Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 362 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (31 journals)
    - MACHINERY (34 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (223 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (5 journals)
    - PACKAGING (19 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)
    - PLASTICS (42 journals)
    - RUBBER (4 journals)

PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (4 journals)

Showing 1 - 4 of 4 Journals sorted alphabetically
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pigment & Resin Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Pigment & Resin Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.22
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0369-9420 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6941
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Effect of addition of compatibilizer on mechanical, thermal and
           thermo-mechanical behavior of a polymer blend (PBT/ PBT(G)/ PTT) composite
           

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      Authors: Sundaram R.K. , Senthil Kumaran S. , Edwin Samson P.
      Abstract: This study aims to reduce the interfacial tension by increasing the better adhesion between different immiscible polymers phases and also to evaluate the mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical behavior of the immiscible polymer blends. The polymer blend composite (PBC) was prepared using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding. Two different kinds of PBC with compatibilizer (Ethylene-n-Butylacrylate-Glycidyl methacrylate) of varying compositions like polybutylene terephthalate + poly trimethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate (30% glass filled) + poly trimethylene terephthalate were prepared and material behavior at various test conditions were studied. The effect of glass fiber reinforcement on polymer blend and the interlocking effect by the compatibilizer between the polymer phases were also assessed. Mechanical behavior of PBC was estimated by tensile, flexural and angular impact tests. Likewise, the thermal deflection was studied with the help of heat deflection temperature test. Thermo-mechanical behavior likes storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent were studied using the dynamic mechanical analysis test. Morphological analysis was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. This in turn makes the process easy to obtain the PBC having inherent mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanically stable. And, it also enhances the mechanical properties like tensile, flexural and impact strength. Simultaneously, posse’s excellent heat deflection and thermo-mechanical behavior over a temperature range of 35–140ºC at a constant frequency of 5 Hz.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2021-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A scientific approach for evaluating extremely caked paper manuscript kept
           in Al-Azhar Library in Cairo

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      Authors: Walid Shaaban Abdelrasoul Mohamed , Mostafa Attia Mohie
      Abstract: Paper aims to determinate caking paper manuscript cause through studying of the manuscript components, bio-deterioration and physio-chemical deterioration factor. It will facilitate manuscripts and paper conservators to understand paper blocking and caking phenomenon. The manuscript condition has been diagnosed by focusing on adhesion and fossilization regions. To achieve this, some methods of analysis and examination were used, such as visual examination, digital microscopy and scanning electron microscope were used to studying surface changes. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared microscopy were used to determinate of cellulose crystallinity, ink composition and identify the binding medium. The results revealed the use of cotton pulp, and calcium carbonate was among the fillers that were used to improve the properties of paper. The crystallization of cellulose was lower in the first and last papers than the papers located in the heart of the manuscript. The most important reasons that led to the papers caking was the presence of fungi A. niger, Cladosporium sp, Chaetomium sp, by secreting some enzymes in combination with some other factors such as difference variation in temperature and moisture. All deterioration factors participate with each other until rule the damage circle of the papers because one factor alone cannot stick the papers. It was inferred from the examinations and analyzes that were conducted for the samples.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2021-0125
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Optimization and characterization of surface treated fiber and its
           reinforcement effect on epoxy composites

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      Authors: Saravanan N. , Navin Kumar B. , Bharathiraja G. , Pandiyarajan R.
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the resultant optimal ultimate tensile strength, elongation, flexural strength and modulus, compression strength and impact strength of fabricated alkali-treated Lagenaria siceraria fiber (LSF)-reinforced polymer matrix composite by optimizing input factors and microstructural characterization by influencing fiber length, fiber concentration and treatment condition of LSF. The fabrication of LSF-reinforced composite specimens involved surface treatment followed by custom experimental design using a simple hand layup process. The wear analysis was performed by a multi-tribotester TR25 machine, and the developed model was validated by using statistical software Design Expert V.8 and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The surface morphology of the sample was also analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The alkali treatment for LSFs had reduced the hemicellulose, and enhanced mechanical performance was observed for 30 wt.% concentration of L. siceraria in epoxy resin. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed thermal stability up to 245°C; microstructure revealed fiber entanglements in case of longer fiber length and compression strength reduction; and the surface-treated fiber composites exhibited reduced occurrences of defects and enhanced matrix–fiber bonding. Enhanced mechanical performances were observed, namely, ultimate tensile strength of 17.072 MPa, elongation of 1.847%, flexural strength of 50.4 MPa, flexural modulus of 3,376.31 GPa, compression strength of 52.154 MPa and impact strength of 0.53 joules. The novel approach of optimizing and characterizing alkali surface-treated LSF-reinforced epoxy matrix composite was explored, varying fiber length and concentrations for specimens by empirical relations and experimental design to obtain optimal performance validated by ANOVA. Enhanced properties were obtained for: 7 mm fiber length and 30 wt.% concentration of fiber in the composite for alkali-treated fiber.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0093
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant rigid polyurethane foam composites

