Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 5 of 5 Journals sorted alphabetically
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pigment & Resin Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Pigment & Resin Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.22
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0369-9420 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6941
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Harnessing of carboxy containing starch nanoparticles as an adsorbent for
           Cd (II) ions and methylene blue from waste water effluent: synthesis,
           metrological characterization and properties

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      Authors: Khaled Mostafa, Azza El-Sanabary
      Abstract: The novelty addressed here is undertaken by using tailor-made and fully characterized starch nanoparticles (SNPs) having a particle size ranging from 80 to 100 nm with a larger surface area, biodegradability and high reactivity as a starting substrate for cadmium ions and basic dye removal from wastewater effluent. This was done via carboxylation of SNPs with citric acid via esterification reaction using the dry preparation technique, in which a simple, energy-safe and sustainable process concerning a small amount of water, energy and toxic chemicals was used. The obtained adsorbent is designated as cross-linked esterified starch nanoparticles (CESNPs). The batch technique was used to determine the CESNPs adsorption capacity, whereas atomic adsorption spectrometry was used to determine the residual cadmium ions concentration in the filtrate before and after adsorption. Different factors affecting adsorption were examined concerning pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and degree of carboxylation. Besides, to validate the esterification reaction and existence of carboxylic groups in the adsorbent, CESNPs were characterized metrologically via analytical tools for carboxyl content estimation and instrumental tools using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological analysis. The overall adsorption potential of CESNPs was found to be 136 mg/g when a 0.1 g adsorbent dose having 190.8 meq/100 g sample carboxyl content at pH 5 for 60 min contact time was used. Besides, increasing the degree of carboxylation of the CESNPs expressed as carboxyl content would lead to the higher adsorption capacity of cadmium ions. FTIR spectroscopy analysis elucidates the esterification reaction with the appearance of a new intense peak C=O ester at 1,700 cm−1, whereas SEM observations reveal some atomic/molecules disorder after esterification. The innovation addressed here is undertaken by studying the consequence of altering the extent of carboxylation reaction expressed as carboxyl contents on the prepared CESNPs via a simple dry technique with a small amount of water, energy and toxic chemicals that were used as a sustainable bio nano polymer for cadmium ions and basic dye removal from wastewater effluent in comparison with other counterparts published in the literature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2023-0113
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Designing an optimised formulation for emulsion polymerization: printing
           ink production by response surface methodology

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      Authors: Bahareh Babaie, Mohsen Najafi, Maryam Ataeefard
      Abstract: Toner is a crucial dry colorant composite used in printing based on the electrophotographic process. The quality of printed images is greatly influenced by the toner production method and material formulation. Chemically in situ polymerization methods are currently preferred. This paper aims to optimize the characteristics of a composite produced through emulsion polymerization using common raw materials for electrophotographic toner production. Emulsion polymerization provides the possibility to optimize the physical and color properties of the final products. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize variables affecting particle size (PS), PS distribution (PSD), glass transition temperature (Tg°C), color properties (ΔE) and monomer conversion. Box–Behnken experimental design with three levels of styrene and butyl acrylate monomer ratios, carbon black pigment and sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was used for RSM optimization. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis and surface morphology of composite particles were examined. The results indicated that colorants with small PS, narrow PSDs, spherical shape morphology, acceptable thermal and color properties and a high percentage of conversion could be easily prepared by optimization of material parameters in this method. The anticipated outcome of the present inquiry holds promise as a guiding beacon toward the realization of electrographic toner of superior quality and exceptional efficacy, a vital factor for streamlined mass production. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, material parameters were evaluated to determine their impact on the characteristics of emulsion polymerized toner composites.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2023-0091
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Green encapsulation of textile dyes using lecithin to increase dyeing
           performance

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      Authors: Shimaa S.M. Elhadad, Hany Kafafy, Hamada Mashaly, Ahmed Ali El-Sayed
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to use liposome technology in the treatment of fabrics textiles because of its efficient energy saving, reducing time and temperature. The newly prepared lecithin liposome was used to encapsulate dyes for the purpose of increasing dyeing affinity. Different ratios of commercially available lecithin liposomes (1%, 3%, 5% and 7%) were used simultaneously in the dyeing of cotton and wool fabrics. The treated fabrics (cotton and wool fabrics) were confirmed using different analytical procedures such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transition infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet protection factor, colour strength (K S) measurements and fastness measurements. The results show that increasing liposome ratios in dyeing baths leads to increased dyeing affinity for cotton and wool fabrics compared with conventional dyeing without using liposomes. In addition to that, the colour strength values, infrared spectra, SEM and fastness properties of non-liposome-dyed fabrics and liposome-dyed fabrics were investigated. The research paper provides broad spectrum of green encapsulation fabrics using liposome technology to perform the dye stability, dye strength and fastness.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2023-0094
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Investigation of the effects of self-crosslinking acrylate with TiO
           nanoparticles on cotton denim fabrics

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      Authors: Sabiha Sezgin Bozok
      Abstract: Titanium(IV) oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) were deposited to cotton denim fabrics using a self-crosslinking acrylate – a polymer dispersion to extend the lifetime of the products. This study aims to determine the optimum conditions to increase abrasion resistance, to provide self-cleaning properties of denim fabrics and to examine the effects of these applications on other physical properties. The denim samples were first treated with nonionic surfactant to increase their wettability. Three different amounts of the polymer dispersion and two different pH levels were selected for the experimental design. The finishing process was applied to the fabrics with pad-dry-cure method. The presence of the coatings and the adhesion of TiO2 NPs to the surfaces were confirmed by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. It was ascertained that the most appropriate self-crosslinking acrylate amount and ambient pH level is 10 mL and “2”, respectively, for providing increased abrasion resistance (2,78%) and enhanced self-cleaning properties (363,4%) in the denim samples. The coating reduced the air permeability and softness of the denim samples. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry analysis results showed that the treatments increased the crystallization temperatures and melting enthalpy values of the denim samples. Based on the thermal test results, it is clear that mass loss of the denim samples at 370°C decreased as the amount of self-crosslinking acrylate increased (at pH 3). This study helped us to find out optimum amount of self-crosslinking acrylate and proper pH level for enhanced self-cleaning and abrasion strength on denim fabrics. With this finishing process, an environmentally friendly and long-life denim fabric was designed.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2023-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Use of carboxymethyl cellulose, Klucel G, gum Arabic and zinc oxide
           nanoparticles nanocomposite as strength agents for inked papyrus

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      Authors: Bataa Sayed Mohamed Mazen, Badawi Mohamed Ismail, Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan, Mahmoud Ali, Wael S. Mohamed
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to detect the effect of some natural cellulosic polymers in their nano forms with the addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles on restoring the lost mechanical strength of degraded papyrus without any harmful effects on the inks. In the current study, the USB digital microscopy, scanning electron microscope, measurement of mechanical properties (tensile and elongation), pH measurement, color change and infrared spectroscopy were undertaken for the samples before and after treatment and aging. In the current study, the USB digital microscopy, scanning electron microscope, measurement of mechanical properties (tensile and elongation), pH measurement, color change and infrared spectroscopy were undertaken for the samples before and after treatment and aging. The effect of strengthening materials was studied on cellulose and carbon ink, which makes this study closer to reality as the manuscript is the consistent structure of cellulose and inks, whereas most of the literature stated the impact of consolidation materials on the strengthening the cellulosic supports without attention to their impact on inks.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2023-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • New insights into the role of color extraction from (Aegle Marmelos leaf)
           using a non-traditional heating source

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      Authors: Nancy Sobh, Nagla Elshemy, Sahar Nassar, Mona Ali
      Abstract: Due to herbs and plants’ therapeutic properties and simplicity of availability in nature, humans have used them to treat a variety of maladies and diseases since ancient times. Later, as technology advanced, these plants and herbs gained significant relevance in some industries due to their suitable chemical composition, abundant availability and ease of access. Aegle marmelos is a species of plant that may be found in nature. Yet, little or very little literature was located on the coloration behavior of this plant’s leaves. This study aims to focus on the effect of different parameters on the extraction of colorant from Aegle marmelos leaves. Some factors that affected on the extraction processes were examined and found to have significant impacts on the textile dyeing such as the initial dye concentration, extracted temperature, extracted bath pH and extracted time were all changed to see how they affected color extraction. The authors report a direct comparison between three heating methods, namely, microwave irradiation (MWI), ultrasonic waves (USW) and conventional heating (CH). The two kinetic models have been designed (pseudo-first and pseudo-second orders) in the context of these experiments to investigate the mechanism of the dyeing processes for fabrics under study. Also, the experimental data were analyzed according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. From the result, it was discovered these characteristics were found to have a substantial effect on extraction efficiency. Temperature 90°C and 80°C when using CH and USW, respectively, while at 90% watt when using MWI, period 120 min when using CH as well as USW waves, while 40 min when using MWI, and pH 4, 5 and 10 for polyamide, wool and cotton, respectively, were the optimal extraction conditions. Also, the authors can say that wool gives a higher absorption than the other fabric. Additionally, MWI provided the best color strength (K/S) value, and homogeneity, at low temperatures reducing the energy and time consumed. The coloring follows the order: MWI> USW> CH. The adsorption isotherm of wool could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm when applying CH and USW as a heating source, while it is well fitted by the Langmuir equation in the case of MWI. In the study, it was observed that the pseudo-first-order kinetic model fits better the experimental results of CH with a constant rate K1 = −0.000171417 mg/g.min, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better the experimental results of absorption of both MWI (K2 = 38.14022572 mg/g.min) and USW (K2 = 12.45343554 mg/g.min). There is no research limitation for this work. Dye was extracted from Aegle marmelos leaves by applying three different heating sources (MWI, ultrasonic waves [USWW] and CH). This work has practical applications for the textile industry. It is concluded that using Aegle marmelose leaves can be a possible alternative to extract dye from natural resource by applying new technology to save energy and time and can make the process greener. Socially, it has a good impact on the ecosystem and global community because the extracted dye does not contain any carcinogenic materials. The work is original and contains value-added products for the textile industry and other confederate fields.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Synthesis of polymer-based antiviral coating using polyethylene glycol
           (PEG) and acrylic resin as binder

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      Authors: Reasmy Raj, Amirul Syafiq, Vengadaesvaran Balakrishnan, Shakeel Ahmad, Nasrudin Abd Rahim, Pouya Hassandarvish, Sazaly Abu Bakar, A.K. Pandey
      Abstract: This paper aims to fabricate a polymer-based polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating with acrylic resin as a binder that can show antiviral activity against the feline coronavirus (FCov) on the glass substrate. The PEG/acrylic coating systems of different weight percentages were coated on the glass substrates using the spray-coating method and cured at room temperature for 24 h. The coating system containing 20 Wt.% of PEG exhibits the highest antiviral activities as high as 99.9% against FCov compared with other samples. Findings will be useful in the development of antiviral coating for PPE fabrics by using the simple synthesis method. Application of PEG as an antiviral agent in the antiviral coating system with high antiviral activities about 99.9%.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2023-0070
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Sustainable cotton dyeing with reactive dyes in the recycled dyeing
           wastewater

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      Authors: Dawu Shu, Shaolei Cao, Yan Zhang, Wanxin Li, Bo Han, Fangfang An, Ruining Liu
      Abstract: This paper aims to find a suitable solution to degrade the C.I. Reactive Red 24 (RR24) dyeing wastewater by using sodium persulphate to recycle water and inorganic salts. The effects of temperature, the concentration of inorganic salts and Na2CO3 and the initial pH value on the degradation of RR24 were studied. Furthermore, the relationship between free radicals and RR24 degradation effect was investigated. Microscopic routes and mechanisms of dye degradation were further confirmed by testing the degradation karyoplasmic ratio of the product. The feasibility of the one-bath cyclic dyeing in the recycled dyeing wastewater was confirmed through the properties of dye utilization and color parameters. The appropriate conditions were 0.3 g/L of sodium persulphate and treatment at 95°C for 30 min, which resulted in a decolorization rate of 98.4% for the dyeing wastewater. Acidic conditions are conducive to rapid degradation of dyes, while ·OH or SO4−· have a destructive effect on dyes under alkaline conditions. In the early stage of degradation, ·OH played a major role in the degradation of dyes. For sustainable cyclic dyeing of RR24, inorganic salts were reused in this dyeing process and dye uptake increased with the times of cycles. After the fixation, some Na2CO3 may be converted to other salts, thereby increasing the dye uptake in subsequent cyclic staining. However, it has little impact on the dye exhaustion rate and color parameters of dyed fabrics. The recommended technology not only reduces the quantity of dyeing wastewater but also enables the recycling of inorganic salts and water, which meets the requirements of sustainable development and clean production.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0082
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Effect of isobornyl acrylate and hexanediol diacrylate on the properties
           of UV-curable resin developed from suberic acid-derived polyester polyol

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      Authors: Umesh Mahajan, S.T. Mhaske
      Abstract: This study aims to focus on how reactive diluents with mono- and di-functionalities affect the properties of resin formulation developed from bioderived precursors. A hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) terminated urethane acrylate oligomer was synthesized and characterized to study its application in stereolithography 3D printing with different ratios of isobornyl acrylate and hexanediol diacrylate. Polyester polyol was synthesized from suberic acid and butanediol. Additionally, isophorone diisocyanate, polyester polyol and HEMA were used to create urethane acrylate oligomer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H NMR were used to characterize the polyester polyol and oligomer. Various formulations were created by combining oligomer with reactive diluents in concentrations ranging from 0% to 30% by weight and curing with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The cured coatings and 3D printed specimens were then evaluated for their properties. The findings revealed an improvement in thermal stability, contact angle value, tensile strength and surface properties of the product which indicated its suitability for use as a 3D printing material. This study discusses how oligomers that have been cured by UV radiation with mono- and difunctional reactive diluents give excellent coating characteristics and demonstrate suitability and stability for 3D printing applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Investigation of TiO replacement alternatives for water-based paints using
           styrene butyl acrylate

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      Authors: Seda Aygül, Serkan Yılmazsönmez, Arzu Soyalp, Ayse Aytac
      Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has high opacity, high brightness and whiteness, owing to its high refractive index value. It is mainly used in the coating industry and continuous efforts have been made to replace some of the TiO2 in paint with new pigments. This study aims to replace part of TiO2 pigment with various percentages of BaSO4, CaCO3 and kaolin in styrene butyl acrylate-based paint formulations, without changing the properties of paints using only titanium dioxide. To determine the optimum use rate of new pigment mixing, opacity, gloss, scrub resistance and weather resistance properties have been investigated in the water-based paint formulation. The morphological properties of these samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In the total color change (ΔE) measurements, it was observed that the sample coded 85Ti/15Ba produced extremely similar results to the situation when TiO2 was used alone. It was seen that the best results were obtained when 85Ti/15Ba was used instead of TiO2. Comparison research on the impact of replacing TiO2 with BaSO4, CaCO3 and kaolin on the performance characteristics of water-based styrene butyl acrylate-based paint formulations has not been done in the literature, according to the literature search.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2023-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Multifunctional finishes on photochromic microcapsule-printed cotton
           fabrics using titanium oxide nanoparticles

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      Authors: Gobikannan Tamilmani, Venkhatesan D., Santhosh P., Tamilselvan M., Suryappa Jayappa Pawar, Amin Hirenbhai Navinbhai
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the combination of photochromic microcapsules, which use the ultraviolet (UV) rays for colour changing phenomena, and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs), which block the UV rays by their photocatalytic activity in the sunlight on the cotton fabric. The TiO2 NPs mixed with photochromic printing paste are used for coating on cotton fabric and further curing is performed in a one-step process. The photochromic pigment printed fabric impregnated in a liquid solution is processed in a two-step process with two variables such as 1% TiO2 and 2% TiO2. The characterization of samples was done with a UV transmittance analyser, surface contact angle, antimicrobial test and fabric physical properties. The UV protection of TiO2-treated photochromic printed fabric was high and gives the ultraviolet protection factor rating of 2,000 which denotes almost maximum blocking of UV rays. The antibacterial activity of the one-step samples shows the highest 36 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus (gram-positive) and 32 mm ZOI against E. coli (gram-negative) bacteria. The one-step sample shows the highest static water contact angle of 118.6° representing more hydrophobicity, whereas the untreated fabric is fully wetted (0.4°). In two-step processes, as the concentration of TiO2 increased, the antibacterial activity, UV blocking and hydrophobicity became better. This work achieves the multifunctional finishes by using photochromic microcapsules and NPs in a single process as a first attempt. The results inferred that one-step sample has achieved higher values in most of the tests conducted when compared to all other sample.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0079
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Fabrication of thermal insulation sodium alginate/SiO composite aerogel
           with superior radiative cooling function for firefighting clothing

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      Authors: Qing Jiang, Yuhang Wan, Xiaoqian Li, Xueru Qu, Shengnan Ouyang, Yi Qin, Zhenyu Zhu, Yushu Wang, Hualing He, Zhicai Yu
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the thermal performance of sodium alginate (SA) aerogel attached to nano SiO2 and its radiative cooling effect on firefighting clothing without environmental pollution. SA/SiO2 aerogel with refractory heat insulation and enhanced radiative cooling performance was fabricated by freeze-drying method, which can be used in firefighting clothing. The microstructure, chemical composition, thermal stability, and thermal emissivity were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer and infrared emissivity measurement instrument. The radiative cooling effect of aerogel was studied using thermal infrared imager and thermocouple. When the addition of SiO2 is 25% of SA, the prepared aerogel has excellent heat insulation and a high radiative cooling effect. Under a clear sky, the temperature of SA/SiO2 aerogel is 9.4°C lower than that of pure SA aerogel and 22.1°C lower than that of the simulated environment. In addition, aerogel has more exceptional heat insulation effect than other common fabrics in the heat insulation performance test. SA/SiO2 aerogel has passive radiative cooling function, which can efficaciously economize global energy, and it is paramount to environment-friendly cooling. This method could pave the way for high-performance cooling materials designed for firefighting clothing to keep maintain the wearing comfort of firefighters. SA/SiO2 aerogel used in firefighting clothing can release heat to the low-temperature outer space in the form of thermal radiation to achieve its own cooling purpose, without additional energy supply.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2023-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Preparation of polysulfone/sulfonated polysulfone-SiO nanofiltration
           membrane and its performance characterization

