slots in AA7050-T7451 aluminum alloy, coated with a novel DLCSiO500W3.5O2 layer to minimize the aluminum adhesion to the tool, using conventional and plunge milling strategies. The main novelty of this paper is to present a broad study regarding different factors involved in machining operations and comparing two distinct strategies using a novel tool coating in the milling of aeronautical aluminum alloy. Tool wear is correlated with the vibrations of the tools in each situation, the cycle time is compared between the cases studied, and the surface roughness of the machined surfaces is analyzed. This study concludes that the cycle time of plunge milling can be about 20% less than that of conventional milling procedures, favoring economic sustainability and modifying the wear observed on the tools. Plunge milling can increase productivity, does not increase tool tip wear, and avoids damaging the side edges of the tool, which can eventually be used for final finishing operations. Therefore, it can be said that the plunge milling strategy improves economic and environmental sustainability as it uses all the cutting edges of the tools in a more balanced way, with less global wear.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030115
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 116: Process Optimization and Distortion Prediction in
           Directed Energy Deposition

    • Authors: Adem Ben Hammouda, Hatem Mrad, Haykel Marouani, Ahmed Frikha, Tikou Belem
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Directed energy deposition (DED), a form of additive manufacturing (AM), is gaining traction for its ability to produce complex metal parts with precise geometries. However, defects like distortion, residual stresses, and porosity can compromise part quality, leading to rejection. This research addresses this challenge by emphasizing the importance of monitoring process parameters (overlayer distance, powder feed rate, and laser path/power/spot size) to achieve desired mechanical properties. To improve DED quality and reliability, a numerical approach is presented and compared with an experimental work. The parametric finite element model and predictive methods are used to quantify and control material behavior, focusing on minimizing residual stresses and distortions. Numerical simulations using the Abaqus software 2022 are validated against experimental results to predict distortion and residual stresses. A coupled thermomechanical analysis model is employed to understand the impact of thermal distribution on the mechanical responses of the parts. Finally, new strategies based on laser scan trajectory and power are proposed to reduce residual stresses and distortions, ultimately enhancing the quality and reliability of DED-manufactured parts.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030116
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 117: SolDef_AI: An Open Source PCB Dataset for Mask
           R-CNN Defect Detection in Soldering Processes of Electronic Components

    • Authors: Gianmauro Fontana, Maurizio Calabrese, Leonardo Agnusdei, Gabriele Papadia, Antonio Del Prete
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The soldering process for aerospace applications follows stringent requirements and standards to ensure the reliability and safety of electronic connections in aerospace systems. For this reason, the quality control phase plays an important role to guarantee requirements compliance. This process often requires manual control since technicians’ knowledge is fundamental to obtain effective quality check results. In this context, the authors have developed a new open source dataset (SolDef_AI) to implement an innovative methodology for printed circuit board (PCB) defect detection exploiting the Mask R-CNN algorithm. The presented open source dataset aims to overcome the challenges associated with the availability of datasets for model training in this specific research and electronics industrial field. The dataset is open source and available online.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030117
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 118: Fused Filament Fabrication of WC-10Co Hardmetals:
           A Study on Binder Formulations and Printing Variables

    • Authors: Rubiano Buitrago, Gil Plazas, Boyacá Mendivelso, Herrera Quintero
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This research explores the utilization of powder fused filament fabrication (PFFF) for producing tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-10Co) hardmetals, focusing on binder formulations and their impact on extrusion force as well as the influence of printing variables on the green and sintered density of samples. By examining the interplay between various binder compositions and backbone contents, this study aims to enhance the mechanical properties of the sintered parts while reducing defects inherent in the printing process. Evidence suggests that formulated feedstocks affect the hardness of the sintered hardmetal—not due to microstructural changes but macrostructural responses such as macro defects introduced during printing, debinding, and sintering of samples. The results demonstrate the critical role of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-MA) content in improving part density and sintered hardness, indicating the need for tailored thermal debinding protocols tailored to each feedstock. This study provides insights into feedstock formulation for hardmetal PFFF, proposing a path toward refining manufacturing processes to achieve better quality and performance of 3D printed hardmetal components.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030118
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 119: Effects of Oil Concentration in Flood Cooling on
           Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness in GTD-111 Nickel-Based
           Superalloy Slot Milling

    • Authors: Gábor Kónya, Zsolt F. Kovács
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Cooling–lubricating processes have a big impact on cutting force, tool wear, and the quality of the machined surface, especially for hard-to-machine superalloys, so the choice of the right cooling–lubricating method is of great importance. Nickel-based superalloys are among the most difficult materials to machine due to their high hot strength, work hardening, and extremely low thermal conductivity. Previous research has shown that flood cooling results in the least tool wear and cutting force among different cooling–lubricating methods. Thus, the effects of the flood oil concentration (3%; 6%; 9%; 12%; and 15%) on the above-mentioned factors were investigated during the slot milling of the GTD-111 nickel-based superalloy. The cutting force was measured during machining with a Kistler three-component dynamometer, and then after cutting the tool wear and the surface roughness on the bottom surface of the milled slots were measured with a confocal microscope and tactile roughness tester. The results show that at a 12% oil concentration, the tool load and tool wear are the lowest; even at an oil concentration of 15%, a slight increase is observed in both factors. Essentially, a higher oil concentration reduces friction between the tool and the workpiece contact surface, resulting in reduced tool wear and cutting force. Furthermore, due to less friction, the heat generation in the cutting zone is also reduced, resulting in a lower heat load on the tool, which increases tool life. It is interesting to note that the 6% oil concentration had the highest cutting force and tool wear, and strong vibration was heard during machining, which is also reflected in the force signal. The change in oil concentration did not effect the surface roughness.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030119
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 120: Theoretical Assessment of the Environmental
           Impact of the Preheating Stage in Thermoplastic Composite Processing: A
           Step toward Sustainable Manufacturing

    • Authors: Abbas Hosseini
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Manufacturing processes have always played a pivotal role in the life cycle assessment of products, necessitating focused efforts to minimize their impact on the environment. Thermoplastic composite manufacturing is no exception to this concern. Within thermoplastic composite manufacturing, the preheating process stands out as one of the most energy-intensive stages, significantly affecting the environment. In this study, a theoretical analysis is conducted to compare three modes of preheating: conductive, radiative, and convective modes, considering their energy consumption and environmental impact. The analysis reveals the potential for substantial energy savings and emissions reduction through the selection of a proper preheating mode. Since the analysis used in this study is theoretical, it facilitates a parametric study of different modes of preheating to assess how process parameters impact the environment. Moreover, this study includes a comparison between emissions from material production and the preheating process, highlighting the substantial contribution of the preheating process to the overall product life cycle assessment.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030120
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 121: Application of Microwave Energy to Biomass: A
           Comprehensive Review of Microwave-Assisted Technologies, Optimization
           Parameters, and the Strengths and Weaknesses