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      Authors: Ahmet Akar , Berrin Değirmenci , Nesrin Köken
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is the production of fire retardant and smoke suppressant rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) with lower toxicity by using several fire-retardant combinations. Fire-retardant additives with cooling effect, barrier ash formation effect, gas-phase inhibition effect and smoke suppressant effect combined to produce an optimum outcome on RPUF. The additive amount and burning time correlation were studied to find out the minimum amount of fire-retardant to obtain fire-retardant polyurethane foam. Zinc borate powder was coated with 1.5 wt % of stearic acid and hydroxy stearic acid. Polyammonium diborates (PABs) were synthesized and used as a fire-retardant and smoke suppressant for rigid PU foam. Fire-retardant rigid polyurethane foams (FR-RPUF) composites formed by using several combinations of zinc borate, aluminum trihydroxide, trischloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP), PABs, zinc borate coated with stearic acid and hydroxy stearic acid. Produced FR-RPUF were horizontal burning grade, and burning time was in the range of 1–10 s. There were limitations during the mixing of fire-retardant powders with polyol due to the high viscosity of the mixture. FR-RPUF foam with lower toxicity can be produced industrially with these fire-retardant combinations. FR-RPUF could be produced by using non-toxic additives. During a fire, these additives do not evolve toxic gases. The TCPP content of RPUF foam was reduced, and fire-retardant PU with lower toxicity was produced. Coated zinc borate and the combinations of the fire-retardants were successful in producing non-toxic fire-retardant and smoke suppressant PU foam.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0062
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Comparison of life cycle assessment for laminating and glazing processes
           based on simapro

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      Authors: Qingbin Cui , Fenjuan Shao
      Abstract: Both glazing and laminating play a certain role in finishing and protecting the surface of printed matter. This study makes a comparative analysis of the two through life cycle assessment (LCA) and theoretically explores the difference between them. In this study, the life cycle of laminating and glazing processes was calculated through using Simapro software, and the results were compared and analyzed. Twelve environmental categories were used to quantitatively analyze the environmental impact of the product. The results showed that the results of the 12 environmental categories involved in the analysis of glazing was less than that of laminating, indicating that the impact of the glazing on the environment was less than that of laminating on the environment. In order to simplify the study, we only calculated and analyzed the laminating and glazing. Green packaging is the future, 3R1D, reduce, reuse, recycle and degradable. According to the calculation results, corresponding suggestions can be put forward from production, processing, use, waste and other aspects, and make corresponding contributions to the development of green packaging. The contribution and impact of each stage to the product life cycle can be studied. In addition, different waste disposal methods have different impacts on the environment, and the higher the recovery ratio, the better the environmental benefits of the product. Recycling should then be promoted as proportionately as possible in practice in order to reduce the environmental impact .
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0116
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of compatibilisers on the cure characteristics and mechanical
           properties of ternary rubber blend composites

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      Authors: Amir A. Abdelsalam , Salwa H. El-Sabbagh , Wael S. Mohamed , Jian Li , Lihua Wang , Hanafi Ismail , Ahmed Abdelmoneim , Mohsen A. Khozami
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the effects of various compatibilisers (maleic anhydride (MAH), methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate emulsion lattice, and adhesion system (HRH)) on properties of carbon black (CB) filled with natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) blends). A series of NR/SBR/NBR blends at a 30/30/40 blend ratio reinforced with 45 phr of CB was prepared using the master-batch method. The tensile properties such as the tensile strength, stress at 100, 200 and 300% elongations, and elongation at break (EB)% were studied. Additionally, the morphological properties of compatibilised and uncompatibilised composites were compared to determine the optimal compatibiliser content. The influence of compatibilisers appeared on all the properties studied. The properties of the blends compatibilised with prepared emulsion are very distinct from those of blends compatibilised with MAH and adhesion systems. Interactions among the different components of blends at the interfaces have a high impact on the interfacial properties of the rubber blend. Compatibilisers significantly improve the physicomechanical properties of the resulting composites with the loading of investigated compatibilisers because of the uniform dispersion of CB in the rubber matrix. Using blends in the rubber industry leads to high-efficiency production of low-cost products. The rubber blending has a significant positive effect on a wide range of applications such as structural applications, aerospace, military, packaging, tires and biomedical. Hence, improving the compatibility of blends will make new materials suitable for new applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Analysis of the color properties of papers subjected to different
           recycling numbers in electrophotographic (toner) printing

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      Authors: Ufuk Yılmaz
      Abstract: In this present study, electrophotographic printing is made on papers which are subjected to different recycling numbers, and this paper aims to examine the colour changes of this printing type. Four-colour electrophotographic printing is carried out on adhering to the INGEDE 11p standard recycled papers four times under the same conditions. Colour measurements are made by means of electrophotographic printed colour scales printed on these recycled papers. Colour measurements are made with the X-Rite eXact spectrophotometer according to the ISO 13655:2017 standard. As a result of colour measurements, colour differences (ΔL′, ΔH′, ΔC′, ΔE00) of recycled papers are determined using some formulas. According to the values obtained after four recycling, the highest ΔL′ value is found to be 4.80 yellow and the lowest 1.92 black. Again, according to the measurement results, it is determined that the highest ΔE00 is yellow colour with a value of 5.66, and lowest ΔE00 is black colour with a value of 1.98. In ΔH′, black colour is the highest value of 12.61, the lowest value with −2.05 is obtained in magenta colour. It was observed that the highest ΔC′ value is 2.98 in yellow, and the lowest value is −0.28 in black. In the printing industry, sometimes customers want to monitor the colour differences in the printing by taking the L′a′b′ obtained values as a result of printing from the printing houses. If the colour differences exceed the tolerance values, then they can interfere with the printing. As a result of the calculations, colour changes in electrophotographic printing are observed with many parameters. This study can be a pioneer for the studies that can be done on this subject.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0106
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of optical properties of fluorescent nanofiber using
           image-processing technique