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      Authors: Liangbin Chen, Lihong Zhao, Keren Ding, Kaibo Xu, Xianzhe Tang
      Abstract: This study aims to optimize the preparation conditions and modify the nanofiltration (NF) membranes to prepare high-performance polysulfone/sulfonated polysulfone composite nanofiltration (PSF/SPSF-NF) membranes through interfacial polymerization. Investigating the impacts of anhydrous piperazine (PIP) concentration, trimesoyl chloride (TMC) concentration and basement membrane type on NF membrane performance, the optimal membrane was prepared. In addition, nano-SiO2 was added to the active separation layer to modify the NF membranes. The comprehensive performance of PSF/SPSF-NF membranes was optimized when the concentration of PIP was 0.75 Wt.% and the concentration of TMC was 0.15 Wt.%, at which time the water flux was 66.1 L·m−2·h−1 and the retention rate of Na2SO4 was 98.1%. The comprehensive performance of polysulfone/sulfonated polysulfone-SiO2 nanofiltration (PSF/SPSF-SiO2-NF) membranes was optimized when the blending ratio of nano-SiO2 to PIP was 2:3, with a pure water flux of 81.9 L·m−2·h−1 and a Na2SO4 retention rate of 95.9%. Compared to polysulfone nanofiltration (PSF-NF) membranes and PSF/SPSF-NF membranes, NF membranes with nano-SiO2 increased the flux recovery rate by 22.9% and 8.7%. PSF/SPSF-SiO2-NF membrane exhibits excellent antifouling properties. There is currently no literature available on the preparation of NF membranes using polysulfone/sulfonated polysulfone (PSF/SPFS) as a substrate. This provides a method for modifying NF membranes, starting with the modification of the basement membrane and then modifying the active separation layer.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2023-0096
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Preparation and performance of self-healing polymer cement-based
           waterproof coating with ion chelator

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      Authors: Linghuan Li, Shibin Sun, Ronghua Zhuang, Bing Zhang, Zeyu Li, Jianying Yu
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a polymer cement-based waterproof coating with self-healing capability to efficiently and intelligently solve the building leakage caused by cracking of waterproof materials, along with excellent durability to prolong its service life. Ion chelators are introduced into the composite system based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer emulsion and ordinary Portland cement to prepare self-healing polymer cement-based waterproof coating. Hydration, microstructure, wettability, mechanical properties, durability, self-healing performance and self-healing products of polymer cement-based waterproof coating with ion chelator are investigated systematically. Meanwhile, the chemical composition of self-healing products in the crack was examined. The results showed that ion chelators could motivate the hydration of C2S and C3S, as well as the formation of hydration products (C-S-H gel) of the waterproof coating to improve its compactness. Compared with the control group, the waterproof coating with ion chelator had more excellent water resistance, alkali resistance, thermal and UV aging resistance. When the dosage of ion chelator was 2%, after 28 days of curing, cracks with a width of 0.29 mm in waterproof coating could fully heal and cracks with a width of 0.50 mm could achieve a self-healing efficiency of 72%. Furthermore, the results reveal that the self-healing product in the crack was calcite crystalline CaCO3. A novel ion chelator was introduced into the composite coating system to endow it with excellent self-healing ability to prolong its service life. It has huge application potential in the field of building waterproofing.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-09
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0080
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Embedding anatase, rutile, and brookite TiO2 nanoparticles to cotton
           fabric with epoxy silane and comparison of their effects on
           photodegradation

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      Authors: Sabiha Sezgin Bozok
      Abstract: This study aims to embed anatase, rutile and brookite TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with different crystal phases into cotton fabrics by epoxy silane and to examine the effect of these applications on the photocatalytic and mechanical properties of the fabric. Different aqueous dispersions which contain anatase, rutile and brookite were prepared at three different concentrations (5%, 10% and 15%). These NPs were embedded in cotton fabrics by using GPTS [(3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane]. Characterization tests were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR). Samples were stained with methylene blue (MB) and then exposed to solar light for different periods. Color changes of the samples were examined with a spectrophotometer. Air permeability, abrasion and tear strength tests were applied to all samples. According to SEM images, the NPs were successfully attached to the cotton fabrics, and epoxy silane coating surrounded the fiber surfaces. The presence of the coating was also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and FT/IR. The treatments reduced the stainability of the samples. The most effective applications for ensuring photocatalytic activity in cotton fabrics were suspensions as 10% brookite, 10% anatase and 5% anatase, in descending order. The applied coating slightly reduced the samples’ air permeability, and wear and tear strength. The importance of this study is to determine the optimal crystal phase and its concentration by using epoxy silane to ensure self-cleaning properties on cotton fabrics. The sample treated with 10% brookite is the most approached its original white color by 99.65% as a result of degradation of MB (after 120 min). On the other hand, using the pure rutile with epoxy silane was not suitable for removing MB from the fabric.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0077
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Experimental exploration of mechanical behaviour of graphene oxide blend
           polymer nanocomposites

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      Authors: Manikandaraja G., Pandiyarajan R., Vasanthanathan A., Sabarish S.
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the development of composites made of epoxy (E) resin with different weight percentages of polypropylene (PP) and graphene oxide (Go) to form nanocomposite plates. A hand lay-up process was used to develop 21 different composites, with varying concentrations of PP (5%–35%) and Go (5%–35%). A ternary composite of E matrix was produced by combining binary fillers PP and Go (5%–35%) in a 1:1 ratio to a (95%–5%) solution. With the help of adopting the melt condensation deal to extract Go, the modified Hummers method was used to make Go platelets. Through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction investigations, the particulate’s size and structural characteristics were identified. Based on the FESEM analysis of the collapsed zones of the composites, a warp-and-weft-like structure is evident, which endorses the growth yield strength, flexural modulus and impact strength of the composites. The developed nanocomposites have exceptional mechanical capabilities compared to plain E resin, with E resin exhibiting better tensile strength, modulus and flexural strength when combined with 10% PP and 10% Go. When compared to neat E resin, materials formed from composites have exceptional mechanical properties. When mixed with 10% PP and 10% Go, E resin in particular displays improved tensile strength (23 MPa), tensile modulus (4.15 GPa), flexural strength (75.6 MPa) and other attributes. Engineering implications include automobile side door panels, spacecraft applications, brake pads and flexible battery guards.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2023-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation and dispersion properties of polyacrylate copolymer dispersant

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      Authors: Xia Sun, Jianben Xu, Caili Yu, Faai Zhang
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize a polyacrylate-based dispersant with a determined target molecular weight for oily systems and to determine the optimal dispersant level and monomer ratio of the dispersant. The dispersant was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization using methacrylic acid, butyl acrylate and dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate as the monomer. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic hydrogen spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis. The dispersant was used to disperse TiO2, and the performance of the dispersant was evaluated by measuring the viscosity, particle size and dispersive force of the slurry. The dispersant exhibited high thermal stability and was successfully anchored to the surface of the TiO2 pigment. When used to disperse a TiO2 slurry, it effectively made the TiO2 slurry more fluid, indicating its strong viscosity-reducing properties. The viscosity, particle sizes and dispersion capabilities of the TiO2 slurry were found to vary depending on the contents and monomer ratios of the dispersant. P(MAA-BA-DM) dispersant increases the wettability of TiO2 only in oily solvents but not in aqueous solvents. P(MAA-BA-DM) dispersant makes it easier to disperse TiO2 pigments in oily solvents, increasing the amount of pigment in the solvent and making the preparation of highly pigmented pastes easier. A dispersant containing suitable carboxyl and tertiary amine groups was initially synthesized to disperse TiO2 in an oily system. The findings are anticipated to be used in the formulation of pigment concentrates, industrial coatings and other solvent-based coatings.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2023-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Lignosulfonate and glycidyl ether modified urea formaldehyde wood
           adhesives for interior particleboard production

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      Authors: Ümran Burcu Alkan, Nilgün Kızılcan, Başak Bengü
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is the development of sustainable and low-formaldehyde emission wood adhesive formulations. Three-step urea formaldehyde (UF) resin has been in situ modified with calcium lignosulfonate (LS) and/or 1,4 butanediol diglycidyl ether (GE). The structural, chemical, thermal and morphological characterizations were carried out on resin samples. These resins have been applied for particleboard pressing, and UF, UF-LS and UF-GE were evaluated as P2 classes according to EN 312. The results show that the improved LS- or diglycidyl ether-modified UF wood adhesives were successful in their adhesive capacity, and the formaldehyde content of the final product was obtained as low as 8 mg/100 g. This paper highlights that the presented adhesive formulations could be a potential eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to formaldehyde-based wood adhesives for interior particleboard production. Combination of LS and GE resulted in weaker mechanical properties and fulfilled P1 class particleboards due to temperature and duration conditions. Therefore, in situ usage of LS or GE in UF resins is highly recommended for particleboard pressing. Formaldehyde content of particleboards was determined with the perforator method according to EN 12460-5 and all of the particleboards exhibited E1 class. LS was more efficient in decreasing formaldehyde content than GE. This study provides the application of particleboards with low formaldehyde emission. The developed LS- and diglycidyl ether-modified UF resins made it possible to obtain boards with significantly low formaldehyde content compared with commercial resins. The developed formaldehyde-based resin formulation made it possible to produce laboratory-scale board prototypes using LS or GE without sacrificing of press factors and panel quality.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2023-0076
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis and adsorption performance of temperature-sensitive imprinted
           composite poly (vinylidene fluoride) resin membranes with chitosan
           modification for selective separation of ReO4

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      Authors: Wan Xu, Xinsheng Liu, Huijuan Zhang, Ting Huo, Zhenbin Chen, Yuan Sun
      Abstract: This study aims to prepare an imprinted composite membrane with grafted temperature-sensitive blocks for the efficient adsorption and separation of rhenium(Re) from aqueous solutions. PVDF resin membrane was used as the substrate, dopamine and chitosan (CS) were used to modify the membrane surface and temperature-sensitive block PDEA was grafted on the membrane surface. Then acrylic acid (AA) and N-methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) were used as the functional monomers, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide (Vc-H2O2) as the initiator to obtain the temperature-sensitive ReO4− imprinted composite membranes. The effect of the preparation process on the performance of CS–Re–TIICM was investigated in detail, and the optimal preparation conditions were as follows: the molar ratios of AA–NH4ReO4, N-MAM and EGDMA were 0.13, 0.60 and 1.00, respectively. The optimal temperature and time of the reaction were 40 °C and 24 h. The maximum adsorption capacity of CS–Re–TIICM prepared under optimal conditions was 0.1071 mmol/g, and the separation was 3.90 when MnO4− was used as the interfering ion. The quasi first-order kinetics model and Langmuir model were more suitable to describe the adsorption process. With the increasing demand for Re, the recovery of Re from Re-containing secondary resources becomes important. This study demonstrated a new material that could be separated and recovered Re in a complex environment, which could effectively alleviate the conflict between the supply and demand of Re. This contribution provided a new material for the selective separation and purification of ReO4−, and the adsorption capacity and separation of CS–Re–TIICM were increased with 1.673 times and 1.219 time compared with other Re adsorbents, respectively. In addition, when it was used for the purification of NH4ReO4 crude, the purity was increased from 91.950% to 99.999%.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2023-0004
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation of BiOBr/PVDF photocatalytic membranes for long-term and
           efficient degradation of organic dyes using phase transition and in situ
           deposition methods

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      Authors: Dong Chen, Rui Zhang, JiaCheng Jiang
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the morphology and physicochemical properties of BiOBr/Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite membranes and the differences in the properties of BiOBr/PVDF composite membranes made by adding different precursor ratios during the casting process. In this paper, sodium bromide and Bi(NO3)3 were used as precursors for the preparation of BiOBr photocatalysts, and PVDF membranes were modified by using the phase conversion method in conjunction with the in situ deposition method to produce BiOBr/PVDF hydrophilic composite membranes with both membrane separation and photocatalytic capabilities. The characterization results confirmed that the composites were successfully and homogeneously co-mingled in the PVDF membranes. The related performance of the composite membrane was tested, and it was found that the composite membrane with the optimal precursor incorporation ratio had good photocatalytic efficiency and antipollution ability; the removal efficiencies of methyl orange, rhodamine B and methylene blue were 80.43%, 85.02% and 86.94%, respectively, in 2.5 h. The photocatalytic efficiency of composite membranes with different precursor ratios increased and then decreased with the increase of the precursor addition ratio. The composite membrane is prepared by phase conversion method with in situ deposition method, and the BiOBr material has unique advantages for the degradation of organic dyes. The comprehensive experimental data can be known that the composite membrane prepared in this paper has high degradation efficiency and good durability for organic dyes.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2023-0075
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Comparison of life cycle assessment for wooden pallet and different
           plastic pallets based on SimaPro

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      Authors: Fenjuan Shao, Qingbin Cui
      Abstract: The study aims to compare and analyze the impact of the commonly used pallets (wooden pallet and plastic pallets), using life cycle assessment (LCA), then provide certain suggestions for the development of green packaging. In this study, software Simapro was used to calculate and analyze the whole life cycle of pallets from the stage of raw materials and production to processing and waste disposal. A total of 12 environmental categories were used to quantitatively analyze the environmental impact of the four different pallets. The results showed that, regardless of raw material, processing, or waste stage, the environmental impact of wooden pallet was lower than that of plastic pallet. Wooden pallet was better than plastic pallets. This study compared and analyzed the pallet of 1 × 1.2m with different materials. Green packaging is the development trend of the future packaging, which follows the principle of 3R1D. According to the calculation results, corresponding suggestions can be put forward from production, processing, using, wasting and other aspects, and make corresponding contributions to the development of green packaging. The contribution and impact of each stage of the product on the environment can be studied. The environmental impact, such as global warming potential, water scarcity, can be reduced through different solutions such as the use of green materials, good processing techniques and higher recycling rates.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0067
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Study on photoluminescence of integrated nano-calcium carbonate (CaCO)
           enhanced with dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium borophosphate (CBP) phosphor

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      Authors: Khishn Kumar Kandiah, Vengadaesvaran Balakrishnan, Amirul Syafiq, Nasrudin Abd Rahim, Adarsh Kumar Pandey, Yee Seng Tan, Sanjay J Dhoble, Ramesh Kasi, Ramesh Subramaniam
      Abstract: There is a strong inducement to develop new inorganic materials to substitute the current industrial pigments, which are known for their poor ultraviolet absorbent and low photoluminescence (PL) properties. The purpose of this paper is to invent a better rare-earth-based pigment material as a spectral modifier with good luminescence properties to enhance the spectral response for photovoltaic panel application. Different phosphor samples made of nano-calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with varied wt.% of the dopant Dysprosium doped calcium borophosphate (CBP/Dy) as (W0 – 0%, W1 – 3,85%, W2 – 7.41%, W3 –10.71% and W4 –13.79%) were prepared via the solid-state diffusion method at 600 °C for 6 h using a muffle furnace. The structural, morphological and luminescence properties of the CaCO3:CBP/Dy powder samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and PL test. The XRD, SEM and FTIR results verified the crystalline formation, morphological behaviour and vibration bonds of synthesized CBP/Dy-doped CaCO3 powder samples. XRD pattern revealed that the synthesized powder samples exhibit crystalline structured materials, and SEM results showed irregular shape and porous-like structured morphologies. FTIR spectrum shows prominent bands at 712, 874 and 1,404 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of CO32− groups and out-of-plane bending. PL characterization of CBP/Dy-doped CaCO3 (sample W) shows emission at 427 nm (λmax) under the excitation of 358 nm. The intensity of PL emission spectra drops due to the concentration quenching effect, while the maximum PL intensity is observed in the W3 phosphor powder system. This phosphor powder is expected to find out the potential application such as a spectral modifier which is applied to match the energy of photons with solar cell bandgap to improve spectral absorption and lead to better efficiency. The introduction of a nano-CaCO3:CBP/Dy hybrid powder system with good luminescence properties to be used as spectral modifiers for solar cell application has been synthesized in the lab, which is a novel attempt.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2023-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Harnessing the potential of regenerated bamboo knitted fabrics in
           development of eco-friendly masks

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      Authors: Fareha Asim, Farhana Naeem, Shenela Naqvi
      Abstract: Face masks are the most recommended precautionary measure since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 since 2020 and the most useful PPE against this virus and its variants so far. This study aims to develop reusable and biodegradable mask from 100% regenerated bamboo or/and its blend. Selection of natural and regenerated textile materials is to minimize generation of solid waste. This attempt will eventually protect our earth by minimizing or better discontinuing the production of the disposable nonbiodegradable face masks available worldwide. Hundred percent regenerated bamboo and 50:50 bamboo:cotton were selected to knit plain and interlock fabrics for manufacturing of reusable sustainable face masks. A 23 32-mixed-level factorial design was applied to study the effect of liquor ratio and temperatures, fabric structure, blend ratios and finishes at three different levels. Model 23 32 has two factors (liquor ratio and temperatures) at three levels and three factors (fabric structure, blend ratios and type of finish) at two levels. Knitted fabrics were then applied with antibacterial finishes; sanitized T99-19 and sanitized T27-22, separately at three different liquor ratios (1:10, 1:12 and 1:15) and temperatures (45, 55 and 65 °C) via exhaust method. After completing processing, fabric thickness, pilling resistance, dimensional stability, bursting strength, Berger whiteness index, air permeability and antibacterial properties of each trial were evaluated using standard test procedures. Selected fabrics treated either by sanitized T27 or sanitized T99 in a liquor ratio of 1:15 against 65 °C, showed excellent bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity. However, 100% regenerated bamboo interlock knitted fabric treated with sanitized T99 in a liquor ratio of 1:15 at 65 °C has the most desired values of dimensional stability, pilling resistance, Berger whiteness, fabric thickness, air permeability and bursting strength which made it the best for the manufacturing of the masks. Reusable mask is comprised of three layers in which the first and the third layers were of selected 100% regenerated bamboo fabric while a PM2.5 filter was inserted in between. Bacterial filtration efficiency, particle filtration efficiency, biocompatibility and microbial cleanliness will be evaluated in future, to compare the performance of proposed reusable and biodegradable face mask with N95 masks and other fabric masks available commercially. This study resulted in a development of reusable eco-friendly facemask which was not attempted by the preceding investigations. Outcomes of this work pave the way for a greener and safer earth by using easily obtainable regenerated bamboo fabrics, antibacterial finishes and knitted structures.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • An experimental study for using nano-alumina to improving mechanical
           properties of epoxy resin for assembling glass artifacts