    • Authors: Alejandra Sophia Lozano Pérez, Juan José Lozada Castro, Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo
      First page: 121
      Abstract: This review article focuses on the application of microwave-assisted techniques in various processes, including microwave-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted pyrolysis, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, microwave-assisted organosolv, and microwave-assisted hydrothermal pretreatment. This article discusses the mechanisms behind these techniques and their potential for increasing yield, producing more selectivity, and lowering reaction times while reducing energy usage. It also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each process and emphasizes the need for further research to scale the processes and optimize conditions for industrial applications. A specific case study is presented on the pretreatment of coffee waste, demonstrating how the choice of microwave-assisted processes can lead to different by-products depending on the initial composition of the biomass.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030121
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 122: Stability of Micro-Milling Tool Considering Tool
           Breakage

    • Authors: Yuan-Yuan Ren, Bao-Guo Jia, Min Wan, Hui Tian
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Micro-milling, widely employed across various fields, faces significant challenges due to the small diameter and limited stiffness of its tools, making the process highly susceptible to cutting chatter and premature tool breakage. Ensuring stable and safe cutting processes necessitates the prediction of chatter by considering the tool breakage. Crucially, the modal parameters of the spindle–holder–tool system are important prerequisites for such stability prediction. In this paper, the FRFs of the micro-milling tool are calculated by direct frequency response functions (FRFs) of the micro-milling cutter and cross-FRFs between a point on the shank and one on the tool tip. Additionally, by utilizing a cutting force model specific to micro-milling, the bending stress experienced by the tool is computed, and the tool breakage curve is subsequently determined based on the material’s permissible maximum allowable stress. The FRFs of the micro-milling tool, alongside the tool breakage curve, are then integrated to generate the final stability lobe diagrams (SLDs). The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed methodology are confirmed through a comprehensive series of numerical and experimental validations.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030122
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 123: Additive Manufacturing of Ti3AlC2/TiC and
           Ti3AlC2/SiC Ceramics Using the Fused Granules Fabrication Technique

    • Authors: Maksim Krinitcyn, Georgy Kopytov, Egor Ryumin
      First page: 123
      Abstract: In this work, SiC–Ti3AlC2 and TiC–Ti3AlC2 composites produced by additive manufacturing are investigated. The issue of obtaining ceramic materials using additive manufacturing technologies is currently relevant, since not many modern additive technologies are suitable for working with ceramic materials. The study is devoted to the optimization of additive manufacturing parameters, as well as the study of the structure and properties of the resulting objects. The fused granules fabrication (FGF) method as one kind of the material extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM) technology is used to obtain composite samples. The main advantage of the FGF technology is the ability to obtain high-quality samples from ceramic materials by additive manufacturing. Composites with different ratios between components and different powder/polymer ratios are investigated. The technological features of the additive formation of composites are investigated, as well as their structure and properties. The optimal sintering temperature to form the best mechanical properties for both composites is 1300 °C. The composites have a regulatable porosity. Ti3AlC2 content, sintering temperature, and polymer content in the feedstock are the main parameters that regulate the porosity of FGF samples.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030123
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 124: Improving Deposited Surface Quality in Additive
           Manufacturing Using Structured Light Scanning Characterization and
           Mechanistic Modeling

    • Authors: Tuhin Mukherjee, Weijun Shen, Yiliang Liao, Beiwen Li
      First page: 124
      Abstract: The surface quality of parts fabricated using laser-directed energy deposition additive manufacturing significantly affects the fatigue life, corrosion resistance, and performance of the components. Surface quality improvements remain a key challenge in laser-directed energy deposition because of the involvement of multiple simultaneously occurring physical phenomena controlling the surface characteristics. Here, a unique combination of structured light scanning characterization and mechanistic modeling was used to identify three key physical factors that affect surface quality. These factors include a geometric factor, an instability factor, and a disintegration factor, which were calculated using a mechanistic model and correlated with the surface characteristics data obtained from the structured light scanning characterization. It was found that these factors can precisely explain the variations in the average surface roughness. In addition, skewness and kurtosis of the surfaces made by laser-directed energy deposition were found to be significantly better than those observed in traditional manufacturing. Based on the experimental and modeling results, a surface quality process map was constructed that can guide engineers in selecting appropriate sets of process variables to improve deposit surface quality in additive manufacturing.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030124
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 125: The Machining and Surface Modification of H13 Die
           Steel via the Electrical Discharge Machining Process Using Graphite Mixed
           Dielectric

    • Authors: Singh, Goyal, Sehgal
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Surface modification through electrical discharge machining (EDM) results in many advantages, such as improved surface hardness, enhanced wear resistance, and better micro-structuring. During EDM-based surface modification, either the eroding tool electrode or a powder-mixed dielectric can be utilized to add material onto the machined surface of the workpiece. The current study looks at the surface modification of H13 die steel using EDM in a dielectric medium mixed with graphite powder. The experiments were carried out using a Taguchi experimental design. In this work, peak current, pulse-on time, and powder concentration are taken into consideration as input factors. Tool wear rate (TWR), material removal rate (MRR), and the microhardness of the surface of the machined specimen are taken as output parameters. The machined surface’s microhardness was found to have improved by 159%. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and changes in MRR and TWR due to the powder-mixed dielectric are also discussed in detail.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030125
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 126: Optimizing the Electrical Discharge Machining
           

    • Authors: Renu Kiran Shastri, Chinmaya Prasad Mohanty, Umakant Mishra, Tapano Kumar Hotta, Viraj Vishwas Patil, Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Engineers continue to be concerned about electrical discharge-machined components’ high energy consumption, machining debris, and poor dimensional precision. The aim of this research is to propose a hybrid neuro-genetic approach to improve the machinability of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of the Nimonic C263 superalloy. This approach focuses on reducing the energy consumption and negative environmental impacts. The material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), specific energy consumption (SEC), surface roughness (Ra), machining debris (db), and circularity (C) are examined as a function of machining parameters such as the voltage (V), pulse on time (Ton), current (I), duty factor (τ), and electrode type. By employing the VIKOR method, all the responses are transformed into a distinctive VIKOR index (VI). Neuro-genetic methods (a hybrid VIKOR-based ANN-GA) can further enhance the best possible result from the VIKOR index. During this step, the hybrid technique (VIKOR-based ANN-GA) is used to estimate an overall improvement of 9.87% in the response, and an experiment is conducted to confirm this condition of optimal machining. This work is competent enough to provide aeroengineers with an energy-efficient, satisfying workplace by lowering the machining costs and increasing productivity.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030126
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 127: Pressure and Liquid Distribution under the Blade
           of a Basket Extruder of Continuous Wet Granulation of Model Material