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      Authors: Ali Shams Nateri , Laleh Asadi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is evaluate the optical properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers containing fluorescent agents such as fluorescent dye and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) by using image-processing technique of Fluorescence microscope image. The fluorescence microscope image of the pure PAN, PAN/CQDs and PAN/fluorescent dye nanofibers composite was analyzed using several image-processing techniques such as color histogram, lookup table (LUT), Fourier transform, RGB profile and surface plot analysis. The fluorescence microscope image indicates that the fluorescence emission of nanocomposites depends on the type of fluorescent agent. The fluorescence intensity of nanofiber containing CQDs is more than nanofiber containing fluorescent dye. Various image-processing methods provide similar results for optical property of nanocomposites. Analyzing the LUT, the blue value of CQDs/PAN nanocomposite image was significantly higher than other nanocomposites. This was confirmed by other methods such as Fourier transform, color histogram and 3D topography of the electrospun nanofibers. According to analysis of colorimetric parameters, higher negative value of b* indicates bluer color for CQDs/PAN nanofibers than other nanocomposites. The obtained results indicate that the image-processing technique can be used to evaluate the optical property of fluorescent nanocomposite. This study evaluates the optical properties of fluorescent nanocomposites by using image-processing techniques such as Fourier transform, color histogram, RGB profiles, LUT, surface plot and histogram analysis.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0095
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Optimization and analysis of dry sliding wear process parameters on
           cellulose reinforced ABS polymer composite material

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      Authors: Ponsuriyaprakash S. , Udhayakumar P. , Pandiyarajan R.
      Abstract: This study aims to the optimization using three factors and three-level parameters (sliding speed [rpm], sliding distance [m/s] and load [N]) of design matrix were adapted to Box–Behnken design using design expert v8.0 software. Based on the parameters, to develop the linear regression equation and to find the significant considerable wear process parameters based on output responses like wear loss (WL) and coefficient of friction (COF) value of polymer matrix composites (PMC) specimen of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/cellulose composite (80 wt% of ABS and 20 wt% of cellulose). The fabrication of the ABS/cellulose composite sample was carried out by the simple hands-on stir process method. As per the American Society for Testing and Materials G99 standard, the sample was made by the molding process. The wear analysis was made by multi tribotester TR25 machine and validated the developed model by using statistical software design expert v.8.0 and numerical tools like analysis of variance. The surface morphology [field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis] of the sample was also observed using the Quanta FEG-250 FESEM instrument. The parameters like sliding speed, sliding distance and load are independently affected the COF value and WL of the 80% of ABS matrix and 20% cellulose reinforced composite material. The regression equations were generated by the coefficient of friction value and WL, which predicted the minimum WL of 80% of ABS matrix and 20% of cellulose reinforced composite material. The worn surface analysis result exposes the worn path and equal distribution of reinforcement and matrix on the surface of composite material. The literature survey revealed a small number of studies available regarding wear analysis of ABS matrix and cellulose reinforced composite materials. In the present work, to fabricate and evaluate the wear performance of PMC (80% of ABS and 20% of cellulose) depends on the WL and COF value. The maximum and minimum COF value (µ) of 80% of ABS and 20% of cellulose composite material is 4.71 and 0.28 with the optimized wear process parameter by 1,000 mm of sliding distance, 0.25 (m/s) of sliding speed and 9 N of load.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0067
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Investigation into the effect of resin finish on the functional
           characteristics of plain fabrics using different curing methods

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      Authors: Farhana Naeem , Fareha Asim , Muhammad Tufail
      Abstract: Cellulosic fabric and plain weave are the most commonly used material in home textiles. The poor wrinkling, dimensional stability and pilling are some of the problems faced during usage. The textile industries apply resin finish to improve these characteristics. The purpose of this study is to improve pilling resistance, dimensional stability and smoothness appearance (SA) of rayon and rayon/cotton plain fabrics using different concentrations of dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) and acrylic copolymer. The finish was fixed using two different fixation methods. Three concentrations, 40, 100 and 150 g/l of Arkofix NF (DMDHE based) and Appretan N9211 (acrylic copolymer), were taken. The finish was applied at normal and shock cure. The effects of finish on pilling resistance, dimensional stability, smoothness, tear strength, light fastness, Berger whiteness and yellowness index of plain fabrics were investigated. The changes in the characteristics of the finished fabrics were compared with unfinished fabrics. This study revealed that at 40 g/l of Arkofix NF and Appretan N9211 using a normal cure would improve the pilling resistance, dimensional stability and SA of the plain fabrics. Whereas, there was no adverse effect observed on tear strength, light fastness, Berger whiteness and yellowness index of plain fabrics at these conditions. Unlike the previous studies, this paper proposed the single finish formulation where the functional characteristics of the plain rayon and rayon cotton fabrics meet the general requirement of a customer.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Physical and mechanical investigation for polyionic liquid/poly(vinyl
           alcohol) blends