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      Authors: Rania Abdel Gwad Eloriby, Hamdy Mohamed Mohamed
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the efficacy of nano-alumina (nano-Al2O3) in improving the performance of epoxy adhesives used to assemble archaeological glass. The conservators face a significant problem in assembling this type of artifact. Therefore, the assembling process is considered one of the important stages that must be taken care of to preserve these artifacts from damage and loss. To evaluate the stability of adhesives, the samples were subjected to artificial aging under varying environmental conditions. Some investigative techniques and mechanical testing were used in this study to evaluate the selected materials. It includes a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, visual assessment, digital microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color change and tensile strength test. The visual evaluation and the digital microscope results showed that the epoxy/nano-Al2O3 greatly resisted artificial aging. Although slight yellowing was present, it did not significantly affect the general appearance of the samples. On the other hand, the pure epoxy sample showed cracks of different sizes on its surface due to aging, as evidenced by SEM examination. Furthermore, epoxy/nano-Al2O3 has a better tensile strength (11.27 MPa) and slight color change (ΔE = 2.06). The main objective of the experimental study was to identify appropriate adhesive materials that possess key properties such as non-yellowing and improved tensile strength by conducting various tests and evaluations. Ultimately, the goal was to identify materials that could serve as effective adhesives for assembling the archaeological glass.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0064
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • An amperometric sensor based on gamma-irradiated PANI-ZnO-NiO
           nanocomposite thin films for Escherichia coli detection in water

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      Authors: Huda Abdullah, Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim, Kok Seng Shum, Aidil Abdul Hamid, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Vidhya Selvanathan, Wing Fen Yap, Seri Mastura Mustaza
      Abstract: Regular monitoring of bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, in wastewater is crucial to ensure the maintenance of public health. Amperometric detection proves to be a fast, sensitive and economically viable solution for E. coli enumeration. This paper reported a prototype amperometric sensor based on PANI-ZnO-NiO nanocomposite thin films prepared by sol–gel method and irradiated with gamma ray. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sensor performance of PANI-ZnO-NiO nanocomposite thin films to detect E. coli in water. The films were varied with different compositions of ZnO and NiO by using the formula PANI-(ZnO)1-x-(NiO)x, with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. PANI-ZnO-NiO nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. The sensor performance was conducted using the current–voltage (I-V) measurement by testing the films in clean water and E. coli solution. XRD diffractograms show the peaks of ZnO (1 0 0) and NiO (1 0 2). AFM analysis shows the surface roughness, and the grain size of PANI-ZnO-NiO thin films decreases when the concentration ratios of NiO increased. I-V curves show the difference in current flow, where the current in E. coli solution is higher than the clean water. PANI-(ZnO)1-x-(NiO)x nanocomposite thin film with the highest concentration of ZnO performed the highest sensitivity among the other concentrations, which can be used to indicate the presence of E. coli bacteria in water.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2022-0046
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Dyeing of silk with extract from

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      Authors: Junling Wu, Longfei Sun, Long Lin
      Abstract: This study aims to dye silk with natural pigments extract of Coreopsis tinctoria, by treating the fabrics with appropriate mordant under suitable dyeing conditions, to achieve good dyeing depth, fastness and ultraviolet (UV) protection. Firstly, single factor experiments were used to determine the basic dyeing conditions of Coreopsis tinctoria. The optimal process conditions for direct dyeing were determined through orthogonal experiments. After that, the dyeing with mordant was used. Based on the previously determined optimal process conditions, silk fabrics were dyed with different mordanting methods, with different mordants and mordant dosages. The dyeing results were compared, in terms of the K/S values of the dyed fabrics, to determine the most appropriate dyeing conditions with mordant. The extract of Coreopsis tinctoria can dye silk fabrics satisfactorily. Good dyeing depth and fastness can be obtained by using suitable dyeing methods and dyeing conditions, especially when using the natural mordant pomegranate rind and the rare earth mordant neodymium oxide. The silk fabrics dyed with Coreopsis tinctoria have good UV resistance, which allows a desirable finishing effect to be achieved while dyeing, using a safe and environmentally friendly method. The composition of Coreopsis tinctoria is complex, and the specific composition of colouring the silk fibre has not been determined. There are many factors that affect the dyeing experiment, which have an impact on the experimental results. The results of this study may help expand the application of Coreopsis tinctoria beyond medicine. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first report on dyeing silk with the extract of Coreopsis tinctoria achieving good dyeing results. Its depth of staining and staining fastness were satisfactory. Optimum dyeing method and dyeing conditions have been identified. The fabric dyed with Coreopsis tinctoria has good UV protection effect, which is conducive to improving the application value of the dyeing fabric. The findings help offer a new direction for the application of medicinal plants in the eco-friendly dyeing of silk.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0061
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Development of protective coating system using natural rubber – acrylic
           polyol resin for mild steel

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      Authors: Monapriya Naidu Kerinasamy Naidu, Iling Aema Wonnie Ma, Sachin Sharma Ashok Kumar, Vengadaesvaran Balakrishnan, Ramesh Subramaniam, Ramesh Kasi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a protective coating system on mild steel panel incorporating epoxidized natural rubber with acrylic polyol resin. In this work, a novel attempt is made to develop binder coatings using epoxidized natural rubber-based material and an organic resin (acrylic resin) for corrosion protection on metal substrate. Seven different samples of multifunctional coatings are developed by varying the compositions of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and acrylic resin. The properties of the developed coatings have been characterized using analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS has been carried out for 30 days to evaluate the corrosion resistance after immersing into 3.5 wt.% of sodium chloride. Cross hatch cut tester (CHT) has been used to study the adhesive properties. UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV–Vis) was also used to assess changes in the coating-film transparency of the natural rubber-based coating systems in this study. The developed coatings have formed uniform layer on the substrate. CHT results show excellent adhesion of the coatings. Higher concentrations of ENR have higher transparency level, which reduces when the acrylic concentration increases. FTIR analysis confirms the crosslinking that occurred between the components of the coatings. Based on the impedance data from EIS, the incorporation of natural rubber can be an additive for the corrosion protection, which has the coating resistance values well above 108Ω even after 30 days of immersion. The blending method provides a simple and practical solution to improve the strength and adhesion properties of acrylic polyol resin with epoxidized natural rubber. There is still improvement needed for long-term applications. The work has been conducted in our laboratory. The combination of natural rubber-based materials and organic resins is a new approach in coating research.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2023-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis of novel pyrazolyl quinolinone derivatives and their
           physicochemical applications on polyester

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      Authors: Ali A. Ali, M. Abass, S.A. El-Molla, Shimaa Abdel Halim, EL-Shimaa Ibrahim
      Abstract: This study aims to synthesize new disperse dyes based on novel pyrazolyl quinolinone derivatives EQ1 and EQ2 and evaluate their characteristics after dyeing them on a polyester fabric. New dispersed dyes based on pyrazolyl quinolinone derivatives were prepared and confirmed by different analyses, such as infrared spectroscopy, elemental microanalysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. They were dyed on a polyester fabric. The characteristics of dyed polyester were determined by color measurements such as a*, b*, L*, C*, E, Ho, R% and color strength. The electronic structures of EQ1 and EQ2 in gaseous state were investigated using density functional theory/B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) level of theory. The suitability of the prepared dyestuffs for dyeing on polyester fabrics has been investigated. The study was concerned with comparing the contrasting depth of shade and levelness. The study was concerned mainly with dye uptake and color measurements at two different temperatures. The results showed that the exhaustion values of dyes inside the polyester at 130°C were higher than those obtained at conventional dyeing temperature (100°C). The exhaustion values of EQ2 were greater than those of EQ1 at 130°C with 2.2%, while the brightness of EQ2 was higher than that of EQ1 at the two investigated temperatures. The results of molecular orbital calculations show that the studied compounds are planar. In addition, the ionization potential of EQ1 was lower than that of EQ2. The results of the theoretical study helped in understanding the dyeing behavior of the investigated azo dyes. The prepared disperse dyes based on pyrazolyl quinolinone derivatives could be used in textile dyeing of polyester on an industrial scale.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2023-0005
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Effect of an amine-aldehyde condensate modifier on the thermal and
           mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced epoxy composites

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      Authors: Goutam Kumar Jana, Sumit Bera, Ribhu Maity, Tithi Maity, Arjun Mahato, Shibayan Roy, Hemakesh Mohapatra, Bidhan Chandra Samanta
      Abstract: The manufacture of polymer composites with a lower environmental footprint requires incorporation of sustainably sourced components. In addition, the incorporation of novel components should not compromise the material properties. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of a synthetic amine functional toluidine acetaldehyde condensate (AFTAC) as a modifier for fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. One of the fiber components was sourced from agricultural byproducts, and glass fiber was used as the fiber component for comparison. The AFTAC condensate was synthesized via an acid-catalyzed reaction between o-toluidine and acetaldehyde. To demonstrate its efficacy as a toughening agent for diglycidyl ether bisphenol A resin composites and for the comparison of reinforcing materials of interest, composites were fabricated using a natural fiber (mat stick) and a synthetic glass fiber as the reinforcing material. A matched metal die technique was used to fabricate the composites. Composites were prepared and their mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated. The inclusion of AFTAC led to an improvement in the mechanical strengths of these composites without any significant deterioration of the thermal stability. It was also observed that the fracture strengths for mat stick fiber-reinforced composites were lower than that of glass fiber-reinforced composites. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the use of the AFTAC modifier as well as incorporation of mat stick fibers in epoxy composites has not been demonstrated previously.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2023-0009
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Multidimensional stimulation response RTP micron fiber thin film

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      Authors: Junjian Lu, Hongbin Zhong, Fei Luo
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is as follows: DPP-BOH-PVA has been synthesized from 1,1′:3′,1″-terphenyl-5'-boronic acid (DPP-OH) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The afterglow lifetime of DPP-BOH-PVA was studied by changing contents of DPP-OH (1, 2 and 4 Wt.%). These films were characterized with Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction as structural analysis and DSC as thermal analysis. Afterglow lifetimes were evaluated as time-resolved emission decay profile analysis. Fiber films of DPP-BOH-PVA-2-E have been prepared by electrospinning method with the diameter of 5 μm and afterglow life time of 2.1 s (@ 535 nm) under ambient conditions. Stimulus responsive properties with afterglow emission for fiber film were investigated. During the synthesis of the polymer, modification was carried out using DPP-OH/PVA with a molar ratio of 1/4, under an alkalinity medium with ammonium hydroxide and with a temperature of 80°C. XRD results indicate that DPP-BOH-PVA film had high crystallinity, which is crucial for preparing organic room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials. The reaction mixture must be stirred continuously. Temperature should be controlled to prevent the rapid evaporation of ammonium hydroxide. This study provides technical information for the synthesis of multidimensional stimulation response RTP micron fiber thin film. The electrospinning technology may also promote the applications of the large areas of RTP films. This resin will be used for the multidimensional stimulation response RTP fiber thin film. The diameter of fiber film of PP-BOH-PVA-2-E by electrospinning method was in the range of 5 μm, and its afterglow lifetime decayed to be 2.1 s.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Development of imine-azo-dyes derived from vanillin and salicylaldehyde
           for pH-sensing in smart packaging

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      Authors: Siddhesh Umesh Mestry, Vardhan B. Satalkar, S.T. Mhaske
      Abstract: This study aims to describe the design and synthesis of two novel azo and imine chromophores-based dyes derived from two different aldehydes with intramolecular colour matching that are pH sensitive. The visible absorption wavelength (λmax) was extended when azo chromophore was included in imine-based systems. The dyed patterns created sophisticated colour-changing paper packaging sensors with pH-sensitive chromophores using alum as a mediator or mordant. Due to the tight adhesive bonding, the dyes on paper’s cellulose fibres could not be removed by ordinary water even at extremely high or low pH, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The dyed patterns demonstrated an evident, sensitive and fast colour-changing mechanism with varying pH, from pale yellow to red for Dye-I and from pale yellow to brown-violet for Dye-II. The λmax for colour changing was recorded from 400 to 490 nm for Dye-I, whereas from 400 to 520 for Dye-II. The freshness judgement of food was checked using actual experiments with cooked crab spoilage, where the cooked crab was incubated at 37 oC for 6 h to see the noticeable colour change from yellow to brown-violet with Dye-II. The colour-changing mechanism was studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra at different pH, and thin layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance and FTIR spectroscopy studied the desired structure formation of the dyes. Potential uses for smart packaging sensors include quickly detecting food freshness during transportation or right before consumption. 1. Two novel azo-imine dyes have been synthesized with a pH-responsive effect. 2. The pH-responsive mechanism was studied. 3. The study was supported by computational chemistry using density functional theory. 4. The obtained dyes were used to make pH-responsive sensors for seafood packaging to judge the freshness.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation of alcohol-resistant ink using polyester resin for thermal
           transfer ribbon

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      Authors: Yuanhao Yang, Guangyu Chen, Zhuo Luo, Liuqing Huang, Chentong Zhang, Xuetao Luo, Haixiang Luo, Weiwei Yu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare thermal transfer ribbons with good alcohol resistance. A variety of alcohol-resistant thermal transfer inks were prepared using different polyester resins. The printing temperature, printing effect, adhesion and alcohol resistance of the inks on the label were studied to determine the feasibility of using the ink for manufacturing thermal transfer ribbons. The ink formulations were prepared by a simple and stable grinding technology, and then use mature coating technology to make the ink into a thermal transfer ribbon. The results show that the thermal transfer ink has good scratch resistance, good alcohol resistance and low printing temperature when the three resins coexist. Notably, the performance of the ribbon produced by 500 mesh anilox roller was better than that of other meshes. Specifically, the ink on the matte silver polyethylene terephthalate (PET) label surface was wiped with a cotton cloth soaked in isopropyl alcohol under 500 g of pressure. After 50 wiping cycles, the ink remained intact. The proposed method not only ensures good alcohol resistance but also has lower printing temperature and wider label applicability. Therefore, it can effectively reduce the loss of printhead and reduce production costs, because of the low printing temperature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0142
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Quasiperiodic graph model of rubber elasticity in double-network gels
           undergoing mechanochemical coupling

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      Authors: Aying Zhang, Ziyu Xing, Haibao Lu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanochemical effect and self-growth mechanism of double-network (DN) gel and to provide a quasiperiodic model for rubber elasticity. The chemical reaction kinetics is used to identify the mechanochemical transition probability of host brittle network and to explore the mechanical behavior of endosymbiont ductile network. A quasiperiodic model is proposed to characterize the cooperative coupling of host–endosymbiont networks using the Penrose tiling of a 2 × 2 matrix. Moreover, a free-energy model is formulated to explore the constitutive stress–strain relationship for the DN gel based on the rubber elasticity theory and Gent model. In this study, a quasiperiodic graph model has been developed to describe the cooperative interaction between brittle and ductile networks, which undergo the mechanochemical coupling and mechanical stretching behaviors, respectively. The quasiperiodic Penrose tiling determines the mechanochemistry and self-growth effect of DNs. It is expected to formulate a quasiperiodic graph model of host–guest interaction between two networks to explore the working principle of mechanical and self-growing behavior in DN hydrogels, undergoing complex mechanochemical effect. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified using both finite element analysis and experimental results of DN gels reported in literature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0047
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis of butylated benzo-amino resin by solid formaldehyde
           one-step-two-stage method and its application in high solid content
           coatings

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      Authors: Xingbing Yang, Xinye Wang, Shuang Huang, Xin Liu, Xiang Huang, Ting Lei
      Abstract: In this study, solid formaldehyde, benzoguanamine and butanol were used to synthesize butylated benzo-amino resin by one-step-two-stage method. This research first examined the influence of solid formaldehyde content on the hydroxymethylation phase. Subsequently, the effects of butanol content, etherification time and hydrochloric acid content on the formation of benzo-amino resin during the etherification stage were studied in detail. In addition, the reaction process was further analyzed through interval sampling withdrawing during the hydroxymethylation and etherification stages. Finally, the synthesized benzo-amino resins were used in the production of high solid content polyester and acrylic coatings and the properties of that were also evaluated. Based on the experimental findings, the authors have successfully determined the optimal process conditions for the one-step-two-stage method in this study. The hydroxymethylation stage demonstrated the most favorable outcomes at a reaction temperature of 60°C and a pH of 8.5. Similarly, for the etherification stage, the optimal conditions were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pH of 4.5. Furthermore, the investigation revealed that a ratio of benzoguanamine to solid formaldehyde to n-butanol, specifically at 1:5.2:15, produced the best results. The performance of the resulting etherified benzo-amino resin was thoroughly evaluated in high solid content coatings, and it exhibited promising characteristics. Notably, there was a significant enhancement in the water resistance, solvent resistance and glossiness of canned iron printing varnish coatings. Amino resin, a versatile chemical compound widely used in various industries, presents challenges in terms of sustainability and operational efficiency when synthesized using conventional methods, primarily relying on a 37% formaldehyde solution. To address these challenges, the authors propose a novel approach in this study that combines the advantages of the solid formaldehyde with a two-stage catalytic one-step synthesis process. The primary objective of this research is to minimize the environmental impact associated with amino resin synthesis, optimize resource utilization and enhance the economic feasibility for its industrial implementation. By adopting this alternative approach, the authors aim to contribute toward a more sustainable and efficient production of amino resin.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0043
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Role of intra-ply hybridization and nano reinforcement on crack growth of
           epoxy

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      Authors: Payman Sahbah Ahmed
      Abstract: Epoxy resins are widely used in a variety of engineering applications, including composite wind turbine blades used in the renewable energy industry, highly complex structural components for aircraft, paints, coatings, industrial tooling, biomedical systems, adhesives, electronics and automotive. Epoxies' low fracture toughness is one of the key obstacles preventing its adoption in a wider range of applications. To address epoxy's low fracture toughness, this paper aims to examine the roles of intra-ply hybridization and nano reinforcing. This paper investigates the role of intra-ply hybridization of glass-carbon woven fibers and adding 0.8 wt.% of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nano reinforcement to overcome the low fracture toughness of epoxy. A bending test is used to calculate the composites elastic parameters, and a notched sample three-point bending test is used to show crack behavior in addition to using materials characterization methods to reveal the effect of the MWCNT on structure, bonding, glass transition temperature (Tg) and dispersion of MWCNT in the matrix. Furthermore, this paper suggests using the finite element method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the crack extension. Intra-ply hybridization and MWCNT reinforcement decrease the crack extension of epoxy with time. The inclusion of high-strength carbon fiber increased the fracture toughness of glass composite. Furthermore, the existence of MWCNT in the surrounding area of the notch in epoxy composites hinders crack propagation and provides stiffness at the interface by bridging the crack and eventually enhancing its fracture toughness. Studying the role of intra-ply hybridization of glass-carbon woven fibers and adding 0.8 wt.% of MWCNT nano reinforcement to overcome the low fracture toughness of epoxy. Additionally, this research recommends using the finite element method to overcome the challenge of computing the crack extension.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Study of transmission and reflection of hydrophilic transparent
           nano-titanium dioxide coating