    • Authors: Roman Fekete, Peter Peciar, Martin Juriga, Štefan Gužela, Michaela Peciarová, Dušan Horváth, Marian Peciar
      First page: 127
      Abstract: This study explores the influence of blade design on the low-pressure extrusion process, which is relevant to techniques like spheronization. We investigate how blade geometry affects the extruded paste and final product properties. A model paste was extruded through a basket extruder with varying blade lengths to create distinct wedge gaps (20°, 26° and 32° contact angles). The theoretical analysis explored paste behavior within the gap and extrudate. A model material enabled objective comparison across blade shapes. Our findings reveal a significant impact of blade design on the pressure profile, directly influencing liquid distribution in the paste and extrudate. It also affects the required torque relative to extruder output. The findings of this study hold significant implications for continuous granulation, a technique employed in the pharmaceutical industry for producing granules with uniform size and properties. Understanding the influence of blade geometry on the extrusion process can lead to the development of optimized blade designs that enhance granulation efficiency, improve product quality, and reduce energy consumption. By tailoring blade geometry, manufacturers can achieve more consistent granule characteristics, minimize process variability, and ultimately produce pharmaceuticals with enhanced efficacy.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8030127
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Advancements in Additive Manufacturing for
           Copper-Based Alloys and Composites: A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Alireza Vahedi Nemani, Mahya Ghaffari, Kazem Sabet Bokati, Nima Valizade, Elham Afshari, Ali Nasiri
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Copper-based materials have long been used for their outstanding thermal and electrical conductivities in various applications, such as heat exchangers, induction heat coils, cooling channels, radiators, and electronic connectors. The development of advanced copper alloys has broadened their utilization to include structural applications in harsh service conditions found in industries like oil and gas, marine, power plants, and water treatment, where good corrosion resistance and a combination of high strength, wear, and fatigue tolerance are critical. These advanced multi-component structures often have complex designs and intricate geometries, requiring extensive metallurgical processing routes and the joining of the individual components into a final structure. Additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionized the way complex structures are designed and manufactured. It has reduced the processing steps, assemblies, and tooling while also eliminating the need for joining processes. However, the high thermal conductivity of copper and its high reflectivity to near-infrared radiation present challenges in the production of copper alloys using fusion-based AM processes, especially with Yb-fiber laser-based techniques. To overcome these difficulties, various solutions have been proposed, such as the use of high-power, low-wavelength laser sources, preheating the build chamber, employing low thermal conductivity building platforms, and adding alloying elements or composite particles to the feedstock material. This article systematically reviews different aspects of AM processing of common industrial copper alloys and composites, including copper-chrome, copper-nickel, tin-bronze, nickel-aluminum bronze, copper-carbon composites, copper-ceramic composites, and copper-metal composites. It focuses on the state-of-the-art AM techniques employed for processing different copper-based materials and the associated technological and metallurgical challenges, optimized processing variables, the impact of post-printing heat treatments, the resulting microstructural features, physical properties, mechanical performance, and corrosion response of the AM-fabricated parts. Where applicable, a comprehensive comparison of the results with those of their conventionally fabricated counterparts is provided.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Dissimilar Probeless Friction Stir Spot Welding of
           Aluminum Alloy and USIBOR®1500-AS Steel Thin Plates

    • Authors: Mariia Rashkovets, Maria Emanuela Palmieri, Nicola Contuzzi, Luigi Tricarico, Giuseppe Casalino
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Lap joining of an aluminum AA6082-T6 plate and a UHSS steel plate coated with an Al-Si layer was performed using Probeless Friction Stir Spot Welding (P-FSSW). The dwell time and rotational speed were controlled in the range of 10–15 s and 1000–1500 rpm, respectively. For all the samples, thermo-mechanical deformation occurred solely within the upper AA6082 plate. A refined grain structure was formed in the aluminum plate close to the surface. The dwell time was responsible for the intensity of the material flow, resulting in stirring between the Al-Si layer and the aluminum plate at 15 s. The microhardness distribution corresponded to the microstructure features.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Characterization of the Dimensional Precision,
           Physical Bonding, and Tensile Performance of 3D-Printed PLA Parts with
           Different Printing Temperature

    • Authors: Rayson Pang, Mun Kou Lai, Khairul Izwan Ismail, Tze Chuen Yap
      First page: 56
      Abstract: In this study, tensile test specimens were fabricated using a material extrusion 3D-printer at various printing temperatures to evaluate the development of physical bonds within the same layer as well as in between previous layers. The tensile test specimens were fabricated using PLA material, with printing temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 260 °C. Experimental investigations were conducted to investigate the dimensional accuracy and physical appearance of the parts across printing temperatures. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at a strain rate of 1 mm/min and repeated five times for each variable in accordance with the ASTM D638-14 standard. Results showed that increasing the printing temperatures yielded parts with better tensile properties. An approximate difference of 40% in tensile strength was observed between specimens fabricated under the two most extreme conditions (180 °C and 260 °C). The changes in tensile properties were attributed to bonding mechanisms related to interlayer bonding strength and a reduction in voids within the internal geometry. Analysis of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fewer and smaller voids within the internal geometry for parts printed at higher temperature. The percentage area of voids reduced significantly when the printing temperature was increased from 180 °C to 220 °C. The tensile properties continuously improved with the printing temperature, with parts printed at 220 °C exhibiting the highest dimensional accuracy. The findings offer insight into the impact of the printing temperature on both the external physical bonds between printed roads, affecting the physical appearance and dimensional accuracy, and the internal bonds, affecting the tensile properties of the fabricated parts.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 57: Advances in Additive Friction Extrusion Deposition
           (AFED): Process and Tool Design

    • Authors: Max Hossfeld, Arnold Wright
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Additive friction extrusion deposition (AFED) is a recently developed additive manufacturing technique that promises high deposition rates at low forces. Due to the novelty of the process, the underlying phenomena and their interactions are not fully understood, and in particular, the processing strategy and tool design are still in their infancy. This work contributes to the state-of-the-art of AFED through a comprehensive analysis of its working principles and an experimental program, including a representative sample component. The working principle and process mechanics of AFED are broken down into their individual components. The forces and their origins and effects on the process are described, and measures of process efficiency and theoretical minimum energy consumption are derived. Three geometrical features of the extrusion die were identified as most relevant to the active material flow, process forces, and deposition quality: the topography of the inner and outer circular surfaces and the geometry of its extrusion channels. Based on this, the experimental program investigated seven different tool designs in terms of efficiency, force reduction, and throughput. The experiments using AA 6061-T6 as feedstock show that AFED is capable of both high material throughput (close to 550 mm3/s) and reduced substrate forces, for example, the forces for a run at 100 mm3/s remained continuously below 500 N and for a run at 400 mm3/s below 3500 N. The material flow and microstructure of AFED were assessed from macro-sections. Significant differences were found between the advancing and retracting sides for both process effects and material flow. Banded structures in the microstructure show strong similarities to other solid-state processes. The manufacturing of the sample components demonstrates that AFED is already capable of producing industrial-grade components. In mechanical tests, interlayer bonding defects resulted in more brittle failure behavior in the build direction of the structure, whereas in the horizontal direction, mechanical properties corresponding to a T4 temper were achieved.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 58: AA5754–Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by
           Friction Stir Processing: Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical
           Performance