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      Authors: Nehad N. Rozik , Emad Saad Shafik , Salwa L. Abd-El-Messieh
      Abstract: This study aims to polymerize of 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (PIL). PIL was embedded into PVA with a different content ratio by casting method. This research also deals with the effect of adding PIL in different proportions to PVA on the electrical and mechanical properties properties in addition to the morphology of the prepared samples. 1-Butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide was synthesized through quaternization and free radical polymerization. The resulting polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition to the morphology of PVA, PVA/PIL was investigated by polarizing microscope. Also, the effect of PIL content on the electrical and mechanical properties was evaluated. The findings of this study might lead to new applications for PVA and PILs in electrical and dielectrics. The mechanical results revealed that the tensile strength increased slightly with increasing polyionic liquid (PIL) content and decreased above 10% PIL. While the elongation at break increased significantly with increasing PIL content and begin to decrease above 10% PIL. Also, the electrical property of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/PIL blends was improved because of the strong plasticizing effect of PIL. Also, the electrical conductivity of these polymer electrolytes is greatly increased. This indicates that the imidazolium-based PIL has an effective approach that leads to an increase in the conductivity of the polymer. The PILs/PVA design will not only enrich the chemical structure but also will contribute to green manufacturing techniques and a processing methodology that enables green membrane manufacture. This study contributes to green manufacturing techniques and a processing methodology that enables “green” membrane manufacture.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of synergic methods for corrosion protection of reinforced
           steel

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      Authors: Nivin M. Ahmed , Essam Abdelfattah Mossalam , Basil El-Sabbagh , Eglal M.R. Souaya
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effect of pH on the reinforced concrete steel protection for rebars coated with paint formulations containing talc and free from it. As the presence of talc in paints can offer high pH which cordially affects the protection behavior of the coated rebars. Additionally, this study includes evaluating the durability of concrete mixes in presence of some replacements of ordinary cement such as meta-kaolin (MK) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Two paint formulations were prepared containing the same ingredients except that (P1) is free from talc and (P2) contains talc. The anticorrosive behavior of painted steel in the blended concrete mixes containing MK and GGBFS was studied by using different electrochemical techniques in chloride solution. The concrete durability was evaluated by the means of compressive and bond strength beside chloride permeability. Different concrete mixes containing mineral groups or pozzolanic materials were prepared by replacing (10, and 30%) GGBFS and (5, 10 and 15%) MK as binary from cement CEM I with (w/b) 0.45 with superplasticizer ratio (SP) 2% of the binder It was found that the presence of talc, in spite of its ability to offer high pH, has affected positively the corrosion behavior of reinforced concrete steel by forming a complex with concrete even if it is present in paint formulation and not free in the medium. The results revealed that concrete blended with (30% GGBFS and 10% MK) with coated rebars with P2 containing talc showed the highest corrosion protection performance in addition to modified permeability and compression resistance.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-12-2020-0126
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Research and application of K/S value in stain identification

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      Authors: Qingbin Cui , Fenjuan Shao
      Abstract: The intelligent identification of stains can quickly and accurately identify stains. At present, stains are identified subjectively by appearance, color, taste, feel, location, etc. Color is an important factor in identifying stains. K/S value is used to analyze the color of textile fabric, and it has additivity. The purpose of the study is to explore its application in stain recognition is of great significance to intelligent washing. A certain method used to stain the textile, then the K/S value of the textile before and after the stain was analyzed and tested by the color difference instrument. The K/S curve of the stain was calculated by the addition of K/S, and then the stain was identified and distinguished. The K/S value of the textile stained with stains could be deducted by the K/S value of the color difference meter. After deducting the base cloth, the K/S curve of the same stain is basically the same. Then the stain can be identified and analyzed. The K/S value can be used for stain analysis, but it needs to be analyzed and tested in the laboratory. This study provides a simple method for stains identification. In addition to common methods of stain identification, such as appearance, color, feel, smell, location, stain removal materials, breaking the substrate, IR, etc., K/S value can be used for stain analysis. Identifying stains and washing them in a targeted way to achieve a better washing effect could provide certain technical support for the development of smart washing and smart home appliances.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of fabricated Sansevieria
           and Kaans fiber/Egg shell powder reinforced with polyester matrices

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      Authors: Rajkumar Devapiriam , Karthik S. , Santhy K.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to fabricate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria and Kaans fiber reinforced polyester matrices composites. Treated Sansevieria and Kaans fiber was used as reinforcement for the fabrication of polymer matrix composites. Kaans fiber, which was available plenty in the delta region, but physical and mechanical properties of Kaans fiber were low when it compared with Sansevieria fiber. To make use of Kaans fiber for the fabrication of composite, the physical and mechanical properties have to be enhanced. So Egg shell powder was selected as a filler material to enhance the Kaans fiber reinforced composite. The selected fibers were properly weaved after alkali treatment. A three-layered (0°/45°/0°) Sansevieria fiber reinforced polymer (S-FRP) and Kaans fiber reinforced polymer (K-FRP) composite plates were fabricated using the compression molding method. As per American Society for Testing and Materials standards, the specimens were cut and mechanical, thermal and absorption properties of Sansevieria and Kaans fiber composites were investigated experimentally. Tensile and flexural test reveals that K-FRP composite has good ductility and bending property than S-FRP composite plate. But from the other test results, S-FRP possesses high elongation capability than K-FRP. Thermo gravimetric analysis, moisture absorption and swelling test too done which clearly appeared S-FRP composite plate has prevalent execution than K-FRP composite plate. This original research study enlists the mechanical, thermal properties and absorption properties of fabricated S-FRP and K-FRP composite plates.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0076
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Preparation and selectivity evaluation of grafted temperature-responsive
           imprinted composite polyvinylidene fluoride resin membranes for selective
           adsorption of ReO

