Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
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    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)

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Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Journal of Industrial Textiles
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1528-0837 - ISSN (Online) 1530-8057
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  • Development and assessment of a knitted shape memory alloy-based
           multifunctional elbow brace

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      Authors: Woo-Kyun Jung, Soo-Min Lee, Sung-Hoon Ahn, Juyeon Park
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that affects joint cartilage and can cause severe pain and disability. Minor neglected injuries may also result in other diseases that affect daily life. Various attempts have been made to develop wearable auxiliary devices using functional fabrics, but few have simultaneously provided both heat and pressure. Using knitted shape memory alloy (SMA) fabric, a module was manufactured that achieved bending and contraction during operation. An elbow brace that simultaneously provided heat and pressure was developed using this module. Subjective evaluation and measurements of the range of motion (ROM), changes in skin temperature (Tsk ), clothing pressure (Pc), and blood flow (Fb) were conducted on the elbow brace while being worn by 10 participants. The multifunctional elbow brace (MFEB) developed in this study generated pressure and heat that increased Tsk and Pc, ultimately increasing Fb. In addition, the ROM of the elbow joint was increased after actuating the elbow brace. Subjective evaluation of the heat and pressure sensation demonstrated its applicability to the human body. We confirmed that the elbow brace had a positive effect on Fb and increased the ROM of the joint. These results show the applicability of smart textiles to the development of various wearable devices.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T02:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056983
       
  • Review on the performance characteristics and quality standards of
           motorcycle protective clothing

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      Authors: Gayathri Natarajan, Palani Rajan T
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Motorcycle protective clothing is designed to protect motorcyclists from injuries during accidents. It helps to protect the motorcyclist and pillion passengers during the collision and acts as a barrier between the rider’s skin and tarmac surface. Soft tissue trauma is common in motorcycle accidents and protective clothing can protect the soft tissue of the riders up to a certain extent during accidents. Though there are many reasons for road accidents and injuries, the reasons such as uncomfortable clothing, thermally inefficient protective clothing during hot climatic conditions, and ineffective performance of the personal protective equipment (PPE) are also to be considered seriously. Motorcycle clothing is specially designed in such a way that it could give better protection against impact and abrasion during the collision. An increase in the usage of the motorcycle has also in turn increased the crash statistics. This paper deals with the significance of motorcycle clothing, materials, test standards, and their performance characteristics. As per the review results, most of the motorcycle protective clothing has failed to meet out the quality standard protocols. Impact resistance, abrasion resistance, thermal comfort, and ergonomics are the major areas where more focus is required. Design of appropriate fabrics assuring requisites of motorcycle clothing is very challenging and extensive research is still intended in these areas.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-31T08:51:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211057578
       
  • Development of fabric electrode for bio-potential signal acquisition in
           wearable health monitoring and effect of perspiration on signal
           acquisition

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      Authors: M. S. Yogendra, M.V. Mallikarjuna Reddy, S.N. Kartik, K. Mohanvelu, F.V. Varghese, TM. Kotresh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Development of a gel-free bio-potential electrode for the wearable health monitoring applications is a challenging goal. A conductive fabric electrode can replace the traditional conductive gel electrode. This paper describes the development of a conductive fabric electrode with regard to its potential use for electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition. Since direct contact between the conductive fabric and human skin will be involved, an investigation on the effect of perspiration on the electrical conductivity of fabric is critical. Hence, the developed electrode was treated with alkaline (pH=8.0) and acidic (pH=4.3) perspiration for 3, 8 and 40 h to study the effect of perspiration on the conductivity and surface morphology. The acquired ECG signals were analysed with respect to morphology and frequency distribution.Conductivity tests were carried out on the perspiration-treated test electrodes by two probe method and surface resistivity meter. The ECG signals of volunteers were also recorded. The results showed a slight decrease in conductivity but without affecting the morphology and the quality of ECG signal. Leached silver content in the acid perspiration-treated solution was found to be 0.117 ppm as determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The result shows that soft conducting textile materials can indeed be used as an electrode for ECG acquisition. This is a novel type of gel-free fabric electrode for long term wearable health monitoring applications including space application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-31T08:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211060882
       
  • An artificial neural network prediction on physical, mechanical, and
           thermal characteristics of giant reed fiber reinforced polyethylene
           terephthalate composite

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      Authors: Arpitha Gulihonenahali Rajkumar, Mohit Hemath, Bharath Kurki Nagaraja, Shivakumar Neerakallu, Senthil Muthu Kumar Thiagamani, Mochamad Asrofi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Plant fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites have had broad applications recently because of their lower cost advantages, lower weight, and biodegradable nature. The present work studies the influence of reinforcing giant reed fiber concentration in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer for their physical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics and determines the optimum loading of giant reed fiber using an artificial neural network (ANN) scheme. Giant reed fiber reinforced PET matrix laminates were manufactured from compression molding with different fiber loadings such as 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 20 wt.%. The mechanical characteristics such as tensile and flexural strength and the laminate’s tensile and flexural modulus were appraised and examined. The maximum value of tensile strength, flexural strength, tensile modulus, and flexural modulus were 5.4 MPa, 26 MPa, 8343 MPa, and 6300 MPa, respectively, for PET2 (10 wt.% of giant reed fiber in PET polymer) composite. Fiber pullout, gaps, and fracture behavior were examined from a scanning electron microscope in the microstructural analysis. A machine learning technique has been recommended to combine artificial intelligence while designing giant reed fiber reinforced polymeric laminates. Using the suggested method, an ANN model has been generated to attain the targeted giant reed fiber concentration for PET composite while gratifying the necessary targeted characteristics. The developed method is very effective and decreases the effort and time of material characterization for huge specimens. It will support the researchers in designing their forthcoming test efficiently.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T11:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211064804
       
  • Effects of drilling parameters on delamination of kenaf-glass fibre
           reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

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      Authors: AR Ngah, Suhad D Salman, Z Leman, SM Sapuan, MFM Alkbir, Fatihhi Januddi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Drilling is a secondary material removal and usually carried out to facilitate fastening of parts together. Drilling of composite materials is not usually a problem-free process. Issues related to delamination composite laminates need to be addressed because it introduces the stress concentration point on the composite. This study focussed on the influence of process parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate, type of drill bits and geometry on the extend of delamination experienced by the composite during the drilling process of kenaf-glass fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester composite, and the delamination measurements were taken under a microscope. Taguchi methods and analysis of variance were employed to find the optimal parameters. From the results, the most significant parameter was the feed rate. The minimum delamination was achieved when the feed rate was 0.05 mm/rev and spindle speed was 700r/min using both types of drill bits. The quality of the drill hole using the twist drill bit has been proven to be better than the brad drill bit.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T03:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211062053
       
  • Competitive coordination of iron(III) and copper(II) ions with
           amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber and the catalytic performance of
           the complex

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      Authors: Fu Li, Pengfei Fei, Yongchun Dong, Man Zhang, Yu Feng, Shuqiang Liu, Lu Jia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This present work describes the competitive coordination of iron (III) and copper (II) ions with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber and the catalytic performance of the resulting complex (Fe-Cu-AO-n-PAN). The coordination results showed that the increase of the initial concentration of metal ions was beneficial to the increase of the coordination amount. There were both competition and synergistic effects between the two metal ions. But AO-n-PAN was more inclined to coordinate with Fe3+ ions. The promotion effect of Cu2+ ions on iron coordination due to weak positive electric property and small ion radius increased with its initial concentration in the solution. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model among of four selected isotherm models for binary system showed the best fit to the co-coordination reaction between AO-n-PAN and Fe3+-Cu2+ binary solution. Fe-Cu-AO-n-PAN as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst displayed improved catalytic performance than mono-metal complexes due to its better dye adsorption and the synergistic effect between Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions during degradation process, and both the alkali-resistant and the reusability of it were improved at the same time.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-28T12:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211063905
       
  • Effect of heat treatment on crystallinity and mechanical properties of
           flexible structures 3D printed with fused deposition modeling

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      Authors: Ajay Jayswal, Sabit Adanur
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a widely used 3D printing technique, which works based on the principle of melted polymer extrusion through nozzle(s) and depositing them on a build plate layer by layer. However, products manufactured with this method lack proper mechanical strength. In this work, 2/1 twill weave fabric structures are 3D printed using poly (lactic) acid (PLA). The ultimate tensile strength in the warp and weft directions and the modulus (stiffnesses) are measured for non-heat-treated (NHT) samples. The printed samples were heat-treated (HT) to improve the strength and stiffness. The variation in ultimate tensile strength is statistically insignificant in warp direction at all temperatures; however, the tensile strength in weft direction decreased after heat treatment. The modulus in warp direction increased by 31% after heat treatment while in the weft direction it decreased after heat treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests showed the highest crystallinity at 125°C. The properties of the twill fabrics were compared with a standard dog-bone (DB) specimen using uniaxial tensile tests, Differential scanning calorimetry tests, and optical microscope (OM). For dog-bone specimens, the maximum values of crystallinity, ultimate tensile strength, and modulus were found to be at 125°C. The maximum crystallinity percentages are higher than that of the NHT samples. The ultimate tensile strength of NHT DB specimen 3D printed in horizontal orientation improved after heat treatment. The ultimate tensile strength of DB samples in vertical directions increased after heat treatment as well. The stiffness increased in both directions for DB samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-28T06:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211064937
       
  • Effect of erosive parameters on solid particle erosion of cotton
           fiber–based nonwoven mat/wooden dust reinforced hybrid polymer
           composites

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      Authors: Sachin Tejyan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Abrasive particle-induced erosive wear of polymeric engineering components is a major industrial issue. The research of solid particle erosion characteristics of polymeric composites becomes essential due to operational needs in dusty conditions. Nonwovens are now employed in industrial applications for polymeric composites. Nonwoven products are made from a wide range of raw materials, ranging from synthetic to natural fibers. This work finding the effect of nonwoven cotton fiber (5, 10, and 15 wt.%) loading on the physical, mechanical, and erosion wear of fixed wooden dust (4 wt.%) filled hybrid epoxy composites. Experimental results reveal improved impact strength, hardness, and compressive and tensile strength with an increment of fiber loading from 5–15 wt.%. The density of the composites was found to increase, whereas void content decreases with an increase in cotton fiber. The erosion wear of the composites has been studied using an L27 orthogonal array to assess the effects of various parameters such as fiber loading, erodent size, impact velocity, impingement angle, and stand-off distance. The erosion wear increased with impact velocity and remained highest for 60° of impingement angle. The most significant parameter affecting the erosion wear was determined as impact velocity followed by impingement angle. Surface morphologies of eroded samples reveal the fiber pull-out, and fiber breakage was the prominent phenomenon for the erosion wear of the evaluated composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-24T09:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211064241
       
  • Graphene coated cotton nonwoven for electroconductive and UV protection
           applications

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      Authors: Vinit Kumar Jain, Arobindo Chatterjee
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The functional properties and applications of graphene coated textiles depend on the magnitude of graphene add-on which in turn is influenced by the type of substrate and the dipping conditions. In the present study, optimized GO (graphene oxide) dipping conditions are identified for the preparation of cost-effective and scalable rGO (reduced graphene oxide) coated cotton nonwoven for electroconductive and UV (ultraviolet) blocking applications. To understand the influence of GO dipping variables on rGO add-on and electrical resistivity of cotton, batch adsorption studies are carried out in loose fibre form to eliminate the structural influence of yarn or fabric. Batch adsorption studies suggest that GO concentration, pH of GO solution and sodium dithionite (reductant) concentration are the most influencing dipping variables and these dipping variables are optimized for cotton nonwoven fabric using Box–Behnken response surface design to achieve minimum surface resistivity. The rGO coated cotton nonwoven fabric shows excellent UV blocking properties (UV protection factor = 89.38) at the optimized GO dipping conditions. Physical properties of cotton nonwoven fabric such as GSM, thickness, stiffness, breaking strength and elongation are analysed at different dipping cycles. After the rGO coating, bending rigidity, bending modulus and breaking elongation of the cotton nonwoven fabric decrease, whereas the breaking strength increases. rGO coated cotton fabric exhibits excellent stability towards multiple washing and rubbing. The graphene coated cotton is characterised by FT-IR, XRD, Raman, TGA, FESEM and LEICA image analyser.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-24T09:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211059202
       
  • Effect of ultrasonic welding process parameters on seam strength of
           PVC-coated hybrid textiles for weather protection

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      Authors: Muktar S Hussen, Yordan K Kyosev, Kathrin Pietsch, Stefan Rothe, Abera K Kabish
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Using a lapped seam, PVC-coated hybrid textiles with uniform thickness were bonded by continuous ultrasonic welding and conventional joining method with the help of hot air tape welding technique for weather protection purposes. Three fundamental sewing parameters at two distinct levels and three primary welding parameters at three levels based on 6 and 12 mm welding widths were used. To consider the effect of welding and sewing parameters on seam strength, full factorial designs of experiments were designed, fabricated, and tested. The thermal behavior and possibility of chemical conversion in the welding zone under the influence of ultrasonic vibrations were examined. Variation in width of heat-affected zone of weld seam was measured. The seam strength of ultrasonic weld seam compared with that of conventional seams, and superior seam strength yielding parametric levels were assessed. The parametric influence of both joining techniques on seam quality and their tendencies in the relationship were analyzed statistically. The weld seam strength (1256.392 and 2116.93 N/50 mm) was optimized numerically and identified its trend with the variation of the weld seam. The discovered relationship led to the conclusion that the variation in the weld seam can be used to estimate the tensile strength of the weld seam through the developed effective numerical model as a non-destructive testing method, and its outcome was successful as a destructive testing method. The result shows that the ultrasonic weld seam provided a higher tensile strength (> 75%) than the conventional seam for both evaluated welding widths and obtained statistically significant results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-23T11:23:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211057579
       
  • Liquid-mediated particle capture by nonwoven filter media for automotive
           engine intake air filtration

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      Authors: Shivendra Yadav, Dipayan Das
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on development, characterization, and performance of liquid-treated nonwoven air filter media for automotive engine intake application. A polypropylene fiber-based needle-punched nonwoven fabric was prepared for treatment with four viscous liquids (glycerol, SAE 20W/50 engine oil, PEG 400, and deionized water) by liquid spraying technique. The filtration performance was evaluated in terms of initial and final gravimetric filtration efficiencies, fractional filtration efficiency, evolution of pressure drop, and dust holding capacity. The liquid-treated filter media registered higher gravimetric as well as fractional filtration efficiency and higher dust holding capacity as compared to the untreated ones. The initial and final gravimetric filtration efficiencies were found to be directly related to liquid add-on via a power law relationship. The liquid-treated filter media also exhibited higher fractional filtration efficiency than their untreated counterparts for all sizes of tested particles. Interestingly, the increase of fractional efficiency was more for smaller particles as compared to larger ones. This was explained quantitatively through single fiber efficiency due to adhesion. The viscosity of liquid was found to be a very crucial parameter as the dust deposition morphology was contingent to the flow of liquid onto the filter media. The stickiest liquid yielded highest filtration efficiencies, displayed slowest rise of pressure drop, and exhibited highest dust holding capacity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T10:16:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211061022
       
  • Preparation and properties of reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes
           aerogel/cotton flexible composite fabric with electromagnetic shielding
           function

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      Authors: Peng Wang, Shuqiang Liu, Man Zhang, Zheng-Ze Pan, Gaihong Wu, Fu Li, Aiqin Zhang, Li Huimin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The electromagnetic pollution has become a serious problem with the rapid development of electromagnetic industry. The present work prepared an electromagnetic interference (EMI) functional composite fabric. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) aerogel with three-dimensional (3-D) architecture were coated to the cotton fabric with the assistance of waterborne polyurethane (WPU). The structure of graphene aerogel was affected by the amount of CNTs. Small amount of CNTs is helpful to minish the pore size of aerogel and thus improve the EMI value. However, it has been shown that excess CNTs will destroy the 3-D architecture of graphene aerogel. Result shows that the EMI shielding effectiveness exceeded 35 dB when the weight ratio of rGO and CNTs was 7:3, and EMI value of the corresponding composite fabric samples reached 34 dB. Consequently, excellent EMI results were obtained by the unique 3-D rGO-CNTs aerogel in the case of a small nano-carbon material amount. The present work will be expected to make contributions to the practical application of rGO-CNTs aerogel.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T06:12:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211060879
       
  • Highly stretchable conductive fabric using knitted cotton/lycra treated
           with polypyrrole/silver NPs composites post-treated with PEDOT:PSS

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      Authors: Vahid Shakeri Siavashani, Gursoy Nevin, Majid Montazer, Pelin Altay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible sensors and wearable electronics have become important in recent years. A good conductive and flexible textile is needed to develop a commercial wearable device. Conductive polymers have generally been used with limitation in reducing the surface resistance to a certain amount. In this research, a method for fabricating a stretchable highly conductive cotton/lycra knitted fabric is introduced by treating the fabric with polypyrrole (PPy), silver nanoparticles (SNPs) composites, and post-treating with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Polypyrrole and SNPs were in situ fabricated on the cotton/lycra fabric by consecutive redox reaction of silver nitrate and pyrrole and finally covered by PEDOT:PSS solution through dip-coating. The coated textile was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray mapping, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed PPy-SNPs (P-S) composites on the fabric surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results, X-ray mapping, EDAX, and XRD analysis also confirmed the P-S composites and PEDOT:PSS polymeric layer on the fabric. Morphological observation showed a layer of PEDOT:PSS on the P-S caused the higher connection of coating on textiles which resulted in the higher electrical conductivity (43 s/m). Also morphological observations showed penetration of the silver particles inside fibers which represented improving in attachment and stability of the coating on the fibers. Further, the electrical conductivity of PPy-SNPs-PEDOT:PSS coated textile increased under the tension. Hence, the stretchable and highly conductive knitted cotton/lycra fabric has potentiality to be used for fabricating the flexible sensors or wearable electronics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T08:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211059212
       
  • Experimental studies on interlaminar shear strength and dynamic mechanical
           analysis of luffa fiber epoxy composites with nano PbO addition

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      Authors: Kumaresan Gladys Ashok, Kalaichelvan Kani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, the significance of nanofiller lead oxide (PbO) on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) performance of luffa fiber–reinforced epoxy composites was investigated. The epoxy matrix was altered with nanofiller PbO of different weight percent through a mechanical stirring process. The PbO-added luffa fiber epoxy composites were made through hand layup preceded by the compression molding method. The prepared composite samples were investigated for ILSS and DMA. The test results lead to the inference that the 1.25 wt% PbO nanofiller–added composite samples attained 25%, 17%, and 55% of higher loss modulus, storage modulus, and ILSS, respectively, as compared with the other prepared samples. The morphological investigation was conducted on the fractured surface of the interlaminar tested samples. The micrographic images show the bonding nature of the luffa fiber with the epoxy matrix, fiber breakage, and fiber pullouts. The characterization studies such as FTIR, XRD, and EDX were conducted on the fabricated composite samples. The XRD studies show that the rise in weight percent of the nanofiller PbO enhances the crystallinity of the composite samples. Moreover, the composite sample prepared with 1.25 wt% nanofiller PbO can be used to prepare low-cost roofing materials for sustainable housing projects.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T07:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211052317
       
  • Fabrication of carbon fibers from the cupric ion impregnated and thermally
           stabilized poly(hexamethylene adipamide) precursor

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      Authors: Levent Erzurumluoglu, Md. Mahbubor Rahman, Tuba Demirel, Ismail Karacan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The conversion of poly (hexamethylene adipamide) or polyamide 66 precursor fiber to carbon fibers was accomplished through thermal stabilization and carbonization processes. Thermal stabilization was conducted of cupric chloride (CuCl2)–ethanol-impregnated polyamide 66 (PA66) fibers in the air. To determine the influence of heating rate on the fiber structure and properties of the resultant carbon fibers, carbonization experiments were performed at selected temperatures of 500, 700, 900, and 1100°C using 2.5 and 5 °C/min heating rates with no dwelling. The results conclusively revealed that the volume density and tensile properties of the PA66 fiber were higher at 2.5 °C/min heating rate. After fixing the heating rate as 2.5°C/min, further carbonization experiments were conducted at temperatures from 500 to 1100°C, using increments of 100°C with no dwelling time. Linear density, volume density, fiber diameter, carbon yield, elemental composition, tensile, and electrical properties exhibited a strong dependence on the carbonization temperature. After taking into account the effects of structural defects (i.e., microvoids), tensile strength, and tensile modulus of the carbon fibers increased to 794 MPa and 92.4 GPa, respectively, when carbonized at 1100°C. X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbon fibers further revealed the existence of a greatly disordered (i.e., amorphous) structure, which developed during the carbonization process. FT-IR analysis confirmed the formation of highly aromatic carbon clusters at temperatures of 500°C and higher. The outcomes of electrical conductivity in this study confirm that the PA66 precursor was converted into a semi-conducting state once it was carbonized.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T06:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056984
       
  • Investigation of sound transmission loss of natural fiber/rubber crumbs
           composite panels

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Yasmin Ayman
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fibers and their waste are widely used all over the world, and their production has been increasing continuously. But, the rubber crumbs from used tire disposal are nonbiodegradable and present significant problems about their end-of-life given a critical environmental impact. These problems require recycling policies to provide the collection and recycling of used clothing, textile wastes, and rubber crumbs. In this work, the acoustic properties of insulator panels from the combination of textile fibers and rubber crumbs material were analyzed. Insulator panels demonstrated a good sound transmission loss (STL) characteristic, especially at high frequencies. The STL of the manufactured panels from a combination of fiber (cotton, wool, and Kapok) and rubber crumbs was investigated at the different sound frequencies. Results indicated that the fiber/rubber crumbs panel had a significant STL profile of 47 dB, 40 dB, and 35 dB, for Kapok, wool, and cotton, respectively. The addition of polylactic acid meltblown nonwoven fabric on the surface of the rubber crumbs side considerably increases the STL by 20%.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T09:28:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211039574
       
  • Production and in vitro analysis of catechin incorporated electrospun
           gelatin/ poly (lactic acid) microfibers for wound dressing applications

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      Authors: Marziyeh Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Mohammad Nouri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, herbal materials are applied extensively in fibrous structures for application as a wound dressing. In this study, catechin (Cat) as the green tea extract with antibacterial characteristics has been loaded in gelatin (Gel)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA) fibrous structure by double-nozzle electrospinning technique. For this, PLA-Cat from one nozzle and Gel-Cat solution from another were injected, and fabricated Gel/PLA, Gel/PLA-Cat, Gel-Cat/PLA, and Gel-Cat/PLA-Cat hybrid fibers were gathered onto a rotating collector. In order to verify the application of these scaffolds in bio applications, the morphological, chemical, wettability property, and biological features of fibers were analyzed using SEM, contact angle analysis, antibacterial, and cell attachment tests. The viscosity of spinning solutions increased with the addition of Cat to them that resulted in an increase of fibers diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy highlighted the presence of PLA, Gel, and Cat in the final structure. The results exhibited that the presence of Cat improved the antibacterial activity. Furthermore, cell attachment studies with L929 fibroblast cells demonstrated that incorporation of catchin increased the cell viability without any toxicity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T01:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211060883
       