    • Authors: Moustafa M. Mohammed, Mahmoud E. Abdullah, M. Nafea M. Rohim, Andrzej Kubit, Hamed Aghajani Derazkola
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The utilization of Al2O3 nanopowder to reinforce AA5754 aluminum alloy through blind holes employing the friction stir processing (FSP) technique to produce an aluminum matrix nanocomposite is explored in this paper. Motivated by the necessity to enhance the strength and ductility of welded joints, the impacts of varying the tool rotational speed (rpm) and blind hole diameter on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are investigated. Experimental characterization techniques including SEM, optical microscopy, microhardness, and tensile tests were employed to analyze the welded joints produced under different processing parameters (tool rotational speeds of 910, 1280, and 1700 rpm, and blind hole diameters of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm). Comparative analyses were conducted against base metal properties and joints without reinforcement powder. It was found that the addition of nanopowder resulted in a decrease in the maximum generated heat during FSP, while also reducing the stir zone size compared to samples without nanopowder. Moreover, enhancements in both the strength and ductility of the joints were observed with the incorporation of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The optimal combination of welding conditions, observed at 1280 rpm rotational speed and 1.5 mm hole diameter, yielded a remarkable ultimate tensile strength of 567 MPa, accompanied by a hardness of 45 HV. These results underscore the potential of nano-Al2O3 reinforcement in significantly improving the mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposite, with implications for advancing the performance of welded structures in various engineering applications.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Minimizing Dimensional Defects in FFF Using a
           Novel Adaptive Slicing Method Based on Local Shape Complexity

    • Authors: Ahmed Elayeb, Mehdi Tlija, Ameni Eltaief, Borhen Louhichi, Farhat Zemzemi
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as an innovative technology that gives designers several advantages, such as geometric freedom of design and less waste. However, the quality of the parts produced is affected by different design and manufacturing parameters, such as the part orientation, the nozzle temperature and speed, the support material, and the layer thickness. In this context, the layer thickness is considered an important AM parameter affecting the part quality and accuracy. Thus, in this paper, a new adaptative slicing method based on the cusp vector and the surface deviation is proposed with the aim of minimizing the dimensional defects of FFF printed parts and investigate the impact on the dimensional part tolerancing. An algorithm is developed to automatically extract data from the STL file, select the build orientation, and detect intersection points between the initial slicing and the STL mesh. The innovation of this algorithm is exhibited via adapting the slicing according to the surface curvature based on two factors: the cusp vector and the surface deviation. The suggested slicing technique guarantees dimensional accuracy, especially for complex feature shapes that are challenging to achieve using a uniform slicing approach. Finally, a preview of the slicing is displayed, and the G-code is generated to be used by the FFF machine. The case study consists of the dimensional tolerance inspection of prototypes manufactured using the conventional and adaptive slicing processes. The proposed method’s effectiveness is investigated using RE and CMM processes. The method demonstrates its reliability through the observed potential for accuracy improvements exceeding 0.6% and cost savings of up to 4.3% in specific scenarios. This reliability is substantiated by comparing the resulting dimensional tolerances and manufacturing costs.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 60: High-Precision Integration of Optical Sensors into
           

    • Authors: Nassr Al-Baradoni, Philipp Heck, Peter Groche
      First page: 60
      Abstract: A novel process design for the damage-free and highly accurate positional integration of an optical multi-axial force sensor into a hollow tube by means of rotary swaging is introduced. Numerical simulations reveal the relevant process phenomena of thin disc joining inside a pre-toothed hollow tube and help us to find an optimal process design. Experimental trials show the significant effect of the axial material flow and the number of tools on the rotary swaging process. By taking these effects into account, successful form- and force-fit joining of the sensor carrying discs into the tube can be achieved. Successful joining of an optical sensor for bending force and torque measurement shows hysteresis-free sensory behavior and thus backlash-free joining of the sensor carrier discs. The paper concludes with a presentation of the results of a numerical study on a potential closed-loop approach to the joining process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Optimization of Surface Roughness of Aluminium RSA
           443 in Diamond Tool Turning

    • Authors: Gregoire Mbangu Tambwe, Dirk Pons
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Context—Rapidly solidified aluminium alloy (RSA 443) is increasingly used in the manufacturing of optical mold inserts because of its fine nanostructure, relatively low cost, excellent thermal properties, and high hardness. However, RSA 443 is challenging for single-point diamond machining because the high silicon content mitigates against good surface finishes. Objectives—The objectives were to investigate multiple different ways to optimize the process parameters for optimal surface roughness on diamond-turned aluminium alloy RSA 443. The response surface equation was used as input to three different artificial intelligence tools, namely genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE), which were then compared. Results—The surface roughness machinability of RSA443 in single-point diamond turning was primarily determined by cutting speed, and secondly, cutting feed rate, with cutting depth being less important. The optimal conditions for the best surface finish Ra = 14.02 nm were found to be at the maximum rotational speed of 3000 rpm, cutting feed rate of 4.84 mm/min, and depth of cut of 14.52 µm with optimizing error of 3.2%. Regarding optimization techniques, the genetic algorithm performed best, then differential evolution, and finally particle swarm optimization. Originality—The study determines optimal diamond machining parameters for RSA 443, and identifies the superiority of GA above PSO and DE as optimization methods. The principles have the potential to be applied to other materials (e.g., in the RSA family) and machining processes (e.g., turning, milling).
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 62: Biomass Fuel Characteristics of Malaysian Khaya
           senegalensis Wood-Derived Energy Pellets: Effects of Densification at
           Varied Processing Temperatures

    • Authors: Ras Izzati Ismail, Chu Yee Khor, Alina Rahayu Mohamed
      First page: 62
      Abstract: This study addresses the effects of densification at varied pelletization temperatures on the novel Malaysian Khaya senegalensis wood-derived pellets biomass fuel characteristics. The lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the biomass fuel characteristics of this species prompted the research. By addressing this knowledge gap, this study explores the impact of temperature variations on key fuel properties, contributing to the optimization of sustainable biomass fuel production in manufacturing and materials processing. Khaya senegalensis wood, grown and harvested in Malaysia, was pelletized at different temperatures to analyze the calorific value, volatile matter content, ash content, fixed carbon, bulk density, and moisture contents of the pellets. The experimental data revealed a significant relationship between temperature and these fuel properties. Pelletizing at 75 °C produced the highest calorific value of 19.47 MJ/kg and the maximum fixed carbon content of 10.04%. A low ash level of 4.26% was achieved via pelletizing at 75 °C. According to the results, 75 °C produced the best thermophysical properties. These findings provide valuable understanding of how pelletization temperature influences fuel pellet thermophysical properties, a critical aspect in optimizing fuel pellet production, storage, advancing renewable energy resource utilization, and, finally, promoting a cleaner and more sustainable energy future.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 63: Additive In-Time Manufacturing of Customised
           Orthoses