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      Authors: Amirul Syafiq, Lilik Jamilatul Awalin, Syukri Ali, Mohd Arif
      Abstract: The paper aims to design the optimum formulation of the nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) hydrophilic coating system using the synthetic polypropylene glycol (PPG), which can create the reflection and absorption property. TiO2 nanoparticles are used as fillers, and PPG has been blended at the proper ratio of 1PPG: 0.2TiO2. The prepared resin has been applied onto the glass substrate at different numbers of glass immersions during the dip-coating fabrication process. One-time glass immersion is labeled as T1 coating, two-time glass immersion is labeled as T2 coating and three-time glass immersion is labeled as T3 coating. All the prepared coating systems were left dry at ambient temperature. T3 coating showed the lowest reading of WCA value at 40.50°, due to higher surface energy at 61.73 mN/m. The T3 coating also shows the greatest absorbance property among the prepared coating systems among the prepared coating. In terms of reflectance property, the T2 coating system has great reflectance in UV region and near-infrared region, which is 16.47% and 2.77 and 2.73%, respectively. The T2 coating also has great optical transmission about 75.00% at the visible region. The development of thermal insulation coating by studying the relationship between convection heat and reflectance at different wavelengths of incident light. The developed coating shows high potential for glass window application. The application of the hydrophilic coating on light absorption, reflectance and transmission at different wavelengths.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Comparison of life cycle assessment for takeout meal packaging (kraft
           paper bowl and plastic bowl) based on Simapro

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      Authors: Fenjuan Shao, Qingbin Cui
      Abstract: This study aims to compare and analyze the impact of the commonly used takeout packing (Kraft paper bowl and plastic bowl) through life cycle assessment, then certain suggestions for the development of green packaging could be provided. In this study, Simapro software was used to calculate and analyze the whole life cycle of takeout packaging from the stage of raw materials, production and processing and waste disposal. Twelve environmental categories were used to quantitatively analyze the environmental impact of the two different bowls. The results showed that the impact of Kraft paper bowl on the environment was less than that of plastic bowl, regardless of raw material, processing or waste stage. Kraft paper bowl was better than plastic bowl. This study compared and analyzed the progress of 750-mL bowls made with different materials and specific specifications. Green packaging is the development trend of the future packaging and follows the principle of reduce, resue, recycle, degradable. According to the calculation results, corresponding suggestions can be put forward from production, processing, use, waste and other aspects, and make corresponding contributions to the development of green packaging. The contribution and impact of each stage of the product on the environment can be studied. The environmental impacts, such as global warming potential and water scarcity, can be reduced through different solutions, such as the use of green materials, good processing techniques and higher recycling rates.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0113
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Natural dyeing of khadi cotton using rare earth salts as mordant with
           annatto extract

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      Authors: Padma S. Vankar, Afreen Begum
      Abstract: Replacing conventional mordants by benign mordants, rare earth (RE) salts have been used in the process of natural dyeing with annatto seed extract. The purpose was threefold – first, to increase the dye uptake through these new mordants; second, to have better fastness properties of dyed swatches and third, to have lesser effluent pollution, as the new RE mordants are used in one-tenth quantities only. Sustainable natural dyeing was attained by using RE salts as mordant in one-tenth quantity, for natural dyeing, replacing the conventional mordants such as alum and ferrous sulphate. Annatto extract has been used as natural dye. Through the study, it was inferred that the natural dyeing using annatto seed extract gives very good colour depth on the dyed swatches and also shows marked improvement in fastness properties. Research implication is that often it is expected that any new chemical used in the textile processing adds on to the effluent load; however, contrary to that, this study found that the use of RE salt is very beneficial as it is used in smaller quantities, but gives far better dyeing results. RE salts can be used in natural dyeing without causing any harm to the environment and dyers. Use of RE salts in natural dyeing is a new concept. It is a very safe technology and can be used without causing any harm to the environment and the dyers. This study is unique as it focuses on the use of RE salts in natural dyeing replacing the conventional mordants, which are used ten times more in quantity.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of PSF/SPSF blended ultrafiltration
           membranes

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      Authors: Liangbin Chen, Lihong Zhao, Keren Ding
      Abstract: This paper aims to improve the permeability and antifouling of polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration membranes, the PSF matrix was modified by incorporating sulfonated polysulfone (SPSF). Systematic investigations were conducted on the synergistic effects of a pore-forming agent, coagulation bath temperature and SPSF doping in the casting solution on blended ultrafiltration membranes. The chemical composition of the membranes was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and surface roughness of the membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The hydrophilicity of the membrane surface was analyzed using a contact angle meter. The permeability and antifouling properties of the blended membranes were also investigated through filtration experiments. The results indicated that the blended ultrafiltration membranes demonstrated an optimal overall performance when PVP-K30 content was 5.0 Wt.%, coagulation bath temperature was 30°C and SPSF content was 2.4 Wt.%. In comparison to a pure PSF ultrafiltration membrane, there was a significant increase in pure water flux (390.7 L·m−2·h−1) by 2.2 times, while bovine serum albumin retention slightly decreased to 93.8%. In addition, the flux recovery rate improved by 2.1 times (71.4%) compared to that of the original PSF ultrafiltration membrane. The method provided a simple and practical solution for improving the antifouling and permeability of PSF ultrafiltration membranes. SPSF was anticipated to serve as an excellent modification additive for the preparation of ultrafiltration membranes with superior properties.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2023-0040
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Identification of natural dyes with halochromic properties and their
           potential use as food spoilage indicators

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      Authors: Hafsat T. Rumah, Mansur B. Ibrahim, Sani M. Gumel
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify and investigate some natural dyes with halochromic properties for potential use as food spoilage indicators to reduce waste and curve the negative effects of food borne diseases. Exactly 10 potential dye-yielding plants were selected based on their colour (mostly purple, red, maroon and pink). Solvent extraction was used to extract the dyes and pH differential method was used to determine the concentrations of anthocyanin in the extracted dyes. Different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (0.1 M, 1 M and 2 M) in drops and in excess as acidic and basic solution, respectively, were used to test the halochromicity of the extracted dyes. Methyl red (a synthetic dye) was used as a reference standard/control. The pH of the dyes was recorded before and after addition of both NaOH and HCl solutions. Five out of the 10 dyes extracted (labelled as dye A–E for Ti plant (green Cordyline fruticosa), coleus (Coleus blumei), paper flower (Bougainvillea glabra), painted nettle (Palisandra coleus) and purple heart (Setcresea purpurea), respectively, were found to be halochromic (even at low doses) by changing its colour when exposed to both acidic and basic solutions. While other dyes labelled F–J for red acalypha (Acalypha wilkesiana), golden shower (Cassia fistula), golden dew drop (Duranta repens), wild sage (Lantana camara var Aculeata) and pink oleander (Apocynaceae Nerium oleander), respectively, were either completely insensitive to the solutions in drops, slightly sensitive at high doses or the colour change is insignificant. Although some dyes were found to be more sensitive than others but in most cases, the colour changes in halochromic dyes were more stable in acidic conditions than in basic making it more sensitive to the basic than the acidic solution with the exception of dye A and E (to some extent) which was sensitive to both acidic and basic solution. The anthocyanin contents of dye A–J were found to be between the range of 2.28–10.35 mg/l with dye E having the lowest and dye J with the highest anthocyanin concentration, respectively. The initial pH of all the dyes falls within the range of 4.8–7.3 with most found within the acidic range. Halochromic dye research studies are still at the infancy stage in developing world despite the vast available and abundant potential natural halochromic dye-yielding plants. The study explored this area of research and gives an opportunity for the development of smart packaging for pH-sensitive foods using natural dyes as an alternative to conventional synthetic dyes to reduce cost and also curve the negative effect of synthetic dyes as well as food borne diseases.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0135
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Sustainable technique of dyeing bio-degradable polyester using henna
           extract

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      Authors: Hammama Irfan, Tahreem Baig, Farhana Naeem, Mohammad Irfan, Shenela Naqvi, Yang Shengyuan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to highlight the threats related to the utilization of synthetic fibers. Volatile organic compounds, particulates and acid gases are released during the production of polyester and other synthetic textiles. Polyester is problematic solid waste material as it takes centuries to break down and hence causes microplastic pollution. Biodegradable synthetic solutions for the replacement of polyester are a sustainable business marketing these days. The naNia fiber is the breakthrough product and it is claimed a biodegradable, compostable and toxin-free polymer. In this research, fabric constructed of naNia fiber was dyed with the extract of naturally occurring Lawsonia inermis (henna) plant leaves. The henna dye was extracted in water and ethanol using different methods, and the better extract was selected by the evaluation of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and phytochemical analysis. Henna with ethanol extract showed more desirable results hence it was selected to dye naNia fabric. To improve dyeability, premordanting, simultaneous mordanting and postmordanting were done using chitosan, fresh lemon extract and tannic acid, respectively. The dyed fabric samples were subjected to color strength analysis and multiple colorfastness tests. The colorfastness test has shown good to excellent results. Scanning electron microscope analysis had also shown the attachment of dye molecules to the filaments. This study revealed that henna dye is appropriate to color naNia fiber even without the aid of a mordant. For the first time, toxicant-free, biodegradable polyester (naNia) is successfully dyed with sustainable and naturally available dyes and mordants.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Natural and synthetic drugs as eco-friendly and sustainable corrosion
           inhibitors for metals: a review

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      Authors: Chigoziri N. Njoku, Temple Uzoma Maduoma, Wilfred Emori, Rita Emmanuel Odey, Beshel M. Unimke, Emmanuel Yakubu, Cyril C. Anorondu, Daniel I. Udunwa, Onyinyechi C. Njoku, Kechinyere B. Oyoh
      Abstract: Corrosion is a major concern for many industries that use metals as structural or functional materials, and the use of corrosion inhibitors is a widely accepted strategy to protect metals from deterioration in corrosive environments. Moreover, the toxic nature, non-biodegradability and price of most conventional corrosion inhibitors have encouraged the application of greener and more sustainable options, with natural and synthetic drugs being major actors. Hence, this paper aims to stress the capability of natural and synthetic drugs as manageable and sustainable, environmentally friendly solutions to the problem of metal corrosion. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural and synthetic drugs as corrosion inhibitors are explored in detail to highlight the key advancements and drawbacks towards the advantageous utilization of drugs as corrosion inhibitors. Corrosion is a critical issue in numerous modern applications, and conventional strategies of corrosion inhibition include the use of toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. As greener alternatives, natural compounds like plant extracts, essential oils and biopolymers, as well as synthetic drugs, are highlighted in this review. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these compounds, as well as their effectiveness in preventing corrosion, are discussed in the review. This survey stresses on the most recent abilities of natural and synthetic drugs as viable and sustainable, environmentally friendly solutions to the problem of metal corrosion, thus expanding the general knowledge of green corrosion inhibitors.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2023-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Isolation and chemistry of plant pigments

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      Authors: Pankaj Naharwal, Mahesh Meena, Charul Somani, Neetu Kumari, Dinesh Kumar Yadav
      Abstract: This paper aims to critically review the isolation and chemistry of plant pigments. A literature survey from 1974 to 2022 was carried out and studied thoroughly. The authors reviewed literature in various areas such as isolation methods and catalytic properties of pigments. With vast growing research in the field of catalytic activities of various pigments like chlorophyll, anthocyanin and flavonoids, there is still scope for further research for the pigments such as Lycopene, carotenoids and xanthophyll as there has not been any significant work in this area. Plant pigments may be used as an ecofriendly catalyst for chemical reactions. One can get the direction of pigment research. Plant pigments are natural and ecofriendly catalyst which can reduce the pollution. This is an original work. This paper precisely depicts the advantages as well as disadvantages of the isolation techniques of pigments. This study also presents the chemistry of plant pigments.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • New nutrients evaluation in growth for phycocyanin, carbohydrate, and
           biochar production

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      Authors: Lucas Ioran Marciano, Guilherme Arantes Pedro, Wallyson Ribeiro dos Santos, Geronimo Virginio Tagliaferro, Fabio Rodolfo Miguel Batista, Daniela Helena Pelegrine Guimarães
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of light intensity and sources of carbon and nitrogen on the cultivation of Spirulina maxima. Cultures were carried out in a modified Zarrouk medium using urea, sodium acetate and glycerol. A Taguchi experimental design was used to evaluate the effect on the production of biocompounds: productivities in biomass, carbohydrates, phycocyanin and biochar were analyzed. Statistical data analysis revealed that light intensity and sodium acetate concentration were the most important factors, being significant in three of the four response variables studied. The highest productivities in biomass (46.94 mg.L−1.d−1), carbohydrates (6.11 mg.L−1.d−1), phycocyanin (3.62 mg.L−1.d−1) and biochar (22, 48 mg.L−1.d−1) were achieved in experiment 4 of the Taguchi matrix, highlighting as the ideal condition for the production of biomass, carbohydrates and phycocyanin. Sodium acetate and urea can be considered, respectively, as potential sources of carbon and nitrogen to increase Spirulina maxima productivity. From the results, an optimized cultivation condition for the sustainable production of bioproducts was obtained. This work focuses on the study of the influence of light intensity and the use of alternative sources of nitrogen and carbon on the growth of Spirulina maxima, as well as on the influence on the productivity of biomass and biocompounds. There are few studies in the literature focused on the phycocyanin production from microalgae, justifying the need to deepen the subject.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2023-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis of monoazo disperse dyes derived from
           -(1-phthalimidyl)-naphthalimides and their dyeing properties on polyester
           fabrics

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      Authors: Ukanah Suleiman Pendo, Kasali Ademola Bello, Mohammed Kabir Yakubu, Abdulraheem Giwa, Umar Salami Ameuru, Ali Reza Harifi-Mood, Azim Ziyaei Halimehjani
      Abstract: This paper aims to synthesize a novel series of monoazo disperse dyes based on N-(1-phthalimidyl)-naphthalimides by coupling with substitute anilines, naphthylamines and naphthol derivatives. The purification of the intermediates and the dyes was carried out by recrystallization. The structures of the synthesized intermediates and the dyes were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The absorption maxima, molar extinction coefficient and halochromic properties of the dyes were determined spectrophotometrically using solvents of different polarity. The dyes were applied on polyester using a high-temperature high-pressure dyeing machine, and the dyeing performance parameters such as colour build-up on fabrics, wash fastness, perspiration fastness and light fastness were evaluated. The colour build-up was found to be very good and the wash fastness (4–5) and perspiration fastness (4–5) were excellent, whereas the light fastness was found to vary from moderate to very good (3–6). It is not possible to investigate the structure of the synthesized dyes by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis due to the low solubility of dyes in deuterated solvents. A novel method for the synthesis of a new category of monoazo disperse dyes based on N-(1-phthalimidyl)-naphthalimides was developed. These dyestuffs could be used in textile printing of polyester fabrics.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0139
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Improving the properties of gap-filling materials for pottery artifacts
           with nano silica and nano kaolinite polymeric nanocomposites

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      Authors: Hamdy Mohamed Mohamed, Wael Sabry Mohamed
      Abstract: The study aims to assess the efficiency of nanocomposite to improve the properties of gap-filling materials for pottery artifacts. Five different pastes were used in the laboratory studies. The pastes consist mainly of pottery powder (grog), dental plaster, microballoons and an adhesive of Primal AC33, nano-silica and nano kaolinite in various concentrations. The prepared samples were subjected to accelerated heat and light aging. Besides, some investigations were used to evaluate the efficacy of the additive nanomaterials, such as TEM, digital and scanning electron microscopy microscopes. Contact angle, color change, shrinkage degree, physical properties and compressive strength tests were also conducted. The results indicated that using Nano-silica considerably improves the mechanical strength and decreases the shrinkage of gap-filling materials. According to the results, a mixture of grog, microballoons and Primal AC33/Nano-silica Nanocomposites is the optimal gap-filling paste for archaeological pottery. Moreover, this paste showed a higher contact angle (120°), lower color change (ΔE = 2.62), lower shrinkage (3.3%), lower water absorption (3.36%), lower porosity (5.05%) and higher compressive strength (5124 N/mm2). This paper attains to develop an economic polymer-nanocomposite that can be used with gap-filling materials for pottery artifacts.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The effect of cold glow discharge nitrogen plasma treatment of sisal fiber
           (Agave Sisalana) on sisal fiber reinforced epoxy composite

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      Authors: Upendra S. Gupta, Sudhir Tiwari, Uttam Sharma
      Abstract: The incompatibility of natural fibers with polymer matrices is one of the key obstacles restricting their use in polymer composites. The interfacial connection between the fibers and the matrix was weak resulting in a lack of mechanical properties in the composites. Chemical treatments are often used to change the surface features of plant fibers, yet these treatments have significant drawbacks such as using substantial amounts of liquid and chemicals. Plasma modification has recently become very popular as a viable option as it is easy, dry, ecologically friendly, time-saving and reduces energy consumption. This paper aims to explore plasma treatment for improving the surface adhesion characteristics of sisal fibers (SFs) without compromising the mechanical attributes of the fiber. A cold glow discharge plasma (CGDP) modification using N2 gas at varied power densities of 80 W and 120 W for 0.5 h was conducted to improve the surface morphology and interfacial compatibility of SF. The mechanical characteristics of unmodified and CGDP-modified SF-reinforced epoxy composite (SFREC) were examined as per the American Society for Testing and Materials standards. The cold glow discharge nitrogen plasma treatment of SF at 120 W (30 min) enhanced the SFREC by nearly 122.75% superior interlaminar shear strength, 71.09% greater flexural strength, 84.22% higher tensile strength and 109.74% higher elongation. The combination of improved surface roughness and more effective lignocellulosic exposure has been responsible for the increase in the mechanical characteristics of treated composites. The development of hydrophobicity in the SF had been induced by CGDP N2 modification and enhanced the size of crystals and crystalline structure by removing some unwanted constituents of the SF and etching the smooth lignin-rich surface layer of the SF particularly revealed via FTIR and XRD. Chemical and physical treatments have been identified as the most efficient ways of treating the fiber surface. However, the huge amounts of liquids and chemicals needed in chemical methods and their exorbitant performance in terms of energy expenditure have limited their applicability in the past decades. The use of appropriate cohesion in addition to stimulating the biopolymer texture without changing its bulk polymer properties leads to the formation and establishment of plasma surface treatments that offer a unified, repeatable, cost-effective and environmentally benign replacement. The authors are sure that this technology will be adopted by the polymer industry, aerospace, automotive and related sectors in the future.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Studying the properties of polypyrrole-montmorillonite
           polyacrylic-urethane nanocomposite coatings: the role of an eco-friendly
           ionic liquid