  • Quality assessment of baby wet wipes

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      Authors: Rim Cheriaa, Jaouachi Boubaker
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A wet wipe is a commercial product made of a fibrous substrate impregnated with a lotion that often comes folded and individually wrapped for convenience. The present work relates to wet wipes’ composition to clean the baby’s body. Wet wipes were produced from two spunlace nonwoven fabrics consisting of polyester/viscose and a wetting solution. Objective performance evaluation was carried out to determine the efficiency of the wipes for manufacturing and end uses. The lotion formula comprising surfactants, a solubilizer, preservative compounds, perfumes, and mainly purified water is selected to deliver the intended benefits of a baby wet wipe. Besides, physical, mechanical characteristics, and moisture management parameters of the wet wipe fabrics were measured. Optimal lotion (oil–water emulsion) stirring conditions were illustrated using optical microscopy. Lotion foamability appears as an undesirable phenomenon upon the manufacturing of the wet wipe. A mixture design, an extreme vertices design, was used to study the influence of the compounds on the foam volume. The relative contribution of each compound in the lotion to generate bath foam was discussed. Because wet media are more effective than dry media for surface cleaning, the optimum wet pick-up ensuring the best wiping efficiency about of 83.2% was found to be about 3 g of lotion for 1 g of fabric. Assuming that a wipe sample could be performed in less than 3 min, it was also confirmed that the developed wipe remains effective with a moisture content of 242% and can be comparable with other commercial wipes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-09T01:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211046619
       
  • Mouldability analysis and impact performance of 3D aramid angle-interlock
           fabric panels for ballistic helmets

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      Authors: Mengqi Yang, Xiaogang Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Modern ballistic helmets made from textile composites offer enhanced protection with lightweight, but the discontinuity of the reinforcing materials is a potential problem affecting the helmet performance. This work uses 3D angle-interlock fabrics to provide reinforcement continuity, and evaluates 3D through-the-thickness angle-interlock (TTAI) fabrics to study the influence of fabric structural parameters on fabric mouldabilty and ballistic performance for ballistic helmet application. The mouldability was measured through experiments and modelled numerically, and the ballistic impact test was carried out to identify the optimal fabric structures for constructing ballistic helmet shells. The results show that increase in weft density of the TTAI fabrics causes decrease in the mouldability of the TTAI fabrics, and that the addition of wadding yarns into the TTAI fabrics has little influence on fabric mouldability compared to the conventional TTAI fabrics with the same weft density. However, the involvement of wadded TTAI fabrics demonstrates a 34% increase in ballistic energy absorption and 3% higher estimated ballistic limit over the conventional counterpart. Taking both mouldability and ballistic protection into account, the wadded TTAI fabric structure is an effective continuous reinforcement for ballistic helmet shells, offering required mouldability and improved ballistic performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T02:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211051951
       
  • Synthesis of waterborne epoxy resin with diethanolamine-assisted
           succinimide for improving the strand integrity of polyimide filament

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      Authors: Yijun Yao, Miao Wang, Hailiang Wu, Yanqin Shen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A water-soluble epoxy resin emulsion was synthesized by diethanolamine-assisted succinimide modified epoxy resin (DSEP) and used to reinforce the strand integrity of polyimide filament (PI). FTIR, XPS, and 1H NMR provide an evidence for the succinimide (SI) and diethanolamine (DEA) bonded onto the epoxy resin (EP) structure in the form of C-N-C. The DSEP emulsion shows high storage and dilution stability, with its particle size distribution and PDI of 118∼232 nm and 0.106∼0.638, respectively. Compared with DEA modified EP, DSEP exhibits better strand integrity for PI filament. The breaking strength of PI filament infiltrated by DSEP can reach 2.59 GPa, which is increased by 47.04% than that of PI filament, and is close to that of commercially available water-soluble polyimide resin (2.63 GPa). In addition, the fracture microstructure of PI filament further confirms that DSEP significantly reinforces the aggregation of PI filament. Importantly, there is no wire splitting phenomenon of DSEP reinforced PI filament after more than 200 times of friction. These benefit from the similar material groups of imide ring and benzene ring between DSEP and PI filament structure, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between them, as further confirmed by FTIR and SEM analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-07T08:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211059213
       
  • Studies on the influence of process parameters on the protection
           performance of the outer layer of fire-protective clothing

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      Authors: Rochak Rathour, Apurba Das, Ramasamy Alagirusamy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      During an operation, the turnout gear for firefighters must meet two important requirements: thermal protection and comfort. As comfort and protection are inherently incompatible, it is impossible to satisfy both. As part of this study, the outer layer of multilayered turnout suits was analyzed under the influence of various factors such as intensity of heat flux, pick density, and air space between the fabric and the sensor. Choosing Nomex IIIA was based on its inherent properties that are conductive to thermal protection. To simulate the environment encountered during firefighting, benchtop experiments were designed. A system equation for the prediction of the protection time (t-protection) was developed based on a three-factor and three-level Box–Behnken model. The predicted values of t-protection obtained for all the experimental blocks in the design space were subjected to ANOVA analysis which showed that the system equation, as well as the coefficients of linear interactive and square terms, is significant, so the system equation can be efficiently used for predicting t-protection. The validity of the system equation was verified by using the same experimental blocks and estimating t-protection using the Stoll criteria. The accuracy of the system equation was checked by comparing t-protection and t*-protection which revealed a linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.975). To analyze the effects of the independent variables on protection time, 3D surface response curves were created. The nature of the surfaces was critically analyzed by developing regression equations for the contours and the diagonals.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T03:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211054582
       
  • A review investigating the influence of nanofiller addition on the
           mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of cellulosic fibre
           reinforced polymer composite

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      Authors: Adnan Amjad, Aslina Anjang Ab Rahman, Habib Awais, Mohd Shukur Zainol Abidin, Junaid Khan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Composite holds great promise for future materials considering its advantages such as excellent strength, stiffness, lightweight, and cost-effectiveness. Due to rising environmental concerns, the research speed gradually changes from synthetic polymer composites to natural fibre reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs). Natural fibres are believed a valuable and robust replacement to synthetic silicates and carbon-based fibres, along with biodegradability, recyclability, low cost, and eco-friendliness. But the incompatibility between natural fibre and polymer matrices and higher moisture absorption percentage of natural fibre limitise their applications. To overcome these flaws, surface treatment of natural fibre and nanofiller addition have become some of the most important aspects to improve the performance of NFRPCs. This review article provides the most recent development on the effect of different nanofiller addition and surface treatment on the mechanical, thermal, and wetting behaviour of NFRPCs. It concludes that the fibre surface treatment and nanofillers in natural fibre polymer composites positively affect mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties. A systematic understanding in this field covers advanced research basics to stimulate investigation for fabricating NFRPCs with excellent performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T03:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211057580
       
  • The effect of washing on the electrical performance of knitted textile
           strain sensors for quantifying joint motion

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      Authors: Cristina Isaia, Simon McMaster, Donal McNally
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Successful market penetration of textile-based strain sensors requires long-term reliability which in turn relies on the washability of the sensor. First, this paper presents an evaluation of the effect of 5 washing cycles on the electrical performance of a knitted conductive transducer, over 1500 cycles of repetitive elongation. The promising behaviour of the textile sensor in this study showed that it might be possible to make a smart garment, capable of quantifying elbow flexion-extension motion, by integrating it into an elbow sleeve. Second, a prototype sleeve, incorporating a knitted sensor (the so-called smart sleeve), was tested in a simulated training/clinical setting by performing 50 flexion-extension cycles after 1, 5, 15, 25, 50 and 75 washes. In both studies, the electrical resistance of the sensor increased with the number of washes in a predictable manner and exhibited a repeatable, reliable and prompt response to elongation. In particular, the electrical pattern representing flexion-extension motion measured using the sleeve was clear and distinguishable up to the 75th wash. Moreover, resistance measurements within the same trial were repeatable at maximum flexion (≤2% variation) and at maximum extension (≤3% variation) and predictable with increasing washes (R2 = 0.992 at maximum flexion and R2 = 0.989 at maximum extension). The good washability of the smart sleeve, evidenced by its ability to detect, distinguish and measure parameters of flexion-extension motion up to 75 washes, makes it a suitable and sustainable choice for applications, such as strength conditioning or rehabilitation, where repetition count and speed are useful.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T03:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211059210
       
  • Engineered properties of polyurethane laden with beetroot and cerium oxide
           for cardiac patch application

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      Authors: Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mohan Prasath Mani, Ahmad Fauzi bin Ismail, Ahmad Zahran Mohd Khudzari, Ahmad Athif Mohd Faudzi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The cardiac patch provides appropriate physicochemical properties and mechanical strength for the regeneration of damaged heart tissues. In this work, for the first-time, beetroot (BR) is blended with cerium oxide (CeO2) to produce nanofibrous polyurethane (PU) composite patch using electrospinning. The objective of this work is to fabricate the composite and examine its feasibility for cardiac patch applications. Morphological analysis revealed a dramatic reduction of fiber diameter of PU/BR (233 ± 175 nm) and PU/BR/CeO2 (331 ± 176 mm) compared to the pristine PU (994 ± 113 mm). Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) analysis indicated functional peak intensities of the newly formed composite PU/BR and PU/BR/CeO2 were not similar to PU. The addition of beetroot rendered PU/BR hydrophilic (86° ± 2), whereas PU/BR/CeO2exhibited hydrophobic nature (99° ± 3). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis depicted the reduced surface roughness of the PU/BR (312 ± 12 nm) and PU/BR/CeO2 (390 ± 125 nm) than the pristine PU (854 ± 32 nm). The incorporation of beetroot and CeO2 into PU enhanced the tensile strength compared with the pristine PU. The blood clotting time of PU/BR (APTT-204 ± 3 s and PT-103 ± 2 s) and PU/BR/CeO2 (APTT-205 ± 3 s and PT-105 ± 2s) were delayed significantly than the pristine PU(APTT-176 ± 2 s and PT-94 ± 2 s) as revealed in the coagulation study. Further, hemolysis assay showed the less toxic nature of the fabricated composites than the pristine PU. Hence, it can be inferred that the advanced physicochemical and blood compatible properties of electrospun PU/BR and PU/BR/CeO2 nanocomposite can be engineered successfully for cardiac patch applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T02:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211054218
       
  • Optimization of Nylon 6 electrospun nanofiber diameter in needle-less wire
           

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      Authors: Prasanta K Panda, Archana Gangwar, Amol G Thite
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, Nylon 6 nanofiber were prepared by needle-less wire electrospinning technique. Since, the fiber diameter determines the porosity, filtration efficiency, and mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber mat, Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology have been employed to design the experiments and evaluate the interactive effects of the operating variables such as concentration of the polymeric solution, the distance between two electrodes, applied voltage, and relative humidity (RH%) on the diameter of the Nylon 6 nanofiber. With this connection, an objective of this study was to find out the most influential variables for the finest nanofiber diameter during the spinning with wire type electrode to make the highest possible effective face mask without the addition of any functional additives in it. The overall results show that the combined effect of 12% polymer concentration, 65% RH, 155 mm distance between two electrodes, and 40 kV applied positive voltage have the strongest surface response and are the most significant than the other interactive effects. The Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance affecting the Nylon 6 nanofiber diameter in the order of concentration of the polymeric solution, RH%, the distance between electrodes, and applied positive voltage. Further, bacterial filtration efficiency% of the control sample and five-layer facemask incorporated with optimized nanofiber membrane was found to be 87.4% and 97.5%, respectively, against Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC 6538 bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T01:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211058213
       
  • Biogenic silver nano sol–loaded spunlace fabric for wound dressing;
           mechanical and functional characterization

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      Authors: Hireni Mankodi, Bharat Patel
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The biogenic silver nano sol (AgNS) is most suitable for biomedical applications due to its inherent properties. In the present investigation polyester (P), viscose (V) and polyester/viscose blend (50:50) (PV) spunlaced fabrics were coated with AgNS prepared using organic honey, manuka honey. The dip-coated fabric samples were found suitable for wound dressing purposes when evaluated layered wise for their mechanical properties. The layer-wise dispersion behavior of the V sample was found better than the P/V and P samples. In the case of the air permeability sample, P/V performed better compared to V and P samples. Water sorption ability of P/V and V are found suitable for wound dressing. The ultraviolet protection factor value of treated fabric found excellent when coated with only honey. Further, the AgNS loaded fabric exhibited good resistance against microbial organisms as revealed by the bromophenol blue stain.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-12-02T05:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211054221
       
  • Nano-on-micro approach for fabricating ternary metal oxy-hydroxide–based
           flexible supercapacitors

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      Authors: Pragati Bajpai, Alok K Srivastava, Alok Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, we unveil a facile and effective method to directly grow Ni–Mo–Co oxy-hydroxide–based 3-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures on carbon microfibers (nano-on-micro) by using a facile hydrothermal synthesis route. Further, the electrochemical activity for directly grown fiber electrode as well as electrode formed by slurry coating of active material formed after hydrothermal reaction has been investigated. In this study, the metal ratios (nickel and cobalt) were selected to cover the wide spectrum of the concentration in order to obtain the optimum concentration for the best electrochemical performance. Electrochemical analysis of these ternary metal oxy-hydroxide–based active materials on the carbon microfiber shows significantly high electrochemical activity with a specific capacitance of 519 Fg−1 in hydrothermally activated sample and 890 Fg−1 in a slurry coated sample (at 1 Ag−1). This simple technique provides a novel method to fabricate high energy-storage devices with the advantage of being lighter and flexible and can be easily integrated for various flexible electronic applications potential applications including e-textiles, personal electronics, military apparel devices, and antimicrobial and biomedical textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-11-24T11:39:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211052322
       
  • Breathability performance of antiviral cloth masks treated with silver
           nanoparticles for protection against COVID-19

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      Authors: Tamer Hamouda, Hany Kafafy, HM Mashaly, Nermin M Aly
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The global widespread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused shortage of medical face masks and led to developing of various types of cloth masks with different levels of protection and comfort to meet the market demands. Breathing comfort is a significant aspect that should be considered during the design of cloth masks along with the filtration efficiency; otherwise, the wearer will feel suffocated. In this work, different types of cotton and polyester knitted fabrics blended with spandex yarns were produced and treated with silver nanoparticles to be used as antiviral cloth masks. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and EDX were used to characterize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Antiviral activity was assessed against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus as well. The influence of using different fabric materials, number of layers, and hybrid layers on their air permeability and breathability were investigated to evaluate the comfortability of the cloth masks. Physiological impacts of wearing the cloth masks were evaluated by measuring oxygen saturation of hemoglobin and heart rate of the wearers while doing various activities. The results indicated that AgNPs have low cytotoxicity and considerable efficiency in inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. Adding spandex yarns with different count and ratios reduced the porosity and air permeability of the fabrics. Moreover, the combination of three hybrid layers’ mask made of polyester fabric in the outer layer with 100% cotton fabric in the inner layer showed high comfortability associated with high air permeability and breathability. Also, wearing these masks while doing activities showed no significant effect on blood oxygen saturation and heart rate of the wearers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-11-09T09:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211051100
       
  • Investigating the braiding parameters and their effects on the mechanical
           and frictional properties of silk sutures

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      Authors: Natarajan Sivanesan, Rameshbabu Venugopal, Ariharasudhan Subramanian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this research work, the simultaneous effects of braided sutures made up of silk filament were studied with respect to parameters such as filament twist (0-6 Twist/inch), braiding angle (28.8°–34.8°) and braid structure (1/1, 1/2 and 2/2) on tensile strength, elongation, bending stiffness and friction were investigated by using response surface methodology. The influence of independent and dependent values has been studied using the categorical central composite design of experiments. The optimum conditions for enhanced handling characteristics of braided silk suture were 3.7 twist /inch of silk filament twist level, at a 28.8°braid angle, and a 1/2 braided structure. The handling characteristics of the suture can be enhanced by choosing suitable braiding parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T08:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211055128
       
  • The equivalent resistance model of double-layer embroidered conductive
           lines on nonwoven fabric

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      Authors: Yaya Zhang, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan, Huating Tu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      To reveal the engineering relationship among the electrical properties of embroidered conductive lines, the electrical properties and arrangements of conductive yarns, it is necessary to establish their equivalent resistance model. Embroidered conductive lines in textiles are usually fabricated by single-layer (conductive and nonconductive yarn used as upper and lower yarn) or double-layer embroidery technology (conductive yarns used as upper and lower yarn). Several researchers have proposed the simple resistance model for single-layer embroidered conductive line based on geometric structure of single conductive yarn in fabric. However, the double-layer conductive line has the contact resistance periodically interlaced by the upper and lower conductive yarns, and it made its equivalent circuit different from that of single-layer conductive line. In this work, a geometric model was built to describe the trace of conductive yarn in fabric, and in combination with Wheatstone Bridge theory, was applied to establish the equivalent resistance models of double-layer conductive lines with a certain width, consisted of various courses. First, the equivalent resistance model of double-layer conductive lines consisting of single course was proposed to calculate the contact resistance. Then, to obtain the electrical resistance of double-layer conductive lines with a certain width, the equivalent resistance model was extended from single course to multiple courses ([math]). Finally, to validate the proposed equivalent resistance model, double-layer conductive lines with different embroidery parameters (stitch length and stitch spacing) on nonwoven fabric were fabricated and evaluated. The experimental results revealed that the proposed model accurately predicted the resistances of double-layer conductive lines.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T03:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211049481
       
  • Needleless electrospun mats based on polyamidoamine dendritic polymers for
           encapsulation of essential oils in personal respiratory equipment

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      Authors: Maryam Mounesan, Somaye Akbari, Bogumil E Brycki
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The ever-increasing concern of air pollution triggered by broad-spreading contagious disease, bioterrorism, and release of dust particles in the air is targeted to be addressed in this paper by developing a novel personal respiratory equipment (PRE). For this purpose, polyamidoamine dendritic polymers (PAMAMs) were utilized not only for encapsulating tea tree essential oil (TEO), an antimicrobial material, but also for battling against perilous bioaerosols. Furthermore, TEO is encapsulated inside both PAMAM and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun nanofibers. Results clarified that electrospun samples containing both TEO and PAMAM possess thinner nanofibers with 440 nm reduction in their average diameter, and pursuantly higher filtration efficiency against both NaCl and paraffin oil mist particles about 98% and well above 99%, respectively. Herein, the electrospinning method is employed first for high porosity, enhanced surface area to volume ratio, and interconnected pores of resulted nanofibers, which are strongly useful in capturing the dust and allowing more air to flow and pass through, and creating a good air circulation. Second, the synergistic effect of using both electrospinning and PAMAM as the host molecules is also a promising approach for addressing the volatility of fragrances by producing a controlled release of TEO.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-30T05:44:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211048155
       
  • Hemoglobin assisted carbon nanofiber preparation for selective detection
           of miRNA molecules

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      Authors: Karima Sahtani, Yakup Aykut, Nilay Aladag Tanik
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A selective miRNA detection is an important factor for the early-stage diagnosis of the diseases and determination of an appropriate treatment method. In this regard, hemoglobin assisted carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared via electrospinning of the precursor polyacrylonitrile/hemoglobin (PAN/Hb) hybrid nanofibers and the following heat treatment process. Addition of low ratio Hb in the precursor PAN nanofibers caused a catalytic effect on the reaction taken place during the stabilization process that helps the formation of more graphitic structure during the carbonization process. But, increasing Hb ratio in the PAN/Hb nanofibers caused an inhibiting effect on the related reactions. Guanine oxidation signals of miRNA molecules were determined via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement. In this regard, the attachment of anti-miRNA molecules on the CNFs immobilized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and a following hybridization of the attached anti-miRNA with miRNA molecules were carried out. Three different miRNA molecules including the target (miRNA), single-base mismatched (SM.miRNA), and non-complementary (NC.miRNA) were hybridized with the previously attached anti-miRNA molecules on the Hb-CNFs immobilized SPEs. The enhancement of the guanine oxidation signal level was observed by using Hb-CNFs instead of using CNFs. That could be attributed to the increase of the graphitic level with low Hb addition to the precursor PAN/Hb nanofibers that causes a catalytic effect on carbonization process. The prepared biosensory system could be used for the selective detection of miRNA molecules.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T06:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211049566
       
  • Enhancing Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of
           polyaniline/carbon nanotube–coated thermoelectric fabric

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      Authors: Reza Amirabad, Ahmad Ramazani Saadatabadi, Mohammad Pourjahanbakhsh, M Hossein Siadati
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, flexible thermoelectric fabrics, polyester/yarn fabrics coated with polyaniline/carbon nanotube (PANI/CNT) nanocomposite, were fabricated by sequential processing: (I) polyaniline/carbon nanotube nanocomposites preparation by a one-step in-situ polymerization and (II) dip coating of a mixture solution of CNT-doped PANI on a polyester/yarn fabric. Nanocomposites were synthesized with various CNT content (0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 wt%) and characterized using different methods. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements were used to determine their thermoelectric properties. The results revealed significant improvement in both electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient with the addition of CNT. The electrical conductivity increased from 0.011 to 0.1345 S/cm with the increment of CNT from 0.5 to 10 wt%. The highest Seebeck coefficient of 11.4 μV/K was observed for the sample containing 5 wt% CNT at 338 K where the maximum power factor of 1.598×10−3 μWm−1K−2 was obtained for the fabric coated with nanocomposite containing 10 wt% CNT.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T08:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211050516
       
  • New manufacturing process to develop antibacterial dyed polyethylene
           terephthalate sutures using plasma functionalization and chitosan
           immobilization

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      Authors: Nesrine Bhouri, Faten Debbabi, Abderrahmen Merghni, Esther Rohleder, Boris Mahltig, Saber Ben Abdessalem
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this paper is to develop a new manufacturing process leading to have antibacterial dyed non-absorbable braided polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sutures using biocompatible and non-toxic products. This manufacturing process allows better visibility of sutures in the surgical field and reduces the risk of infections and inflammatory reactions without affecting the mechanical properties while meeting the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) requirements. Plasma functionalization, acrylic acid (AA) grafting, and bioactive chitosan (CH) coating were used before the dyeing process with a biocompatible non-toxic acid dye, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The influence of experimental parameters on the suture properties and the K/S values of the dyed sutures are investigated. Infrared spectroscopy confirms the presence of new bonds to immobilize chitosan on the surface of the suture. Mechanical tests confirm that the mechanical properties of sutures have not been affected. The in vitro antibacterial effect of dyed PET sutures showed an inhibition zone of 11 mm against S. aureus, 4 mm against P. aeruginosa, and 1 mm against E. coli. This study reveals that the new finishing process of sutures is a promising method to achieve an antibacterial effect with a uniform shade and smooth surfaces.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T01:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211050525
       
  • Development of sanitary napkins using corn husk fibres in absorbent layer
           – an exploratory study

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      Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Archana Jain, Bhawana Chanana
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Corn husk is an agro waste which poses a problem of its disposal. Hence, fibres were extracted from corn husk to utilize it. The fibres extracted from corn husk were coarse with linear density of 86 deniers, had bundle strength of 1.3 g/d and elongation at break of 18.5%. Water retention of corn husk fibres was also found to be 200%, which makes them suitable as absorbent material. Therefore, the possibility of using corn husk fibres in the absorbent layer of sanitary napkins was explored. Corn husk fibres were mixed with wood pulp in different proportions for use in sanitary napkins. The developed sanitary napkins were evaluated for various physical and hygiene parameters like pH, water retention, absorbency and ability to withstand pressure, disposability, bacterial and fungal bio-burden, and presence of common skin pathogens and compared with other sanitary napkins for all the parameters. The water retention and absorbency of corn husk napkins were comparable to branded napkins, which had higher absorbancy probably due to the presence of SAP in their absorbent layer or difference in the quality of top sheet and technology used to manufacture the napkins. The bacterial and fungal bio-burden for the developed napkins was found to be lowest and within acceptable limits of 1000 c.f.u/ml. The common skin pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and uterine pathogen Candida albicans were found to be absent. Thus, use of corn husk fibres for developing various absorbent hygiene products could be sought as an opportunity for transforming waste to useful products.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T11:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211051103
       
  • Improving of thermal stability and water repellency of cotton fabrics via
           coating with silicone rubber under the effect of electron beam irradiation
           