    • Authors: Christian Friedrich, Stephan Rothstock, Laura Slabon, Steffen Ihlenfeldt
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing of plastic components in medical technology enables greater freedom of design when designing patient-specific products, in particular, in production of customised medical products, such as orthoses. In the present contribution, the advantages of a digital process chain are combined, from the 3D scan of the patient to CAD-supported modelling of the corrective form and the orthosis design until the path planning of a printable geometry. The main disadvantages of current additive printing techniques, such as the fused filament fabrication (FFF) process, are high printing times (>12 h) for larger components as well as the low degree of freedom in the 2.5D printing technique that prevent the subsequent application of geometry features to the product. The fast SEAMHex (Screw Extrusion Additive Manufacturing) printing technology with a hexapod kinematic printing bed provides a solution to the mentioned difficulties. Consequently, the high-performance printer has been prepared for the individual requirements of medical technology in terms of materials and geometries. An effective additive manufacturing process has been realised and tested in combination with a digital process chain for orthosis modelling.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Improving the Mechanical Properties of
           GlassFibre-Reinforced Laser-Sintered Parts Based on Degree of
           Crystallinity and Porosity Content Using a Warm Isostatic Pressing (WIP)
           Process

    • Authors: Hellen De Coninck, Jae Won Choi, Jeroen Soete, Sebastian Meyers, Brecht Van Hooreweder
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Additively manufactured fibre-reinforced polymers are gaining traction. After the development and optimisation of a novel fibre-deposition system in a laser sintering (LS) setup, polyamide 12 specimens were produced with and without glass fibres. In this study, the relation between the crystallinity, porosity, and mechanical properties of LS specimens with and without fibres is investigated. After testing as-built LS specimens, a detrimental effect of the fibres on the specimens’ performance was observed with a decrease in UTS of 6%. The degree of crystallinity remained the same; however, a porosity content of 2.6% was observed in specimens with fibres. These pores can have a negative influence on the bonding between the fibres and the matrix. To investigate the influence of the pores, warm isostatic pressing (WIP) was performed on LS specimens with and without fibres. The WIP process shows a positive influence on the specimens without fibres, resulting in an increase in UTS of 8.5%. The influence of the WIP process on specimens with fibres, however, is much less pronounced, with an increase in UTS of only 2%. Neither the crystallinity nor the porosity are the cause of the less-than-expected increase in UTS in LS specimens with fibres. A number of hypotheses and mitigation strategies are provided.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Effect of the Printing Angle on the Microstructure
           and Tensile Performance of Iron-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composite
           Manufactured Using Fused Filament Fabrication

    • Authors: Sofiane Guessasma, Sofiane Belhabib
      First page: 65
      Abstract: This work emphasizes an innovative approach utilizing 3D imaging technology based on synchrotron radiation to assess the microstructure of second-phase iron particles and the porous structure within 3D-printed PLA/magnetic iron composites at different printing angles. The study examines how these observations relate to the material’s ductility when processed using fused filament fabrication. In particular, this study examines the impact of one processing parameter, specifically the printing angle, on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of a polylactic acid (PLA)–iron (PLI) composite designed for magnetic actuation. Fused filament fabrication is employed to produce PLI tensile specimens, with varied printing angles to create different layups. X-ray microtomography is utilized to analyse the microstructure, while tensile mechanical properties are evaluated for all composites, with findings discussed in relation to printing angle conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to examine the fractography of broken specimens. Results indicate that the printing angle significantly influences the tensile properties and mechanical anisotropy of 3D-printed PLI composites, with an optimal 45°/45° layup enhancing tensile performance. These findings suggest that 3D-printed PLI composites offer a cost-efficient means of producing bio-sourced, light-adaptive materials with intricate magnetic actuation capabilities. By quantifying the modulation of mechanical properties based on printing parameters that influence microstructural arrangement, the research sheds light on a novel aspect of composite material characterization.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 66: Synthetic-to-Real Composite Semantic Segmentation
           in Additive Manufacturing

    • Authors: Aliaksei Petsiuk, Harnoor Singh, Himanshu Dadhwal, Joshua M. Pearce
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The application of computer vision and machine learning methods for semantic segmentation of the structural elements of 3D-printed products in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) can improve real-time failure analysis systems and potentially reduce the number of defects by providing additional tools for in situ corrections. This work demonstrates the possibilities of using physics-based rendering for labeled image dataset generation, as well as image-to-image style transfer capabilities to improve the accuracy of real image segmentation for AM systems. Multi-class semantic segmentation experiments were carried out based on the U-Net model and the cycle generative adversarial network. The test results demonstrated the capacity of this method to detect such structural elements of 3D-printed parts as a top (last printed) layer, infill, shell, and support. A basis for further segmentation system enhancement by utilizing image-to-image style transfer and domain adaptation technologies was also considered. The results indicate that using style transfer as a precursor to domain adaptation can improve real 3D printing image segmentation in situations where a model trained on synthetic data is the only tool available. The mean intersection over union (mIoU) scores for synthetic test datasets included 94.90% for the entire 3D-printed part, 73.33% for the top layer, 78.93% for the infill, 55.31% for the shell, and 69.45% for supports.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020066
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 67: A Comprehensive Study on the Optimization of
           Drilling Performance in Hybrid Nano-Composites and Neat CFRP Composites
           Using Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches

    • Authors: Tanzila Nargis, S. M. Shahabaz, Subash Acharya, Nagaraja Shetty, Rashmi Laxmikant Malghan, S. Divakara Shetty
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have gradually replaced metals due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio compared to metallic materials. However, the drilling process often reveals various defects, such as surface roughness, influenced by different drilling parameters. This study explores the drilling quality of uni-directional CFRP composites, as well as hybrid Al2O3 alumina and hybrid SiC silicon carbide nano-composites, through experimental exploration using step, core, and twist drills. Response surface methodology (RSM) and statistical tools, including main effect plots, ANOVA, contour plots, and optimization techniques, were used to analyze the surface roughness of the hole. Optimization plots were drawn for optimal conditions, suggesting a spindle speed of 1500 rpm, feed of 0.01 mm/rev, and a 4 mm drill diameter for achieving minimum surface roughness. Furthermore, two machine learning models, artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF), were used for predictive analysis. The findings revealed the robust predictive capabilities of both models, with RF demonstrating superior performance over ANN and RSM. Through visual comparisons and error analyses, more insights were gained into model accuracy and potential avenues for improvement.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020067
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 68: Enhancing Tool Performance in High-Speed End
           Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: The Role of AlCrN PVD Coatings and Resistance
           to Chipping Wear