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      Authors: Reza Amini, Pooneh Kardar
      Abstract: This paper aims to achieve an anti-corrosive coating via uniform dispersion of nanoclay particles (montmorillonite) and polypyrrole (PPy) as a conductive polymer as well as their effects on the anti-corrosion features in the presence of the eco-friendly ionic liquids (ILs). In this research, PPy with different forms of nanoclay were used. Moreover, ILs additive is used to enhance the better dispersion process of clay and PPy nanoparticles in the resin. As a result, the IL additive in the formulation of nano-composite coatings greatly improves the dispersion process of clay and PPy nanoparticles in the resin. Due to its high compatibility with polyurethane resin and clay and PPy nanoparticles, this additive contains a high dispersing power to disperse the investigated nanoparticles in the resin matrix. High polarity of ILs as well as abilities to dissolve both mineral and organic materials, they can provide the better chemical processes compared to common solvents. IL abilities have not been discovered to a large extent such as catalysts and detectors. ILs have been emerging as promising green solvents to replace conventional solvents in recent years. They possess unique properties such as nonvolatility, low toxicity, ease of handling, nonflammability and high ionic conductivity. Thus, they have received much attention as green media for various chemistry processes. The simultaneous existence of clay, PPy and IL additive in the nano-composite coating formulation is responsible for the high corrosion resistance of the coating.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0022
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Multiresponse optimization in amylolytic desizing of viscose fabric in the
           copresence of ferrous ions and an anionic surfactant

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      Authors: Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Aisha Rehman, Faiza Anwar, Naseer Ahmad
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of the copresence of ferrous (Fe2+) ions and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the activity of an amylase enzyme during the desizing of greige viscose fabric for potential industrial applications. The removal of starches is an essential step before processing the fabric for dyeing and finishing operations. The authors tend to accomplish it in eco-friendly and sustainable ways. The experiments were designed under the Taguchi approach, and the results were analyzed using grey relational analysis to optimize the process. The textile properties of absorbency, reducing sugars, bending length, weight loss, Tegawa rating and tensile strength were assessed using the standard protocols. The control and optimized viscose specimens were investigated for certain surface chemical properties using advanced analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrate that the Fe2+ concentration and process time were the main influencing factors in the amylolytic desizing of viscose fabric. The optimized process conditions were found to be 0.1 mm Fe2+ ions, 3 mm SDS, 80°C, 7 pH and 30 min process time. The copresence of Fe2+ ions and SDS promoted the biodesizing of viscose fabric. The SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, XRD and TGA results demonstrated that the sizing agent has efficiently been removed from the fabric surface. The amylase desizing of viscose fabric in the presence of certain metal ions and surfactants is a significant subject as the enzyme may face them due to their prevalence in the water systems. This could also support the biodesizing and bioscouring operations to be done in one bath, thus making the textile pretreatment process both economical and environmentally sustainable. The authors found no report on the biodesizing of viscose fabric in the copresence of Fe2+ ions and the SDS surfactant under statistical multiresponse optimization. The biodesized viscose fabric has been investigated using both conventional and analytical approaches.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2023-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Fabrication of CNTs-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite film with
           tailored structural, surface chemical and optical properties

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      Authors: Abdul Lateef, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Shoaib Ur Rehman, Asma Iftikhar, Abdul Zahir
      Abstract: This study aims to fabricate multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-mediated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films using the solution casting approach. The prepared films were evaluated for diverse structural, surface, optical and electrical attributes using advanced analytical techniques, i.e. electron microscopy for surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for tracing chemical functionalities, x-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal patterns, water contact angle (WCA) analysis for surface wettability and UV visible spectroscopy for optical absorption parameters. The specimens were also investigated for certain rheological, mechanical and electrical properties, where applicable. The surface morphology results expressed a better dispersion of MWCNTs in the resultant PVA-based nanocomposite film. The XRD analysis exhibited that the nanocomposite film was crystalline. The surface wettability analysis indicated that with the inclusion of MWCNTs, the WCA of the resultant nanocomposite film improved to 89.4° from 44° with the pristine PVA film. The MWCNTs (1.00%, w/w) incorporated PVA-based film exhibited a tensile strength of 54.0 MPa as compared to that of native PVA as 25.3 MPa film. There observed a decreased bandgap (from 5.25 to 5.14 eV) on incorporating the MWCNTs in the PVA-based nanocomposite film. The MWCNTs’ inclusion in the PVA matrix could enhance the AC conductivity of the resultant nanocomposite film. The prepared nanocomposite film might be useful in designing certain optoelectronic devices. The results demonstrated the successful MWCNTs mediation in the PVA-based composite films expressed good intercalation of the precursors; this resulted in decreased bandgap, usually, desirable for optoelectronic applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2023-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Using nano clay and graphite as low-cost, sustainable adsorbents to remove
           dye toxins from waste water

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      Authors: Nagla Elshemy, Hamada Mashaly, Shimaa Elhadad
      Abstract: This study aims to observe the coloring efficacy of graphite (G) and nano bentonite clay (BCNPs) on the adsorption of Basic Blue 5 dye from residual dye bath solution. Some factors that affected the adsorption processes were examined and found to have significant impacts on the adsorption capacity such as the initial concentration of G and/or BCNPs (Co: 40–2,320 mg/L), adsorbent bath pH (4–9), shaking time (30–150 min.) and initial dye concentration (40–200 mg/L). The adsorption mechanism of dye by using G and/or BCNPs was studied using two different models (first-pseudo order and second-pseudo order diffusion models). The equilibrium adsorption data for the dye understudy was analyzed by using four different models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin modle and Dubinin–Radushkevich) models. It has been found that the adsorption kinetics follow rather a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.99117 for G and 0.98665 for BCNPs. The results indicate that the Freundlich model provides the best correlation for G with capacities q_max = 2.33116535 mg/g and R2 = 0.99588, while the Langmuir model provides the best correlation for BCNPs with R2 = 0.99074. The adsorbent elaborated from BCNPs was found to be efficient and suitable for removing basic dyes rather than G from aqueous solutions due to its availability, good adsorption capability, as well as low-cost preparation. There is no research limitation for this work. Basic Blue 5 dye graphite (G) and nano bentonite clay (BCNPs) were used. This work has practical applications for the textile industry. It is concluded that using graphite and nano bentonite clay can be a possible alternative to adsorb residual dye from dye bath solution and can make the process greener. Socially, it has a good impact on the ecosystem and global community because the residual dye does not contain any carcinogenic materials. The work is original and contains value-added products for the textile industry and other confederate fields.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis, metrological characterization, and dyeing properties of surface
           grafted viscose fabric using peroxydisulfate/ferrous II ions redox pair

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      Authors: Khaled Mostafa, Nader Abdelaziz, Azza El-Sanabary
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to undertake surface graft copolymerization of viscose fabric via altering its fibrous properties by using acrylic acid (AA) as a carboxyl-containing monomer and peroxydisulfate (PDS) in presence of ferrous sulfate as a novel redox pair for initiating grafting. The latter process acted as an energy-saving process with respect to the reduction in polymerization temperature and maximizing the graft yield %, in addition to rendering the grafted viscose fabrics dye-able with cationic dye (crystal violet), which has frequently no direct affinity to fix on fabric. To make graft copolymerization more efficient and economic, the optimum conditions for graft copolymerization were established. The graft yield % was determined as a function of initiator, catalyst and monomer concentrations and the material to liquor ratio, in addition to polymerization time and temperatures. Metrological characterizations via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of topographic morphological surface change have also been established in comparison with the ungrafted samples. The maximum graft yield of 70.6% is obtained at the following optimum conditions: monomer (150 % based on the weight of fabric), PDS (50 m mole), ferrous sulfate (80 m mole) and sulfuric acid (30 m mole) at 40° C for 1.5 h using a liquor ratio of 30. Remarkably, grafting with AA enabled a multifold upsurge in color strength, with improvements in the fastness properties of cationically dyed grafted viscose fabric measured on the blue scale in comparison with untreated viscose fabric. The novelty addressed here is undertaken with studying the effect of altering the extent of grafting of poly (AA)-viscose graft copolymers expressed as graft yield % in addition to carboxyl contents on cationic dyeing of viscose fabric for the first time in the literature. Moreover, rendering the viscose fabrics after grafting is dye-able with cationic dye with high brilliance of shades, which has regularly no direct affinity to fix on this type of fabrics.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Adsorptive investigation of the anticorrosion properties of natural
           chrysin on carbon steel in acid–chloride system: combined theoretical
           and experimental approach

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      Authors: Wilfred Emori, Paul C. Okonkwo, Hitler Louis, Ling Liu, Ernest C. Agwamba, Tomsmith Unimuke, Peter Okafor, Atowon D. Atowon, Anthony Ikechukwu Obike, ChunRu Cheng
      Abstract: Owing to the toxicity, biodegradability, and cost of most corrosion inhibitors, research attention is now focused on the development of environmentally benign, biodegradable, cheap, and efficient options. In consideration of these facts, chrysin, a phytocompound of Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar) has been isolated and investigated for its anticorrosion abilities on carbon steel in a mixed acid and chloride system. This highlights the main purpose of the study. Chrysin was isolated from Populus tomentosa using column chromatography and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The investigations are outlined based on theory (Fukui indices, condensed density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulation) and experiments (electrochemical, gravimetry and surface morphology examinations). Theoretical evaluations permitted the description of the adsorption characteristics, and molecular interactions and orientations of chrysin on Fe substrate. The interaction energy for protonated and neutral chrysin on Fe (110) were −149.10 kcal/mol and −143.28 kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, experimental investigations showed that chrysin is a potent mixed-type corrosion inhibitor for steel, whose effectiveness depends on its surrounding temperature and concentration. The optimum inhibition efficiency of 78.7% after 24 h for 1 g/L chrysin at 298 K indicates that the performance of chrysin, as a pure compound, compares favorably with other phytocompounds and plant extracts investigated under similar conditions. However, the inhibition efficiency decreased to 62.5% and 51.8% at 318 K after 48 h and 72 h, respectively. The novelty of this study relies on the usage of a pure compound in corrosion suppression investigation, thus eliminating the unknown influences obtainable by the presence of multi-phytocompounds in plant extracts, thereby advancing the commercialization of bio-based corrosion inhibitors.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-23
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2023-0034
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Analytical methods for evaluating the state of preservation of a
           historical manuscript dating back to the 15th century AD in Al-Azhar
           Library – Egypt

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      Authors: Gomaa Abdel-Maksoud, Hanaa Nasr, Sayed Hussein Samaha, Mahmoud Saad ELdeen Kassem
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the state of preservation of one of the most famous manuscripts dated back to the 15th century using some analytical techniques to identify the manuscript components, explain its deterioration mechanisms and produce some solutions for conservation processes in future studies. The analytical techniques used were visual assessment, digital microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX, pH measurement, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and cellulose crystallinity. Stains, missed parts and scratching were the most common aspects of deterioration. Some insects were observed by digital microscope. The SEM showed that linen fibers and goat skin were used to manufacture paper sheets and leather binding. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis proved that niobium and tantalum were added during the manufacture of paper sheets. Carbon black ink was the main writing material. The other pigments used were cinnabar in red ink, gold color from brass and blue color from lapis lazuli. FTIR analysis proved that some chemical changes were noticed. Low crystallinity of the historical paper was obtained. There was a reduction in the pH value of the historical bookbinding. The importance of the analytical techniques used to detect the main components, forms and mechanism of deterioration of the studied manuscript. The elements of niobium and tantalum were added to paper sheets, which protected them from deterioration. The insects such as house flies and Sitophilus granarius were found in the manuscripts.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2023-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide inks for digital
           textile printing based on newly developed polyurethane prepolymers

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      Authors: M. Hassanein, M. Abd El Rahm, H. M. Abd El Bary, H. Abd El-Wahab
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the physical and chemical characteristics of inkjet titanium dioxide inks for cotton fabric digital printing. Different dispersing agents through the reaction of glycerol monooleate and toluene diisocyanate were prepared and then performed by using three different polyols (succinic anhydride-modified polyethylene glycol PEG 600, EO/PO Polyether Monoamine and p-chloro aniline Polyether Monoamine), to obtain three different dispersing agents for water-based titanium dioxide inkjet inks. The prepared dispersants were characterized using FTIR to monitor the reaction progress. Then the prepared dispersants were formulated in titanium dioxide inkjet inks formulation and characterized by particle size, dynamic surface tension, transmission electron microscopy, viscosity and zeta potential against commercial dispersants. Also, the study was extended to evaluate the printed polyester by using the prepared inks according to washing and crock fastness. The obtained results showed that p-chloro aniline Polyether Monoamine (J) and succinic anhydride modified polyethylene glycol PEG 600 (H) dispersants provided optimum performance as compared to commercial standards especially, particle size distribution data while EO/PO Polyether Monoamine based on dispersant was against and then failed with the wettability and dispersion stability tests. These ink formulations could be used for printing on cotton fabric by DTG technique of printing and can be used for other types of fabrics. The newly prepared ink formulation for digital textile printing based on synthesized polyurethane prepolymers has the potential to be promising in this type of printing inks, to prevent clogging of nozzles on the printhead and to improve the print quality on the textile fiber.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis of modified poly(ester-amide) and alkyd resins based on phenolic
           and Schiff base compounds to study their biological and insecticide
           activity for surface coating applications

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      Authors: Roma G. Elfadel, Hala M. Refat, H. Abdelwahab, Salem S. Salem, Mohamed A. Awad, M.A.M. Abdel Reheim
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the prepared modified alkyd and poly(ester-amide) (PEA) resins as antimicrobial and insecticide binders for surface coating applications. Salicylic diethanolamine and 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzylidene glutamic acid were prepared and used as new sources of polyol and dibasic acid for PEA and alkyd resins, then confirmed by: acid value, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The coating performance of the resins was determined using measurements of physico-mechanical properties. The biological and insecticide activities of the prepared resins were investigated. The tests carried out revealed that the modified PEA and alkyd enhanced both phyisco-mechanical and chemical properties in addition to the biological and insecticide activities. The results of this paper illustrate that the introduction of salicylic diethanolamine and 4-(N, N-dimethylamino) benzylidene glutamic acid within the resin structure improved the film performance and enhanced the antimicrobial activity performance of PEA and alkyd resins. The modified alkyd and PEA organic resins can be used as biocidal binders when incorporated into paint formulations for multiple surface applications, especially those that are exposed to several organisms. Modified alkyd and PEA resins based on newly synthesized modifiers have a significant potential to be promising in the production and development of antimicrobial and insecticide paints, allowing them to function to restrict the spread of insects and microbial infection.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Hygroscopic analysis and tribo-mechanical characterization of
           biocompatible PP/PA6/Boron sesquioxide composite

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      Authors: Kawaljit Singh Randhawa
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to look into the hygroscopic and tribo-mechanical properties of a polypropylene/polyamide-6 (PP/PA6) blend and a PP/PA6/Boron sesquioxide composite. The hygroscopic behaviour of the PP/PA6 blend and PP/PA6/Boron sesquioxide composite was studied using a water contact angle goniometer in this study. To validate the hygroscopic behaviour of the blend and composite, water contact angles and surface energy of the materials were investigated. Tensile strength and hardness tests were used to determine mechanical characteristics, and tribological experiments on a pin-on-disc tribometer were used to demonstrate the friction and wear rates of dry and water-conditioned blends and composites. The melting temperature of dry and water-conditioned composites was determined using DSC analysis. The hygroscopic effect of the PP/PA6 blend was found to be minimal in the experiment, while it was relatively dominating in the PP/PA6/Boron sesquioxide composite. Tensile strength was found to be somewhat lower in blend and composite compared to virgin PP, whereas hardness was found to be higher in both blend and composite. The composite’s tribological testing findings were fairly outstanding, with the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rates significantly reduced due to boron sesquioxide reinforcement. The reaction between boron sesquioxide and water molecules produced boric acid, which increased the tribological characteristics of the composite even further. Following 30 days of water conditioning, the weight of the blend increased by 3.64% and the weight of the composite increased by 6.45% as compared to the dry materials. After water conditioning, tensile strength reduced by 0.8% for the blend and 14.16% for the composite. Hardness was determined to be the same in the dry state and after water-conditioning for blend but dropped 1% for composite. As compared to blend, the COF and wear resistance of composite were 15.52% and 25.16% higher, respectively. After absorbing some water, the results increased to 28.57% and 34.9%, respectively. The mechanical and thermal behaviour of polymer composites (particularly polyamide composites) vary depending on the surrounding environment. Tests were carried out to explore the effect of water treatment on the tribo-mechanical and thermal characteristics of PP/PA6/Boron sesquioxide composite. Water treatment caused polyamides to bind with water molecules, resulting in voids in the material. The interaction between boron sesquioxide and water molecules produced boric acid, which increased the tribological characteristics of the composite.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0143
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The history of natural dyeing and investigation of the antibacterial
           activity of L. on woolen fabrics