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      Authors: Mahmoud S Hassan, Mona K Attia, Rehab M Attia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Cotton fabrics for outdoor use were coated with room-temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber (RTVSR) and its catalyst to obtain improved thermal stability and water repellency properties. The coated fabrics were exposed to different doses of electron beam irradiation as an extra curing step for the coating. The effect of RTVSR coating and subsequent electron beam irradiation on the cotton fabrics was then studied. The thermal stability was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and surface morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties, crease recovery, gel content, swelling property, and water repellency of the fabrics were also investigated. The results showed that the thermal stability and the water repellency of the cotton fabrics were improved as a result of the coating process. Moreover, the crease recovery and swelling properties of the fabrics were enhanced, accompanied by decreases in their gel content, as a function of the increase in the electron beam irradiation dose. These findings recommend the produced coated fabrics under the optimum conditions for use in the industrial purposes as isolation sheets through the pipes connecting points, especially those that contain hot fluids.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T09:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211046622
       
  • Impact of cross-lapping angle and needling parameters on mechanical and
           functional properties of nonwoven air filter fabric

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      Authors: Wondwossen Mamuye, SM Ishtiaque, Rupayan Roy, Priyal Dixit
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This research work investigated the influence of the cross-lapping angle in combination with punch density and stroke frequency on structural characteristics and properties of nonwoven fabric. An attempt has been made to change the cross-lapping angle by keeping the number of layers constant to maintain the same areal density of fabrics. The fibre orientation in the carded web was measured by using Lindsley and image analysis methods. Three variables, that is, cross-lapping angle, punch density and stroke frequency, were considered for the sampling plan to create a three-factor three-level Box–Behnken design. The properties such as mean flow pore size, bursting strength, filtration efficiency and pressure drop were evaluated and analysed in the light of fibre orientation in the carded web. It was concluded that the cross-lapping angle influenced the fibre orientation to a large extent; accordingly, the properties of nonwoven fabric were highly influenced by the fibre orientation.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T07:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211048158
       
  • Development of upholstery electro-fabric for smart textile applications

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      Authors: Huseyin Coskun, Eren Oner
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Smart textile products developed by evaluating the human body’s data through sensors have become widespread in recent years. The majority of these products include textile-based information and communication technologies that integrate electronic components into clothing. People use seats, chairs, armchairs, etc., to sit constantly in vehicles, work or at home. The use of these items varies according to the requirements and purposes. In this study, an electro-textile-based upholstery fabric design was carried out to be used in sitting furniture. Electronic components containing capacitive sensors were placed in the designed fabric structure to make it usable in different areas where upholstery fabrics are used. In addition, the sensor connection circuit was developed to receive data from the fabric surface. The data taken from the fabric surface were made meaningful using the calibration and normalization algorithm. The 3D pressing map of the reaction on the fabric surface for different sitting positions was drawn. Electromagnetic field and vibration tests were carried out to examine the response behaviour in different environments where the fabric can be used. According to the findings, it was observed that the pressing areas formed on the surface were displayed in a significant way over the 3D pressing map, and the system was not affected by the electromagnetic field and vibrations. Besides, the fabric was applied on the various surfaces to test calibration and threshold algorithm. Obtained results and circumstances showed that the designed calibration and threshold algorithm were successful to obtained significant results. As a result of the study, upholstery electro fabric with a response time of 0.01 seconds in data collection was developed, which can be used in different environments such as home, workplace and vehicle. It can be used over furniture and in wet and dry conditions and is not affected by the electromagnetic field and vibration in the environment.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-02T03:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211048157
       
  • The Effect of Fibers’ Length Distribution and Concentration on
           Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber–Reinforced
           Polypropylene Composite

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      Authors: Fatemeh Asoodeh, Mohammad Aghvami-Panah, Saeed Salimian, Mohammadreza Naeimirad, Hamed khoshnevis, Ali Zadhoush
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article aims to investigate the effect of dispersion and uniformity of fiber length distribution on the rheological and mechanical behavior of polypropylene reinforced with short glass fiber. The composites were prepared through melt compounding with three various glass fiber concentrations using a twin-screw extruder. Multiple extrusion processing was used to alter and manipulate the fibers’ length inside the composites. The fiber length distribution was analyzed via the photomicrograph technique. Rheological measurements indicated that the molten samples were visco-plastic fluids and the Herschel–Bulkley model is the best model for fitting on the rheological behavior diagram. Variables of the fitted model are noticeably altered by the fiber length distribution. Moreover, rheological assessments revealed that the non-Newtonian behavior of the molten composites significantly diminished after the second extrusion processing, while it did not have much effect on the fiber length reduction. In the second phase, tensile and flexural properties were determined to detect the mechanical properties. The results indicated that the tensile strength of the composite has a direct relation with the fiber length distribution factor while the flexural strength is independent of fiber length. Furthermore, the highest tensile and flexural strength attained from the composite containing the highest fiber volume fraction.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T09:53:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211043254
       
  • Thermal protective performance of single-layer rib-knitted structure and
           its derivatives under radiant heat flux

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      Authors: Sandeep K Maurya, Viraj Uttamrao Somkuwar, Hema Garg, Apurba Das, Bipin Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The compact construction of fire-resistant woven clothing designed for radiant heat flux protection limits the air permeability from the skin to the environment that risks thermal stress to the wearer. Knitted fabric is well known for its comfort and transmission properties. The inevitable porosity of the knitted fabric has restrained its application in fire-protective clothing. This study attempts to apply tuck and miss elements of a knitted structure to produce a compact yet comfortable flame-retardant fabric with maximum air permeability. The effect of radiant heat exposure at the intensity of 40 kW/m2 and 61 kW/m2 is analyzed for the designed sample. The tuck and miss stitches are used to modify rib-knitted structure and the second-degree burn time estimated using Stoll’s curve. The findings of this research show that a simple modification of rib structure with incorporation of miss stitch can enhance the second-degree burn time to 30 s at the radiant heat exposure of 40 kW/m2.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-09-25T10:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211042680
       
  • Improvement in fracture toughness and impact resistance of E-glass/epoxy
           composites using layers composed of hollow poly(ethylene terephthalate)
           fibers

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      Authors: Reyhaneh Laghaei, Seyyed Mahdi Hejazi, Hossein Fashandi, Saleh Akbarzadeh, Samira Shaghaghi, Alireza Shamaei-Kashani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Incorporation of hollow fibers in polymer base composites has gained great interest due to their flexibility and lightweight structure. Among many research studies on this subject, the mechanical performance of polyester hollow fiber/E-glass reinforced polymer composites has not been investigated. The main objective of the present work was to investigate the fracture toughness and impact resistance of E-glass/epoxy composites hybridized by a separate layer of polyethylene terephthalate hollow fibers (PETHFs). The samples were prepared by placing a layer of PETHFs in different contents (0, 0.23, 1.18, or 2 wt.%) and in two different forms of filaments (PETHF-FIs) or staple fibers (PETHF-STs) between two layers of biaxial or triaxial E-glass fabrics. The mechanical behaviors of the samples were investigated by performing a set of tensile and impact tests. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM) were also used to evaluate the surface morphologies of the hollow fibers and the fractured samples. The results revealed that, unlike PETHF-FIs, PETHF-STs could weaken the mechanical performance of the pristine E-glass/epoxy composites. The internal channel blockage of PETHF-STs was observed in the FESEM images of the fractured PETHF-STs hybrid samples. The highest toughening effects were observed with incorporation of 1.18 wt.% PETHF-FIs in biaxial E-glass/Epoxy composites and 2 wt.% PETHF-FIs in triaxial E-glass/Epoxy composites. The highest value of impact resistance belonged to the samples hybridized with 2 wt.% of PETHF-FIs. Crack deflection, fiber pull out, and fiber stretching were the predominant fracture mechanisms observed in the PETHF-FIs hybrid composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T07:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211044910
       
  • Advanced materials used in wearable health care devices and medical
           textiles in the battle against coronavirus (COVID-19): A review

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      Authors: Dalia Saber, Khaled Abd El-Aziz
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has generated great confusion around the world, affecting people’s lives and producing a large number of deaths. The development of portable and wearable devices is of great importance in several fields such as point-of-care medical applications and environmental monitoring. Wearable devices with an ability to collect various types of physiological records are progressively becoming incorporated into everyday life of people. Physiological indicators are essential health indicators and their monitoring could efficiently enable early discovery of disease. This would also help decrease the number of extra severe health problems, in disease avoidance, and lower the overall public sector health cost. Protective clothing is nowadays a main part of textiles classified as technical or industrial textiles. Protective clothing aims to protect its wearer from the harsh environmental impacts that may result in injury or death. Providing protection for the common population has also been taken seriously considering the anticipated disaster due to virus attacks. This review highlights the properties of the materials that are used in wearable health care device and medical textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T05:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211041771
       
  • Sound absorption and thermal insulation properties of composite
           thermoplastic polyurethane/polystyrene (TPU/PS) nanofiber web and TPU
           nanofiber web and PS-extracted TPU/PS microfiber web

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      Authors: Neslihan Karaca, İlkay Özsev Yüksek, Nuray Uçar, Ayşen Önen, Cafer Kirbaş
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, composite thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polystyrene (PS) nanofiber web and TPU nanofiber web and PS-extracted TPU/PS microfiber web have been experimentally investigated with regard to sound absorption and thermal conductivity coefficients to observe a potential use in sound and thermal insulation areas. Moreover, other properties such as surface area, morphology, tensile strength/elongation, air permeability, and thermal degradation have been analyzed. It has been observed that nanofiber web properties such as fiber diameter, extensibility, pore volume, and porosity have been clearly changed by Soxhlet extraction of PS from the composite TPU/PS nanofibers. PS-extracted TPU/PS fibers can be preferred for the low frequency (600–800 Hz) due to higher SAC (0.7). On the other hand, TPU nanofibers were more effective at medium frequencies (around 3000 Hz, SAC 0.6). Both TPU and PS-extracted TPU/PS composite fibers had similar thermal conductivities, whereas TPU/PS composite nanofibers had lowest thermal conductivity (0.05 W/mK) with moderate maximum SAC value (around 1000 Hz, SAC 0.5–0.6).
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T10:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211039568
       
  • Tensile properties of defect-prefabricated 3D woven composites:
           Experiments and simulations

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      Authors: Liming Xu, Deng’an Cai, Chao Li, Xingyu Jin, Guangming Zhou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have been widely used in structural components due to their excellent mechanical and near-net-shape properties. However, for some special applications, it is expected that 3D woven composites can be damaged at designated locations under a specific load. In this research work, a new kind of defect-prefabricated 3D woven composites (DP3DWCs) are designed, where defects are prefabricated by cutting weft or warp yarns in defect-free 3D woven composites (DF3DWCs). The tensile mechanical properties of the DF3DWCs and the DP3DWCs are investigated experimentally and numerically. The mesoscopic geometry models of the DF3DWCs and the DP3DWCs were established by multi-objective searching algorithm. The progressive damage models were established using the 3D Hashin criteria and the von Mises failure criterion. Numerical results agree well with the experimental data. The influence of the number of defect layers on the mechanical properties was also discussed. The obtained results indicate that the defects have little effect on the elastic modulus, while tensile strengths decrease linearly with the increase of the number of defect layers. Failure mechanisms of yarns and matrix in the non-defective and defective materials were studied, and the volume fraction of elements of each failure mode was computed and analysed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T09:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211039569
       
  • Simulation of coupled transient heat and water vapor transfer in porous
           fiber membrane with different fiber orientations and porosity

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      Authors: Haihong Gu, Li Gao, Guoqing Li, Ni Li, Jie Xiong
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The transfer process of heat and water vapor in a porous fiber membrane was investigated through the simulation of a 3D model for optimizing the configuration design. 3D models with different fiber orientations and porosity were constructed by the parameter input method, and the accuracy of the model was validated by the coefficient of determination (R2) between the apparent velocity of the model and the air permeability of the membrane. The permeability of 3D model was used to reflect the discrepancy in fiber orientation of the model. The influences of fiber orientation and porosity on heat and water vapor transfer were surveyed by the coupled physics of heat transfer and dilute substance transfer. Since there was no temperature difference in the entire domain, heat conduction (10−9 W/m2) and moisture convection (10−14 mol·m−2·s−1) were faint in the model. With the diffusion of water vapor in the moisture, the heat convection flux and water vapor diffusion flux gradually decreased and reached equilibrium. When the permeability was increased by adjusting the fiber orientation (from 1.002 to 1.200 m2), the heat convection flux and water vapor diffusion flux followed a similar growth pattern due to the coupling effect of heat transfer and water vapor transfer. The R2 for the heat convection flux and water vapor transmission rate of the simulations and experiments with different porosity (44.87, 47.64 and 50.15%) were 0.999 and 0.923, respectively, which demonstrated the validation of the simulation in heat and water vapor transfer.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T08:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211041772
       
  • Eco-friendly sorbent of bacterial cellulose/metal–organic framework
           composite membrane for effective bisphenol a removal

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      Authors: Yue Sun, Xin Li, Dawei Li, Huizhen Ke, Qufu Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental hormones such as bisphenol A have attracted enormous attention due to their potential threat to humans and environment. Herein, we synthesized a BC/MIL-53 (Al)-F127 composite membrane by the vacuum filtration method with a mesostructure metal–organic framework MIL-53 (Al)-F127 and bacterial cellulose as the substrate. The BC/MIL-53 (Al)-F127 composite membrane exhibited efficient adsorption of bisphenol A in aqueous solution. The results exhibited that 94% of bisphenol A could be adsorbed in approximately 120 min, and the equilibrium sorption amounts of bisphenol A reached approximately 8.3 mg/g. Meanwhile, the mechanism of adsorption was explored. The optimum pH and temperature for the adsorption of bisphenol A were 6 and 40°C, respectively. The removal efficiency of bisphenol A was maintained at 90% after five repeated cycles, indicating the advantage to separate freely without a complex filtration system. The results of adsorption indicated that the BC/MIL-53 (Al)-F127 membrane has great potential in the aspect of the sewage treatment as a prospective sorbent.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T08:09:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211041769
       
  • Fibrous coalescence filtration in treating oily wastewater: A review

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      Authors: Chandra Jeet Singh, Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Raju Seenivasan Rengasamy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Many industries discharge oil-in-water emulsion in the waste stream, often above the permissible limit causing serious environmental hazards. Porous media such as membrane and coalescence beds are employed to treat oily wastewater. A coalescence bed filter consists of either fibrous or granular packing and is used for removing larger oil droplets less than 100 μm from secondary emulsions. Fibrous media have higher porosities and specific surface areas than coarse granular media and hence give higher oil removal efficiency. To design an efficient fibrous coalescence bed filter for treating industrial discharge, understanding the mechanism of oil separation is important. This involves the surface wettability of fibers relating to surface chemistry and roughness. Further, fiber diameter, filter bed’s height, porosity, and pore size in relation to the oil droplet size and throughput and influent oil concentration are interactive parameters that affect the efficiency of coalescence. The performance of coalescence filtration is evaluated by analyzing the oil concentrations and D50 droplet sizes in the influent and effluent. In this article, the above-mentioned subjects are comprehensively reviewed from the reported research works, which highlights the complex nature of fibrous coalescence filtration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T07:21:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211040863
       
  • Preparation and characterization of phase-change energy storage nonwoven
           fabric

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      Authors: Zhou Zhao, Ningning Tong, Hong Song, Yan Guo, Jinmei Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a phase-change energy storage nonwoven fabric was made of polyurethane phase-change material (PUPCM) by a non-woven melt-blown machine. Polyethylene glycol 2000 was used as the phase transition unit and diphenyl-methane-diisocyanate as the hard segment to prepare PUPCM. Thermal stability of the PUPCM was evaluated through thermal stability analysis. The performance of pristine PUPCM was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry to analyze the spinning technology of spinning temperature and the stretching process. Phase-change energy storage nonwoven fabric (413.22 g/m2) was prepared, and the morphology, solid–solid exothermic phase transition, mechanical properties, and the structures were characterized. The enthalpy of solid–solid exothermic phase transition reached 60.17 mJ/mg (peaked at 23.14°C). The enthalpy of solid–solid endothermic phase transition reached 67.09 mJ/mg (peaked at 34.34°C). The strength and elongation of phase-change energy storage nonwoven fabric were found suitable for garments and tent fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T05:49:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211041773
       
  • Improved tear resistance by low environmental impact coupling of plasma
           reactive and additive treatment of a TPU/PET coated fabric

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      Authors: Lucile Nuez, Pierre-Baptiste Jacquot, Romain Léger, Patrick Ienny, Didier Perrin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An environmentally friendly approach, which consists in coupling a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) based atmospheric plasma treatment with a coating of an aqueous phase polyurethane dispersion (PUD) containing blocked polyisocyanates, is proposed to improve the adhesion of a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) film onto a poly-(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) textile fabric. In this study, a screening digital design of experiment plan (DOE) was developed to determine the influence of process parameters on the adhesion between film and fabric and to evaluate the best possible adhesion value. The process parameters considered are: the dielectric barrier discharge power, the speed of the fabric undergoing the treatment, the concentration of polyisocyanates (NCO) in the PUD and the air gap. The adhesion was measured by a peeling test and further scanning electron microscope observations were carried out. Results showed that an increase of both the processing power and the NCO content in PUD, as well as the decrease in the DBD speed, had a positive effect on the adhesion. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements demonstrated an increase in the oxygen/carbon atomic percentage ratio between the reference fabric and the treated fabric. Thus, the calibrated oxidation of the PET treated with DBD plasma treatment leads to a greater chemical and physical interaction with the TPU film, which results in better film-fabric adhesion.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T09:36:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211038852
       
  • Numerical analysis of crimping behaviour of triaxial braided structures

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      Authors: Jerry Ochola, Benny Malengier, Lieva Van Langenhove
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanical properties of tubular braided structures influence their inherent performance during application as biomedical materials. In their use as stents, braided structures are forced to conform to the topology of the host tissues. Triaxial braided structures have had limited use in tissue repair and organ support even though they have the potential of offering equal if not better performance compared to bi-axial braided structures. A study of the mechanical dynamics of tri-axial braids would be crucial in the potential design of customised structures for advanced tissue repair and organ support. This study therefore uses Finite Element Methods (FEM) to design and develop triaxial braided structures and investigate their crimping behaviour using parametric modeling and numerical analysis in their potential application as biomedical materials. The results in this study portrayed that the presence of axial yarns in tubular braided structure offers improved performance in terms of stability of the structure.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T07:12:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211036215
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation on draping behaviour of woven
           carbon fabric

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      Authors: Venkateswaran Santhanakrishnan Balakrishnan, Manoja Rao Yellur, Janina Juliane Roesch, Lars Ulke-Winter, Holger Seidlitz
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the liquid composite moulding (LCM) process, fabric is draped over the mould surface and a resin is injected under pressure to develop a composite laminate. Wrinkling is one of the most common flaws that occurs during the draping of the fabric. Wrinkling of the fabric within the composite could severely reduce the quality of the finished composite laminate. Thus, to develop a high-quality composite laminate, exact prediction of fabric wrinkling behaviour is necessary. The aim of the paper is to investigate the draping behaviour of carbon fabric. Carbon fabric with an areal density of 245 g/m2 is used in the study. Both experimental and numerical investigations were performed. An experimental setup was developed to predict the draping behaviour of the carbon fabric used in the study. LS-DYNA/Explicit solver is used to achieve macro level draping simulation. Material model MAT_REINFORCED_THERMOPLASTIC [MAT_249] offers the possibility to simulate the forming behaviour of a thermoplastic material. To simulate dry fabrics using MAT_249, a very low properties are used for the matrix in the material model. To capture the forming behaviour of fabric, an intensive material characterization has been performed. Tensile and shear properties of the fabrics were determined using uniaxial and picture frame tests, respectively. Influence of the position of the integration points from the mid surface on bending behaviour is studied and calibrated using a simple test.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T10:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211038850
       
  • Investigation flexural behavior of hybrid-reinforced layered filament
           wound pipes using experimental tests and numerical model

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      Authors: Mehrdad Masoumi, Sayyed Behzad Abdellahi, Sayyed Mahdi Hejazi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, filament wound pipes were fabricated by glass and polypropylene (PP) yarns with the three different filament winding angles 55°, 70°, and 82°. Glass and PP yarns were wound around the pipe with two methods; layered and hybrid. Epoxy resin was applied as a matrix to manufacture composite samples. It should be mentioned that composite samples were made in different layers. The three-point bending test was carried out on all samples to investigate the bending behavior of the composites. The experimental results showed that the winding angle 55° is better than other angles in terms of improving the flexural strength of the composite. Moreover, using hybrid yarn to fabricate the composite sample increases the flexural strength and energy absorption of the composite. In the next step, a multi-scale finite element model was applied to predict the flexural behavior of the composites. In this model, a unit-cell of each composite structure was modeled at the meso scale and elastic constants of the composites were extracted by a Python code. In addition, failure parameters for the composites were determined according to micromechanical equations. All elastic and failure parameters were utilized for the macro model and simulation three-point bending test. The numerical results were compared with the experimental and a good agreement could be observed between numerical and experimental results. So, the proposed model is proper to predict the mechanical behavior of the filament wound composite with high accuracy.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:11:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211034244
       
  • Polymeric textile-based electromagnetic interference shielding materials,
           their synthesis, mechanism and applications – A review

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      Authors: Faiza Safdar, Munir Ashraf, Amjed Javid, Kashif Iqbal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid proliferation of electronic devices and their operation at high frequencies has raised the contamination of artificial electromagnetic radiations in the atmosphere to an unprecedented level that is responsible for catastrophe for ecology and electronic devices. Therefore, the lightweight and flexible electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are of vital importance for controlling the pollution generated by such high-frequency EM radiations for protecting ecology and human health as well as the other nearby devices. In this regard, polymeric textile-based shielding composites have been proved to be the best due to their unique properties such as lightweight, excellent flexibility, low density, ease of processability and ease of handling. Moreover, such composites cover range of applications from everyday use to high-tech applications. Various polymeric textiles such as fibers, yarn, woven, nonwoven, knitted, as well as their hybrid composites have been extensively manipulated physically and/or chemically to act as shielding against such harmful radiations. This review encompasses from basic concept of EMI shielding for beginner to the latest research in polymeric-based textile materials synthesis for experts, covering detailed mechanisms with schematic illustration. The review also covers the gap of materials synthesis and their application on polymeric textiles which could be used for EMI shielding applications. Furthermore, recent research regarding rendering EMI shielding properties at various stages of polymeric textile development is provided for readers with critical analysis. Lastly, the applications along with environmental compliance have also been presented for better understanding.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211037085
       
  • Solvent diffusion mechanism of PMMA/ acetone coated glass fiber fabric
           during curing process

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      Authors: Zhenrong Zheng, Yuejiao Bi, Lihuan Tong, Yalan Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fabric it is not an impermeable substrate because of fiber porosity. To study the solvent diffusion mechanism of coated fabric in the curing process, the drying model of PMMA/acetone coated glass fiber fabric was established. This drying model was verified by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Finally, the impact of fabric structure, thickness and porosity on the solvent diffusion process in coated fabrics was studied by the model. It was shown that the predicted solvent concentrations by the model were consistent with the experimental values. This model can be used to quantitatively calculate the solvent concentration at any position and at any time inside the coating film during the drying process. Moreover, it can also predict the curing time and residual solvent concentration of the coating fabric required to reach drying equilibrium. Compared with coated 3/1 twill, 5/3 satin and 2/1 twill, the solvent diffusion of coated plain fabric was faster during curing. Under the same environmental conditions, the thinner the fabric was and the greater the porosity was, the shorter the curing time was. The fitting equations for fabric thickness, fabric porosity and drying time were obtained, which can provide a theoretical guidance for the preparation, performance research and drying conditions optimization of PMMA coated textile materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:11:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211036214
       