    • Authors: Qianxi He, Victor Saciotto, Jose M. DePaiva, Monica C. Guimaraes, Joern Kohlscheen, Marcelo M. Martins, Stephen C. Veldhuis
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The conventional cutting tools used for machining titanium alloys normally experience rapid tool wear, and it is generally difficult to achieve a cutting speed over 60 m/min. In this paper, a comprehensive study on improving the machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is presented, focusing on high-speed end milling at 100 m/min. Three different AlCrN PVD-coated cemented carbide tools were employed over cemented solid carbide endmills. The study aimed to understand the factors influencing tool performance and, particularly, the uncommon tool wear behavior characterized by chipping on the rake face. The research methodology involves a detailed investigation of coating properties, mechanical characteristics, surface defects, and tool edge geometries. Mechanical properties were measured to assess the resistance to plastic deformation and impact fatigue fracture resistance. Surface defects were meticulously observed, and tool edge geometries were evaluated through optical microscopies. These analyses uncover the key factors contributing to the best tool performance, notably the resistance to plastic deformation (H3/E2 ratio), impact fatigue fracture resistance, and maintaining uniform tool edge geometries. The results of this study reveal that the moderate stress C3 coating outperformed the other two coatings, exhibiting a 1.5-times-longer tool life, a relatively stable cutting force curve, and favorable friction conditions in the cutting zone.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 69: Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Supply through
           Internal Cooling Channels in Drilling Processes

    • Authors: Lukas Schumski, Teresa Tonn, Jens Sölter, Kerstin Avila, Lizoel Buss, Bernhard Karpuschewski, Udo Fritsching
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technologies possess great potential for improving the sustainability of manufacturing processes, which can reduce the absolute quantity of metalworking fluid (MWF) and also enable near-dry chips that are easier to recycle. During drilling in particular, the MWF is transported to the contact zone through internal cooling channels of the drilling tool. The MWF supply and its associated flow behaviour in the transfer from the outlet of the cooling channels to the contact zone have not been sufficiently investigated yet. Great potential is seen in the proper delivery of the MQL into the contact zone. This work aims to visualize and quantify the cooling lubricant supply into the cutting zone using the MQL technique. The visualization of the MQL application is made possible by high-speed shadowgraphic imaging. Detailed image processing is used to evaluate the resulting images. The developed evaluation routine allows for the assessment of the impact of the main process parameters such as the varying pressure of the aerosol generator and the cooling channel diameter. It is found that the oil leaves the cooling channels at the tip of the drill bit in the form of ligaments. An increase in pressure and cooling channel diameter leads to an increase in the frequency of oil ligament separation. Three main flow regimes are identified with different separation frequencies. Low inlet pressures result in intermittently dispersed droplets. The most upper pressure levels lead to an almost continuous dispersion of the oil. At the same time, the air and oil mass flow rates also increase.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020069
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 70: Analytical Model of Quantitative Texture
           Prediction Considering Heat Transfer Based on Single-Phase Material in
           Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    • Authors: Wei Huang, Wenjia Wang, Jinqiang Ning, Hamid Garmestani, Steven Y. Liang
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is widely used in metal additive manufacturing to create geometrically complex parts, where heat transfer and its affected temperature distribution significantly influence the parts’ materials’ microstructure and the resulting materials’ properties. Among all the microstructure representations, crystallographic orientations play a paramount role in determining the mechanical properties of materials. This paper first developed a physics-based analytical model to predict the 3D temperature distribution in PBF considering heat transfer boundary conditions; heat input using point-moving heat source solutions; and heat loss due to heat conduction, convection, and radiation. The superposition principle obtained temperature distributions based on linear heat sources and linear heat loss solutions. Then, the temperature distribution was used to analytically obtain the texture grown on a substrate with random grain orientations considering columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Thus, the link between process parameters and texture was established through CET models and physical rules. Ti-6Al-4V was selected to demonstrate the capability of the analytical model in a single-phase situation. By applying advanced thermal models, the accuracy of the texture prediction was evaluated based on a comparison of experimental data from the literature and past analytical model results. Hence, this work not only provides a method of the fast analytical simulation of texture prediction in the single-phase mode for metallic materials but also paves the road for subsequent studies on microstructure-affected or texture-affected materials’ properties for both academic research and industrial applications. The prediction of single-phase material texture has never been achieved before, and the scalability has been expanded.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020070
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 71: Particle Size Effect on Powder Packing Properties
           and Molten Pool Dimensions in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Simulation

    • Authors: Jun Katagiri, Sukeharu Nomoto, Masahiro Kusano, Makoto Watanabe
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Various defects are produced during the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, which can affect the quality of the fabricated part. Previous studies have revealed that the defects formed are correlated with molten pool dimensions. Powder particles are thinly spread on a substrate during the L-PBF process; hence, powder packing properties should influence the molten pool dimensions. This study evaluated the influence of particle size on powder packing properties and molten pool dimensions obtained through numerical simulations. Using particles with different average diameters (Dav) of 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 μm, a series of discrete-element method (DEM) simulations were performed. The packing fraction obtained from DEM simulations became high as Dav became small. Several particles piled up for small Dav, whereas particles spread with almost one-particle diameter thickness for large Dav. Moreover, the packing structure was inhomogeneous and sparse for large Dav. As a result of multiphysics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations incorporating particles’ positions as initial solid metal volume, the molten pool width obtained was hardly dependent on the Dav and was roughly equivalent to the laser spot size used in the simulations. In contrast, the molten pool depth decreased as Dav decreased. Even if the powder bed thickness is the same, small particles can form a complex packing structure by piling up, resulting in a large specific surface area. This can lead to a complex laser reflection compared to the large particles coated with almost one-particle thickness. The complex reflection absorbs the heat generated by laser irradiation inside the powder bed formed on the substrate. As a result, the depth of the molten pool formed below the substrate is reduced for small particles.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020071
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 72: Investigation of Deposition Parameters for
           Near-Beta Alloy Ti-55511 Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition

    • Authors: Addison J. Rayner, Greg A. W. Sweet, Owen Craig, Mahdi Habibnejad-Korayem, Paul Bishop
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The directed energy deposition (DED) parameters were determined for near-β alloy Ti-55511 by employing statistical design of experiments (DOEs) methods. Parameters resulting in fully dense freeform deposits were identified using two sequential DOEs. Single laser tracks were printed with several laser power, traverse rate, and powder feed rate settings in an initial DOE to identify promising build parameters. The capture efficiency and effective deposition rate were used to characterize and rank the single track deposits. The best parameters were then used to print a solid cube with various X–Y and Z overlaps (different hatch spacing, HS, and layer thickness, ZS) in a second DOE. Suitable deposition parameters were selected based on the cube density and microstructure and were used to fabricate larger tensile samples for mechanical testing. Multiple parameter sets were found to provide dense Ti-55511 deposits with acceptable mechanical properties and the parametric models showed statistical significance.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020072
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 73: Theoretical-Numerical Investigation of a New
           Approach to Reconstruct the Temperature Field in PBF-LB/M Using
           Multispectral Process Monitoring