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      Authors: Yunus Berkli, Ayşegül Zencirkıran, Fazlıhan Yılmaz
      Abstract: Natural dyeing has existed in human life from past to present. Although it lost its importance after the industrial revolution, it has started to make again a name for itself today with the increase in environmental awareness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus sabdariffa L. can be used in the coloring of woolen fabrics and as a natural antibacterial agent for these fabrics. Within the scope of the study, it was investigated whether the antibacterial activity of the Hibiscus sabdariffa L. can be transferred to woolen fabrics. In the study, woolen fabric samples were dyed with and without mordant with the help of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract. After the dyed fabric samples were washed and dried, their color values were measured, and antibacterial effect tests (against Staphylococcus aureus – Escherichia coli), washing and rubbing fastness tests were carried out. In addition to these, scanning electron microscopy images of dyed fabric samples were taken and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analyzes were also performed. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the antibacterial activity of the Hibiscus sabdariffa L. can be transferred to woolen fabrics without the use of any chemicals. Natural antibacterial agent for woolen fabrics was obtained within the scope of the study without the use of chemicals.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0134
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation of cool composite pigment by the layer-by-layer assembling of
           phthalocyanine green on the surface of rutile TiO

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      Authors: Lingyun Cao, Shuaibin Ren, ZhengHao Zhou, Xuening Fei, Changliang Huang
      Abstract: This study aims to fabricate a cool phthalocyanine green/TiO2 composite pigment (PGT) with high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, good color performance and good heat-shielding performance under sunlight and infrared irradiation. With the help of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes, the PGT composite pigment was prepared using a layer-by-layer assembly method under wet ball milling. Based on the light reflectance properties and color performance tested by ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectrophotometer and colorimeter, the preparation conditions were optimized and the properties of PGT pigment with different assembly layers (PGT-1, PGT-3, PGT-5 and PGT-7) were compared. In addition, their heat-shielding performance was evaluated and compared by temperature rise value for their coating under sunlight and infrared irradiation. The PGT pigment had a core/shell structure, and the PG thickness increased with the self-assembly layers, which made the PGT-3 and PGT-7 pigment show higher color purity and saturation than PGT-1 pigment. In addition, the PGT-3 and PGT-7 pigment showed 11%–16% lower light reflectance in the visible region. However, their light reflectance in the NIR region was similar. Under infrared irradiation the PGT-5 and PGT-7 pigment coating showed 1.1°C–3.4°C and 1.3°C–4.7°C lower temperature rise value than PGT-1 pigment coating and physical mixture pigment coating, respectively. And under sunlight the PGT-3 pigment coating showed 1.5–2.6°C lower temperature rise value than the physical mixture pigment coating. The layer-by-layer assembling makes the core/shell PGT composite pigment possess low visible light reflectance, high NIR reflectance and good heat-shielding performance.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The role of resin in optimizing the performance and printing properties of
           water-based inkjet inks for food packaging

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      Authors: Aniela Kusber, Rafał Józef Gaida, Katarzyna Dziubek, Marian Wit
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of commercially available resins in water-based magenta pigment inkjet ink formulations on the properties of ink printability and the characteristics of ink application in food packaging. The impact of the resin on the jettability of the existing printability phase diagrams was also assessed. Inks with different resin loadings were tested for selected properties, such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension. Stability was determined using a Turbiscan AGS turbidimeter and LumiFuge photocentrifuge analyzer. The ink layer fastness against abrasion and foodstuffs was evaluated using an Ugra device and according to PN-EN 646, respectively. JetXpert was used to assess Ricoh printhead jetting performance. Printability diagrams successfully characterized the jettability of polyurethane inkjet inks on a multi-nozzle printhead and the binder improved droplet formation and printing precision. Magenta water-based inkjet inks with commercial resins have been developed for printing on paper substrates. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, inkjet ink stability was evaluated using the Turbiscan AGS and LumiFuge analyzers, and jettability models were verified using an industrial multi-nozzle printhead.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0153
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Modelling of Basic Yellow 28 adsorption onto activated carbon: batch and
           continuous process

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      Authors: Zeliha Betül Kol, Dilek Duranoğlu
      Abstract: This study aims to model and investigate Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) adsorption onto activated carbon in batch and continuous process. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with 50 mg/L BY28 solution at pH 6 with different amounts of activated carbon. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were used to model batch data. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied with linear regression. The changes of the breakthrough curve with the column height, flow rate, column diameter and adsorbent amount were examined in fixed bed column at room temperature. BY28 adsorption data were modelled by using different adsorption column models (Adams & Bohart, Thomas, Yoon & Nelson, Clark and modified dose–response) with non-linear regression. Freundlich model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model expressed the experimental data with high compatibility. Modified dose-response model corresponded to the fixed bed column data very well. Adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 on activated carbon in a fixed bed column was studied for the first time. Continuous adsorption process was modelled with theoretical adsorption models using non-linear regression.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0149
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Citric-acid anchored silver nano-finishing of commercially dyed denim
           fabric for potential non toxic antibacterial surgical gowns

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      Authors: Saima Habib, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Farzana Kishwar, Sharjeel Abid
      Abstract: Present study aimed to nanosilver-treat some commercially dyed denim fabric using an eco-friendly cross-linker of citric acid for possible application in the fabrication of sustainable antibacterial and nontoxic surgical gowns. The conventional untreated surgical gowns are prone to bacterial attack making them unprotective and infection carriers. Thereby, nanosilver finishing of the surgical-grade dyed denim fabric was achieved via citrate cross-linking under the pad-dry-cure method. The hence treated denim fabrics were characterized for surface chemical, crystalline, textile, color and antibacterial attributes using both conventional and advanced analytical approaches. The results expressed that the prepared denim specimens contained surface roughness at the nanoscale besides some alterations in their textile and color parameters. Both textile and comfort properties of the finished fabric remained in the acceptable range with effective antibacterial activity. The silver nano-finished dyed denim expressed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and qualified as a potential substrate in the fabrication of surgical gowns. Such sustainable application of nanosilver finishing could be perused for industrial implications. This study presents citric acid as a crosslinking agent to impregnate the commercially dyed denim fabric for potential application in the fabrication of surgical gowns. The application of nanosilver on prior citrated dyed-grown fabrics could be a novel approach. This study used approximately all the reagents and auxiliaries as bio-based to ensure the nontoxicity and sustainability of the resultant fabric.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2023-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • TiO/PDMS hybrid system for constructing superhydrophobic surfaces of
           cotton fabrics with resistance to droplet adhesion

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      Authors: Wei Zhang, Chentao Liu, Jiming Yao, Shuangshuang Li
      Abstract: This study aims to produce a superhydrophobic fabric surface with a layered rough structure and which are resistant to droplet adhesion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) systems doped with stearic acid modified titanium dioxide (SA-TiO2) nanoparticles was sprayed onto the surface of cotton fabric. This experiment therefore uses a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic textiles by spraying SA-TiO2 particles mixed with PDMS onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The effects of the ratio of stearic acid to TiO2, spraying times and tension on the apparent morphological structure and hydrophobic properties of the cotton fabric were investigated. The results showed that the stearic acid-modified TiO2 nanoparticles were hydrophobic and more uniformly dispersed in the PDMS solution. When the modification ratio of stearic acid to TiO2 was 3:5, the water contact angle of cotton fabric was 155.48° and sliding angle was 6.67° under the applied tension for three times of spraying, showing superhydrophobicity. The fabric shows super hydrophobic and anti-adhesive properties to a wide range of liquids such as cola, dyeing liquids, tea, milk and simulated blood. The surface tension of the liquid shows a negative correlation with its adhesion to the fabric. The SA-TiO2 and PDMS were applied to the fabric surface by spraying, which not only gave the fabric superhydrophobic properties, but also created anti-adhesion to a wide range of droplets. The superhydrophobic cotton fabrics prepared by this method showed good anti-adhesive behavior to common stains and simulated blood and can be used in the development of medical protective textiles. Modification of TiO2 with stearic acid to prepare SA-TiO2 with excellent hydrophobic properties, which was mixed with PDMS to make suspensions. Fluorine-free superhydrophobic fabrics were prepared by spraying method. It also exhibited excellent anti-adhesive properties against blood, providing a reference for the preparation of self-cleaning and anti-adhesive surgical gowns.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation of epoxy-based silicone prepolymers with applications in
           UV-curable coatings

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      Authors: Fuping Bian, Shudong Lin
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effects on coatings performance in the epoxy silicone resin system owing to the existence of the different chain length of open-chain epoxy monomer. In this paper, [4-Methylphenyl-(4–(2-methylpropyl) phenyl)]iodonium as photoinitiator was added into epoxy silicone resin by ultraviolet (UV)-cured polymerization to investigate the effects on coatings performance owing to the existence of the different chain length of open-chain epoxy monomer. A simple hydrosilylation reaction was used to synthesize epoxy-based silicone prepolymers by using hydrogen-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, 1,2-epoxy-5-hexene, 1,2-epoxy-7-octene and 1,2-epoxy-9-decene as precursors. The results revealed that the glass transition temperatures (Tg) and hydrophobicity increased with the chain length of open-chain epoxy monomer in the UV curable epoxy-based silicone coatings, and these films had excellent heat resistance, hydrophobicity, antigraffiti and ink removal properties. The cationic photocuring systems are not susceptible to the effect of oxygen inhibition. However, the limitation of cationic light curing process is that it requires a long curing time. The coatings prepared via the UV curing approach can provide superior antismudge effects, and thus they are promising candidates for use in various industries, especially in fields such as antismudge coatings and antigraffiti coatings.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0122
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Corrosion resistance of graphene/basalt flake modified waterborne epoxy
           zinc-rich primer

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      Authors: Xiao Wang, Xuan Liang, Bo Wang, Chang-qing Guo, Shan-gui Zhang, Kai Yang, Shi-ya Shao, Yan Sun, Zheng Guo, Xue-yan Yu, Donghai Zhang, Tai-jiang Gui, Wei Lu, Ming-liang Sun, Rui Ding
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of graphene, basalt flakes and their synergy on the corrosion resistance of zinc-rich coatings. As the important heavy-duty anticorrosion coatings, zinc-rich coatings provided cathodic protection for the substrate. However, to ensure cathodic protection, a large number of zinc powder made the penetration resistance known as the weakness of zinc-rich coatings. Therefore, graphene and basalt flakes were introduced into zinc-rich coatings to coordinate its cathodic protection and shielding performance. Three kinds of coatings were prepared; they were graphene modified zinc-rich coatings, basalt flakes modified zinc-rich coatings and graphene-basalt flakes modified zinc-rich coatings. The anticorrosion behavior of painted steel was studied by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique in chloride solutions. The equivalent circuit methods were used for EIS analysis to obtain the electrode process structure of the coated steel system. Simultaneously, the corrosion resistance of the three coatings was evaluated by water resistance test, salt water resistance test and salt spray test. The study found that the addition of a small amount of graphene and basalt flakes significantly improved the anticorrosion performance of coatings by enhancing their shielding ability against corrosive media and increasing the resistance of the electrochemical reaction. The modified coatings exhibited higher water resistance, salt water resistance and salt spray resistance. The graphene-basalt flakes modified zinc-rich coatings demonstrated the best anticorrosion effect. The presence of basalt scales and graphene oxide in the coatings significantly reduced the water content and slowed down the water penetration rate in the coatings, thus prolonging the coating life and improving anticorrosion effects. The modification of zinc-rich coatings with graphene and basalt flakes improved the utilization rate of zinc powder and the shielding property of coatings against corrosive media, thus strengthening the protective effect on steel structures and prolonging the service life of anticorrosion coatings. The significance of developing graphene-basalt flakes modified zinc-rich coatings lies in their potential to offer superior performance in corrosive environments, leading to prolonged service life of metallic structures, reduced maintenance costs and a safer working environment. Furthermore, such coatings can be used in various industrial applications, including bridges, pipelines and offshore structures, among others.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2022-0101
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Citric acid-crosslinked nanosilver finishing of indigo-dyed denim for
           potential surgical gowns

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      Authors: Saima Habib, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Farzana Kishwar, Sharjeel Abid
      Abstract: This paper aims to develop an indigo-dyed denim fabric treated with a nanosilver colloid in the presence of a natural crosslinker of citric acid for possible surgical gown fabrication applications. A bleached denim fabric was dyed with the sustainable indigo dye followed by silver nanofinishing through citric acid crosslinking under the pad-dry-cure method. The prepared denim samples were analyzed for chemo-physical, textile, dyeing, antibacterial and finish release properties. The results demonstrated that the comfort and textile characteristics of nanosilver-treated/indigo-dyed cellulosic fabric were affected due to the crosslinking, surface amphiphilicity and air permeability. These properties were, still, in the acceptable range for the fabrication of naturally dyed and antibacterial nanofinished denim gowns. The dyeing of denim with synthetic dyes may cause harmful effects on the skin and health of the wearer, and the authors present an eco-friendly sustainable approach. The authors used the fabric substrate, natural indigo dye and reducing/crosslinker agent of citric acid, all being bio-based, in the fabrication of antibacterial dyed fabric for health care garments.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Effect of CaCO and compatibilizer SMA-2025 on the property of
           CaCO/PLA/PBAT shape memory composites

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      Authors: Laiming Yu, Yaqin Fu, Yubing Dong
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to improve the mechanical property and processing performance and reduce the cost of the polylacticacid/polybutyleneadipate-co-terephthalate(PLA/PBAT) composites, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and compatibilizer styrene-maleicanhydride copolymer (SMA-2025) were added to the PLA/PBAT system, and the effect of CaCO3 and SMA-2025 on the morphology, structure, mechanical property, thermal property, thermalstability and shape memory property of the CaCO3/PLA/PBAT composites were studied and discussed. The CaCO3/PLA/PBAT shape memory composites were prepared via melt-blending and hot-pressing methods, and the effect of CaCO3 and SMA-2025 on the property of the composites was investigated via scanning electron microscope, universal testing instrument, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and DMA, respectively. The interface property, mechanical property, thermal stability, shape memory recovery ratios and recovery stresses, and processing performance of the CaCO3/PLA/PBAT shape memory composites were significantly improved by adding of CaCO3 and SMA-2025. Moreover, the CaCO3/PLA/PBAT composites have good blowing film processing performance. This study will provide a reference for the research, processing and application of the high-performance CaCO3/PLA/PBAT shape memory composites.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2023-0008
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • A state-of-the-art review on advanced ceramic materials: fabrication,
           characteristics, applications, and wettability

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      Authors: Kawaljit Singh Randhawa
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare a state-of-the-art review on advanced ceramic materials including their fabrication techniques, characteristics, applications and wettability. This review paper presents the various types of advanced ceramic materials according to their compounding elements, fabrication techniques of advanced ceramic powders as well as their consolidation, their characteristics, applications and wetting properties. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of advanced ceramic materials are described in the paper with their state-of-the-art application areas. Optical properties of fine ceramics with their intrinsic characteristics are also presented within. Special focus is given to the brief description of application-based manipulation of wetting properties of advanced ceramics in the paper. The study of wetting/hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of ceramic materials is important by which it can be further modified to achieve the required applications. It also makes some sense that the material should be tested for its wetting properties when it is going to be used in some important applications like biomedical and dental. Also, these advanced ceramics are now often used in the fabrication of filters and membranes to purify liquid/water so the study of wetting characteristics of these materials becomes essential. The optical properties of advanced ceramics are equally making them suitable for many state-of-the-art applications. Dental, medical, imaging and electronics are the few sectors that use advanced ceramics for their optical properties. This review paper includes various advanced ceramic materials according to their compounding elements, different fabrication techniques of powders and their consolidation, their characteristics, various application area and hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0144
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Corrosion inhibition of aluminium in 0.3 M HCl using starch mucor in
           potassium iodide as inhibitor

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      Authors: Uchenna Luvia Ezeamaku, Innocent Eze, Nkiru Odimegwu, Angela Nwakaudu, Amarachukwu Okafor, Okechukwu Dominic Onukwuli, Ikechukwu Abuchi Nnanwube
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate starch mucor (SM) in potassium iodide (KI) as corrosion inhibitor of aluminium in hydrochloric acid (HCl) medium. The SM in KI was characterized by gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques. The inhibition efficiency was optimized using response surface methodology. The result revealed that the inhibitor inhibited corrosion at a low concentration with the rate of inhibition increasing as the concentration of the inhibitor increased. The inhibition efficiency increases as the temperature was increased with slight incorporation of the inhibitor (SM in KI). This indicates that the corrosion control is both inhibitor (SM in KI) and temperature dependent. The research results can provide the basis for using SM in KI as corrosion inhibitor of aluminium in HCL medium. Mixed-type inhibitor nature of SM was proved by cathodic and anodic nature of the polarization curves.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0152
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Glucose-lignin-based phenolic resin: an environmentally friendly
           low-formaldehyde wood adhesive

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      Authors: Kaiyan Yang, Xiaowu Gong, Lanli Bai, Yun Zhang, Na Zhou
      Abstract: This study aims to prepare a low-formaldehyde and environmentally friendly glucose-lignin-based phenolic resin. The authors directly used lignin to substitute formaldehyde to prepare lignin-based phenolic resin (LPF) with urea as formaldehyde absorbent. To improve the performance of the adhesive, the biobased glucose was introduced and the modified glucose-LPF (GLPF) was obtained. The results showed that when the replacing amount of lignin to formaldehyde reached 15 Wt.%, the physical properties of the prepared LPF met the Chinese national standard, and the bonding strength increased by 21.9%, from 0.75 to 0.96 MPa, compared with PF. The addition of glucose boost the performance of wood adhesive, for example, the free phenol content of the obtained GLPF was significantly reduced by 79.11%, from 5.60% to 1.17%, the bonding strength (1.19 MPa) of GLPF increased by 19.3% in comparison to LPF and the curing temperature of GLPF decreased by 13.08%. The low-formaldehyde and environmentally friendly GLPF has higher bonding strength and lower curing temperature, which is profitable to industrial application. The prepared GLPF has lower free formaldehyde and formaldehyde emission, which is cost-effective and beneficial to human health. The joint work of lignin and glucose provides the wood adhesive with increased bonding strength, decreased free phenol content and reduced curing temperature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0150
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Color change kinetics of lac dye as influenced by some food spoilage
           metabolites: validation for spoilage monitoring of strawberries