  • Mechanical performance of 3D woven jute/green epoxy composites with novel
           weaving patterns

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      Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Muzzamal Hussain, Yasir Nawab
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Green composites have ecofriendly features that are technically and economically feasible while minimizing the pollution. It refers to the combination of degradable fibers mostly cellulosic materials and natural resins to develop green composites. Since mechanical performance of such structures is a concern for industry, by playing with the position and pattern of yarns in woven fabric, these properties can be optimized. This research focuses on the development and characterization of novel 3D woven jute/green epoxy composites having hybrid interlocking patterns. Four conventional derivatives of 3D woven fabrics i.e. orthogonal layer to layer (OLL), orthogonal through thickness (OTT), angle interlock layer to layer (ALL), angle interlock through thickness (ATT) and three novel 3D woven fabrics i.e. H1 (combination of OTT and ATT binder yarns), H2 (combination of OTT and ALL binder yarns), H3 (combination of orthogonal layer to layer warp and weft interlock called as bi-directional interlock) were developed using different binding patterns on dobby loom. Tensile, flexural, and short beam shear tests were performed to check the mechanical performance of the developed composites. OTT composite structure showed the highest values of tensile strength, modulus, and maximum force both in warp and weft directions as compared to the other 3D interlock structures, due to least interlacement/crimp of binder yarn. While ATT composite exhibited the highest value of flexural strength and modulus both in warp and weft directions due to through thickness angle binder yarns. H3 composite showed the highest values of force and short beam shear strength in warp direction.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720948025
       
  • Electric heating behavior of flexible knitted fabrics comprising reduced
           graphene oxide, with emphasis on resistance temperature-sensitive behavior
           and decoupling of contact resistance

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      Authors: Xinghua Hong, Rufang Yu, Yubing Dong, Junmin Wan, Hongxia Zhang, Chengyan Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electric fabric heaters have demonstrated potential applications in a wide range of fields for medical electrothermal, human healthcare and athletic rehabilitation. Whereas, little attention has been paid to the resistance variations and the interface of electric heaters. Here, this paper focuses on the resistance temperature-sensitive behavior and interfacial electricity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/polyester (PET) fabrics, which are obatained through a facile and scalable dip-coating method. When a current of 0.055 ampere (A) is applied, the RGO/PET fabric can achieve an equilibrium temperature about 89 °C in 20 s, with a maximum heating rate of 11.78 °C/s. Besides, the relative resistance changes of RGO/PET fabric are linearly related to the temperature. When the RGO/PET fabric reaches its steady-state temperature of 89 °C, the value of ΔR/R0 drops by ∼30%, showing that the fabric is endowed with temperature sensitivity. These prominent results indicate that the RGO/PET fabric owns great promise in the field of wearable electric heaters. Notably, the contact resistance at the interface of RGO/PET fabric heater is investigated and the mechanism of the temperature in middle part of heater is higher than that of both ends is analyzed. This provides a qualitative decoupling analysis method for the study and analysis of interfacial electricity and electrothermal distribution of carbon materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T06:03:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211034240
       
  • The influence of different parameters in tribological characteristics of
           pineapple/sisal/TiO2 filler incorporation

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      Authors: KR Sumesh, G Saikrishnan, P Pandiyan, L Prabhu, S Gokulkumar, AK Priya, Petr Spatenka, Syam Krishna
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this experimentation hybrid composites using natural fibers and titanium oxide (TiO2) nano filler were fabricated using compression moulding technique. Pineapple (P) and Sisal (S) fibers were used as the natural reinforcements with epoxy as the matrix material. The mechanical results of flexural, impact and tensile properties found good improvement in the properties with SP fiber reinforcement (1:1 ratio) and TiO2 filler addition. The combination with 40 wt.% SP/5 wt.% TiO2 observed better mechanical results. The Taguchi optimization results showed lower Specific Wear Rate (SWR) by the incorporation of high TiO2 filler (5 wt.%) addition with the polymer-based composites. The filler substitutes replace the vacant space between fiber/matrix phase and add to the properties. The multi response optimization with TOPSIS proved that hybrid SP has the high influence in overall tribological properties of the natural fiber composites with rank 1 followed by filler incorporation. The results showed combination with 5 wt.% TiO2/20 wt.% SP Hybrid fiber/500 m Sliding distance/Sliding speed of 1 m/s and applied load of 5 N having optimized results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T05:45:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211022614
       
  • Biodegradable and conductive PVA/CNT nanofibrous membranes used in nerve
           conduit applications

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      Authors: Jia-Ci Jhang, Jia-Horng Lin, Ching-Wen Lou, Yueh-Sheng Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The recovery of impaired peripheral nerves is often not as expected, which makes the development of nerve conduits trendy nowadays. To enable the neural messages effectively being delivered as well as to prevent the secondary damage during the removal of nerve conduits, the conductivity and biodegradability are two essential requirements for ideal nerve conduits. In this study, electrospinning is used to produce polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) electrospun films, after which the morphology analysis, electrical property, water contact angle, and biological characteristics of the membranes are investigated, thereby determining the optimal nerve conduits based on the employment of electrospinning, PVA, and CNT. The test results indicate that with 0.25 wt% of PVA, the electrospun films exhibit comparatively lower resistance of 25.3 ohm, good fibrous morphology with a diameter being 1 μm. In addition, the electrospun films are cytotoxicity-free and facilitate the growth of cells. It is observed in the MMT assay that after co-cultured with cells for three days, PVA/CNT electrospinning fibrous membranes exhibit a cellular viability that is 18.5 times greater than that of the control group on Day 1. According to all property evaluations, PVA/CNT electrospinning fibrous membranes are a qualified candidate for the use of nervous conduits.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T02:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211032086
       
  • Synergistically improved flame retardancy of the cotton fabric finished by
           silica-coupling agent-zinc borate hybrid sol

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      Authors: Dan Li, Zhen-hua Wang, Yuan-shu Zhu, Fei You, Song-tao Zhou, Gang Li, Xue-feng Zhang, Chang Zhou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The sol-gel process has been applied to cotton fabrics to cover the fibers with a silica-based film, which can improve their thermal oxidation and combustion behaviors. Silica sol, silane coupling agent 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH560) and flame retardant zinc borate (ZB) are used together to prepare SiO2-KH560-ZB hybrid sol, which is then finished on the surface of cotton fabric through impregnation and baking. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index analysis (LOI) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) are used to characterize functional groups, thermal stability and flammability properties of finished fabrics. Surface morphology of sol modified cotton fabrics are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX). Results show the sols are successfully converted into gel coatings onto cotton fabrics, and continuous smoldering phenomenon of resulted fabrics disappears. ΔLOI/Δm of SiO2-KH560-ZB coated cotton fabric reaches the highest of 0.37%/g, char residue rate is as high as 28.43% and the peak heat release rate (PHRR) is reduced by 26.9% (83.7 W/g). KH560 has a significant coupling effect on combining components in the sol system and increases compatibility between sols and cotton fabrics. ZB (cooling, separation, dilution and suppression), silica sol (physical barrier) and KH560 show excellent synergistic effects in enhancing overall flame retardancy.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T05:34:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211028800
       
  • Design and fabrication of anisotropic textile brace for exerting
           corrective forces on spinal curvature

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      Authors: Queenie Fok, Joanne Yip, Kit-lun Yick, Sun-pui Ng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the fabrication of an anisotropic textile brace that exerts corrective forces based on the three-point pressure system to treat scoliosis, which is a medical condition that involves deformity of the spine. The design and material properties of the proposed anisotropic textile brace are discussed in detail here. A case series study with 5 scoliosis patients has been conducted to investigate the immediate in-brace effect and biomechanics of the proposed brace. Radiographic examination, three-dimensional scanning of the body and interface pressure measurements have been used to evaluate the immediate effect of the proposed brace on reducing the spinal curvature and asymmetry of the body contours and its biomechanics. The results show that the proposed brace on average reduces the spinal curvature by 11.7° and also increases the symmetry of the posterior trunk by 14.1% to 43.2%. The interface pressure at the corrective pad ranges from 6.0 to 24.4 kPa. The measured interface pressure shows that a sufficient amount of pressure has been exerted and a three-point pressure distribution is realized to reduce the spinal curvature. The obtained results indicate the effectiveness of this new approach which uses elastic textile material and a hinged artificial backbone to correct spinal deformity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T11:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211032619
       
  • Ag-coated cotton fabric as ultrasensitive and flexible SERS substrate

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      Authors: Xueyan Bian, Jiangtao Xu, Yi Pu, Jing Yang, Ka-lam Chiu, Shouxiang Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has proven to be increasingly valuable as an analytical tool since this phenomenon was first observed in 1973. However, challenges still exist to ensure their ability to access targeted analytes and adequate levels of sensitivity to them on irregular surfaces. Herein, silver (Ag) nanoparticles are deposited onto cotton fabric through magnetron sputtering to develop a flexible and ultrasensitive SERS-active substrate. To obtain a better enhancement effect, Ag nanoparticles of different sizes are produced by controlling the argon flow rate and the sputtering time. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and Raman mapping are used to explain the process behind Raman signal enhancement. The cotton fabric sample with Ag nanoparticles deposited at an argon flow rate of 200  sccm (labelled as AC-200) shows a high enhancement factor (EF) of 104 with a Methylene blue (MB) solution of 10−3 M, stability with a related standard deviation (RSD) of 1.03%, excellent reproducibility with an RSD of 1.92% and high sensitivity with 10−9 M of MB solution. Therefore, AC-200 demonstrates exceptional SERS signal reproducibility and stability for different types of chemical analytes and has the potential to be used in future practical applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-12T06:12:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211027781
       
  • Corrigendum to Development of silk/polycaprolactone biocomposite for
           internal bone plate application

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-12T03:53:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211034768
       
  • A novel algorithm for significantly increasing the fiber volume fraction
           in the reconstruction model with large fiber aspect ratio

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      Authors: Zeyang Li, Zhao Liu, Yongbo Xue, Ping Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Geometric reconstruction is an important precondition for the computational micromechanics analysis of chopped fiber reinforced composites. When fiber aspect ratio increases, the maximum fiber volume fraction in reconstruction model reduces rapidly because of jamming limit, which greatly limits the application of reconstruction methods. A novel algorithm is proposed to significantly increase the fiber volume fraction in the reconstruction model of the chopped fiber reinforced composites with large fiber aspect ratio. The algorithm is made up of two stages. At the first stage, fibers are packed into the sublayers of initial filling space to preliminarily design fiber orientation distribution. The unidirectional arrangement of fibers is adopted to achieve high fiber volume fraction. At the second stage, a new multi-step fiber shaking strategy is used to introduce randomness into reconstruction model. The high fiber volume fraction over 30% is achieved within the wide range of fiber aspect ratio from 50 to 200 while the results of the existing methods are not more than 10%, showing the remarkable increase of the fiber volume fraction under large fiber aspect ratio. The proposed algorithm is verified by the statistical results of the four representative microstructural characteristics from reconstruction model and realistic material.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-12T03:08:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211032078
       
  • A comparison between solvent casting and electrospinning methods for the
           fabrication of neem extract-containing buccal films

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      Authors: Anahita Rohani Shirvan, Nahid Hemmatinejad, S Hajir Bahrami, Azadeh Bashari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study a double layer mucoadhesive buccal film containing nanocarriers encapsulated with neem extract was fabricated through electrospinning and solvent casting techniques for dental therapeutic applications. The morphological, physical and mucoadhesive properties of the resulting electrospun and solvent cast oral films were mutually compared, and their drug release behavior and antibacterial activity were further investigated. Chitosan/poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) as a mucoadhesive component and phenylalanine amino acid nanotubes (PhNTs)-containing neem extract as a drug nanocarrier were used to fabricate oral films. A poly(caprolactone) (PCL) layer was used as an impermeable backing layer to protect the mucoadhesive component from tongue movement and drug loss. The results indicated an interconnected porous and fully filled solid structures for electrospun and solvent cast films, respectively. The physicomechanical parameters of the samples such as pH, weight, thickness, folding endurance and tensile strength were also evaluated. The crosslinked electrospun buccal film indicated better swelling and mucoadhesive properties compared to the solvent cast film. In addition, the drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the solvent cast film showed lower experimental values than those of electrospun oral film. On the other hand, the electrospun oral film had a well-controlled release of neem extract up to 82% at oral pH, which is best fitted to the Weibull model, and demonstrated the highest antibacterial properties against S. mutans bacteria with high biocompatibility on L929 fibroblast cells. Generally, the synthesized electrospun mucoadhesive film has a better potential for oral therapeutic applications than the solvent cast film.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-08T05:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211027785
       
  • A statistical analysis on the influence of process and solution properties
           on centrifugally spun nanofiber morphology

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      Authors: Bülin Atıcı, Cüneyt H Ünlü, Meltem Yanilmaz
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal spinning is a fast and safe nanofiber production technique and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers have been widely studied for many applications including energy storage, filtration, sensors, and biomedical applications. Nanofiber morphology, specific surface area, porosity and average fiber diameter are important to determine the performance of nanofibers in these fields. In centrifugal spinning, nanofiber morphology and average fiber diameter are influenced by solution properties and process parameters including rotational speed, feeding rate, collector distance, and nozzle diameter. In this study, the effect of solution concentration, rotational speed, feeding rate, collector distance and nozzle diameter on average fiber diameter and fiber morphology were studied and statistical analysis was performed to determine the main factors. Optimum solution and process parameters were determined as well. Increased average fiber diameter was seen with increasing polymer concentration and nanofibers produced at 4000 rpm with the feeding rate of 60 ml/h had the lowest average fiber diameter for all studied nozzle sizes (0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm). 8 wt. % PAN solution was centrifugally spun with the rotational speed of 4000 rpm, feeding rate of 60 ml/h, collector distance of 20 cm and nozzle diameter of 0.3 mm and bead free nanofibers with the average fiber diameter of 680 ± 87 nm was observed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T06:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211029355
       
  • Customization of hierarchical air filter media by tailoring the structural
           parameters of needle punched nonwoven

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      Authors: Rupayan Roy, SM Ishtiaque
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An attempt has been made to investigate the filtration behaviour of filter media with gradient structure created through layers of needle punched nonwoven. Batts of different fibre orientation influenced by carding parameters were prepared. Carding parameters i.e. feeder, cylinder and doffer speed were optimized by using response surface methodology to achieve the batts of different fibre orientation. Three batts with a wide range of fibre orientation were selected to create the gradient structures by placing them in a different position in the layered structure. The physical, mechanical and functional properties of nonwoven were evaluated. The different order of fibre orientation of batts was also analysed with the help of SEM images. The fabric with inverse gradient structure having batts in increasing order of fibre orientation in the layered structure provided very high (close to the highest) filter efficiency and very low (close to lowest) pressure drop instead of having higher (close to highest) mean flow pore size.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T06:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211029050
       
  • Evaluation of filtration effectiveness of various types of facemasks
           following with different sterilization methods

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      Authors: Amit Kumar, Basundhara Bhattacharjee, DN Sangeetha, V Subramanian, B Venkatraman
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the ongoing pandemic, various types of facemasks such as certified N-95, non-woven fiber and fabric/textile masks are being used as an essential protective measure to reduce the risk of spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. The aerosols size-dependent filtration efficiency and breathing resistance of these masks were tested before and after sterilization by five different methods for two flow rates (20 and 90 L/min) conditions corresponding to regular breathing rate and moderate/strenuous exertion, in the particle size range 0.3–10 µm. Sterilization techniques used here are autoclaving (30 and 60 minutes), dry air oven heating (30 and 60 minutes), ionizing irradiation (15 and 25 kGy), hot water washing with and without detergent and immersing in a 10% concentration of liquid hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes. Further, the filtration efficiency of each type of masks is also studied with laboratory generated two-order higher aerosol concertation. The certified mask has the most outstanding filtering efficiency among all the other type of facemasks. The ionizing radiation causes a significant reduction in filtration efficacy, so that it is not recommended for sterilization purpose. The best method to sterilize certified N-95 masks without affecting their performance is by using dry air heating with temperature ranging from 70–80 °C. The performance of the cloth and surgical masks is found to be comparable for both flow conditions. As an affordable sterilization method, hot water washing is recommended, which does not deteriorate the fabric masks efficiency and can be used by the common people. The recommended masks for the general people are textile/fabric masks which serves fit for the purpose than non-woven masks because it can help to reduce non-biodegradable waste (facemask) and prevent respiratory droplet transmission. The non-woven mask can be sterilized with dry heat, hot water wash and autoclave.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-05T05:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211028794
       
  • Living textile biocomposites deliver enhanced carbon dioxide capture

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      Authors: Pichaya In-na, Jonathan Lee, Gary Caldwell
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Over 110 million tonnes of textile fibres and apparel are produced annually, ultimately ending with significant quantities of waste textiles. One route for upcycling end-of-life textiles is to repurpose the materials for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal by integrating microalgae (single celled photosynthetic organisms) to form ‘living’ biocomposites. In this study we demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of prototype living algae biocomposites that use textiles as a solid substrate. Chlorella vulgaris was attached to 100% cotton and 100% polyester sheets, of which half were coated with kappa-carrageenan (a natural polymer derived from seaweed) as a gel topcoat to enhance microalgae retention. The biocomposites were investigated in 28 days semi-batch CO2 absorption tests using a 5% v/v CO2/air gas mixture. They absorbed significantly more CO2 than suspension microalgae culture controls, with the highest CO2 absorption rate being 1.82 ± 0.10 g CO2 g−1biomass d−1 from the coated cotton biocomposites, followed by 1.55 ± 0.27 g CO2 g−1biomass d−1 from the uncoated cotton biocomposites. The coated and uncoated polyester biocomposites had comparatively lower CO2 absorption rates (0.49 ± 0.04 and 0.42 ± 0.03 g CO2 g−1biomass d−1 respectively), likely due to the surface charges of the materials affecting microalgae adhesion and retention. A two weeks attachment test on cotton/polyester blends revealed some deterioration of the cotton which could limit the longevity of the biocomposites. Despite these issues, the CO2 abatement values compare favourably with other Chlorella CO2 capture studies with the added benefit of much reduced water usage and a reduced land requirement.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T08:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211025725
       
  • The effect of different compatibilizers on the properties of prepared
           poly(lactic acid)/polyurethane nanofibers by electrospinning

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      Authors: Sema Samatya Yilmaz, Ayse Aytac
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyurethane (PU) nonwoven mats have been successfully fabricated by electrospinning from PLA/PU (50:50 w/w) blended solutions with/without compatibilizer. The influence of the compatibilizers which are called POSS Amic Acid Isobutyl (AAI), Tetra Silanol Phenyl POSS (TSP) and Joncryl (JO) on the characteristic properties of PLA/PU nanofibers has been investigated. The types of compatibilizer used in this paper were studied for the first time in the literature for PLA/PU blend nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized with scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle test, and mechanical analysis. The electrospun mat which has the smoothest fiber surfaces, thinnest fiber diameter with 812 nm and a superhydrophobic surface structure with an angle of 154° was obtained by using AAI. The fabricated nanofiber by using JO has been seen having the highest strength value with 3.5 MPa and the highest crystallinity ratio with 20.1%. The highest elongation value with 51.9% was obtained for the nanofiber by using TSP. When the 5% weight loss temperature value of all PLA/PU nanofibers was compared, it was noted that the JO added nanofiber has the highest temperature durability with 292.16 °C. Also, the Tm value of all PLA/PU nanofibers has been resulted at about 155 °C like of pure PLA nanofiber. It is expected that thin and flexible biodegradable PLA/PU nanofibers with good physical and mechanical properties can be used in areas such as water repellent coating material, food packaging.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T08:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211029051
       
  • The study of hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of 3D weft-knitted spacer
           fabrics integrated with silica aerogels

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      Authors: Syed Rashedul Islam, Abeer Alassod, Tayyab Naveed, Hewan Dawit, Khalil Ahmed, Jinhua Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The interest in multifunctional textile materials has been increased due to the health and safety measures of living beings, especially in severe conditions. Therefore, this study investigated the hydrophobicity, oil sorption capacity, and bending properties of untreated or uncoated and treated or coated 3D weft-knitted spacer fabric samples (92% polyester/8% spandex), i.e. sample 1, sample 2, and sample 3, having thicknesses of 2 mm (300 gm−2), 3 mm (350 gm−2), and 4 mm (540 gm−2), with silica aerogels (SAs) through the sol-gel method. SEM, FTIR-ATR, and surface roughness test of fabric samples were analyzed to comprehend the influence of SAs. The experimental results revealed the excellent hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of all the treated 3D weft-knitted spacer fabric samples, providing a higher water contact angle (CA) 142 ± 0.84° and an oil sorption capacity 7.51 ± 0.08g/g and 6.88 ± 0.06g/g for vegetable oil and engine oil, especially of sample 2 owing to the most silica particles. The statistical analysis also demonstrated a significant performance (P 
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T06:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211029048
       
  • Hot-pressing design of tubular polyester nonwoven lining material for
           pipeline rehabilitation

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      Authors: Lisong Fu, Shujie Zhang, Rui Wang, Guoquan Cao, Mengke Jing, Yating Zhang, Ziwei Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In view of the strength loss and dimension shrinkage of polyester nonwoven used for the sewage pipeline in the hot-pressing process, the response surface methodology was proposed to optimize the technological parameters of lining material. Select the temperature, time and pressure to enhance the hot-pressing process of lining material with the response value of the rate of dimensional change and tensile strength. The results showed that the temperature was 180°C, time was 3s, and pressure was 2.8MPa. Under this process, the rate of dimensional change was 4.23%, transverse tensile strength was 7.95MPa, and longitudinal tensile strength was 5.26MPa. It showed that the response surface methodology had practical application value, and provided a theoretical basis for the hot-pressing parameters of lining material with maximum tensile strength and minimum dimensional shrinkage. The paper also tested the adhesive strength, air permeability and water permeability of lining material under the optimal process, founding that the prepared material had excellent adhesive strength, air permeability, water permeability, and could meet the construction requirements of pipeline rehabilitation and the use requirements of conveying medium.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T10:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211027782
       
  • TiCN coating tribology for the circular economy of textile industries

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      Authors: Abrar Hussain, Vitali Podgursky, Maksim Antonov, Mart Viljus, Dmitri Goljandin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The circular economy is still a hypothetical field in Europe. Different shredding and manufacturing machinery parts in textile industries are presumed to enhance product quality and performance. The quality and performance of recycled textile products play a vital role in the development of textile recycling technologies. The quality is principally associated with the mechanical and tribological properties of machinery parts. In this article, TiCN Coating is used to determine the coefficient of friction of post-consumer cotton fabric. The scanning electron microscope, optical and mechanical profilometer, and tribometer were used for surface and tribological evaluations. The TiCN coating was found smooth and homogeneous. The average coating surface roughness parameters Rmax, Rz, Rp were 0.24 µm, 0.21 µm, and 0.20 µm, respectively. The dynamic coefficient of friction values was found 0.38 to 0.30 in the warp and 0.33 to 0.28 in weft directions. The increase in sliding distance is used for industrial applications and evaluations. The increase in distance deformed and fractured cotton fabric surface. The coefficient of friction and deformation becomes constant after 40 m of sliding distance. Based on coefficient of friction values, permanent deformation, fracture, and morphologies evaluations TiCN coatings could be used operationally for surface modification of textile machinery parts. The surface modification of textile machinery parts with TiCN coating can enhance the quality and performance of textile products.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211025726
       
  • Structure design of multi-functional flexible electrocardiogram electrodes
           based on PEDOT:PSS-coated fabrics