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      Authors: Jun Zhang , Xiaojian Ou , Lin Li , Qianqian Chen , Zifan Zhang , Ting Huo , Xiaoyu Lin , Fangfang Niu , Shengyuan Zhao , Fang We , Hui Li , Chunli Liu , Zhenbin Chen , Sujun Lu , Peng Zhang , Jinian Zhu
      Abstract: A novel grafted temperature-responsive ReO4− Imprinted composite membranes (Re-ICMs) was successfully prepared by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) resin membranes as substrates, this study aimed to separate and purify ReO effectively. Re-ICMs were synthesized by PVDF resin membranes as the substrate, acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were functional monomers. The morphology and structure of Re-ICMs were characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The maximum adsorption capacity toward ReO4− was 0.1,163 mmol/g and the separation decree had relation to MnO4− was 19.3. The optimal operation conditions were studied detailedly and the results as follows: the molar ratios of AA, AM, EGDMA, ascorbic acid, NH4ReO4, were 0.8, 0.96, 0.02, 0.003 and 0.006. The optimal time and temperature were 20 h and 40°C, respectively. The Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models were fit these adsorption characteristics well. Rhenium (Re) is mainly used to chemical petroleum and make superalloys for jet engine parts. This study was representing a technology in separate and purify of Re, which provided a method for the development of the petroleum and aviation industry. This contribution provided a novel method to separate ReO4− from MnO4−. The maximum adsorption capacity was 0.1163 mmol/g at 35°C and the adsorption equilibrium time was within 2 h. Meanwhile, the adsorption selectivity rate ReO4−/MnO4− was 19.3 and the desorption rate was 78.3%. Controlling the adsorption experiment at 35°C and desorption experiment at 25°C in aqueous solution, it could remain 61.3% of the initial adsorption capacity with the adsorption selectivity rate of 13.3 by 10 adsorption/desorption cycles, a slight decrease, varied from 78.3% to 65.3%, in desorption rate was observed.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0082
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparison of the usage of fines and PCC pigment in handsheets

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      Authors: Merve Engin
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the influences of fines and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) pigment and their contents on the fundamental properties of handsheets and also evaluate these results in terms of mechanical and chemical data. A design research approach has been based on the production of various laboratory handmade papers. Any of the paper additives were not added to the paper web to compare the results of the effects of fines and PCC pigment in a literal way. For this purpose, the target grammages of handsheets and the production variables such as pulp consistency, temperature and other variables of formation, pressing and drying processes were kept constant and studied meticulously. This study is confirmed that with the addition of fines to the pulp of the control handsheets, an increase of up to 125% has been observed in the tensile index values, while a decrease of up to 30% has been observed with the addition of PCC pigment as filler. The tensile results have been changed depending on the pulp content and hence chemical bonds formed in the paper web. These mechanical changes have been explained by correlating with the data of FT-IR spectrums. Especially, the variations have been seen at 950–1150 cm−1, which referring to C-OH and C-O-C stretching vibrations. The originality of this work is based on understanding and comparing the effects of fines and the effect of PCC pigment as a paper filler on the structural and chemical characteristics of laboratory-made handsheets.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0112
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The prediction of optimal conditions for the surface grafting of
           -cyclodextrin onto silk fabrics by an artificial neural network (ANN)

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      Authors: Abolfazl Zare , Pedram Payvandy
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is the chemical grafting of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) onto silk fabrics by the use of butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a crosslinking agent and nano-TiO2 (NTO) as a catalyst. The effects of different parameters involved in this particular process, e.g. β-CD, BTCA and NTO concentrations, are examined using the artificial neural network (ANN). The method is evaluated for its ability to predict certain properties of treated fabrics, including grafting yield, dry crease recovery angle (DCRA) and wet crease recovery angle (WCRA), tensile strength, elongation at break and methylene blue dye absorption. This study was conducted to describe the cross-linking of silk with 1,2,3,4-BTCA as a crosslinking agent in a wet state at low temperatures using NTO catalyst to improve the dry and wet wrinkle recovery (DCRA and WCRA) of silk fabrics. An ANN was also used to model and analyze the effects of BTCA, β-CD and NTO concentrations on the grafting percentage and some properties of the treated samples. According to the results, the wet and dry wrinkle recovery of the silk fabrics was improved for about 38% and 11%, respectively, as compared to the non-cross-linked fabrics, without significantly affecting the tensile strength retention of the fabrics. This research model and analyze the effects of BTCA, β-CD and NTO concentrations on the grafting percentage and some properties of the treated samples for the first time.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0090
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Rendering viscose fabric dye-able with anionic dyes using plasma treatment
           technique and chitosan nanoparticles as an eco-friendly approach