    • Authors: Lisa May, Martin Werz
      First page: 73
      Abstract: The monitoring of additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion enables the detection of several process quantities important to the quality of the built part. In this context, radiation-based monitoring techniques have been used to obtain information about the melt pool and the general temperature distribution on the surface of the powder bed. High temporal and spatial resolution have been achieved at the cost of large storage requirements. This contribution aims to offer an alternative strategy of gaining information about the powder bed’s temperature field with sufficient resolution but with an economical amount of data. The investigated measurement setup uses a spectrometer to detect the spectral radiation intensities emitted by an area enclosing the melt pool and part of its surroundings. An analytical description of this process is presented, which shows that the measured spectral entities can be reconstructed by the Ritz method. It is also shown that the corresponding weighting factors can be physically interpreted as subdomains of constant temperature within the measurement area. Two different test cases are numerically analyzed, showing that the methodology allows for an approximation of the melt pool size while further assumptions remain necessary to reconstruct the actual temperature distribution.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020073
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 74: Influence of the Hot-Top Thermal Regime on the
           Severity and Extent of Macrosegregation in Large-Size Steel Ingots

    • Authors: Neda Ghodrati, Henri Champliaud, Jean-Benoit Morin, Mohammad Jahazi
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The influence of hot-top designs with different heat capacities on the distribution of positive and negative macrosegregation was investigated on a 12 metric tonne (MT) cast ingot made using Cr-Mo low-alloy steel. The three-dimensional finite element modeling code THERCAST® was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical phenomena associated with the solidification process, running from filling the mold until complete solidification. The model was validated on an industrial-scale ingot and then utilized to evaluate the influence of the thermal history of the hot-top, a crucial component in the cast ingot setup. This assessment aimed to comprehend changes in solidification time, temperature, and heat flux—all of which contribute to the determination of macrosegregation severity. The results showed that preheating the hot-top had a minor effect on solidification time, while modifications of thermal conductivity in the hot-top region increased the solidification time by 31%, thereby significantly affecting the macrosegregation patterns. The results are discussed and interpreted in terms of the fundamental mechanisms governing the kinetics of solidification and macrosegregation phenomena.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020074
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 75: Rolling Eccentric Steel Rings on an Industrial
           Radial–Axial Ring Rolling Mill

    • Authors: Mirko Gröper, Marten Quadfasel, David Bailly, Gerhard Hirt
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Various industries, including mechanical engineering, utilize steel rings featuring variable cross-sectional profiles, such as eccentric rings. Presently employed methods for producing eccentric rings possess drawbacks like restricted geometries, significant material wastage or uneven microstructures. The radial–axial ring rolling process serves to create seamless rolled steel rings with near-net-shaped cross-sections. A novel technique involves achieving eccentricity by dynamically adjusting the mandrel’s position during the ring rolling process. This method’s fundamental feasibility has previously been showcased using a blend of oil clay and a labor test bench. Transferring the possibility of manufacturing eccentric rings on industrial radial–axial ring rolling mills would expand the product range of ring manufacturers without encountering drawbacks associated with existing manufacturing processes. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the basic feasibility of the concept of an industrial radial–axial ring rolling mill. In the first step, FEA simulation studies were carried out to develop the rolling strategy and estimate the achievable eccentricity on the institute’s radial–axial ring mill. Subsequently, the rolling strategy was implemented on an industrial ring rolling mill with the help of a unique technology module programmed in C++. Finally, an eccentric ring was ring rolled and compared with the FEA simulation, and the reproducibility was demonstrated to be successful.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020075
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 76: Computer-Aided Optimisation in Additive
           Manufacturing Processes: A State of the Art Survey

    • Authors: Tanja Emilie Henriksen, Tanita Fossli Brustad, Rune Dalmo, Aleksander Pedersen
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is a field with both industrial and academic significance. Computer-aided optimisation has brought advances to this field over the years, but challenges and areas of improvement still remain. Design to execution inaccuracies, void formation, material anisotropy, and surface quality are examples of remaining challenges. These challenges can be improved via some of the trending optimisation topics, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML); STL correction, replacement, or removal; slicing algorithms; and simulations. This paper reviews AM and its history with a special focus on the printing process and how it can be optimised using computer software. The most important new contribution is a survey of the present challenges connected with the prevailing optimisation topics. This can be seen as a foundation for future research. In addition, we suggest how certain challenges can be improved and show how such changes affect the printing process.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020076
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 77: Interrelations between Printing Patterns and
           Residual Stress in Fused Deposition Modelling for the 4D Printing of
           Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene and Wood–Plastic Composites

    • Authors: Huang, Löschke, Gan, Proust
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Four dimensional printing enables the advanced manufacturing of smart objects that can morph and adapt shape over time in response to stimuli such as heat. This study presents a single-material 4D printing workflow which explores the residual stress and anisotropy arising from the fused deposition modelling (FDM) printing process to create heat-triggered self-morphing objects. In particular, the study first investigates the effect of printing patterns on the residual stress of FDM-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) products. Through finite element analysis, the raster angle of printing patterns was identified as the key parameter influencing the distribution of residual stresses. Experimental investigations further reveal that the non-uniform distribution of residual stress results in the anisotropic thermal deformation of printed materials. Thus, through the design of printing patterns, FDM-printed materials can be programmed with desired built-in residual stresses and anisotropic behaviours for initiating and controlling the transformation of 4D-printed objects. Using the proposed approach, any desktop FDM printers can be turned into 4D printers to create smart objects that can self-morph into target geometries. A series of 4D printing prototypes manufactured from conventional ABS 3D printing feedstock are tested to illustrate the use and reliability of this new workflow. Additionally, the custom-made wood–plastic composite (WPC) feedstocks are explored in this study to demonstrate the transposability of the 4D printing approach.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020077
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 78: Comprehensive Distortion Analysis of a Laser
           Direct Metal Deposition (DMD)-Manufactured Large Prototype Made of Soft
           Martensitic Steel 1.4313

    • Authors: Indira Dey, Raphael Floeder, Rick Solcà, Timo Schudeleit, Konrad Wegener
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) by using direct metal deposition (DMD) often causes erratic distortion patterns, especially on large parts. This study presents a systematic distortion analysis by employing numerical approaches using transient–thermal and structural simulations, experimental approaches using tomography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and an analytical approach calculating the buckling distortion of a piston. The most essential geometrical features are thin walls situated between massive rings. An eigenvalue buckling analysis, a DMD process, and heat treatment simulation are presented. The eigenvalue buckling simulation shows that it is highly dependent on the mesh size. The computational effort of the DMD and heat treatment simulation was reduced through simplifications. Moreover, artificial imperfections were imposed in the heat treatment simulation, which moved the part into the buckling state inspired by the experiment. Although the numerical results of both simulations are successful, the eigenvalue and DMD simulation cannot be validated through tomography and XRD. This is because tomography is unable to measure small elastic strain fields, the simulated residual stresses were overestimated, and the part removal disturbed the residual stress equilibrium. Nevertheless, the heat treatment simulation can predict the distortion pattern caused by an inhomogeneous temperature field during ambient cooling in an oven. The massive piston skirt cools down and shrinks faster than the massive core. The reduced yield strength at elevated temperatures and critical buckling load leads to plastic deformation of the thin walls.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020078
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 79: Soft Robot Design, Manufacturing, and Operation
           Challenges: A Review