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      Authors: Jia-Horng Lin, Xiangdong Fu, Ting-Ting Li, Xuefei Zhang, Bobo Zhao, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Huiquan Wang, Qian Jiang, Ching-Wen Lou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, Polyester woven fabrics as the matrices for the experimental group, while cotton knitted fabrics, cotton woven fabrics, and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mesh cloth used as the matrices for the control groups, at 40 °e, using 3,4-ethoxylene dioxy thiophene (EDOT)as the polymer monomer, FeCl3 as the oxidant, and poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as the dopant, are separately coated with PEDOT:PSS polymer to prepare flexible conductive composite fabrics. The influences of the fabric pattern, oxidant concentration, and monomer concentration on the electrical performance of composite fabrics are optimized. The maximal electrical conductivity of PET-based composite fabrics (218 S/m) occurs when monomer concentration is 0.035 mol/L, the molar ratio of oxidant to monomer is 2.5, and the dopant concentration is 2.5 g/L. Moreover, bacteriostasis rate of this composite fabric reaches 71.8%. Furthermore, by electrocardiogram (ECG) simulated human body unit test as well as human body ECG test, the optimal PET-based composite fabric electrode both has a lower impedance which helps form the stabilized ECG signal. The resulting fabric electrodes retain the soft and breathable advantages from fabrics and reduce the discomfort for a long-term use of conventional electrographic gel, thereby validating the empirical evidence for mobile, portable, wearable ECG electrodes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211022637
       
  • Multi-scale modelling of the damage behavior for 3D woven composites with
           variant structure

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      Authors: Hua Zhong, Shuzi Yang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the process of fabricating a three-dimensional (3 D) woven perform, the variant structures introduced during adding and reducing tows, lead to changes of local tow orientation and woven pattern, which affects the mechanical response of 3 D woven composite. In this study, specimens with variant structure were manufactured by adding and reducing tow techniques, and representative unit cells of normal and variant structure were established by topological method. A multi-scale damage model was proposed to analyze the damage behaviors and predict the strength of 3 D woven composites with the user subroutine UMAT of ABAQUS/Standard. The results show that the variation of tensile modulus and strength between the experimental and simulation value were less than 4%. In addition, it is proved that the damage propagation of the macro-scale model with variant structure can be successfully captured.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T06:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211023811
       
  • Gauging performance of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded
           polypropylene nonwoven based textile electrodes for 3-lead health
           monitoring electro cardiogram on analogous system

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      Authors: Tasnim N Shaikh, SB Chaudhari, BH Patel, Megha Patel
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work reports the engineering of textile electrodes, considered safe for humans even if worn next to skin for a longer time. Obliging this phenomenon conductive Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized from Silver Sulphate (Ag2SO4) and medicinal values enriched Ocimum Sanctum (Tulsi)leaves extract. These conductive Silver nanoparticles were loaded by spray technique on polypropylene nonwoven fabric having inbuilt antifungal characteristics, to reduce its resistivity (10Ω) for the fabrication of textile electrodes. The adequate skin-electrode impedance values were observed for the fabricated textile electrodes, viz; 1.44 MΩ–1.83 MΩ and 1.01 MΩ–1.18 MΩ, in the dry and wet state respectively. The 3-lead health monitoring electrocardiograms (ECG) were obtained on the Analogous system with the textile electrodes; dry and wet state as well as gel electrodes. The cardiograms were also taken at a smaller triangle than usual, only for the high resistance textile electrodes. The wet electrodes have executed considerably better clarity of PQR wavelets than reference gel electrodes ECG plots, and their performance was found consistent when tested after six months’ time leap. However, higher motion artifacts caused in the case of dry electrodes have resulted in distorted PQR wavelets and the tracing became worsen with increased testing time leap. This was mainly due to the encapsulation of conductive AgNPs in the air voids of the fabric, increased resistivity. The cardiogram quality has not shown peculiar benefit for a higher heart pumping pressure at the smaller triangle in either of the cases.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T06:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211025698
       
  • Influence of yarn hybridisation and fibre architecture on the compaction
           response of woven fabric preforms during composite manufacturing

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      Authors: Hussein Kommur Dalfi, Zeshan Yousaf, Erdem Selver, Prasad Potluri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fabric preforms undergo transverse compaction during composite manufacturing. This compaction changes the preform thickness, fibre volume fraction (FVF), tow geometry and voids for resin flow. In this paper, influence of yarn hybridisation and fibre architecture on the compaction response of woven fabric preforms has been studied. A series of cyclic compression tests have been carried out on both dry and wet preforms. The effect of hybridisation on compressibility has been investigated for single as well as multilayer fabrics. The influence of interlacement pattern (twill and satin fabrics) with hybrid yarns has also been investigated. Nesting efficiencies of multilayer stacks have been studied by utilising mechanical test results. Additionally, the meso-structure of single and multilayer fabrics under 1 bar pressure has been analysed using SEM images. It is observed that the thickness reduction for single layer twill hybrid fabric is 38% while thickness reduction for twill S-glass fabric is 67% at 100 kPa. Moreover, single layer hybrid twill fabrics have shown higher compressibility resistance (60% thickness reduction at 100 kPa) compared to single layer hybrid satin fabrics (which showed 67% thickness reduction at 100 kPa). Whereas opposite trend is observed for multilayer hybrid fabrics due to nesting effect.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T09:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211024256
       
  • Effect of CO2 laser treatment on the leather surface morphology and
           wettability

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      Authors: Ada Gulbinienė, Eglė Fataraitė-Urbonienė, Milda Jucienė, Vaida Dobilaitė, Virgilijus Valeika
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this research was to determine the influence of pulsed CO2 laser treatment on crust leather surface morphology and wettability. The obtained results revealed that pulsed CO2 laser engraving can be used as an effective tool for crust leather surface treatment. Pulsed CO2 laser treatment only negligible affects the macrostructure of leather, while the morphology and wetting of the leather surface after treatment were changed. It was found that an increase of laser pulses number increases the initial water contact angle value and intensifies the water droplet relaxation process. After laser treatment, the water droplet contact angle relaxation rate increases twofold compare to those for untreated leather. SEM micrographs showed increased defectiveness with rough surface patterns, thermally affected areas, and change of microstructure. The EDX analysis revealed that the engraved leather surface contains a significantly higher amount of carbon but smaller quantities of oxygen compared to those of untreated samples. It was found that only after laser treatment chromium and sulfur in the EDX spectra appear while for untreated samples these elements on the surface were not observed. The results indicate that for investigated samples laser engraving does not affect the concentration of hexavalent chromium and are in accordance with EU requirements.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-13T08:53:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211022612
       
  • Development of a shear forming envelope for carbon fibre non-crimp fabrics

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      Authors: Benedikt Lux, Julian Fial, Olivia Schmidt, Stefan Carosella, Peter Middendorf, Bronwyn Fox
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Our research aims to develop a shear forming envelope for the preforming of textiles, a critical step in the manufacture of fibre-reinforced composite materials. This paper demonstrates the progress towards this aim by conducting picture frame tests to empirically determine the locking angle of non-crimp fabrics with different fibre orientations. While conventional shear tests typically utilise woven textile samples with orthogonal fibre directions of 0°/90°, the investigation of non-crimp fabrics, especially with non-standard fibre orientations, is less common. As a result, there is little knowledge about the shear deformation behaviour of these fabric types, despite their relevance to the aerospace industry. In this study, the shear locking angles of various carbon fibre non-crimp fabrics are investigated, gradually reducing the relative fibre angles of the textile materials from ±45° to ±22.5°. Previously, it was observed that unidirectional 0° reinforcement layers induce draping defects when forming multiaxial non-crimp fabric stacks into curved aerospace stiffeners. Their substitution by reinforcements with smaller cross-ply angles such as ±30° resulted in better formability and reduced defects. It is however unclear, how the shear locking angle decreases with more acute cross-ply angles. Here, we report for the first time a correlation between the fibre orientation of the non-crimp fabric and its shear locking angle. The resulting shear forming envelope provides composite design and manufacturing guidance for an enhanced utilisation of the advantageous but anisotropic properties of carbon fibre textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-13T08:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211015470
       
  • Graphene nanocomposites: A review on processes, properties, and
           applications

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      Authors: Kadir Bilisik, Mahmuda Akter
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, graphene, graphene/matrix, and graphene/fiber nanocomposites, including their synthesis process, fabrication, properties, and potential applications, were reviewed. It was found that several synthesis techniques for nanographene were developed, such as liquid-phase exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition. In addition, some fabrication processes of graphene/matrix and graphene/fiber-based nanocomposites were made, including in-situ polymerization, nanostitching in that single layer nano graphene plate could be interconnected by means of carbon nanotube stitching, resin transfer molding, and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. Several properties, including mechanical, thermal, and electrical, on the graphene nanoplatelets materials were summarized in this review paper. It was realized that graphene, graphene/matrix, and graphene/fiber nanocomposites have extraordinary mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties used in advanced engineering applications, including soft robotics, microelectronics, energy storage, biomedical and biosensors as well as textile industry.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T06:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211024252
       
  • Fabrication of montmorillonite nanoclay-loaded electrospun nanofibrous
           mats for UV protection

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      Authors: Handan Palak, Beste Aktürk, Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, İkilem Göcek
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the layered nanoclay was employed to impart ultraviolet (UV) protection functionality for electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibrous mats. This study is among the very rare studies which uses Montmorillonite (MMT) clay for UV protection. Due to its known UV protection property, titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used solely for comparison with MMT clay and as a blend with MMT for investigation of its synergetic effect with nanoclay. The morphology and chemical structure of virgin and nanoclay-loaded nanofibers were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Incorporation of TiO2 significantly improved UV protection performance of TPU electrospun nanofibers, as expected. UV protection factor (UPF) of electrospun mats including nanoclay was found as high as that of the ones including TiO2.Therefore, the study revealed that the clay has a considerable potential for producing nanofibrous layers with UV protection. Such a nanocomposite structure could be potentially employed as a layer in a multilayered technical textile such as tents, sun protective covers for automobiles, blind curtains, etc. This study proposed an eco-friendly and viable alternative to TiO2 which is a well-known material for its UV protection.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T12:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211020826
       
  • Influence of stacking sequence and orientation of the fabric on mechanical
           properties of twill Kenaf/Kevlar reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid
           composites

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      Authors: HT Sreenivas, N Krishnamurthy, MS Murali, GR Arpitha
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The current study investigates on development of hybrid composite with Kenaf/Kevlar as reinforcement and unsaturated Polyester as the matrix considering stacking sequence, the orientation of fabric and twill 2x2 weave of the Kenaf fabric in particular. Five laminates (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5) were developed by stacking the lamina's one over the other with the matrix and then cured in an autoclave. The laminates were subjected to experimental investigation to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness, and impact strength. Results indicate that L5 shows good flexural strength and modulus, high hardness, and good impact strength, whereas L4 indicates the best tensile strength and tensile modulus. To summarize, the hybridization resulted in an average of 30% increased mechanical property for Laminate L5. The effect of stacking in L5 has a significant impact on the property of the composite. The results of the study were mainly focused on minimizing the use of synthetic fiber and replacing it with natural fiber. SEM analysis was performed on fractured surfaces of specimens which revealed that the failure of the laminated composite is due to poor interfacial bonding among fiber and matrix. Overall, the composite obtained from the combination of Kenaf and Kevlar fabrics had the best balance of properties finds appropriate application for car bumpers, fenders, boat hull, turbine blade etc.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T12:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211019901
       
  • A review of processing strategies to generate melt-blown nano/microfiber
           mats for high-efficiency filtration applications

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      Authors: Yahya Kara, Kolos Molnár
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Protective masks – worn properly - have become the key to wither away the COVID-19 pandemic. Nowadays, the vast majority of these masks are made of nonwoven fabrics. High-quality products have mainly melt-blown filtering layers of nano/microfiber. Melt blowing produces very fine synthetic nonwovens from a wide range of polymers and allows a fair control of the fiber structure and morphology that makes it ideal for filtration purposes. Melt blowing has a high throughput, and the low price of the filter makes these products widely available for civil use. Although melt-blown fiber applications were rapidly growing in the last three decades, we still have limited knowledge on the processing parameters. In this regard, we detailed the melt blowing parameters to obtain a filter media with high particle capturing efficiency and a low-pressure drop. We summarized the melt-blown fiber mat characteristics with specific attention to the pore size, the porosity, the fiber diameter, the fiber packing density and the air permeability desired for highly efficient filtration. Even though we cannot estimate the future social effects and the trauma caused by the current pandemic, and protective masks might remain a part of everyday life for a long while. That also implies that near-future investments in wider manufacturing capacities seem inevitable. This paper also aims to facilitate masks' production with improved filtration efficiency by reviewing the recent developments in melt blowing, the related applications, the effects of processing parameters on the structure and performance of the nonwoven products focusing on the filtration efficiency via knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T06:50:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211019488
       
  • Laminated textile composites – Problems with bonding layers and
           sewing

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      Authors: Stana Kovačević, Darko Ujević, Jacqueline Domjanić, Samir Pačavar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper laminated composites with woven fabric on the front side, polyurethane foam (PU) in the middle and knitted fabric on the back side were analyzed. These materials are widely used in the automotive industry, medicine, protection activities and other groups of technical textiles Based on analyses and problems encountered in practice, the hypothesis was made that the speed of joining the components into a laminated composite influences the needle penetration force and finally the seam quality when sewing. Investigations were performed using three GB needle systems, two PU thicknesses (2 and 4 mm) and three joining speeds (30, 35 and 40 m/min). According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that higher joining speeds determine lower penetration forces. By systematic analysis of the sewing seam the deformation of laminated composites occur at stitch points, which is caused by hardened PU residues after the lamination of components to a composite. Heating the needle during sewing resulted in partial melting of PU and adhesion of needle to the material is penetrating through which means damage to the needle and seam. This negative occurrence is more pronounced at lower bonding speeds, for higher PU thickness and thicker needle. Based on the results obtained it can be claimed that bonding speed, polyurethane thickness (PU) as well as needle type affected the penetration forces of sewing and seam quality.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T09:57:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211019489
       
  • Alkali-treated coir fibre-pith composite for waste water treatment

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      Authors: Monnisha Ganesan, Gobi Nallathambi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Coir fibre and pith are eco-friendly material used in the preparation of composites. Coir fibre and coir pith were treated with sodium hydroxide to study the effect of alkali for prolonged exposure on its properties. Fibre and pith were treated with different concentrations of NaOH from 5% to 30% for 24 hours at room temperature. Alkali treatment removes the impurities and the expose the crystalline cellulose and to enhance the surface properties. The alkali-treated coir fibre and pith were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy for morphology, X-ray diffraction for crystallinity index, thermogravimetry for thermal stability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for structural changes. The chemical composition was analysed for both fibre and pith. Physical properties such as bulk density, particle density and porosity were determined for pith. After alkali treatment, the properties (physical and chemical) of the treated fibre (5% to 20%) has been enhanced. For coir pith the properties has been diminished. Untreated/treated coir fibre/pith filter (CFP) were developed to study the removal of heavy metal ions from the waste water, where untreated (CFP) as a control. The removal efficiency of the developed CFP filter for heavy metal ions were determined by Inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). 5% CFP filter exhibited higher efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-15T02:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211014247
       
  • Effect of moisture condensation on vapour transmission through porous
           membranes

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      Authors: Ariana Khakpour, Michael Gibbons, Sanjeev Chandra
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Porous membranes find natural application in various fields and industries. Water condensation on membranes can block pores, reduce vapour transmissibility, and diminish the porous membranes' performance. This research investigates the rate of water vapour transmission through microporous nylon and nanofibrous Gore-Tex membranes. Testing consisted of placing the membrane at the intersection of two chambers with varied initial humidity conditions. One compartment is initially set to a high ([math]water vapour concentration and the other low ([math], with changes in humidity recorded as a function of time. The impact of pore blockage was explored by pre-wetting the membranes with water or interposing glycerine onto the membrane pores before testing. Pore blockage was measured using image analysis for the nylon membrane. The mass flow rate of water vapour (ṁv) diffusing through a porous membrane is proportional to both its area (A) and the difference in vapour concentration across its two faces ([math], such that [math] where K is defined as the moisture diffusion coefficient. Correlations are presented for the variation of K as a function of [math]. Liquid contamination on the porous membrane has been shown to reduce the moisture diffusion rate through the membrane due to pore blockage and the subsequent reduced open area available for vapour diffusion. Water evaporation from the membrane's surface was observed to add to the mass of vapour diffusing through the membrane. A model was developed to predict the effect of membrane wetting on vapour diffusion and showed good agreement with experimental data.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-09T10:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211014239
       
  • Bicomponent multifilament yarns of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)
           and nano-titanium dioxide for antibacterial carpet

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      Authors: Sommai Pivsa-Art, Komson Sunyikhan, Weraporn Pivsa-Art
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (RPET) multifilament yarns are used in carpet manufacturing as a way to reduce plastic waste. The conventional RPET carpet is however susceptible to bacterial accumulation. As a result, this research experimentally doped RPET with nano-structure titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) to produce RPET/nano-TiO2 bicomponent multifilament yarns with antibacterial property. The experimental multifilament yarn structure consisted of two parts: neat RPET core and RPET/nano-TiO2 shell. The nano-TiO2 content in the shell was varied between 1 and 3 wt% and the core/shell (C/S) ratios between 90/10, 70/30, and 50/50 w/w. The effects of C/S ratio and nano-TiO2 content on the mechanical and antibacterial properties of bicomponent multifilament yarns were determined. The experimental results indicated that the C/S ratio had no effect on the tenacity and elongation at break. Meanwhile, the tenacity and elongation at break of bicomponent fibers increased with nano-TiO2 content in the shell. The TiO2-doped RPET bicomponent yarns effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The 90/10 bicomponent multifilament fiber with 3 wt% TiO2 achieved the highest antibacterial activity. The very high antibacterial activity was attributable to greater deposition of nano-TiO2 particles near and on the shell surface.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T07:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011774
       
  • Response and failure modes of biaxial warp-knitted flexible composite
           subject to low-velocity impact

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      Authors: Ziyu Zhao, Tianming Liu, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, biaxial warp-knitted fabrics were produced with different high tenacity polyester linear density and inserted yarns density. The low-velocity impact property of flexible composites made of polyurethane as matrix and biaxial warp-knitted fabric as reinforcement has been investigated. The effect of impactor shape and initial impact energy on the impact response of flexible composite is tested. The results show that the initial impact energy have minor effect on the impact response of the biaxial warp-knitted flexible composites. The impact resistance of flexible composite specimen increases with the increase of high tenacity polyester linear density and inserted yarns density. The damage morphology of flexible composite materials is completely different under different impactor shapes. The findings have theoretical and practical significance for the applications of biaxial warp-knitted flexible composite.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T07:02:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211015477
       
  • A test device to characterize cold-contact protective performance of
           fabrics

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      Authors: Yange Wei, Yun Su, Jun Li, Jianda Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Workers are exposed to skin frostbite in extremely cold environments, especially in contact with cold surfaces. They must wear cold-resistant clothing/gloves to avoid frostbites. However, there was a lack of an accurate method to evaluate the cold-contact protective performance (CPP) of fabrics. In view of this, a test device was developed to simulate the cold-contact exposure by controlling cold-contact temperature and pressure. Then, a frostbite prediction model was proposed to predict the time to skin-frostbite (TSF) as an index for characterizing the CPP. It was found that the standard deviation of cold-contact temperature fluctuated within 0.03°C to 0.51°C in the same second, and the coefficient of variations of the TSF were from 1.35% to 6.97%, indicating that the device presents good stability, reliability, reproducibility. The TSFs for different fabric systems ranged from 35 s to 419.33 s, mostly depending on the fiber type, the thermal resistance, the thickness of fabric and the air content in the fabric. Finally, it was concluded that the proposed device provides a scientific and realistic measurement of CPP of fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T06:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011777
       
  • Modeling and experimental study of pore structure in melt-blown fiber
           assembly

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Yu Chen, Yanwen Ruan, Guanzhi Li, Wenfeng Hu, Sanfa Xin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely known that the pore size of a meltblown fiber assembly extensively affects the final applications of its products. We have developed a model for simulating melt-blowing production to investigate the formation mechanism of a fiber assembly. In this study, we calculated the pore size under different production conditions using the model. The predicted results reveal the relationship between the pore size and the production conditions, namely, the air jet pressure, suction pressure, die temperature, polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector speed. The predicted results also verified the experimental trends reported in previous studies. High air jet pressure and die temperature tend to generate smaller pores, while a large polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector movement speed contribute to the production of larger pores in the fiber assembly. In addition, the circularity was predicted in this study to describe the pore shape. The numerical investigation of virtual production is a novel method in which the expected pore size and corresponding production conditions can be easily obtained using a computer with a few keystrokes and mouse clicks.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011776
       
  • Ecofriendly development of electrospun antibacterial membranes loaded with
           silver nanoparticles

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      Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Zia Uddin, Faheem Ahmad, Abher Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Sheraz Ahmad, Yakup Aykut, Ahsan Nazir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional polymeric membranes with antibacterial properties have gained significant importance in many applications. Silver NPs offer advantage over other materials for their effective antibacterial properties and being safer for humans at low concentrations. The synthesis of silver NPs may not always be environmental friendly and their incorporation in the polymer membranes is usually a multistep process. In this study, PVDF/PVP/AgNPs electrospun membranes were developed in a single step process where silver NPs were synthesized using reducing and stabilizing properties of PVP. The UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of silver NPs in PVP solution by sharp absorption peak at 398 nm. The membranes were loaded with various concentrations of silver NPs (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt%). The scanning electron microscopy of the developed membranes showed nano fibers of uniform diameter at optimized electrospinning conditions. FTIR spectroscopy also confirmed the successful development of polymeric composite (PVDF/PVP/AgNPs) membranes. The composite membranes demonstrated effective antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion test. The size of the inhibition halo increased with the concentration of the silver NPs in electrospun membranes. The findings of this study will be helpful in the simple and environmentally friendly development of antibacterial membranes for applications such as air and water filtration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T06:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211012590
       
  • Biodegradation properties and thermogravimetric analysis of 3D braided
           flax PLA textile composites

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      Authors: Sateeshkumar Kanakannavar, Jeyaraj Pitchaimani, Arunkumar Thalla, M Rajesh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in the development and application of bio-based (natural fiber and biopolymer) composites are gaining broad attention because the resulting polymer completely degrades and does not release harmful substances. In this study, natural fiber 3 D braided yarn textile PLA (Polylactic acid) bio-composites are developed by film sequencing followed by hot-press compression molding. Bio-deterioration and thermal stability of the composites are analysed for storage, machining, transportation, and in-service uses in different environmental conditions (compost and thermal). Composite samples with different fiber wt.% (0, 22, 44) are exposed to compost soil. Tensile testing is performed under different configurations to characterise the tensile properties. Prepared bio-composite specimens are evaluated for weight loss and reduction in tensile properties over soil burial time, to observe the rate of biodegradation of braided yarn textile bio-composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to analyse the biodegradability of the composites. To study the thermal stability of the prepared bio-composites thermogravimetric (TG) analysis is carried out. Results showed that biodegradability, tensile properties and thermal stability of the composites are enhanced significantly with the reinforcement of 3 D braided yarn fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T10:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010666
       
  • Experimental simulation of bending damage of silicon nitride yarn during
           3D orthogonal fabric forming process