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      Authors: Khaled Mostafa
      Abstract: This paper aims at studying the oxygen plasma treatment and the previously prepared and fully characterized chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) as a green and eco-friendly strategy for surface modification of viscose fabric. This was done to render viscose fabric dye able with two types of acid dyes that do not have direct affinity to fix on it via improving the fabric wettability. To achieve the goal, viscose fabric was activated with oxygen plasma at optimum conditions and coated with different concentrations of CNPs solution via conventional pad dry cure technique. The untreated and plasma-treated fabrics with CNPs were dyed with two types of acid dyes, namely, Acid Orange 7 and Methyl Red under determined conditions. The color strength (K/S), fastness properties to light, rubbing and perspiration, add on %, tensile strength, wettability and durability of the dyed samples were determined and compared. The results divulged that oxygen plasma-treated fabric with CNPs and the aforementioned dyes in question could improve the flowing properties in comparison with untreated fabric: (a) the fabric wettability expressed as wetting area mm2; (b) the dye ability and fastness properties of viscose fabrics expressed as K/S and fastness properties; and (c) the strength properties and add on % of the treated fabric. On the other hand, the durability of the plasma-treated fabric decreased with increasing washing cycles. The novelty addressed here was using plasma treatment as an eco-friendly pre-treatment approach for attachment of CNPs as a multifunctional green bio-nano polymer onto viscose fabric, which improved the dyeing properties of the fabric with acid dyes that do not have direct affinity to fix onto it.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Design and synthesis of thermosensitive block resin as carrier for
           immobilization of penicillin G acylase

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      Authors: Hongyi Tu , Donglei Liu , Zhenbin Chen , Chunli Liu
      Abstract: Using a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer reaction, a series of resins were prepared by using N, N-diethyl acrylamide (DEA), poly (ß-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) as hydrophilic blocks and poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) as hydrophobic blocks (and as a target for immobilizing penicillin G acylase [PGA]) and the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of which could be adjusted by changing the segment length of blocks. To make the catalytic conversion temperature of immobilized PGA fallen into the temperature range of the sol state of thermosensitive block resin, a type of thermosensitive block resin, i.e. PDEA-b-PHEMA-b-PGMA (DHGs) was synthesized to immobilize PGA, and the effect of segment order of block resin was investigated on the performance of PGA. Carrier prepared with monomers molar ratio of n(DEA) : n(HEMA): n(GMA) = 100: 49: 36 presented loading capacity (L) and enzyme activity recovery ratio (Ar) of 110 mg/g and 90%, respectively, and a block resin with LCST value of 33 °C was essential for keeping higher Ar of PGA. PGA has become an important biocatalyst in modern chemistry industry. However, disadvantages include difficulty in separation, poor repeatability and high cost, which limits the scope of PGA applications. The effective method is to immobilize the enzyme to the carrier, which could overcome the disadvantage of free enzyme.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • calyces’ and argon DBD plasma: potential eco-friendly cleaners for
           fire-damaged silver gelatin prints

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      Authors: Laila M. Elattar , Sawsan S. Darwish , Usama M. Rashed , Maha Ahmed Ali , Shaimaa M. Eldeighdye
      Abstract: This paper aims at examining the potentiality of using Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces’ (Hs) aqueous extract to remove soot stains from the surface of fire-damaged silver gelatin prints. It further studies the cleaning efficiency and impact of both a contact method and a noncontact method with argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD Ar. plasma) on the different properties of silver gelatin prints. Accordingly, it prompts using economic, eco-friendly materials and methods in the photograph conservation field. To achieve the aims of this paper, four silver gelatin prints were stained with soot and treated with the Hs aqueous extract as a contact method and DBD Ar. plasma combined with the aqueous extract as a noncontact method. The assessment was carried out using digital microscopy, atomic force microscopy and spectrophotometer to study the efficiency of the tested treatments and their impact on the surface of the photographs. Fourier transform infrared was used to monitor the state of the binder after cleaning. Furthermore, the pH and the mechanical properties were measured. The contact method resulted in lower concentrations of Hs extract that efficiently cleaned the surface without causing any stains or damage to the treated photographs. The noncontact method (plasma with an aqueous extract) proved to be less effective in cleaning and made the binder more susceptible to deterioration. This paper reveals the success of Hs aqueous extract in cleaning soot on vulnerable photographs' surfaces.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effects of green technology plasma pre-treatment on the wettability and
           ink adhesion of paper

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      Authors: Samed Ayhan Özsoy , Safiye Meriç Acıkel , Cem Aydemir
      Abstract: The surface energy of the printing material can be increased to desired levels with different chemicals or methods. However, the important thing is that the surface properties of printing material are not affected negatively. In this way the aim of this paper provide that the surface properties of matte and glossy coated paper is improved by the argon containing atmospheric pressure plasma device because the plasma treatment method does not occur surface damaging on the papers. In experimental studies, test samples cut from 160 mm × 30 mm in size from 115 g/m2 gloss- and matt-coated papers were used. The plasma treatments of paper samples were carried out with an argon containing atmospheric pressure plasma device of laboratory scale that produces plasma of the corona discharge type at radio frequency. The optimized plasma parameters were at a frequency of 20 kHz and plasma power 200 W. A copper electrode of length 12 cm and diameter 2.5 mm was placed in the centre of the nozzle. Research findings showed that the surface energies of the papers increased with the increase in plasma application time. While the contact angle of the untreated glossy paper is 82.2, 8 second plasma applied G3 sample showed 54 contact angle value. Similarly, the contact angle of the base paper of matt coated is 91.1, while M3 is reduced to 60.4 contact angles by the increasing plasma time. Plasma treatment has shown that no chemical coating is needed to increase the wettability of the paper surface by reducing the contact angle between the paper and the water droplet. In addition, the surface energies of all papers treated by argon gas containing atmospheric pressure plasma, increased. Plasma treatment provides to improve both the wettability of the paper and the adhesion property required for the ink, with an environmentally friendly approach.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0086
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A fabrication and characterization of luffa/PANI/PEO biocomposite
           nanofibers by means of electrospinning