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      Authors: Priyanka Sakare, Saroj Kumar Giri
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to study the color change kinetics of lac dye in response to aldehydes, carbon dioxide and other food spoilage metabolites for its potential application in intelligent food packaging. UV–Vis spectroscopy was used to study the color change of dye solution. Ratio of absorbance of dye solution at 528 nm (peak of ionized form) to absorbance at 488 nm (peak of unionized form) was used to study the color change. Color change kinetics was studied in terms of change in absorbance ratio (A528/A488) with time using zero and first-order reaction kinetics. Lac dye-based indicator was prepared to validate the result of study for monitoring quality of strawberries. Lac dye was orange-red in acidic medium and purple in alkaline medium. Color change of dye in response to benzaldehyde followed zero-order reaction kinetics, whereas for carbon dioxide first-order model was found best. No color change of dye solution was observed for alcohols, ketones and sulfur compounds. In the validation part, the color of the indicator label changed from purple to orange when the strawberries spoiled. The study expands application area for lac dye as sensing reagent in intelligent food packaging for spoilage or ripeness detection of fruits and vegetables.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Eco-friendly polyfunctional ceramic pigments: an approach

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      Authors: Guillermo Monrós, Mario Llusar, José Antonio Badenes
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is the synthesis and characterization of a CMYK palette (cyan of Cr-BiVO4, magenta of Pr-CeO2, yellow of Bi-(Ce,Zr)O2 composite and black of YMnO3) as an eco-friendly polyfunctional palette that combines (a) high near-infrared reflectance (cool pigments) that allows moderate temperatures in indoor environments and the urban heat island effect; (b) photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic contaminants of emerging concern of substrates in solution (such as Orange II or methylene blue) and gaseous (NOx and volatile organic compounds such as acetaldehyde or toluene); (c) X-ray radiation attenuators associated with bismuth ions; and (d) biocidal effect combined with co-doping with bactericidal agents. Pigments were prepared by a solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photocatalytic activity over Orange II and scanning electron microscopy. The behaviour of the proposed palette was compared to that of a commercial inkjet palette, and an improvement in all functionalities was observed. The functionalities of pigments allow the building envelope and indoor walls to exhibit temperature-moderating effects (with the additional effects of moderating global warming and increasing air conditioning efficiency), purification and disinfection of both indoor and outdoor air, and radiation attenuation. The proposed palette and its polyfunctional characterization are novel.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2022-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Extraction and identification of anthocyanin from blueberries: effects of
           ultrasound-/microwave-assisted parameters

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      Authors: Qi Yang, ZhiQiang Feng, RuanBing Zhang, YunPu Wang, DengLe Duan, Qin Wang, XiaoYu Zou, YuHuan Liu
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a green, economical and efficient ultrasonic-/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) process for the extraction of anthocyanins. After optimizing the extraction conditions by response surface methodology, three assays including DPPH, ABTS·+, FRAP were applied to analyze the antioxidant activity of the extracted anthocyanins. The stability under different temperatures, reductant concentrations and pHs was also discussed. The components of anthocyanins in blueberry were analyzed by HPLC-QTOF-MS2. The optimal extraction parameters were ultrasonic power of 300 W, microwave power of 365.28 W and solid–liquid ratio of 30 (g/mL). The possible structures can be speculated as Delphinidin-3-O-galactoside, Delphinidin, Petunidin, Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, Petunidin-3-O-glucoside, Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The results demonstrated that the UMAE can improve the yield of anthocyanins in shorter extraction time with higher activity. The present study may provide a promising and feasible route for extracting anthocyanins from blueberries and studying their physicochemical properties, ultimately promoting the utilization of blueberry anthocyanins.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2022-0106
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Citrate-crosslinked silver nanoparticles impregnation on curcumin-dyed
           cellulose fabric for potential surgical applications

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      Authors: Saima Habib, Farzana Kishwar, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Sharjeel Abid
      Abstract: This study aims to present a sustainable approach in the natural dyeing of cellulose fabric followed by nanosilver finishing through a green crosslinker of citric acid for potential antibacterial surgical gown fabrication. The nanosilver finish was reproduced using the chemical reduction method. The fabric dyeing was performed on a lab-scale dyeing machine, whereas silver nano-finishing through a pad-dry-cure approach. Citric acid was used as an eco-friendly crosslinker. The specimens were characterized for antibacterial activity, surface chemical, textile, color properties and finish release trend. The results demonstrated the successful application of curcumin dye followed by silver nano-finishing. The resultant fabric exhibited appropriate textile, dyeing performance indicators, hydrophobic behavior and sustainable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The prepared nanosilver-finished/curcumin-treated fabric expressed desirable properties for potential applications in the fabrication of surgical gowns. The authors found no reports on an extensive examination of nanosilver finishing on the color parameters of curcumin-dyed cellulose fabric while retaining its textile and comfort properties for possible surgical gown fabrication.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0117
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The encapsulation efficiency of zircon pigments from robust solids to
           clear solutions

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      Authors: Shan Peng, Ranran Yang, Binglong Lei, Yun Gao, Renhua Chen, Xiaohong Xia, Kevin P. Homewood
      Abstract: This paper aims to systematically demonstrate a methodology to determine the relative and absolute encapsulation efficiencies (αRe and αAb) for thermally- and chemically-robust inorganic pigments, typically like ZrSiO4-based pigments, thereby enhancing their coloring performance. The authors designed a route, surplus alkali-decomposition and subsequently strong-acid dissolution (SAD2) to completely decompose three classic zircon pigments (Pr–ZrSiO4, Fe2O3@ZrSiO4 and CdS@ZrSiO4) into clear solutions and preferably used inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to determine the concentrations of host elements and chromophores, thereby deriving the numeric data and interrelation of αRe and αAb. Zircon pigments can be thoroughly decomposed into some dissoluble zirconate–silicate resultants by SAD2 at a ratio of the fluxing agent to pigment over 6. ICP-OES is proved more suitable than some other quantification techniques in deriving the compositional concentrations, thereby the values of αRe and αAb, and their transformation coefficient KRA, which maintains stably within 0.8–0.9 in Fe2O3@ZrSiO4 and CdS@ZrSiO4 and is slightly reduced to 0.67–0.85 in Pr–ZrSiO4. The SAD2 method and encapsulation efficiencies are well applicable for both zircon pigments and the other pigmental or non-pigmental inhomogeneous systems in characterizing their accurate composition. The authors herein first proposed strict definitions for the relative and absolute encapsulation efficiencies for inorganic pigments, developed a relatively stringent methodology to determine their accurate values and interrelation.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0147
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Preparation of fluorine and silicon modified cationic acrylic resin and
           its application in cathodic electrodeposition coatings

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      Authors: Zheqing Gong, Lijun Chen
      Abstract: Fluorinated silicon polymers are expected to be adopted in specific coatings to afford outstanding advantages, such as high chemical and photochemical resistance, low surface tension and low refractive index. The modified acrylate resin is prepared via solution polymerization of fluorine and silicon monomers, acrylate monomers and other functional monomers. The purpose of this paper is that the fluorine and silicon monomers such as vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) and some cheap monomers such as styrene are used to prepare the cationic acrylic resin. The fluorine and silicon modified cationic acrylic resin is prepared via solution polymerization technology, which uses butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene (St), HFMA, VTES, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) as the co-polymerized monomers, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) as solvent and 2,2-Azo-bis-iso-butyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator to create a resin to introduce the Si–O and C–F into the polymer chains. The cathodic electrodeposition (CED) coatings were prepared by mixing the synthetic resin and blocked isocyanate. The influence of the amounts of HFMA and VETS on the resin and the resultant CED coatings is investigated in detail. The optimum amounts of HFMA and VETS are obtained, which is 7–8% and 4–5%, respectively. The hydrophobicity and the acid and alkaline resistance of the film are improved when VETS and HFMA are introduced to co-polymerize with other monomers. The fluorine and silicon monomers such as VTES and HFMA and some cheap monomers such as styrene, which are used to prepare the cationic acrylic resin, are seldom reported in the open literature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2022-0096
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Eco-friendly tiles: fabrication and testing of composite tile made from
           industrial gypsum wastes

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      Authors: Emad S. Shafik, Nehad N. Rozik, Nadia F. Youssef, Salwa L. Abd-El-Messieh
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to utilize two types of gypsum mold wastes from two different factories as novel and economical reinforcing fillers for composites that may be useful for building materials and floors. Two types of gypsum mold wastes from two different factories as raw materials were incorporated into linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) aiming to get rid of that waste in one hand and obtaining useful economical composites suitable for building materials and floors. Composites were prepared from two types of gypsum mold wastes substituted with different ratios from raw gypsum and LLDPE throughout the melt blending technique. The physico-mechanical and electrical investigations in addition to the morphology of the composites were included. The mechanical results illustrate that substituting commercial gypsum with gypsum mold waste positively affects tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness shore D for the LLDPE composites. The tensile strength increased from 5 MPa for LLDPE filled with commercial gypsum as blank samples to 11.2 and 13.2 MPa for LLDPE filled with D and S waste. Also, electrical properties which include both permittivity ɛ′ and dielectric loss ɛ″ increased with increasing the waste content in the LLDPE matrix. In addition to the electrical conductivity values, σ lies in the order of insulation materials. Consequently, it is possible to produce materials with a gypsum matrix by adding industrial waste, improving the behavior of the traditional gypsum and enabling those composites to be applied in various construction applications as eco-friendly tiles. This study aims to prepare eco-friendly composites based on LLDPE and waste gypsum mold to preserve resources for the coming generations, other than lowering the environmental footprint and saving the costs of getting rid of it.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0118
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Cobalt-containing diopside pigments based on granulated blast furnace slag

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      Authors: Аleksandr Viktorovich Zaichuk, Аleksandra Andreevna Amelina, Yurii Sergeevich Hordieiev
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to the low-temperature synthesis of cobalt-containing diopside pigments based on granulated blast furnace slag and to study the characteristics of the mineral formation processes, changes in the structure and colour indices. Synthesis of cobalt-containing diopside pigments based was carried out by the directional formation of the mineralogical composition with the introduction of part of the components using granulated blast-furnace slag. It has been established that the formation of the diopside phase in pigments containing blast-furnace slag as the main component proceeds at low temperatures (1,100°C–1,150 °C). The colour of diopside pigments is formed because of the isomorphic substitution of Si4+ ions for Al3+ ions and Mg2+ ions for Co2+ ions. It is expedient to add CoO in an amount of 0.9 mol (18 Wt.%) into the composition of diopside pigments based on blast-furnace slag to obtain defect-free violet glazes. The developed diopside pigments enable obtaining of high-quality violet glazes for ceramics. The application of the obtained results can significantly reduce the consumption of traditional raw materials in the composition of silicate ceramic pigments, as well as reduce their firing temperature. Calcium, magnesium and silicon oxides are the main components of blast-furnace slag. In addition, granulated blast furnace slag is mainly represented by the glassy phase, which determines its high activity during the firing process. These factors are prerequisites for using the blast-furnace slag as a valuable substitute for chemically pure or natural raw materials in silicate pigments and reducing their firing temperature.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0112
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Harnessing of newly tailored poly (acrylonitrile)-starch nanoparticle
           graft copolymer for copper ion removal via oximation reaction as a
           calorimetric sensor

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      Authors: Khaled Mostafa, Heba Ameen, Amal El-Ebeisy, Azza El-Sanabary
      Abstract: Herein, this study aims to use our recently tailored and fully characterized poly acrylonitrile (AN)-starch nanoparticle graft copolymer having 60.1 graft yield percentage as a starting substrate for copper ions removal from wastewater effluent after chemical modification with hydroxyl amine via oximation reaction as a calorimetric sensor. The calorimetric sensor batch technique was used to determine the resin's adsorption capacity, while atomic adsorption spectrometry was used to determine the residual copper ions concentration in the filtrate before and after adsorption. This was done to convert the copolymer's abundant nitrile groups into amidoxime groups, and the resulting poly (amidoxime) resin was used as a copper ion adsorbent. To validate the existence of amidoxime groups, the resin was qualitatively characterized using a rapid vanadium ion test and instrumentally using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra and scanning electron microscopy morphological analysis. At pH 7, 400 ppm copper ions concentration and 0.25 g adsorbent at room temperature, the overall adsorption potential of poly (amidoxime) resin was found to be 115.2 mg/g. The process's adsorption, kinetics and isothermal analysis were examined using various variables such as pH, contact time, copper ion concentration and adsorbent dose. To pretend the adsorption kinetics, various kinetics models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order, were applied to the experimental results. The kinetic analysis indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation promoted the development of the chemisorption phase better than the pseudo-first-order rate equation. In the case of isothermal investigations, a study of observed correlation coefficient (R2) values indicated that the Langmuir model outperformed the Freundlich model in terms of matching experimental data. To the best of the author's information, there is no comprehensive study for copper ions removal from waste water effluent using the recently tailored and fully characterized poly (AN)-starch nanoparticle graft copolymer having 60.1 graft yield percentage as a starting substrate after chemical modification with hydroxyl amine via oximation reaction as a calorimetric sensor.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0130
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Natural dyeing of silk and jute fabric with the aqueous extract of coconut
           leaves – an eco-friendly approach

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      Authors: Shahin Hossain, M. Abdul Jalil, Rois Uddin Mahmud, Abdul Kader
      Abstract: In recent years, natural dyes have attracted significant attention globally because of growing public awareness of the environment and health hazards associated with synthetic dyes. Natural dyes can provide special aesthetic qualities as well as the ethical significance of a product which is environmentally friendly. By keeping this burning issue in mind, this study aims to explore the dyeing properties of various unexplored environmentally friendly natural dyes. In this study, the aqueous extract of coconut leaves is used for dyeing purpose. The silk and jute fabrics were dyed with the extract alone as well as in combination with metal salts as mordants by employing pre-, meta- and postmordanting techniques. The dyeing properties of the colored samples were evaluated by measuring their color strength; CIEL*a*b* values; and color fastness to washing, light and rubbing. A yellow shade was achieved when the fabric samples were dyed solely with the extract. However, shade variations were observed when different mordants and mordanting techniques were applied. In all the cases, metallic salts improved the color fastness properties of dyed samples to washing, light and rubbing especially for the silk fabric. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a natural dye extracted from the leaves of coconut. Leaf as the source of dye has added an extra advantage, as it is reproducible and can be collected easily without harming the plants. The reported dye could be an attractive choice for sustainable and eco-friendly dyeing.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0125
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Anti-corrosive agents based benzil-thiocarbohydrazone macrocyclic
           ligand-derived Cu (II) and Zn (II) chelates: template synthesis and
           physically admixing with epoxy coating

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      Authors: Walid E. Elgammal, Essam M. Eliwa, Hosni A. Goomaa, Medhat E. Owda, H. Abd El-Wahab
      Abstract: This paper aims to focus on the synthesis of the macrocyclic complexes (Cu and Zn) and their applications as anticorrosive materials in epoxy paint formulation for surface coating application. A selected macrocyclic Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were prepared via template synthesis and characterized using Fourier transform infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, flexibility, hardness and adhesion of coating films prepared using epoxy paint. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy-painted films was improved due to the incorporation of the Zn and Cu complexes into the formulation. It was found that the metal complex-based formulation with Cu(II) and Zn(II) had outperformed the sample blank.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Nonlinear optical properties of symmetrical and asymmetrical benzene
           derivatives with click chemistry modification

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      Authors: Yuzhen Zhao, Mingxu Zhao, Huimin Zhang, Xiangrong Zhao, Yang Zhao, Zhun Guo, Jianjing Gao, Cheng Ma, Yongming Zhang
      Abstract: This paper aims to prepare third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials with large nonlinear optimization value, high damage threshold and ultrafast response time. A series of novel symmetric and asymmetric compounds possessing third-order NLO properties were synthesized using 1,3,5-tribromobenzene as the basis. The photophysical and electrochemical properties, as well as the click reactions, were characterized by means of UV–VIS–NIR absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The donor–acceptor chromophores were inserted into compound, making the molecule to have a broader absorption in the near-infrared regions and a narrower optical and electrochemical band gap. It also formed an electron-delocalized organic system, which has larger effects on achieving a third-order NLO response. The third-order NLO phenomenon of benzene ring complexes was experimentally studied at 532 nm using Z-scan technology, and some compounds showed the expected NLO properties. The click products exhibit more NLO phenomena by performing different click combinations to the side groups, opening new perspectives on using the system in a variety of photoelectric applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2022-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Highly efficient elimination of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) from aqueous
           solution using activated carbon immobilized on polystyrene

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      Authors: O.A. Elhefnawy, A.A. Elabd
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare a new adsorbent activated carbon immobilized on polystyrene (ACPS) for uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) removal from an aqueous solution. Activated carbon (AC) was derived from biochar material by chemical activation to increase the active sites on its surface and enhance the adsorption capacity. Activated carbon (AC) was immobilized on polystyrene (PS) to improve the physical properties and facilitate separation from the working solution. A feasibility study for the adsorption of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) on the new adsorbent (ACPS) has been achieved. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics models of the adsorption process were used to describe the reaction mechanism. Activated carbon was synthesized from biochar charcoal by 2 M H2SO4. Activated carbon was immobilized on the pretreatment polystyrene by hydrothermal process forming new adsorbent (ACPS). Characterization studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Different factors affect the adsorption process as pH, contact time, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration and temperature. The adsorption mechanism was explained according to kinetic, isothermal and thermodynamic studies. Also, the regeneration of spent ACPS was studied. The experimental results showed that pH and equilibrium time of the best adsorption were 6.0 and 60 min for U(VI), 4.0 and 90 min for Th(IV), (pHPZC = 3.4). The experimental results fit well with pseudo-second order, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models proving the chemisorption and heterogenous adsorption reaction. Adsorption thermodynamics demonstrated that the adsorption process is exothermic and has random nature of the solid/liquid interface. In addition, the regeneration of spent ACPS research showed that the adsorbent has good chemical stability. According to the comparative study, ACPS shows higher adsorption capacities of U(VI) and Th(IV) than other previous bio-adsorbents. This study was conducted to improve the chemical and physical properties of bio-charcoal purchased from the local market to activated carbon by hydrothermal method. Activated carbon was immobilized on polystyrene forming new adsorbent ACPS for eliminating U(VI) and Th(IV) from aqueous solutions.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2022-0107
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of the anti-erosion performance of PLA and ABS materials with
           two different micro textures