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      Authors: Ning Wu, Shuai Li, Meiyue Han, Chao Zhu, Yanan Jiao, Li Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study executed on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) yarn is to examine some bending damage behaviors and fracture mechanisms that occur during the 3D orthogonal fabric forming process. A three point bending experiment device has been developed in order to simulate the Z-binder yarn bending condition. The effects of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension have been studied. The Weibull analysis of the tensile strength show that the bending damage increases with the increase of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension. The resulting bending damage causes a reduction in yarn strength of between 2.5 and 17.2% depending on the bending parameters of yarn. The growth of the fibrillation area also reflects similar trends with tensile strength loss rate. The fibrillation length produced by the yarns is mostly distributed within the range of 0.3 to 0.9 mm. A comparison of the calculation result to experimental data shows the bending fracture probability of filaments inside yarn are less than that of monofilament. The tensile and bending fracture of Si3N4 filaments exhibit typical brittle fracture characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010681
       
  • Simulation of polymer jet motion during melt blowing with phase field
           method

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      Authors: Xibo Hao, Zhiying Zhao, Jing Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the past two decades, a number of models have been built to simulate the motion of polymer jet during melt blowing. Unfortunately, the complex interaction between polymer jet and air flow field has been rarely reported. In this work, a phase-field method was applied to simulate the coupling effects between polymer and air flow during melt blowing and the computed results were compared with the results of the model built through level-set method and experimental results. Velocity in the x direction, velocity in the y direction, whipping amplitude and diameter of polymer jet were discussed, respectively. It was found that the velocity predicted by the present model was higher than that predicted by the level-set method. However, both of them are close to the experimental value. The calculated final fiber diameter based on the phase-field method is much closer with the experimental value than that based on the level set method. Based on the model, the effect of polymer surface tension and slot angle on the polymer jet velocity were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006670
       
  • Effect of graphite particulate on mechanical characterization of hybrid
           polymer composites

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      Authors: BN Dhanunjayarao, Usha Kiran Sanivada, NV Swamy Naidu, Raul Fangueiro
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Quest for producing lightweight and biodegradable materials has encouraged researchers to replace synthetic fibers with natural fibers. Hence a study is made to investigate the effects of introducing secondary reinforcement (natural fibers), stacking sequence, and addition of graphite particles on the mechanical characteristics and water uptakes along with diffusivity of hybrid (glass\jute) composites. Different weight fractions of graphite particulates are incorporated into the epoxy to produce different samples having 4 plies for each sample by hand layup vacuum bagging method. The obtained specimens are subjected to various mechanical tests, water absorption tests as per the ASTM standards, and optical microscopy was used to study the fracture morphology of the samples. The results displayed that the properties are deteriorated a little with the addition of secondary reinforcement, however they have improved with the addition of graphite. E-Glass as skin layer and treated jute as core layer composite exhibits ameliorate tensile strength (201.5 MPa), compression strength (515.12 MPa), flexural strength (106.9 MPa), hardness (25 BHN). However highest impact energy of 26 J is recorded for the sample with jute as skin layer and E-Glass as the core layer. Water absorption tests revealed that the addition of graphite has reduced the water absorption in the hybrid samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010670
       
  • Effect of extraction method on properties of feather keratin grafted
           modified cotton nonwoven fabric for biomedical applications

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      Authors: Khalilorrahman Khalilipourroodi, Fatemeh Dadashian, Atefeh Solouk
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study offers a new wound dressing by immobilization of amino acid residues on partially carboxymethylated cotton nonwoven fabrics (CM-CN). To improve the absence of capacity to protect the open wound from infection, firstly, a usual cotton nonwoven fabric was chemically modified by utilizing a pad-dry-cure technique including a carboxymethylation procedure. Subsequently, the chicken feather wastes as a natural source were used for the cationization of CM-CN by the same method. Keratin successfully was extracted from chicken feathers using both chemical and enzymatic processes. Physicochemical and biological properties of the prepared samples were evaluated by FTIR, SEM, mechanical properties such as tensile, bending test and wrinkle recovery, biodegradation, permeability (air and water vapor), and MTT assay for cell viability and proliferation. The tensile strength increased to 200%, the air permeability almost doubled, and the greatest cell growth was observed for modified samples. According to the obtained results, enzymatic extraction was influential and the samples coated with enzyme-extracted keratin showed enhanced properties suitable for wound dressing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006208
       
  • Effect of alkyl derivatization of gellan gum during the fabrication of
           electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Fabio Salvatore Palumbo, Salvatore Federico, Giovanna Pitarresi, Calogero Fiorica, Roberto Scaffaro, Andrea Maio, Emmanuel Fortunato Gulino, Gaetano Giammona
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofibers based on polysaccharides represent a consolidated approach in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) and nanomedicine as a drug delivery system (DDS). In this work, two chemical derivatives of a low molecular weight gellan gum (96.7 kDa) with aliphatic pendant tails were processed by electrospinning technique into non-woven nanofibrous mats. In order to generate spinnable blends, it was necessary to associate poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The relationships between the physicochemical properties and the processability via electrospinning technique of gellan gum alkyl derivatives (GG-C8 and GG-C12 having a degree of alkyl chain derivatization of 17 mol % and 18 mol %, respectively) were investigated. The deposition of nanometric fibers (212.4 nm ± 60.0) was achieved by using the blend GG-C8/PVA spinned at 5% w/v in water. The use of a binary solvent composed of water and ethanol in a volumetric ratio 95:5 improved further spinnability obtaining similar nanofiber diameters (218.0 nm ± 96.0). The rheological analysis has allowed to highlight the role of the alkyl portion (C8 and C12) on the spinnability of the blended polymers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007508
       
  • Analysis of woven fabric behavior under punching force

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Eman Eltahan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In several applications, the industrial and protective fabrics might be subjected to punching by the rigid sharp spikes. Fabric resistance to the penetration of the puncher at a constant rate was studied. The analysis of the factors influencing the resistance of the fabric and an explanation of the puncture mechanism were generated. Punching force-displacement curves were obtained and four noticeable fabric failure modes were observed. A special setup was designed so that the fabric sample can be subjected to the biaxial stresses during the puncture tests. This paper studies the puncture behaviors of the plain, twill 1/3, and twill 2/2 woven fabric designs. It was found that the increase in the number of fabric layers from one to three and the number of picks/cm from 17.6 to 27.2 would elevate the punching resistance and the punching energy by 354% and 333%, respectively, with the insignificant change in the values of specific punching force and energy. Plain weave design proved to have higher values than twill design. A high correlation was observed between fabric tensile strength, fabric Young’s modulus, fabric failure energy and its punching force and punching energy.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T08:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211008616
       
  • Characterization of industrial discarded novel Cymbopogon flexuosus stem
           fiber: A potential replacement for synthetic fiber

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      Authors: S Raja, R Rajesh, S Indran, D Divya, G Suganya Priyadharshini
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this research article, a leftover of Cymbopogon flexuosus stem (CFS) collected from the oil extraction industry was examined for its ability as a reinforcing agent in a polymer composite. Anatomical, morphological, physical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the CFS fiber were examined. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of higher amount of cellulose (68.13%), which offers better bonding properties and higher tensile strength (431.19 ± 23.96 MPa). Moreover, the density of the fiber (1270 kg/m3) found using physical analysis was less than that of synthetic fibers, which paves a path in replacing hazardous synthetic fiber. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectrum spectroscopy analyses were conducted to study the functional groups of the extracted CFS fiber. The thermal stability (253.17°C), activation energy (73.01 kJ/mol), and maximum degradation temperature (345.08°C) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the semi-crystalline nature of the fiber with crystallinity index (46.02%) and crystallite size (13.96 nm). The CFS had a smooth surface, as conformed by an atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis. Altogether, this study highlights the feasibility of leftover CFS fiber residue as reinforcement in biopolymer matrices replacing synthetic fiber.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T06:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007507
       
  • A novel composite cotton yarn with phase change and electrical
           conductivity functions

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      Authors: Guizhen Ke, Xinya Jin, Guangming Cai, Wenbin Li, Anchang Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      PAN/PEG/CNT/cotton composite yarn (PPCCY) was fabricated by impregnating PEG2000–10000 into CNT/cotton yarn (CCY) and coating electrospun PAN around its surface. The effects of PEG type on the morphology, structure, electrical resistance and phase change behavior of the produced composite yarns were studied thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric(TG), electrical resistance tester and infrared thermal images. The experimental results indicated that the resulting compound yarn consisted of conductive yarn within which the spacing between cotton fibers was fulfilled by PEG, rendering phase transition enthalpy from 126–150 Jg−1. The composite yarn exhibited adjustable temperature and thermal storage and electrical conductivity abilities. The composite yarn demonstrated good responsive properties to external electrical and thermal stimuli and had reversible heat conversion and storage, which shows a promise for applications in electrical wearable fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003166
       
  • Theoretical prediction and experimental characterization of radiative
           properties and thermal conductivities of fibrous aramid fabrics

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      Authors: FL Zhu, Yonggui Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nonwoven aramid fabric is widely used as thermal barrier of fireproofing clothing due to its inherent flame retardancy and light weight. In fire or high temperature scenario, radiative heat transfer becomes the predominant heat transfer mode inside firefighters’ clothing. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was adopted to measure the spectral transmittance and spectral extinction coefficients of four aramid fabrics with different porosity in infrared wavelength range between 2.5 and 25 μm. It was found that the radiative properties of fibrous aramid fabric are strongly dependent on its bulk density or porosity. The spectral extinction coefficient decreases with increasing porosity or decreasing bulk density. The infrared optical properties combined with infrared imaging measurements demonstrate that aramid fabric may be used as infrared semi-transparent textile. A predicted model, combined the effects of conduction-radiation heat transfer, has been developed to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of aramid fiber materials. The model implemented the Rosseland diffusion approximation to evaluate radiative thermal conductivity, and the Parallel-Series structural model to evaluate tortuosity-weighted phonic thermal conductivity. The predicted results were also compared with experimental data obtained from TPS method. This work provides useful information for future studies of heat transfer mathematical modeling of firefighters’ clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006209
       
  • Evaluation of electrospun polyurethane scaffolds loaded with cerium oxide
           for bone tissue engineering

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun polyurethane (PU) scaffolds were developed containing cerium oxide (CeO2). Photomicrograph of the composites revealed the diameter of the PU/CeO2 (264 ± 169 nm) was smaller than the polyurethane scaffold (994 ± 113 nm). The fabricated PU/CeO2 (110° ± 1) scaffold displayed a more hydrophobic nature as depicted by increasing contact angle compared to the pristine PU (105° ± 3). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results presented evidence for the cerium oxide presence in the PU matrix through the formation of the hydrogen bond. The surface roughness of PU/CeO2 (301 ± 52 nm) was reduced in comparison with pristine PU (854 ± 32 nm) as estimated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Cerium oxide enhanced the thermal and tensile behaviour of the pristine PU. Coagulation assays indicated delayed clotting time and a less toxic nature to red blood cells of PU/CeO2 than pristine PU. Further, the calcium deposition in the nanocomposites (10.5%) was higher compared to pure PU (2.4%) as showed in bone mineralization testing. Hence with these potent properties, PU/CeO2 holds as a promising candidate for bone regeneration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006668
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of coating knitted fabrics with silica
           nanoparticles for protection from needle-stick injuries

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      Authors: Jaouachi Boubaker, Cheriaa Rim, Bouallagui Nihed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this work is to investigate the penetration properties of knitted fabrics coated with silica nanoparticles to make protective gloves. Silica nanoparticles are well-known and useful for several applications. Hence, in the environment where glove material is exposed to harmful chemicals, hazards related to faster penetration of dangerous substances into the glove interior may cause needle-stick injuries and micro damage. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is to use knitted fabrics coated with acrylic pastes containing silica nanoparticles (average size 20 nm in diameter). To study the effectiveness of developed gloves for protection against needle-stick injuries, overall knitted fabrics with a similar structure (interlock) and differentiated raw material composition were selected: polyamide 6-6/elastane and polyester. Evaluation of the needle-stick injuries process of the coated plated knits based on silica nanoparticles was performed. For this purpose, the assessment of the surface morphology of materials has been examined before and after the dexterity and penetration process. The studied composite samples showed an increased resistance to hypodermic needle penetration as the nano-silica particles content and the coating layers increase. Coated knitted fabrics allowed us to obtain promising results in terms of fabric stiffness. However, the manual coating application explained the observed imperfections.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001352
       
  • Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane electrospun webs of fibers
           modified with biocompatible graphene oxide nanofiller

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      Authors: Aleksandra Ivanoska-Dacikj, Petre Makreski, Gordana Bogoeva-Gaceva
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A successful optimization of the electrospinning parameters for obtainment of biodegradable polyester urethane (DP) webs of fibers, neat and graphene oxide (GO) modified, was performed. The effect of the processing parameters (distance between the needle tip and the collector, applied voltage, and flowing rate), solution type and polymer concentration, on the fiber-forming process and the obtained fibers’ morphology was examined. The best homogeneity of the fibers was achieved for 12 wt% DP dissolved in 80:20 wt% mixture of chloroform and ethanol, applying similar processing parameters for the neat and modified samples (0.5 ml/h pumping rate, 15 kV applied voltage, and 150 mm distance to the collector, for the neat sample, and 0.4 ml/h, 18 kV, and 110 mm, for the GO modified samples). The main novelty of this work is the modification of DP with low quantities (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%) of GO – the “next generation” nanomaterial for stem cell control. The morphological characterization revealed a fibrous microstructure consisting of randomly oriented fibers with a diameters ranging from hundreds nanometers to couple micrometers, representing a feasible imitation of the structure of extracellular matrix (ECM). The XRD studies showed high dispersion of GO in DP matrix and even exfoliation for the sample that contains 2 wt% GO. Raman studies neatly complemented the highest filler/matrix interactions and the superior levels of dispersion for this sample. TGA was used to analyze the thermo-oxidative degradation and also to determine the actual content of GO present in the samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003165
       
  • A transversely hyperelastic constitutive model of flexible film composite

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      Authors: Zhipeng Qu, Houdi Xiao, Mingyun Lv
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a transversely hyperelastic constitutive model for predicting mechanical properties of flexible composites under unidirectional tension. A strain energy function which reflects the behavior of anisotropic elastic material is decomposed into three parts: matrix, fiber and fiber-matrix interaction. The fiber-matrix interaction was decomposed into in-plane shear stresses and out-of-plane shear stress, the in-plane shear stresses were related to the fiber elongation invariants, and the out-of-plane shear stress was related to the fiber elongation invariants and the matrix invariants. The fiber-matrix interaction considering shear factor was established. Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics, a transverse hyperelastic constitutive model including fiber, matrix and their interaction is developed. The transversely hyperelastic constitutive model is verified by the uniaxial tension tests. The constitutive model can be used to design the flexible structure of stratospheric airship.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001783
       
  • Microstructure and physical properties of composite nonwovens produced by
           incorporating cotton fibers in elastic spunbond and meltblown webs for
           medical textiles

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      Authors: Partha Sikdar, Gajanan S Bhat, Doug Hinchliff, Shafiqul Islam, Brian Condon
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to produce elastomeric nonwovens containing cotton by the combination of appropriate process. Such nonwovens are in demand for use in several healthcare, baby care, and adult care products that require stretchability, comfort, and barrier properties. Meltblown fabrics have very high surface area due to microfibers and have good absorbency, permeability, and barrier properties. Spunbonding is the most economical process to produce nonwovens with good strength and physical properties with relatively larger diameter fibers. Incorporating cotton fibers into elastomeric nonwovens can enhance the performance of products, such as absorbency and comfort. There has not been any study yet to use such novel approaches to produce elastomeric cotton fiber nonwovens. A hydroentangling process was used to integrate cotton fibers into produced elastomeric spunbond and meltblown nonwovens. The laminated web structures produced by various combinations were evaluated for their physical properties such as weight, thickness, air permeability, pore size, tensile strength, and especially the stretch recovery. Incorporating cotton into elastic webs resulted in composite structures with improved moisture absorbency (250%-800%) as well as good breathability and elastic properties. The results also show that incorporating cotton can significantly increase tensile strength with improved spontaneous recovery from stretch even after the 5th cycle. Results from the experiments demonstrate that such composite webs with improved performance properties can be produced by commercially used processes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004287
       
  • Prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of 3D woven solid
           structures by mathematical coding

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      Authors: Vivek R Jayan, Lekhani Tripathi, Promoda Kumar Behera, Michal Petru, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The internal geometry of composite material is one of the most important factors that influence its performance and service life. A new approach is proposed for the prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of the 3 D (three dimensional) woven fabrics by creating the unit cell using mathematical coding. In many technical applications, textile materials are subjected to rates of loading or straining that may be much greater in magnitude than the regular household applications of these materials. The main aim of this study is to provide a generalized method for all the structures. By mathematical coding, unit cells of 3 D woven orthogonal, warp interlock and angle interlock structures have been created. The study then focuses on developing code to analyze the geometrical parameters of the fabric like fabric thickness, areal density, and fiber volume fraction. Then, the tensile behavior of the coded 3 D structures is studied in Ansys platform and the results are compared with experimental values for authentication of geometrical parameters as well as for tensile behavior. The results show that the mathematical coding approach is a more efficient modeling technique with an acceptable error percentage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T06:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001348
       
  • Filtration performance of biaxial circular seamless knitted filter
           material based on electrostatic adsorption

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      Authors: Haiwen Mao, Zhijuan Pan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to solve the problem of dust accumulation at the joints of traditional filter materials and the reduction of filtration efficiency, weft knitting was selected to make the fabric cylindrical unwinding machine. The cylindrical filter material was formed by cylindrical needling machine in the later period. This type of novel seamless filter material was compared with the traditional one on the filtration performance and numerical simulation of filtration performance. The results show that when the warp and weft lining yarns in the seamless filter material were PTFE monofilaments containing tourmaline particles, the filtration efficiency was the optimal due to the presence of the surface static voltage. The filtration efficiency could greatly be improved by 7.24%. The relationship between the surface static voltage and distance was exponential. The filter material with electrostatic field on the surface increased the active filtration of electrostatic adsorption in addition to the passive filtration. This type of seamless filter material provided research and development ideas and theoretical guidance for the development and application of filter materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T05:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001786
       
  • Corrigendum to Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin
           electrospun nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T02:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004855
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of polyester-cotton/wire blended conductive
           woven fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

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      Authors: Ching-Wen Lou, Yan-Ling Liu, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Hao-Kai Peng, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      For the pursuit of conductive textiles with high electromagnetic shielding performance, specified yarns are processed with a special spinning feeding device with twist counts of 40 T, 50 T, 60 T, 70 T, 80 T, and 90 T, for Next, the optimal yarns from each group are made into SS/Pc-70 and Cu/Pc-80 conductive woven fabrics with a plain weave structure design. In addition, the surface resistivity, electromagnetic shielding effectiveness measurement and air permeability of the two conductive woven fabrics were tested and analyzed. Regarding the electromagnetic shielding performance test, the effects of the complete shielding network, the lamination layers of fabric, and lamination angle on the electromagnetic shielding performance are discussed. The test results indicate that Cu/Pc-80 woven fabrics has the lowest surface resistivity, which means it has the best electrical conductivity; Moreover, different types of metal wires provide the conductive fabrics with different levels of surface resistance. The variations in the lamination angles help attain a complete conductive network that significantly enhances the EMSE, and Cu/Pc-80 have a greater average shielding value comparatively and thus greater EMSE. For both types of conductive woven fabrics, one-layered conductive woven fabrics exhibit the maximal air permeability. As the air permeability of conductive woven fabrics is correlated with the thickness of fabrics, the greater the number of lamination layers, the lower the air permeability of the conductive fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T01:48:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997184
       
  • Co-electrospun-electrosprayed PVA/folic acid nanofibers for transdermal
           drug delivery: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro
           cytocompatibility

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      Authors: Fatma Nur Parın, Çiğdem İnci Aydemir, Gökçe Taner, Kenan Yıldırım
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, hydrophilic based bioactive nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning and electrospraying simultaneous process. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(vinyl alcohol)-gelatin (PVA-Gel), and poly(vinyl alcohol)-alginate (PVA-Alg) polymers were used as the matrix material and folic acid (FA) particles were dispersed simultaneously on the surface of the nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers (NFs) was uniform and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behavior, chemical structure of the composite nanofibers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which showed that no chemical bonding between vitamin and polymers. A fast release of FA-loaded electrospun fibers was carried out by UV-Vis in vitro study within the 8 hour-period in artificial sweat solutions (pH 5.44). The obtained PVA/FA, PVA-Gel/FA, and PVA-Alg/FA fibers released 49.6%, 69.55%, and 50.88% of the sprayed FA in 8 h, indicating the influence of polymer matrix and polymer-drug interactions, on its release from the polymer matrix. Moreover, biocompatibility of all developed novel NFs was assessed by two different cytotoxicity tests, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in L929 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In all cases, it is concluded that these new electrospun fibers had fast-release of the vitamin and the hybrid process is suitable for transdermal patch applications, especially for skin-care products. The results of cytocompatibility assays on L929 reveal that all prepared NFs have no or slight cell toxicity. PVA and PVA-Gel with/without FA nanofibers seems more biocompatible than PVA-Alg nanofibers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997185
       
  • High velocity impact properties of composites reinforced by stitched and
           unstitched glass woven fabrics

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      Authors: Zeynab Behroozi, Hooshang Nosraty, Majid Tehrani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research aimed to investigate the effect of stitching angle and stacking sequence of stitched layers on high velocity impact behavior of composites reinforced by glass woven fabrics. To study the effect of stitching angle on ballistic impact behavior, six different angles of (0°), (90°), (45°), (0°,90°), (±45°) and (0°,90°,±45°) were chosen as stitching angles. These stitching angles were applied on eight layers of glass woven fabric. To study the effect of stacking sequence of stitched layers, a different number of layers were stitched together with the angle of 0°. Unstitched and stitched composites were exposed to high velocity impact with 180 m/s using a spherical projectile. The residual velocity of projectile and dimensions of damage area on the composites’ front and back sides were measured. It was found that the sample with the 45° stitching angle had the best behavior against ballistic impact and its energy absorption was significantly higher than the other samples. Stitching also reduces damage area in front and back sides of the composites and inhibits delamination.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999865
       
  • Flexural behavior of functionally graded polymeric composite beams

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      Authors: M Atta, A Abu-Sinna, S Mousa, HEM Sallam, AA Abd-Elhady
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The bending test is one of the most important tests that demonstrates the advantages of functional gradient (FGM) materials, thanks to the stress gradient across the specimen depth. In this research, the flexural response of functionally graded polymeric composite material (FGM) is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Fabricated by a hand lay-up manufacturing technique, the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite composed of ten layers is used in the present investigation. A 3-D finite element simulation is used to predict the flexural strength based on Hashin’s failure criterion. To produce ten layers of FGM beams with different patterns, the fiber volume fraction (Vf%) ranges from 10% to 50%. A comparison between FGM beams and conventional composite beams having the same average Vf% is made. The experimental results show that the failure of the FGM beams under three points bending loading (3PB) test is initiated from the tensioned layers, and spread to the upper layer. The spreading is followed by delamination accompanied by shear failures. Finally, the FGM beams fail due to crushing in the compression zone. Furthermore, the delamination failure between the layers has a major effect on the rapidity of the final failure of the FGM beams. The present numerical results show that the gradient pattern of FGM beams is a critical parameter for improving their flexural behavior. Otherwise, Vf% of the outer layers of the FGM beams, i.e. Vf% = 30, 40, or 50%, is responsible for improving their flexural strength.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211000365
       
  • Electromagnetic shielding performance of copper and silver-plated hybrid
           yarn based multilayer fabrics in C & X band frequency range