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      Authors: Gözde Konuk Ege , Hüseyin Yüce , Özge Akay , Hasbi Öner , Garip Genç
      Abstract: This paper aims to address the production of biocomposite nanofibers using luffa natural fibers and polyaniline conductive polymer/polyethylene oxides (PANI/PEO). In this study, luffa natural fibers are extracted by chemical method. After mixing the treated luffa (TL) with the PANI/PEO solution, TL/PANI/PEO nanofibers were produced by electrospinning (ES) method under different ES parameters to examine the optimal conditions for nanofiber production. Then TL/PANI/PEO biocomposite nanofibers prepared in different weight ratios were produced to analyze the effects of luffa in the morphology and thermal properties of the biocomposite nanofibers. The characterization analysis of TL/PANI/PEO biocomposite nanofibers was performed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis methods. The analysis shows that different weight ratios of TL to PANI/PEO changed the morphology of the membrane. When increasing the weight ratio of TL, the morphological structure of TL/PANI/PEO transformed from nanofiber structure to thin film structure. The appearance of O—H peaks in the FTIR results proved the existence of TL in PANI/PEO nanofibers (membrane). Moreover, an increase in the weight ratio of luffa from 2% to 7.5% leads to an increase in the peak intensity of the O—H group. Regarding DSC analysis, biocomposite nanofibers improved the thermal properties. According to all results, 2%wt TL/PANI/PEO showed optimal morphological properties. Plant cellulose was extracted from the luffa, one of the natural fibers, by method of alkali treatment. A new type of biocomposite nanofibers was produced using TL blend with PANI via electrospinning method.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0105
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of nano-porous ZNO as pigment for white silicone thermal control
           coating and investigation of structure, optical and thermal properties

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      Authors: Vahid Heydari , Zaker Bahreini , Majid Abdouss
      Abstract: The harsh environment of space, especially radiation of direct solar rays, can potentially raise the temperature of the spacecraft to harmful levels. Thermal control coatings (TCCs) fix the thermal condition of the spacecraft acceptable for its components. This is possible by diffusely reflecting all effective ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (IR) (NIR) wavelengths of solar radiation and emmition of IR energy. The most commonly used TCCs have used ZnO as a pigment, but absorption of the UV light by ZnO pigment can change the ideal condition of these TCCs. The aim of his study is the using the porous ZnO particles as pigment to prevent the UV absorption. To enhance the efficiency of these coatings, in the present study, nano-porous zinc oxide particles were synthesized and used as pigments for white TCCs. The results revealed that the proposed TCC (TPZ), Thermal control coating with porous ZnO had better reflection (scattering) and emittance properties in comparison with the coating using ZnO as a pigment (TZ coating); so this coating had a solar absorptance value equal to 0.141, whereas this value for TZ was 0.150. Furthermore, TPZ showed higher thermal emittance (0.937) in comparison with TZ (0.9). These changes were because of the improvement in the refractive index, shape and surface area of the pigments. The general trend of the scattering coefficients for the prepared coating, as calculated from the Kubelka–Munk equation, showed that scattering was more efficient in the UV region, as compared with the TCC containing ZnO pigments. This type of pigment for the first time is evaluated in TCCs.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2021-0043
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Environmentally benign rare earth pigments: effect of calcium dopant and
           tuning of bandgaps for different color hues