    • Authors: Getachew Ambaye, Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan, Krishna Krishnan
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Advancements in smart manufacturing have embraced the adoption of soft robots for improved productivity, flexibility, and automation as well as safety in smart factories. Hence, soft robotics is seeing a significant surge in popularity by garnering considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Bionic soft robots, which are composed of compliant materials like silicones, offer compelling solutions to manipulating delicate objects, operating in unstructured environments, and facilitating safe human–robot interactions. However, despite their numerous advantages, there are some fundamental challenges to overcome, which particularly concern motion precision and stiffness compliance in performing physical tasks that involve external forces. In this regard, enhancing the operation performance of soft robots necessitates intricate, complex structural designs, compliant multifunctional materials, and proper manufacturing methods. The objective of this literature review is to chronicle a comprehensive overview of soft robot design, manufacturing, and operation challenges in conjunction with recent advancements and future research directions for addressing these technical challenges.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020079
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 80: Droplet Formation and Energy Input during
           Induction Wire Melting with Pulsed and Constant Generator Power

    • Authors: Jonas Kimme, Jonas Gruner, André Hälsig, Jonas Hensel
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Induction heating is a fast, reproducible, and efficient heating method used in various manufacturing processes. However, there is no established additive manufacturing (AM) process based on induction heating using wire as feedstock. This study investigates a novel approach to AM based on inductive heating, where a steel wire is melted and droplets are detached periodically using a two-winding induction coil. The process parameters and energy input into the droplets are characterized. The induction generator exhibits a sluggish response to the excitation voltage, resulting in a lag in the coil current. The process is captured using a high-speed camera, revealing a regular droplet formation of 14 Hz and uniform shapes and sizes between 2.11 and 2.65 mm in diameter when operated within an appropriate process window. Larger drops and increased spatter formation occur outside this window. The proposed method allows for the production of droplets with almost spherical shapes. Further analysis and characterization of droplet formation and energy input provide insights into process optimization and indicate an overall efficiency of approximately 10%.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020080
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 81: Production of Permanent Magnets from Recycled
           NdFeB Powder with Powder Extrusion Moulding

    • Authors: Stefan Rathfelder, Stephan Schuschnigg, Christian Kukla, Clemens Holzer, Carlo Burkhardt
      First page: 81
      Abstract: In the last fifteen years, several groups have investigated metal injection moulding (MIM) of NdFeB powder to produce isotropic or anisotropic rare earth magnets of greater geometric complexity than that achieved by the conventional pressing and sintering approach. However, due to the powder’s high affinity for oxygen and carbon uptake, sufficient remanence and coercivity remains difficult. This article presents a novel approach to producing NdFeB magnets from recycled material using Powder Extrusion Moulding (PEM) in a continuous process. The process route uses powder obtained from recycling rare earth magnets through Hydrogen Processing of Magnetic Scrap (HPMS). This article presents the results of tailored powder processing, the production of mouldable feedstock based on a special binder system, and moulding with PEM to produce green and sintered parts. The magnetic properties and microstructures of debinded and sintered samples are presented and discussed, focusing on the influence of filling ratio and challenging processing conditions on interstitial content as well as density and magnetic properties.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020081
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 82: Selection of Welding Conditions for Achieving Both
           a High Efficiency and Low Heat Input for Hot-Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding

    • Authors: Keita Marumoto, Akira Fujinaga, Takeshi Takahashi, Hikaru Yamamoto, Motomichi Yamamoto
      First page: 82
      Abstract: This study presents a new gas metal arc welding (GMAW) technique that achieves both high efficiency and low heat input using a hybridization of the hot-wire method. The optimal combination of welding speed and welding current conditions was investigated using a fixed hot-wire feeding speed of 10 m/min on a butt joint with a V-shaped groove using 19 mm thick steel plates. Molten pool stability and defect formation were observed using high-speed imaging and cross-sectional observations. The power consumption and heat input were predicted prior to welding and measured in the experiments. The results indicate that a combination of a welding current of 350–500 A and welding speed of 0.3–0.7 m/min is optimal to avoid defect formation and molten metal precedence using three or four passes. The higher efficiency and lower heat input achieved by hot-wire GMAW results in a weld metal of adequate hardness, narrower heat-affected zone, smaller grain size at the fusion boundary, and lower power consumption than those obtained using tandem GMAW and high-current GMAW. Based on the experimental results, a single bevel groove, which is widely used in construction machinery welding joints, was welded using hot-wire GMAW, and we confirmed that the welding part could be welded in six passes, whereas eight passes were required with GMAW only.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020082
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 83: Role of Li and Sc Additions and Machining
           Conditions on Cutting Forces on Milling Behavior of A7075-Based Alloys

    • Authors: Ali Tahmasbi, Jean Brice Mandatsy Moungomo, Agnes M. Samuel, Yasser Zedan, Victor Songmene, Fawzy H. Samuel
      First page: 83
      Abstract: The present study focuses on the dry and wet end milling of three distinct Aluminum 7075 alloys: A7075, A7075–Sc (with a 0.18% Sc addition), and A7075–Li–Sc (containing 2.2% Li and 0.18% Sc additions). The main objective is to explore how cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), heat treatment, alloy composition, and cooling methods influence A lcutting force. In the initial phase of the investigation, all three alloys underwent heat treatment. Subsequently, the machining process centered on the softest and hardest conditions, aiming at analyzing the impact of hardness on machinability behavior of the three studied alloys, using the same milling tool and a consistent depth of cut under both dry and wet conditions. The investigations also highlight the role of Li and Sc additions on the quality of surface finish, as well as burr and chip formation. In total, a sum of 108 operations have been performed on the present alloys.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020083
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • JMMP, Vol. 8, Pages 84: A Review on Wire-Laser Directed Energy Deposition:
           Parameter Control, Process Stability, and Future Research Paths

    • Authors: Nahal Ghanadi, Somayeh Pasebani
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Wire-laser directed energy deposition has emerged as a transformative technology in metal additive manufacturing, offering high material deposition efficiency and promoting a cleaner process environment compared to powder processes. This technique has gained attention across diverse industries due to its ability to expedite production and facilitate the repair or replication of valuable components. This work reviews the state-of-the-art in wire-laser directed energy deposition to gain a clear understanding of key process variables and identify challenges affecting process stability. Furthermore, this paper explores modeling and monitoring methods utilized in the literature to enhance the final quality of fabricated parts, thereby minimizing the need for repeated experiments, and reducing material waste. By reviewing existing literature, this paper contributes to advancing the current understanding of wire-laser directed energy deposition technology. It highlights the gaps in the literature while underscoring research needs in wire-laser directed energy deposition.
      Citation: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
      PubDate: 2024-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmmp8020084
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

MACHINERY (34 journals)

Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and TrendsĀ® in Electronic Design Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Terramechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Machine Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 217)
Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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