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      Authors: Dharmendra Nath Pandey, Arindam Basu, Pramod Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, a strategic designing of multilayer shield was planned to enhance the multiple reflection phenomenon to achieve maximum absorption properties in microwave frequency (C & X band) range. Multi-layer EMR shields were developed using pure cotton fabric and conductive woven fabrics, incorporated with copper- based & silver-plated hybrid yarn. First of all, single layer fabrics were produced in five variants, nomenclature as L1A (pure cotton) L1B, L1C (copper-based hybrid yarn), LS1B and LS1C (silver plated hybrid yarn). These five variants were used to prepare four sets of double & triple layer fabric. In both double and triple layer composition, L1A fabric (pure cotton) was used as top layer followed by B and C series fabrics, containing copper and silver-plated hybrid yarn. The EMSE performance in C and X band frequency range of single layer, double layer and triple layers in terms of scattering parameters S11(reflectance) & S21 (transmittance) in vertical and horizontal wave polarization was studied. It was found that number of layers, layer composition, orientation of metallic yarn, frequency and EM wave polarization have significant influence on overall electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T04:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999361
       
  • Studies on needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from natural fiber blends
           for oil sorbent applications

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      Authors: R Vijayasekar, Dhandapani Saravanan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Oil retention of needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from coarse cotton, fine cotton, jute, kapok and its blends were reported. Based on the previous research work, oil retention of nonwoven fabrics is highly influenced by fiber diameter, fabric porosity and oil properties. In this study blended needle punched nonwoven samples were produced using fibers with wide variation in fiber diameter. Coarse jute fiber was blended with fine fibers of cotton and kapok to improve structural stability after sorption of oil. Needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced using jute fiber ratio of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% with 25% kapok, 25% coarse cotton and remaining fine cotton fibers. Oil retention capacities of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were found to be in the range of 7.75 g/g to 16.60 g/g under various process conditions. It has been noted that an increase in the jute fiber content in the nonwoven fabrics increases the oil retention capacity of the samples. Jute fibers act as columns in fiber structural assembly and it is the stiffer fiber than other three fibers used in the needle punched nonwovens. Thickness of nonwoven needle punched fabrics change after sorption of oil from 1.5% to 5%, which reduced on increasing jute fiber content in the blends.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999360
       
  • Potentiality of MWCNT fillers on the lateral crashworthiness behaviour of
           polymer composite cylindrical tubes under quasi-static loading

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      Authors: A Praveen Kumar, J Nagarjun, Quanjin Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, light-weight nano composite materials have been progressively employed in the aviation, defense, naval and automotive manufacturing applications owing to their outstanding mechanical and crashworthiness characteristics. In this regard, nano composite cylindrical tubes could be significantly utilized as energy absorbing elements for dissipating the impact energy during vehicle collisions. The present research study aimed to examine the lateral crashworthiness response of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) filled epoxy composite (basalt fabric and glass fabric) tubes of three different inner diameters using quasi-static crushing experiments. Crushing profiles and crush force–deformation curves of all the recommended typical tube samples are computed and discussed elaborately. The results obtained revealed that better crashworthiness characteristics of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composite tubes with a larger diameter, were owing to more promising crushing modes occurring during lateral compression. It is also found that the lateral crashworthiness response of the MWCNT filled glass fabric epoxy composite tubes was marginally superior to that of the MWCNT filled basalt fabric epoxy composite tubes. However, both the recommended composite cylindrical tubes with nano-fillers might be employed as energy dissipating elements in modern vehicles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997927
       
  • A review on the development of conjugated polymer-based textile
           thermoelectric generator

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      Authors: Vivek Jangra, Subhankar Maity, Prashant Vishnoi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Thermoelectric (TE) materials based on conjugated/conductive polymers can directly convert heat into electricity, and thus found promising applications in energy scavenging and cooling technologies. The performance of these thermoelectric materials is governed by different parameters like the nature of the material, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. Although the traditional inorganic semiconductor materials such as PbTe (Lead Telluride), Bi2Te3 (Bismuth Telluride), SiGe (Silicon-Germanium), SnSe (Tin Selenide), and Skutterudite (CoAs2) are giving high performance, they have some inherent limitations, such as poor processability, toxicity, rare availability, and high cost of manufacturing. Whereas, organic conjugated polymers such as polyacetylene (PA), polyaniline (PANi), Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), polypyrrole (PPy), poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), etc. have low cost of synthesis, light in weight, low toxicity and better processibility. Organic textile thermoelectric generators (T-TEG) can be prepared by in-situ polymerization of the conjugated polymers onto textile substrates. This article reviews the preparation, design and performance of these T-TEGs. Various approaches and scopes of improvement of efficiency of the thermoelectric effect of the T-TEGs are discussed. Various potential applications of the T-TEG in different fields are also described.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996732
       
  • Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin electrospun
           nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Authors: Tittaya Thairin, Patcharaporn Wutticharoenmongkol
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, ciprofloxacin (CIP)-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (SPG) (CIP–SPG) nanofiber mats were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The average fiber diameters of the mats before and after crosslinking were in the range of 190–260 and 385–484 nm, respectively. The chemical integrity of CIP remained intact after encapsulation into the mats. The degree of weight loss and water swelling decreased with an increase in the gelatin content of the electrospun nanofiber mats. A release study was carried out by total immersion and diffusion methods using phosphate buffer as a release medium. Burst release of CIP was observed in case of the total immersion method, while a more sustained release was observed in case of the diffusion method. The maximum amounts of CIP released during total immersion and diffusion were in the range of 70–90% and 72–85%, respectively. For both the total immersion and diffusion methods, the released amounts of CIP decreased and the release slowed down with an increase in the gelatin content; this result is consistent with the weight loss and water swelling values. The Young’s modulus increased, while the tensile strength and strain at break decreased with an increase in the gelatin content. The CIP–SPG nanofiber mats were slightly toxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts as evaluated by indirect cytotoxicity assay. The electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results reveal that the electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats are potentially promising materials for wound healing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997466
       
  • Manufacturing a carbon/epoxy NACA 23018 airfoil skin using a circular
           braiding machine: experimental and numerical study

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      Authors: Jalil Hajrasouliha, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the interest of reducing the weight and also cost of blade skins, various automatic preform manufacturing processes were developed including tape laying, filament winding and braiding. Among them, the circular braiding process was found to be an efficient method in producing seamless preforms on mandrels with various geometries. In this regard, an attempt was made to produce a carbon fiber reinforced composite with the shape of NACA 23018 airfoil using a circular braiding machine. Thus, suitable wooden mandrels were manufactured using NACA 23018 airfoil coordinates, which were obtained by assuming the perimeter of 20 cm. Furthermore, both biaxially and triaxially braided preforms were produced and subsequently impregnated with epoxy resin through an appropriate fabrication method. To assess their performance, four-point bending test was carried out on samples. Ultimately, the elastic response of braided composite airfoils was predicted using a meso-scale finite element modeling and was validated with experimental results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993773
       
  • Compatible properties and behaviour of dually loaded electrospun
           polyurethane bone tissue scaffolds

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Fauzi bin Ismail, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, composite based on polyurethane (PU) containing lemon grass oil (LG) and zinc nitrate (ZnNO3) was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Morphology study revealed the fabricated scaffolds PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3 diameter was lower than polyurethane. LG and ZnNO3 form hydrogen bond with polyurethane as revealed in the infrared analysis. The developed PU/LG composite rendered hydrophobicity while PU/LG/ZnNO3 showed hydrophilic nature than PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted the decrease in surface roughness of the nanocomposite compared to polyurethane. The addition of LG and ZnNO3 improved the mechanical strength of the pristine PU as indicated in tensile analysis. Coagulation assay measurements indicated a delay in the activation of clot and also exhibited reduced toxicity for the developed composites PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3. Moreover, the deposition of calcium in the developed composites were found to be higher compared to the PU as noted in the bone mineralization testing. Hence, these developed nanocomposites with desirable properties will translate them as potential candidates for bone tissue engineering.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996060
       
  • Nanomaterials for UV protective textiles

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      Authors: Subrata Mondal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Harmful portion of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the significant physical carcinogen in our natural environment. The damage caused by UV exposure to our body is cumulative and builds up over the years. UV protective textiles have been used to protect the wearer from harmful UV radiation. UV blocking effect of textile depends on various parameters viz. fiber type, yarn structure, weave, fabric construction factor, finishes, dyes etc. Further, UV protective property of textiles can be improved by incorporating UV blocking agent in the textile matrix. Several nanomaterial possesses excellent UV blocking effect and these could be incorporated into the textile matrix to improve the UV blocking properties of textiles. In this review, author discuss the various conventional ways to impart UV blocking property to the textile materials. Author also survey the current state-of-the-art of nanomaterials based UV protective textiles, mechanism of UV blocking properties of various nanomaterials, provide an overview of UV protective fabric manufacturing techniques and also discuss the durability of nanomaterials treated UV protective textiles. Finally, the manuscript has been concluded with few major challenges for the development of UV protective textiles by using nanomaterials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T06:03:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988949
       
  • Development of hybrid layered structures based on natural fabric
           reinforced composites and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic
           applications

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      Authors: Nazan Okur, Mustafa Cagatay Yaradanakul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study deals with the development of hybrid layered structures combining natural fabric reinforced composite plates and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic applications, and the evaluation of the sound absorption performances. Vacuum infusion technique was used to produce the composite plates. Jute and linen woven fabrics were used as reinforcing materials, and they were impregnated with epoxy resin. The composite plates were combined with warp knitted spacer fabric in different stacking sequences in three-layer structures. All samples were subjected to the measurement of sound absorption property using impedance tube method. The combinations of a single layer and double layers of warp knitted spacer fabric with natural fabric reinforced composite in the appropriate sequences were found to provide superior sound absorption coefficients (SAC) compared to non-hybrid layered structures. Based on the overall evaluation regarding SAC, noise reduction coefficient (NRC), and weight of the structure, the sample with the best performance was regarded as the double layers of spacer fabric backed with a jute fabric reinforced composite plate. The integration of natural fabric reinforced composites with warp knitted spacer fabric had better sound absorption performance compared to the glass fabric reinforced composites, and they were considered to have the potential of being used in interior noise control mainly in vehicles and buildings.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721994677
       
  • Walking–sliding experimental analysis of frictional characteristics
           socked feet

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Hong Xie, Mark J Lake, Jiecong Li, Xiaona Chen, Yanmei Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Simulation experiments and in-vivo experiments were widely employed for investigating sock-skin frictional characteristics. The simulation experiments usually was a type of sliding experiment which described the relative slip between fabric and artificial skin. The in-vivo approaches typically involved subjects adopting a variety of postures and friction between their clothing and the skin was estimated. However, simulation and in-vivo experiments were reported only separately. The connection between the two types of experiments was scarcely reported. To reveal the connection, we synchronously carried out two interrelated experiments, a natural walking experiment and sliding experiment, using the same sock fabric. In the natural walking experiment, the subject wearing socks walked on the force platform. Then the soles of these socks were cut out and were used in the soles-artificial skin sliding experiment. The coefficients of friction in the two types of experiments reflected some correlative frictional characteristics. We found the effect of the walking speed or sliding speed on the friction coefficient was not significant. While, water content increased the friction coefficient in the two experiment. Additionally, the friction in the coronal direction was smaller than that in the sagittal direction during walking. Through our efforts, we hope to bridge the simulation and in-vivo experiments and elucidate the frictional characteristics between the sock and insole.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988083
       
  • Heat and moisture transfer properties of a firefighter clothing with a new
           fire-resistant underwear

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      Authors: SH Eryuruk, H Gidik, V Koncar, F Kalaoglu, X Tao, Y Saglam
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Under dynamic wear conditions, moisture management and heat transfer behaviour of clothing between the human body and its environment are very important attributes for comfort and performance. Especially considering heavy works like firefighting, it is important to analyse liquid moisture management and thermal comfort properties of fabrics that influence moisture sensation and personnel comfort feeling significantly. This study mainly investigates thermal comfort and moisture management properties of a firefighter clothing with a new fire resistant underwear. Analysing single layer fabric (underwear, outer shell, moisture barrier and thermal barrier) performance properties, together with their three-layered and four-layered combinations gives a better understanding of comfort and protective performance. For characterizing the fabric structures, weight, thickness, FTIR analysis and SEM-EDX tests were conducted. Heat and moisture transfer properties were measured with limited flame spread, thermal resistance (skin model), water vapour transmission rate (dish method), thermal conductivity, air permeability, thermal diffusion, water vapour resistance, moisture management transfer (MMT) and water vapour permeability tests.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993775
       
  • Enhancing the properties of nylon 66 fabric coated with a combination of
           PVA and SiO2 nanoparticles composite for vehicle airbag application

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      Authors: Salma Ali, Ibrahim Abdalla, Magdi Elamin Gibril, Hasab AM Ahmed, Xiaoze Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to increase in fabric thickness and decrease compactness in packing, film bonding is unfavorable for airbag fabrics, furthermore, the uncoated fabric fabricated with a high density but it still has hot gas leakage problems. This study focuses on enhancement of vehicle airbag nylon 66 fabric properties by using a combination of different concentration of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and low-density adhesion polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results illustrated that the nylon 66 fabric, which coated with PVA and SiO2 NPs presents an excellent property such as a thin layer reached at (0.009 mm), also thermal and mechanical properties have been enhanced to include better mechanical properties according to commercial guidelines airbag of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Additionally, the weight per square meter of nylon 66 fabric coated with the PVA and high concentration of SiO2 NPs is 9.9 grams. Besides, the final dry weight of the coating (PVA/SiO2) material taken by the nylon 66 fabric is just 0.4 grams per square meter. The coated fabric demonstrated a hydrophobicity property in addition to the air-permeability has decreased by increasing the amount of SiO2 NPs in the composite material. The PVA and SiO2 NPs dispersed on the surface of the fabrics without any aggregation, as well, the coated fabric is gradually changed from flexible to hard which resulted in the better final performance in the proper and regular thickness along the whole fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T05:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988961
       
  • Comparison of standards for chemical protective clothing on performance
           requirements and measurements

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      Authors: Qing Chen, Rong Zheng, Bailu Fu, Xin Yang, Jing Lin, Jintu Fan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Chemical protective clothing is widely used by emergency teams in certain industries and such as fire-fighting and medical protection fields. Due to the differences of assessment, specific requirements for target products, and test methods, the relevant standards for such clothing vary greatly. By analyzing standards on chemical protective clothing, this study summarized their differences in assessment items and test methods for basic performances such as seam strength, leak tightness, permeability by liquid/gas chemicals, resistance to ignition, liquid repellency and penetration by liquids.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980774
       
  • Process development and compression behavior of innovative 3D
           bi-directional flat-knitted spacer-reinforced composites

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      Authors: Mohammad Pourheidar Shirazi, Hossein Hasani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D knitted fabrics are regarded as a viable option for advanced composite materials. Flat-knitted spacer fabrics (FKSF) which are in the category of 3D knitted structures have attracted many attentions due to outstanding characterizations such as high formability and good impact behavior. These structures consist of two surface layers which are linked together by multiple knitted connecting layers. Despite the merits of 3D-FKSFs as composite reinforcements, they have some structural restrictions such as limited thickness. This study aims to develop and characterize bi-directional 3D knitted spacer structures which could be replaced with conventional FKSFs. In the developed structures, the upper and lower surface layers are connected together by two truncated pyramids which can be configurated in any dimensions using an innovative knitting technique. For providing a report regarding their compression behavior, these 3D structures were produced in two different thicknesses on an electronic flat knitting machine. Then, they were impregnated with epoxy resin via vacuum resin transfer molding and the cured composites were subjected to compression force. The results revealed that their compression behavior is similar to the behavior of conventional honey-comb sandwich structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721992770
       
  • Antibacterial and biological properties of coconut oil loaded
           poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Parian S Mohamadi, Ahmad Hivechi, Hajir Bahrami, Nahid hemmatinegad, Peiman B Milan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Coconut oil (CO) is a naturally derived bio-oil which exhibits specific characteristics such as biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. In this work, the biological properties of poly(caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibers are improved using CO encapsulation. This bio-oil was added to the PCL/Gel polymer solution with different concentrations (5–40%). Nanofibers were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde vapor. Different types of characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, DSC, tensile measurements, water contact angle, and water vapor permeability were used to study the chemical, physical, thermal, and morphological properties of resultant nanofibers. Results showed an average diameter of 300–370 nm for as-spun nanofibers, which increased to 360–470 nm after the crosslinking reaction. The presence of CO was confirmed using FTIR and DSC experiments. Moreover, results indicated that the presence of CO increases the hydrophilicity and water vapor permeability of nanofibers, which are desirable for their final application. Biological tests, such as antibacterial activity, cell viability, and cell morphology tests were performed to evaluate the possible application of the produced nanofibers for wound healing applications. Results indicated that the crosslinked PCL/Gel nanofibers containing 20% CO exhibited the highest cell compatibility and antibacterial activity against gram-positive (S. aureus) and gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721991595
       
  • Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich nylon film for smart thermal management and
           thermo-responsive electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Linghui Peng, Lingling Shen, Weiren Fan, Zichuan Liu, Hongbo Qiu, Aibing Yu, Xuchuan Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the effects of climate changing, the importance of outdoor thermal comfort has been recognized, and has gained more and more research attentions. Unlike indoor space where air conditioning can be easily implemented, outdoor thermal comfort can only be achieved by localized thermal management. Using textile is a simple but energy-saving way to realize outdoor thermal comfort. Herein, we report the design of a smart thermal management film with the silver/vanadium dioxide/silver (Ag/VO2/Ag) sandwich structure prepared by one-dimensional (1 D) nanowires. It was found that the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich film was able to lower the temperature by around 10 °C under intense infrared (IR) radiation. In addition, the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film showed a thermo-responsive electrical conductivity and an outstanding bending stability, due to network structure formed by nanowires. It was experimentally proved that this sandwich structure was superior to other layer structures in IR shielding performance and thermo-responsive electrical conductivity. The as-prepared Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film has great potential for various applications such as wearable devices, flexible electronics, medical monitors and smart IR radiation management.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720986542
       
  • Designing hybrid nanofibers based on keratin-poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly
           (Ɛ-caprolactone) for application as wound dressing

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      Authors: Marziyeh Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Zahra Arab-Bafrani, Fatemeh Karimi, Naeme Javid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the production of hybrid scaffolds containing keratin/polyvinyl alcohol (Ker/PVA) and poly (Ɛ-caproactone) (PCL) for application in skin regeneration has been investigated. In the first step, the extraction of keratin from wool fibers was done, and then electrospinning process was used to fabricate hybrid nanofibers. Ker/PVA blend solution was extruded from one syringe and poly(ε-caprolactone) solution from the other one and hybrid nanofibers were gathered onto a rotary drum collector. The effect of different ratios of Ker/PVA (30:70), (50:50), and (70:30) with PCL were studied on the morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical features of the scaffolds. The Ker/PVA (50:50)-PCL nanofibers presented an appropriate modulus and mechanical strength similar to the natural skin. These scaffolds possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, which improved cell-scaffold adhesion and increased the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells. Keratin based nanofibers demonstrated antibacterial characteristic against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988978
       
  • Design and development of fibrous filter media induced by structural
           characteristics of needle punched nonwoven

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      Authors: Rupayan Roy, SM Ishtiaque
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article discussed the structural changes influenced by punching parameters and their impact on the functional properties of needle punched nonwoven. Three punching parameters i.e., punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency were considered as process variables. Three factors three levels Box Behnken experimental design was used for sample preparation. Newly proposed structural indices were used to evaluate the fibre orientation in X and Y direction of fabric using tracer fibre technique. It was found that measured functional properties of fabrics are well correlated with considered structural indices. The fibre coverage area inferred an increase but coefficient of fibre curliness and anisotropy of inclination angle of fibre observed a decrease, with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Mean flow pore size followed an initial decrease and then, increase, but filtration efficiency and pressure drop followed an initial increase and then, decrease with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Finally, process parameters were optimized to achieve a filter media with maximum filtration efficiency and minimum pressure drop.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990440
       
  • Evaluation of cutting force of high-performance fibers’ dynamic
           cutting behaviour

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Affaf Eloufy, Samar Abdel Latif, El Shimaa Eid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers’ Young’s moduli. Higher Young’s moduli give lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fiber Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by both normal force and cutting velocity. The analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set-up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers Young’s modulus. Higher Young’s modulus gives lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fibers Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by the normal force, cutting angle, and cutting velocity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990752
       
  • Effect of S-2304 wire-mesh angle in hemp/flax composite on mechanical and
           twist drilling surface response analysis

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      Authors: Prabu Krishnasamy, G Rajamurugan, B Muralidharan, Akshay P Arbat, Bendre Parag Kishorkumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fiber-based composite materials have found wide applications in Automotive, Aerospace, and Marine Industries. The current study presents the composite preparation, mechanical characterization, and machining behavior of hybrid composite. The fabricated hybrid composite consists of natural fibers (hemp and flax), resin (epoxy and hardener), and S-2304 wire mesh of different orientations (45° and 90°). The mechanical characterization was performed through tensile, flexural, impact, and hardness with ASTM samples. The FRW45 hybrid composite had shown an excellent tensile strength of 43 MPa and 31.57% higher than that of FRW90. Moreover, the FRW45 (82 MPa) flexural strength has shown better results than the HRW45 (76 MPa) composite. The machining performance was studied by drilling experiments, designed by the central composite design (CCD) to study the significant input parameters such as type of composite, speed, and feed rate. The obtained results revealed that torque reduces with the enhancement in feed rate for all types of composites. It was also noticed that at 500 rpm spindle speed, the delamination factor was comparatively 35.03% lower in HRW45 and 58% in HRW90 compared to HR composite. The fiber fracture voids and delamination failures were observed through fractography analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988477
       
  • An experimental and numerical study of epoxy-based Kevlar-basalt hybrid
           composites under high velocity impact

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      Authors: Azizolrahman Amirian, Hossein Rahmani, Hossein Moeinkhah
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the high velocity impact (HVI) behavior of epoxy-based Kevlar-Basalt hybrid composites was studied experimentally and numerically. The composite specimens were manually placed in nine layers classified into six types of stacking sequences: non-hybrid, sandwich hybrid, and intercalated hybrid. The impact tests were conducted by using a ballistic apparatus at three different energy levels: 150 J, 200 J, and 250 J, and the amount of absorbed energy was calculated based on input velocity and residual velocity of the projectile. The results demonstrated that hybridization improves the behavior of composites in high velocity impacts compared to that of specimen that are not hybridized. The absorption of sandwich hybrids on average increased 23.25% and 11.3% compared to pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively. Moreover, the intercalated hybrids showed an efficiency of about 35.6% and 21.76% better than that of pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively, in absorbing energy. The same energy absorption pattern was observed in numerical simulation performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. Also, the highest amount of energy absorption and the lowest residual velocity as well as damage occurred when Kevlar was attacked by the projectile and the layers were intercalated.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T06:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990902
       
  • Comparison of the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic
           modified glass fiber felt

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      Authors: Feiyan Wang, Jianyong Yu, Aixiong Ge, Xunmei Liang, Shide Lu, Chunfeng Zhao, Lifang Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The glass fiber felt owned opening pore structure and chemical stability, which was widely used in various of cabins of vessels, aircraft, vehicles, etc. The surface characteristics of fiber affected the drainage performance of felt, thus affecting the temperature and humidity environment in the cabin. In this paper, the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic modified glass fiber felt were studied and compared. After heat treatment, the surface sizing agents were removed and the felt surface became smoother. The water contact angle (WCA) of all heated felt was 0°. The residual water of 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm felt decreased by 27% and 15%, respectively, while that of 2.5 cm felt increased 324%. The excellent drainage performance could be obtained by reducing the heated felt thickness. However, the tensile strength of felt decreased by 35%–45%. In addition, the fiber diameter, the thickness, and average pore size of heated felt all decreased. After hydrophobic modification, abundant nano particles adhered to the felt surface, making the surface of felt rough. The WCAs of 2.5 cm, 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm hydrophobic modified felt were 152°, 141°, 144°, respectively. The residual water decreased by more than 60%, indicating that the drainage performance of felt could be significantly improved. The tensile strength of felt was increased by 30%–40%. The fiber diameter increased, but the thickness and the average pore size of felt decreased. Compared with the heat treatment, the hydrophobic modification could obtain excellent drainage performance and increased the felt tensile strength, which was suitable for more occasions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988479
       
  • Paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers for thermal hysteresis
           enhancement of paraffin actuators

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      Authors: Ahmet Kutlu, Recep Eren, Yakup Aykut
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fast and facile one-step preparation of paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers via single needle (uniaxial) electrospinning system was studied. As-spun paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers were used for thermal hysteresis enhancement of paraffin actuators. Solid paraffin with the melting point of 32, 58, 89 and 114°C were employed for the preparation of the paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that the melting point of the paraffin in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber was clearly detectable and the melting entalpy coming from the paraffin part gradually increased from 9.6 to 101.5 J/g with the increase in the melting points of the added same amount of paraffins in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. When both calorimetric and weight loss measurements were considered, the paraffin which has the melting point of 32°C was found to be suitable to produce hybrid nanofibers paraffin actuator. Therefore, this hybrid nanofiber was selected for the application in paraffin actuators for e-vehicle battery cooling systems where the battery temperature must be kept between 15 and 35°C. Paraffin compound of the paraffin actuators was prepared with a mixture of pure paraffin and paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofiber with the wt.% of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10. In the hysteresis measurements, the hysteresis value at 3 mm stroke was successfully enhanced as 1.7, 3.4, 11.9 and 15.3% sequentially for the samples produced with the above ratios. Beyond hysteresis enhancement, the phenomena of thermal percolation threshold effect and thermal conductivity contrast ratio effect in nano scale were emprically exposed on opening and closing behavior of the paraffin actuator.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988964
       
  • Preparation and properties of graphene aerogel/cotton composite flexible
           fabric with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function

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      Authors: Peng Wang, Shuqiang Liu, Man Zhang, Gaihong Wu, Kaiwen Wang, Huimin Li, Fu Li, Hua Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to alleviate the problems caused by electromagnetic pollution and simultaneously adapt to the future development trend of flexible wearable electronic equipment, it is high time to focus on the research of light weight, flexible and efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material. A graphene aerogel composite EMI shielding composite fabric was prepared by combining graphene aerogel with fabric through the connection of waterborne polyurethane. The influence of aerogel amount on the EMI shielding function of fabric was discussed, and the waterborne polyurethane dosage on fabric mechanics and fabric style was also investigated. The result shows the composite fabric EMI shielding effectiveness reached 28 dB when the graphene aerogel amount was 25 mL (only 0.066 mL/cm2), which has satisfied the civilian requirements (20 dB). A good adhesion fastness between graphene and cotton fabric was obtained and the mechanical strength was also improved when the content of waterborne polyurethane was 20 mL. Graphene aerogel electromagnetic shielding composite fabric with good electromagnetic shielding performance and less consumption of nano carbon materials will have a good industrial application prospect.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989272
       
  • Investigation of poly(lactic acid) nanocapsules containing the plant
           extract via coaxial electrospraying method for functional nonwoven
           applications

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      Authors: Hatice Ibili, Mehmet Dasdemir, İ İrem Tatlı Çankaya, Mehmet Orhan, Cem Güneşoğlu, Serap Arabacı Anul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the development of functional nanocapsules via the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (electrospraying) method. These nanocapsules can manipulate nonwoven surface functionality in terms of antibacterial characteristics for medical textile purposes. Electrosprayed nanocapsules were produced from Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer and Plumbago europaea plant extract. Here, we employ optimized solution and process parameters (needle to collector distance, electrical field, application time, and needle dimension) for the coaxial electrospraying process. Different Plumbago europaea extract concentrations and co-fluids’ flow rates were investigated as part of the study. Also, the effect of these parameters on capsule morphology and dimension were investigated. After the formation of PLA nanocapsules, morphological and dimensional characteristics were analyzed through SEM, FESEM, TEM images in addition to FTIR and nanosize measurements. According to our findings, a lower co-fluids’ flow rate gives the smaller nanocapsules with narrow-sized distribution and desired spherical morphology. Antibacterial efficiency doesn’t show any significant difference except the lowest plant extract concentrations. After characterizing the nanocapsules’ structures, the core-sheath structure can be clearly identified. Consequently, the desired capsule morphology and size for nanocapsules were accomplished. The antibacterial efficiency of covered surfaces with nanocapsules is up to 80% for Staphylococcus aureus and about 31% for Escherichia coli, even with low pick-up ratios. Even for a very low amount of extract usage, good antibacterial efficiency can be achieved. The application has endless potential in terms of higher concentration and a wide range of chemical usage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988950
       
  • Hardness and flexural performance of 3D orthogonal carbon/glass fibers
           hybrid composites under thermal-oxidative aging

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      Authors: Juanzi Li, Wei Fan, Tao Liu, Lili Xue, Linjia Yuan, Wensheng Dang, Jiaguang Meng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study reports the hardness and flexural performance of the three-dimensional (3 D) orthogonal carbon/glass hybrid fiber/bismaleimide composites subjected to the accelerated aging conditions for 10, 30, 90, 120, and 180 days at 250 °C in an air environment. The rate of reduction in the flexural performance and failure modes were observed, in general, to be related to the aging time. The experimental findings revealed that the significant decline in the flexural performance of the samples aged for less than 30 days was predominantly attributed to the matrix degradation, while for the longer aging durations, the cracks in the composites and decomposition of the residual matrix were responsible for the gradual reduction in the flexural performance. The unaged and 30 days aged samples suffered a brittle failure represented by the macro-cracks and fiber breakage, while the cracked fiber/matrix interface and loosened fiber bundles were the main failure modes for the samples aged for longer times. The changes in the flexural failure modes resulted due to the severe degradation of the matrix under an extreme thermo-oxidative environment. Subsequently, a nonlinear relationship relating the flexural modulus to hardness was proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989274
       
  • Super wear-resistant and conductive cotton fabrics based on sliver
           nanowires

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      Authors: Dangge Gao, Jiamin Zhu, Mengyu Ye, Yun Li, Jianzhong Ma, Jingjing Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the effect of linear, rod and granular nano-silver structures on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of cotton fabrics, silver nanowires (AgNWs), silver nano-rods (AgNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were separately obtained by solvothermal method, and then adsorbed on the cotton fabrics. Compared with AgNRs and AgNPs that silver nanowires could form network structure on the cotton fabrics. As the ratio of nano-sliver length to diameter increases, the effective adsorption mass of nano-sliver on the cotton increases, improving the conductivity of the textile electrode. No matter how many times of rubbing, it had no effect on the square resistance of the AgNWs/cotton. The cotton fabrics treated with silver nanowires had the best performances and wear resistance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:10:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720982005
       
  • Orientated and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds fabricated using the
           centrifugal electrospinning technique for stimulating the behaviours of
           fibroblast cells

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      Authors: Norul Ashikin Norzain, Wei Chih Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal electrospinning (CES) was developed by integrating the electrospinning (ES) and centrifugal spinning (CS) concepts to produce oriented and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds which were then applied to stimulate the behaviour of fibroblast cells. During the fabrication process, polymer concentrations, rotational speeds, operating voltages, and needle sizes were key parameters to affect the diameters of produced fibres. The mathematical model indicated that the centrifugal force with the power of 2 was the main influence in fabricating thinner fibres, followed by electrostatic force with the power of 1. The developed CES technique could fabricate fibres scaffold ranging from 210 ± 50 nm to 2814 ± 96 nm by only applying low operating voltages and rotation speed which were 10 kV and up to 2000 rpm, respectively. Through optimum parameter, random and aligned nanofibrous were fabricated with the diameter being distributed mainly at 200–400 nm. Aligned nanofibrous demonstrated a high degree of orientation when 88% of the nanofibrous varied at 0°–10°. Compared to random structure, aligned nanofibrous presented high tensile strength, which was approximately 4.35 MPa and appropriate flexibility with 73% of elongation break. Aligned nanofibrous exhibited high cell viabilities with a 2.34 absorbance rate at day 14. The fibroblast cells elongated and accelerated in the orientation of the aligned nanofibrous. Results suggest that fibre aligned scaffolds are possible candidates for wound dressing application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T06:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988127
       
  • Electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of conductive cotton
           fabrics

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      Authors: RM Attia, NM Yousif, MH Zohdy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional electrically conductive fabric with acceptable mechanical properties, which could be applied in electromagnetic shielding, was developed. Conductive cotton fabrics (cotton/PANI, cotton/Mn, cotton/Cu, and cotton/Co) were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization for (cotton/PANI) and pad dry curing method was used for nanometals application. The Nano size of the metals and polyaniline inclusion were proven through both Dynamic Liquid Scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed an increase in crystallite density in unit space and the nanoparticles ranged from 100–200 nm. The effect of gamma irradiation on different treated cotton fabrics was investigated. The mechanical properties against irradiation dose showed an improvement up to 40 kGy, for all treated fabrics. On the other hand, Young’s modulus for untreated cotton recorded the lowest value, while cotton/Co recorded the highest one. Moreover, both AC (Alternating Current) and DC (Direct current) conductivities values can be calculated. In DC conductivity cotton/PANI was found to be more conducive than the remainder of the treated fabric by surface metallization with transition metals; while in AC conductivity cotton/Mn was found to be more conducive than the rest of the treated samples. The conductivity value increases by increasing the gamma irradiation dose for cotton/PANI fabric. Also, g-factor values can be estimated from ESR signals and vary from 0.009 up to 0.059 for conductive cotton fabrics; whilst cotton/Mn fabric has six hyperfine splittings, indicating that it is a paramagnetic element.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T07:12:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984099
       
  • Poly(butylene succinate) fibrous dressings containing natural
           antimicrobial agents

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      Authors: Kinana Aliko, Mohamad Basel Aldakhlalla, Laura J Leslie, Tony Worthington, Paul D Topham, Eirini Theodosiou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) is a biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic aliphatic polyester, which has been used extensively in packaging, catering and agriculture, and more recently in drug delivery and bone and cartilage repair. PBSU-based mats created by electrospinning show promise as wound dressing materials because of their good mechanical properties, high surface area-to-volume ratio and increased levels of porosity. In this work, we present the creation of antimicrobial PBSU fibrous mats through the incorporation of natural food grade agents via blend electrospinning. Three types of edible gums (namely arabic, karaya and tragacanth), two essential oils (coriander and lavender), and one free fatty acid (linoleic acid) were added to PBSU containing a chain extender and their effect on six clinically relevant pathogens was evaluated. Mats containing essential oils at the highest concentration studied (7% w/v) showed some antimicrobial behaviour against S. aureus, E. hirae and P. aeruginosa, whereas the incorporation of linoleic acid at both concentrations tested (3% and 5% w/v) gave a strong reaction against S. pyogenes. Gum arabic was the only gum that had a considerable impact on S. aureus. Furthermore, the three gums enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer mats and brought them closer to those of the human skin, whilst all agents maintained the high biocompatibility of the PBSU mats when contacted with mouse fibroblasts. This work, for the first time, shows the great promise of PBSU blended fibres as a skin substitute and paves the way towards bioactive and cost effective wound dressings from renewable materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987209
       
  • Experimental evaluation of the compression garment produced from elastic
           spacer fabrics through real human limb

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      Authors: Golnaz Mousavi, Mehdi Varsei, Abosaeed Rashidi, Reza Ghazisaeidi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Spacer fabrics found vast applications as medical textile due to their intrinsic and unique properties such as good air permeability, breathability, compressibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to utilize weft knitted spacer fabric as pressure garment to apply more uniform interface pressure on limb than common commercial fabrics. Initially, different weft knitted spacer fabrics by varying the spacer fabric thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 mm) and elastane yarn content (25, 30, 35 and 40%) were produced. Then, mean interface pressure was obtained through conducting the Mannequin test. Based on the Mannequin test results, spacer fabrics with similar applied interface pressure to commercial one were selected to perform human limb test. According to the results, the spacer fabric with the thickness of 1.8[math] and elastane yarn content of 25% not only applied interface pressure comparable to commercial fabric, but also exhibited the most uniform interface pressure mapping on human limb among those studied. Also experimental results showed the superior performance of spacer knitted fabrics with elastane yarn than the single jersey knitted fabrics as pressure garments.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988089
       
  • Electrospun microfibers with embedded leuco dye-based thermochromic
           material for textile applications

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      Authors: Keon Sahebkar, Sharan Indrakar, Sesha Srinivasan, Sylvia Thomas, Elias Stefanakos
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospinning is an inexpensive and versatile technique for fabricating micro- and nano- scaled fibers. There have been limited attempts to employ it for the fabrication of thermochromic (TC) fibers, and the fabrication of a three-component (dye, developer, and solvent) TC material has required the use of a more complicated coaxial electrospinning technique. Herein, a simple and novel method for creating thermochromic fibers by electrospinning single strands of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with embedded thermochromic powder of a polymer encapsulated three-component system was employed. Unlike past leuco dye-based thermochromic fibers, an unmodified syringe tip can be used for the spinning process and only one flow rate needs to be determined. A solution of solvent (either N-dimethylformamide or chloroform), PMMA, and a commercially available black thermochromic powder was prepared and spun using a custom-made electrospinning apparatus. The spun fibers exhibited a clear color transition from grey to white and had average diameters of 2.53 µm and 1.96 µm for chloroform and N-dimethylformamide based fibers, respectively. The fibers were characterized by scanning electron and optical microscopy to determine their morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine their chemical composition, and differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis to characterize their thermal properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987216
       
  • Effect of twist level on the mechanical performance of S-glass yarns and
           non-crimp cross-ply composites

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      Authors: Hussein Kommur Dalfi, Muhammad Tausif, Zeshan yousaf
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      High modulus/high strength continuous fibres are used extensively for manufacturing textile preforms, as a reinforcement, for composites due to their excellent specific properties. However, their brittle behaviour and tendency to separate easily into individual filaments or bundles can lead to damages during manufacturing processes such as weaving and braiding. Thus, the critical step in the development of an optimal yarn for textile-reinforced composites is to find an optimum twist, which results in a minimum loss of properties of the composite laminates, while maintaining good processability and sufficient strength for textile and/or composite manufacturing. In this study, twist level has been varied to improve the handling and tensile properties of S-glass yarns (i.e. tensile strength). Varying levels of yarn twist (15–40 twists metre−1) were employed to study its impact on the tensile properties (i.e. tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break etc.). Furthermore, the effect of twist on the tensile properties of non-crimp cross-ply composites produced via vacuum infusion process was studied. It was observed that mechanical performance (i.e. tensile strength properties) of twisted yarns is improved up to 30 twists metre−1 while it is deteriorated at 40 twists metre−1. At yarn level, the experimental results were compared with theoretical estimations utilizing existing models for twisted yarns properties. Discrepancies were observed between experimental and theoretical results especially for high level of twist. The tensile strength and elongation of S-glass cross-ply composites at all levels of twist were higher compared to the composite laminates manufactured by using non-twisted yarns. At composite level, the experimental results were also computed employing rule of mixture and good agreement was observed between experimental and predicted results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:15:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987206
       
  • Investigation of the mechanical and forming behaviour of 3D warp interlock
           carbon woven fabrics for complex shape of composite material

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      Authors: Mehmet Korkmaz, Ayşe Okur, Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, François Boussu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Composite materials which are reinforced with 3D warp interlock fabrics have outstanding mechanical properties such as higher delamination resistance, ballistic damage resistance and impact damage tolerance by means of their improved structural properties. Textile reinforcements are exposed to large deformations in the production stage of composite materials which have complex shape. Although good formability properties of 3D warp interlock fabrics in forming process were already proven by recent studies, further information is needed to elucidate forming behaviours of multi-layer fabrics which is produced with high stiffness yarns like carbon. In this study, 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics were produced on a prototype weaving loom and the same carbon yarn was used in two fabric directions with equal number of yarn densities. Fabrics were differentiated with regard to the presence of stuffer warp yarn, weave pattern and parameters of binding warp yarn which are angle and depth. Therefore, the effect of fabric architecture on the mechanical and formability properties of 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics could be clarified. Three different breaking behaviours of fabrics were detected and they were correlated with crimp percentages of yarn groups. In addition, the bending and shear deformations were analysed in view of parameters of fabric architectures. Two distinct forming behaviours of fabrics were determined according to the distribution of deformation areas on fabrics. Moreover, the optimal structure was identified for forming process considering the fabric architecture.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984100
       
  • Surface modification of PE/PET by two-step method with graphene and silver
           nanoparticles for enhanced electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Tingting Zhuo, Zhuoming Chen, Binjie Xin, Yingqi Xu, Yingjie Song, Shan He, Shuai Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polyethylene/polyethylene terephthalate (PE/PET) nonwoven fabrics were first modified with a continuous graphene layer by using a dipping process, and then deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using magnetron sputtering, and that is a novel method called two-step method. Graphene/PE/PET (GPP) and AgNPs sputtered GPP (AGPP) were prepared to investigate the modification processes on the electrical conductivity of the nonwoven fabrics. The influence of the surface modification by silane coupling agent (KH-560) on the durability of conductive PE/PET composited fabrics is also studied. Surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal stability, electrical conductive and ultraviolet protection properties of the composite fabrics were investigated. The results indicated KH-560 treatment can obviously improve the interfacial adhesion between the graphene and PE/PET then contributes to the enhanced conductive durability of the composite fabrics. The combination of graphene and AgNPs provided more opportunities for the charge transfer paths of AGPP, leading to an improved conductive network and an increased electrical conductivity. In addition, graphene and AgNPs gave GPP and AGPP excellent thermal stability. The research exhibited the advantages of the two-step method, and also indicated AGPP has a promising application for the preparation of wearable electronics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720985893
       
  • Comparative studies on the effect of fabric structure on mechanical
           properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites

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      Authors: Zhenyu Ma, Pingze Zhang, Jianxun Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites places more requirements on the selection of fabrics to meet the needs of structural components. Due to the large design space for reinforced fabric patterns, the relationship between the reinforcements and properties is essential to further understand. Four typical fabrics were manufactured in this research, named non-interlaced bidirectional fabrics, plain weave laminated fabrics, angle-interlock fabrics and bidirectional angle-interlock fabrics. The structural features of fabrics were analyzed by using representative geometric unit, and the symmetry properties were discussed based on group theory. Vacuum assistant resin transfer molding was adopted to obtain the corresponding resin matrix composite specimens. Quasi-static tensile and bending tests were conducted on these specimens. The stress-strain curves of specimens were illustrated, and the failure characterizations were also analyzed in mesoscopic scale. The results showed that the high crimp of yarns reduced the stability of composites. Both the tensile and flexural properties were affected by the curvature of yarns. The research results provided a theoretical basis for the selection of fabric structure and the application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T05:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987517
       
  • Tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black in polymer nanocomposite
           to trigger the conductivity for developing coated fabric

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      Authors: Kajal Sarkar, Sudipta Panja, Sanjoy Kumar Ghorai, Debasish Das, Santanu Chattopadhyay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      We present the critical and systematic investigations on the normal/regular types of carbon black to trigger the conductivity of polymer nanocomposite in developing commercially viable coated flexible fabric. Regular grade carbon blacks are utilized to develop conductive fabric via nanocomposite preparation and application by knife-over-roll coating (average 90 microns thick). The study suggests, tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black particles having a diameter of 30 nanometers (with ∼0.6 packing fraction, 5.815E + 19 per cc charge carrier density, 0.774 ratios of Hall coefficient) has a profound effect on conductivity. The microstructure of carbon black is altered by the shearing force of a mechanical stirrer in a viscous solution of natural rubber latex and polyvinyl alcohol then self-restructured when an excess amount of water is evaporated by high-temperature drying. Thus, the tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black with a diameter of 30 nanometers provides the highest charge carrier density as compared to other types of carbon black used. We found that the attained conductivity (>113 S/m) in this process is 98% of the predicted value as per the classical model. This technique can be exploited to use normal grade carbon black in replacement of conductive grade carbon black and other carbonaceous material like graphene and carbon nanotube. We envision that this easily scalable, commercially viable technique can be utilized for large scale production of conductive fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984096
       
  • A review: Surface treatments, production techniques, mechanical properties
           and characteristics of Luffa cylindrica bio composites

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      Authors: M Jahanzail Kamran, Elammaran Jayamani, Soon K Heng, Yat C Wong
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The need for alternative eco-friendly and sustainable materials has forced many researchers to focus on composites made using natural fibers and biodegradable polymer matrices. In addition to that, these natural fibers are low in cost, have good mechanical properties, biodegradability, and require less production energy. Therefore, this review paper will focus on one of the natural fibers known as Luffa cylindrica (LC) by understanding all the natural fibers' benefits. A detailed overview is provided for commonly used fiber surface treatments, surface treatment techniques, and processing techniques for various LC composites from numerous other researches. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the characteristics, mechanical properties, and water absorption properties of LC composites before and after surface treatments, where a comprehensive understanding of LC reinforced polymer composites' behavior has been reviewed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984094
       
  • Characterization and modeling of thermal protective fabrics under Molotov
           cocktail exposure

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      Authors: Sumit Mandal, Guowen Song, Rene M Rossi, Indu B Grover
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to characterize and model the thermal protective fabrics usually used in workwear under Molotov cocktail exposure. Physical properties of the fabrics were measured; and, thermal protective performances of the fabrics were evaluated under a fire exposure generated from the laboratory-simulated Molotov cocktail. The performance was calculated in terms of the amount of thermal energy transmitted through the fabrics; additionally, the time required to generate a second-degree burn on wearers’ bodies was predicted from the calculated transmitted thermal energy. For the characterization, the parameters that affected the protective performance were identified and discussed with regards to the theory of heat and mass transfer. The relationships between the properties of the fabric systems and the protective performances were statistically analyzed. The significant fabric properties affecting the performance were further employed in the empirical modeling techniques − Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the protective performance. The Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the developed MLR and ANN models were also compared to identify the best-fit model for predicting the protective performance. This study found that thermal resistance and evaporative resistance are two significant properties (P-Values 
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984973
       
  • Study on tearing tests and the determination of fracture toughness of
           PVC-coated fabric

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      Authors: Han Bao, Minger Wu, Xubo Zhang
      First page: 977
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, detailed uniaxial in-plane tearing tests including uniaxial central, single-edge notched, and trapezoidal tearing tests of a type of polyvinylchloride (PVC)-coated polyester fiber fabric were conducted. Two types of tearing failure modes, brutal and progressive, were examined. In addition to differences in the descending sections of the stress–displacement curves and the membrane surface morphology near the crack, it was found that the uniaxial central tearing test could be replaced by the corresponding single-edge notched tearing test to minimize the usage of test materials. The configuration of the single-edge notched specimen, including the gauge length and width, was investigated to determine the conditions under which the tearing resistance of the practically nearly infinite membrane surface can be studied with finite-size specimens. To obtain the fracture toughness GIC, which characterizes the ability of materials to prevent crack growth, a theoretical method and two test methods were introduced. After comparing the methods, the test method based on the area of the parallelogram obtained from the zigzag wave in the descending section of the load–displacement curves was proved to be superior. The value of GIC obtained with this simple test method was relatively stable, and it could be used to evaluate the tearing resistance and calculate the tearing strength of the coated fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993943
       
 
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