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      Authors: Ripendeep Singh Sidhu, Gurmeet Singh, Harjot Singh Gill
      Abstract: This empirical study aims to investigate the erosion wear performance of two different 3D-printed materials (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene [ABS] and polylactic acid [PLA]) with various micro textures. The two different textures (prism and square) were created over the surfaces of both materials by using the 3D-printed technique. The erosion experiments on both materials were performed by using Ducom Erosion Jet Tester. Erosion tests were performed at four different impacting velocities (15, 30, 45 and 60 m/s) with the four different particle sizes (17, 39, 63 97 µm) at the impact angles (30°–90°) for the time duration of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The two different textures prism and cone were used for performing the erosion experiments. Taguchi’s orthogonal L16 (mixed level) was used to reduce the number of experiments and to determine the impact of these parameters on erosion wear performance of both 3D-printed materials. The PLA with cone texture was found to be best (against erosion) than the ABS cone and prism textures due to their high hardness (68 HV). Also, the average signal to noise (S/N) ratio for PLA and ABS was measured as 56.4 and 44.4 dB, respectively. As the value of the S/N ratio is inversely proportional to the erosion rate, the PLA has the least erosion rate as compared to the ABS. The sequence of erosion wear influencing parameters for both materials was in the following order: velocity> erodent size> texture> impact angle> time interval. Both PLA and ABS with different micro textures for erosion testing were studied with Taguchi’s optimization method, and the erosion mechanisms are well analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and Image J techniques.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0127
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Design, characterization, theoretical studies, and dyeing properties of
           new novel diazo salicylaldehyde Schiff base catalyzed with ceric (IV)
           ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an eco-friendly catalyst

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      Authors: Ali A. Ali, H. Abd El-Wahab, Moustafa S. Abusaif, Ahmed Ragab, Omar A. Abdel-Jaid, E.A. Eldeeb, Yousry A. Ammar
      Abstract: The paper aims to the preparation of novel disperse dye based on azo salicylaldehyde derivatives TF-A [2-hydroxy-5-((3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)diazenyl)benzaldehyde] and full evaluation of their use as disperse dye TF-ASC [bis 2-hydroxy-5-((3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)diazenyl)benzaldehyde Schiff base with 4,4'-methylenedianiline] for dyeing polyester fabric at various conditions. The dispersed dye was synthesized via Schiff base condensation in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate cerium ammonium nitrate 10 mmole% as an eco-friendly catalyst at room temperature. The chemical structure of the prepared dye was characterized via elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopic analysis tools. This study thoroughly examined the dyeing of disperse dye TF-ASC on polyester at various conditions. The characteristics of dyed polyester fabric were measured by colour measurements, as well as light, washing, crock fastness and finally, colour strength. The discrete fourier transform (DFT) theoretical studies, including EHOMO, ELUMO and optimized geometrical structure, were assumed and discussed in detail. The results showed that the synthesized organic dye TF-ASC was highly functional and appropriate for this kind of dyeing method. The dyeing fabrics obtained from disperse dye TF-ASC, properties possess high colour strength as well as good overall fastness properties. These dyes had a high affinity for polyester fabric, with just a tiny change in dye affinity when the pH was changed, even under alkaline circumstances. The dye levelness and shade depth of the colour results were good, and there were a variety of hues from light brownish yellow to deep brownish yellow. The results obtained from DFT computational studies such as EHOMO, ELUMO, optimized structure, diploe moment µ and electrophilicity index deduced that prepared organic dye TF-ASC is more applicable as a dispersed dye. This research is significant because it provides a new dye for dyeing polyethylene terephthalate fibres with exceptional brightness and levelness; the method of preparation is a useful pathway due to its being known as a green chemistry method.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2022-0141
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of natural oil polyol hydrophobic acrylic-based coating
           incorporated with SiO nanoparticles for enhanced corrosion protection

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      Authors: Iling Aema Wonnie Ma, Gerard Ong, Ammar Shafaamri, Julie Nabilah Jamalludin, Nina Nazirah Ishun, Ramesh Kasi, Ramesh Subramaniam
      Abstract: This study aims to fabricate the acrylic-based polymeric composite coating with a hydrophobic surface associated with natural oil polyol (NOP) and polydimethylsiloxane with the incorporation of 3 Wt.% SiO2 nanoparticle (SiO2np) against the corrosive NaCl media. The structural properties of the formulated polymeric composite coatings were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) and cross-hatch (X-Hatch) tests. The WCA measurement was used to study the surface wettability of the formulated polymeric composite coatings. The corrosion protection performance of the nanocomposite coated on the mild steel substrate was studied by immersing the samples in 3.5 Wt.% NaCl solution for 30 days using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The enhanced polymeric composite coating system performed with an excellent increase in the WCA up to 111.1° which is good hydrophobic nature and very high coating resistance in the range of 1010 Ω attributed to the superiority of SiO2np. The incorporation of SiO2np into the polymeric coating could enhance the surface roughness and hydrophobic properties that could increase corrosion protection. This approach is a novel attempt of using NOP along with the addition of SiO2np.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2022-0092
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Modification to unsaturated polyester resin with silica and silica/boron
           nitride mixture nanoparticles

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      Authors: Selinay Gumus, Kaan Aksoy, Ayse Aytac
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects of nano or inorganic fillers on unsaturated polyester’s (UPE) thermal, mechanical, and physical properties. UPE reinforced with nanoparticles shows better properties than the pure polymer itself. Nano or inorganic fillers are used in the polymeric matrix to improve thermal, mechanical and physical properties. To improve thermal, mechanical and physical properties, UPE resin was modified with silica (S), boron nitride (BN) and S/BN hybrid nanoparticles at different ratios. Viscosity and solids content measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity coefficient tests were performed on the samples. In the SEM analysis, the UPE sample showed a smooth appearance, while all samples containing additives showed phase separation and overall heterogeneous distribution. TGA results demonstrated that the thermal stability of the resin increased in the presence of S and BN additives. According to the results, it was observed that the presence of S and BN additives in the UPE resin and the use of certain ratios improved the resin properties. As a result of the literature search, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study was found in which BN nanoparticles were included in the UPE resin together with S.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2022-0140
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Natural dyeing mediated by atmospheric air pressure plasma treatment of
           polyester

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      Authors: Padma S. Vankar, Archana Gangwar
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to check the effectivity of plasma in the natural dyeing of polyester fabric using four natural dyes – Turkey red, Lac, Turmeric and Catechu using plasma and alum mordant. The surface modification on the polyester fabric by plasma along with the use of benign mordant alum is studied. The enhancement of dyeability in polyester fabric with natural dyes is the main focus. Due to surface modification, the wettability increases, which leads to better dye uptake. Better dye uptake and better dye adherence are the main objectives. Plasma-mediated natural dyeing is the main design of this research work. The effect of plasma treatment on surface modification of synthetic fabric polyester and its subsequent effects on their dyeing with different natural dyes, namely, Turkey red, Lac, Turmeric and Catechu are studied. The dyeability was further enhanced by the use of alum as mordant. The main focus is on the betterment of natural dyeing of polyester fabric using sustainable natural dyes resources for dyeing and to reduce wastewater contamination from the usage of toxic additive chemicals for cleaner production. Plasma-mediated and alum-mordanted dyeing method facilitated very good dyeability of all the four natural dyes, namely, Turkey red, Lac, Turmeric and Catechu. Color strength (K/S) values and fastness properties of plasma-treated samples were far better than untreated samples. The synergistic effect of plasma and alum mordanting has made natural dyeing of polyester very easy with very good fastness results. Natural dyeing of polyester after 2 min of plasma treatment showed excellent and desirable results. The process is also easy to be adapted by industries. As polyester is hydrophobic, natural dyeing of polyester fabric is not very easy, but with plasma-mediated natural dyeing, it becomes a very facile dyeing method; thus, there are no limitations. Use of plasma has reduced the need for any chemical additives which are usually added during the dyeing process. This process of natural dyeing of polyester fabric can be scaled up to industrial dyeing with natural dyes. Plasma pretreatment of the fabric followed by premordanting with alum has facilitated the natural dyeing well. Use of plasma in place of chemical modifiers can be a green and environmentally friendly approach for sustainable coloration of polyester fabric, providing a clean wet processing for textiles dyeing. The synergistic effect of plasma-mediated and alum-mordanted natural dyeing of polyester has not been attempted by any researcher. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is for the first time that pretreatment with atmospheric plasma followed by alum mordanting of polyester fabric has shown very good dye uptake and fastness properties as the dye molecules could penetrate well after 2 min of the plasma treatment.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2022-0093
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of the aminosilane and colloidal silica treated red iron oxide
           pigment effects in styrene acrylic and polyurethane dispersion

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      Authors: Mehmet Ozdemir, Serap Mert, Ayse Aytac
      Abstract: This study aims to perform the surface treatment of synthetic α-Fe2O3 red iron oxide pigment with hydrolysate 3-aminopropyl silane (A) and colloidal silica (CS) and investigate the effects of surface-treated pigment on the styrene acrylic (SA) emulsion and polyurethane (PU) dispersion. For this purpose, firstly red iron oxide particles were modified with A and CS separately in an aqueous medium. After isolation of the modified iron oxide were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Moreover, the degree of the dispersion stability of the modified pigment in coatings with SA emulsion and PU dispersion was investigated by using an oscillation rheometer. Loss (G''), storage (G') modulus, loss factor [tan(δ)] and yield stress (τ0) values were determined by performing amplitude and frequency sweep tests. The τ0 in SA coatings decreases with the amount of used A and increases with the amount of used CS. The τ0 decreases as the amount of used A and CS in PU coatings increases. The use of CS on red iron oxide pigments causes storage modulus to increase in SA coatings at low angular frequencies, while it causes a decrease in PU coatings. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, the suspended state of the iron oxide hybrid pigment formed with CS in the coating was investigated rheologically in this study.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Design and synthesis of thermosensitive target segment resin with
           precisely controlled distance between immobilization sites for
           immobilization of penicillin G acylase

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      Authors: Yangdong Liu, Siyuan Lu, Hongyi Tu, Boyuan Zhang, Yaqin Zhao, Jiasheng He, Liangliang He, Zhenbin Chen
      Abstract: To save the economic cost and improve the performance of enterprises, this study aims to synthesize high performance immobilized penicillin G acylase (PGA) carriers with fast reaction speed, high recovery rate of enzyme activity and good reusability through corresponding theoretical guidance and experimental exploration. A diblock resin was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization method using N, N-diethylacrylamide (DEA) and β-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers poly(N, N-diethylacrylamide)-b-poly(β-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PDEA-b-PHEMA) was obtained, and the effect of the ratio of DEA and HEMA on the activity of PGA was investigated, and the appropriate block ratio of DEA and HEMA was obtained. After that, the competitive rate of HEMA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) under the carrier preparation conditions was investigated. Based on the above work, a thermosensitive resin carrier PDEA-b-PHEMA-b-P(HEMA-co-GMA) with different target distances was synthesized, and the chemical structures and molecular weight of copolymers were investigated by hydrogen NMR (1H NMR). The lower critical solution temperature of the resin support decreases with the increase of the monomer HEMA in the random copolymerization; the catalytic performance study indicated that the response rate of the immobilized PGA is fast, and the recovery rate of the enzyme activity of the immobilized PGA varies with the distance between the targets. When the molar ratio of HEMA to GMA in the resin block is 8.15:1 [i.e. resin PDEA100-b-PHEMA10-b-P(HEMA65-co-GMA8)], the activity recovery rate of immobilized PGA can reach 50.51%, which was 15.49% higher than that of pure GMA immobilized PGA. This contribution provides a novel carrier for immobilizing PGA. Under the optimal molar ratio, the enzyme activity recovery could be up to 50.51%, which was 15.49% higher than that of PGA immobilized on the carrier with nonregulated distance between two immobilization sites.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2022-0076
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Effects of precipitated and ground calcium carbonate coating on mechanical
           properties of fluting paper

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      Authors: Mustafa Çiçekler, Velican Üzüm, Emrullah Çopurkuyu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a pigment coating on the mechanical properties of fluting paper. Two different calcium carbonate pigments were used in the preparation of the coated color, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and ground calcium carbonate (GCC). Fluting paper produced by recycling waste paper was used as base paper. The effects of PCC and GCC pigments on mechanical properties were compared. Ring crush test (RCT), corrugating medium test (CMT), corrugating crush test (CCT), tensile and burst strength tests were applied to the coated papers, and the results were compared to the mechanical properties of base paper. The tensile and burst indices of the coated papers were found to be higher than base papers about 13.9% and 6.05%, respectively. While the coating process positively affected the RCT and CCT values, it did not show a significant impact on the CMT values. GCC, one of the pigments used in coating colors, had a more effective effect on the mechanical properties of fluting papers compared to PCC. These results suggest that coating of fluting papers has a positive effect on mechanical properties and the use of GCC as a pigment is more effective than PCC.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2022-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Synthesis of transparent thermal insulation coating for efficient solar
           cells

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      Authors: Amirul Syafiq, Farah Khaleda Mohd Zaini, Vengadaesvaran Balakrishnan, Nasrudin Abd. Rahim
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the simple synthesis process of thermal-insulation coating by using three different nanoparticles, namely, nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), nano-tin dioxide (SnO2) and nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), which can reduce the temperature of solar cells. The thermal-insulation coating is designed using sol-gel process. The aminopropyltriethoxysilane/methyltrimethoxysilane binder system improves the cross-linking between the hydroxyl groups, -OH of nanoparticles. The isopropyl alcohol is used as a solvent medium. The fabrication method is a dip-coating method. The prepared S1B1 coating (20 Wt.% of SnO2) exhibits high transparency and great thermal insulation property where the surface temperature of solar cells has been reduced by 13°C under 1,000 W/m2 irradiation after 1 h. Meanwhile, the Z1B2 coating (20 Wt.% of ZnO) reduced the temperature of solar cells by 7°C. On the other hand, the embedded nanoparticles have improved the fill factor of solar cells by 0.2 or 33.33%. Findings provide a significant method for the development of thermal-insulation coating by a simple synthesis process and low-cost materials. The thermal-insulation coating is proposed to prevent exterior heat energy to the inside solar panel glass. At the same time, it can prevent excessive heating on the solar cell’s surface, later improves the efficiency of solar cell. This study presents a the novel method to develop and compare the thermal-insulation coating by using various nanoparticles, namely, nano-TiO2, nano-SnO2 and nano-ZnO at different weight percentage.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0119
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Evaluating nano Primal AC33 for protection and consolidation processes of
           archaeological pottery: a comparison study with silica and montmorillonite
           nanoparticles

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      Authors: Hamdy Mohamed Mohamed, Wael Sabry Mohamed
      Abstract: This study aims to offer an effective nanocomposite for potential use to consolidate and protect deteriorated archaeological pottery. Three nanocomposites were used in the experimental study. This study used nano Primal AC33, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles to protect and consolidate pottery specimens. Pottery specimens were made at 800°C for this investigation. Consolidation materials were applied with a brush. The properties of the treated pottery specimens were assessed using several methods such as digital and scanning electron microscopes, static water contact angle, color alteration, physical properties and compressive strength. Microscopic examination indicated the ability of the nano Primal AC33/MMT nanocomposites to cover the outer surface well and bind the inner granules. Concerning specimens with code F treated with nano Primal AC33 5%/MMT 3% nanocomposites, it achieved an increase in contact angle (120°), density (1.23 g/cm3) and compressive strength (561 kg/cm2), as well as a decrease in color change (ΔE = 2.62), water absorption (4.45%) and porosity (5.46%). The novelty of the results is due to the characteristics of nano Primal AC33 5%/MMT 3% nanocomposites used in the current study. This study describes the significant results of the analytical methods used for evaluating consolidation materials used in this study. The findings offer useful information for the protection of archaeological pottery. The investigation indicated that nano Primal AC33 5%/MMT 3% nanocomposites gave the best results. Therefore, it is recommended to use this nanocomposite to consolidate archaeological pottery. As a result, the current work provides a promising first step in conserving archaeological pottery for future studies.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2022-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Structural color printing and evaluation based on 3D printing

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      Authors: Jundong He, Xinguang Lv
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to modify the FDM 3D printer to print with polystyrene (PS) microspheres as the printing material, thus enabling bottom-up structural color printing and evaluating structural color printing. This study chose a range of different heated bed temperatures to determine a suitable temperature for accelerating the self-assembly of photonic crystals and printing structural colors on various substrates. In addition, this study enhanced the structural color by doping PS microspheres with different contents of Acid Black 210 dye and evaluated the color-enhanced structural color by eye and spectrophotometer under different light sources. The results show that the modified 3D printer can be used for structural color printing, and 50°C is determined as the heated bed temperature. There are significant differences in structural colors when printing under different color backgrounds and material substrates, and corresponding suitable substrates should be selected according to the application. The doping of PS microspheres with varying contents of dye results in different color levels of structural color. As with pigment colors, the visual perception of structural color varies when viewed under different light sources. This paper proposes to print structural colors low-costly, analyze structural colors under substrate and light source conditions, and expand the structural color gamut by enhancing structural colors, which has positive implications for further research on structural colors as printing colors.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2022-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Coatings containing molybdenum trisulphide QDs to protect oil paintings
           against different environmental factors

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      Authors: Eslam Taha, Mostafa Attia Mohie, Mahmoud Sayed Korany, Naglaa Aly, Alaa Ropy, Mosaad Negem
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate profoundly the protection of oil painting from deterioration using molybdenum trisulphide quantum dots (MoS3 QDs) against microbe, dirt accumulation and ultraviolet (UV) degradation. The protection of painting against different deterioration factors necessitates the sustainable methods and advanced techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate the morphological structure of the painting and MoS3 QDs, respectively, and optical microscopy was used to examine antibacterial activity of MoS3 QDs towards different types of bacteria. To investigate the protection of painting against deterioration, the Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the paintings left in open air for a year. Chemical composition and crystal structure of MoS3 QDs have been studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, respectively. The addition of MoS3 nanoparticles into painted coatings enhances the durability of linseed oil-based paintings toward UV ageing regarding the change in colour which confirmed by FTIR analysis. The protection of oil painting opposed to various deterioration factors was developed by involving of MoS3 QDs in the coating of the painting. Antibacterial effect of MoS3 QDs was tested against different types of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa confirming that the MoS3 QDs involved in the coatings of oil paintings produces a high protection layer for the paintings against several microbial attacks. In addition, coatings containing MoS3 QDs reduce the accumulation of dirt on oil paintings when subjected to open air for a year. The novel MoS3 QDs was used to form a protective and transparent coating layer for the oil painting to overcome the deterioration, displays the promising protection and can be applied for different oil paintings.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2022-0028
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 363 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (6 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 5 of 5 Journals sorted alphabetically
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pigment & Resin Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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