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      Authors: Divya V. , Divya Jayan , Asoka Kumar
      Abstract: As there is a strong inducement to develop new colored inorganic materials to substitute the current industrial pigments that are based on toxic metals hazardous to health and the environment, the purpose of this paper is to invent environmentally benign rare earth-based colorants as viable alternatives to the traditional toxic pigment formulations. Herein, the authors developed a series of rare earth pigments having the general formula Ca0.1 Ln0.9 PO4 ( Ln = Y , Pr , mixed rare earth oxides, RE and Di). After studying all the optical properties, the authors have gone for some coloring application in plastic like PMMA. The designed pigments were synthesized by traditional solid-state method. Stoichiometric amounts of each reagent were mixed in an agate mortar and the mixtures were calcined at optimized temperature 1000 °C for 4 h in electric furnace followed by auto–cooling. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size distribution, color coordinates determination, acid/alkali test, thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis and CIE–1976 L*a*b* color scales. Among the various lanthanide ions and calcium ion as dopant, the pigment composition shows various hues ranges from green to yellow. The designed pigments consist of non–toxic elements and were further found to possess high thermal and chemical stability. The pigments were also found to be appropriate candidates for the coloration of polymer substrates like PMMA. The present investigations establish that various color hues can be achieved by the incorporation of suitable chromophore metal ions like calcium in various rare earth host lattice by tuning of the band gaps. The coloring mechanism is based on the strong absorption of the pigments in the blue and red regions due to electronic transitions of the micro states of rare earth ion. The pigment composition shows various hues ranges from green to yellow. The coloring mechanism is based on the tuning of band gap by the dopant like calcium in various rare earth host lattice. In addition, this pigment was chemically and thermally stable. Finally, it has applied in plastics like PMMA. Mechanism of the color appearance using band calculations and on possible applications of rare earth phosphate powders as pigments in plastics and paints have not been explored much. However, the properties of the Ca-doped rare earth phosphate implies that this material has a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for coating or coloring except for glaze, which may cause a side reaction at high temperatures, especially taking into consideration the economics and ecologies. The possibility of Ca2+ incorporation in CePO4 with monazite structure-type has been established. The designed pigments consist of non-toxic elements and were further found to possess high thermal and chemical stability. The pigments were also found to be appropriate candidates for the coloration of polymer substrates. Thus, the present environmental friendly pigment powders may find potential alternative to the classical toxic inorganic pigments for various applications. There is a strong incentive to design new colorants based on inorganic materials to substitute for industrial pigments that are based on heavy elements hazardous to health and the environment. However, several industrial yellow pigments such as cadmium yellow (CdS), chrome yellow (PbCrO4) and nickel titanium yellow (TiO2-NiO-Sb2O3) contain the harmful elements (e.g. Cd, Pb, Cr and Sb) for the human body as well as the environment. The designed pigments consist of non-toxic elements and were further found to possess high thermal and chemical stability. The pigments were also found to be appropriate candidates for the coloration of polymer substrates. Thus, the present environmental friendly pigment powders may find potential alternative to the classical toxic inorganic pigments for various applications. There is a strong incentive to design new colorants based on inorganic materials to substitute for industrial pigments that are based on heavy elements hazardous to health and the environment. However, several industrial yellow pigments such as cadmium yellow (CdS), chrome yellow (PbCrO4) and nickel titanium yellow (TiO2-NiO-Sb2O3) contain the harmful elements (e.g. Cd, Pb, Cr and Sb) for the human body as well as the environment. So, the authors have developed new class of inorganic pigments that are both non-toxic and environmentally unimpeachable, while preserving or even exceeding the optical, thermal and chemical characteristics of the existing commercial pigments. The developed colorants find practical applications in polymer matrix like PMMA.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0083
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of metal organic framework modified with carboxylated
           attapulgite and adsorption properties for organic dye

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      Authors: Fanhua Wu , Yuyu Zhang , Tao Li , Yongfeng Liu , Yi Liu , Zhiang Yuan , Rongjun Qu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare carboxylated attapulgite (APT-COOH) and then be used as one of the ligands to prepare metal organic framework (MOF) hybrid materials to reduce the cost of MOF materials and improve the dispersed condition of APT. And then the materials were used to enrich anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. The MOF hybrid materials were designed by means of facile reflux method rather than hydrothermal method, characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer and pore structure. The dispersed degree of APT-COOH in the MOF materials was validated according to adsorption efficiency for Congo red. Due to introduction of APT-COOH, the microenvironment of the MOF materials changed, leading to different adsorption behaviors. Compared to the MOF material without APT-COOH, the adsorption capacities of the hybridized MOF materials with different amounts of APT-COOH introduced increased by 4.58% and 15.55%, respectively, as the initial concentration of Congo red solution of 300 mg/L. Meantime, hybridized MOF materials were suitable to remove Congo red with low concentration, while the MOF material without APT-COOH was appropriate to enrich Congo red with high concentration. The microstructure of MOF hybrid materials in detail is the further and future investigation. This study will provide a method to reduce the cost of MOF materials and a theoretical support to treat anionic dyes from aqueous solution. APT-COOH was prepared and used as one of the ligands to synthesize MOF material to improve the dispersed degree of APT-COOH and reduce the cost of the MOF materials. The adsorption efficiency was greatly enhanced with low concentration of Congo red solution, and the results indicated that hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, and p-p conjugation were involved in the adsorption process. The prepared MOFs materials exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency, which made the present materials highly promising and potentially useful in practical application as adsorbents to enrich anionic dyes such as Congo red from aqueous solution.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0072
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dispersive interactions in the adsorption and corrosion inhibition effects
           of Alstonia boonei on mild steel in acidic environments

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      Authors: Anthony Ikechukwu Obike , Wilfred Emori , Hitler Louis , Godwin Ifeanyi Ogbuehi , Paul Chukwuleke Okonkwo , Victoria Mfon Bassey
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the adsorption properties of a proven traditional medicine of West Africa origin, Alstonia boonei with an attempt to evaluate its application in the corrosion protection of mild steel in 5 M H2SO4 and 5 M HCl. Phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis were used to characterize the methanolic extract of the plant. Gravimetry, gasometry and electrochemical techniques were used in the corrosion inhibition studies of the extract and computational studies were used to describe the electronic and adsorption properties of eugenol, the most abundant phytochemical in Alstonia boonei. The extract acted as a mixed-type inhibitor in both acidic solutions, with improved inhibition efficiency achieved with increasing concentration. While the efficiency increased with temperature for the HCl system, it decreased for the H2SO4 system. The mechanism of adsorption proposed for Alstonia boonei was chemisorption in the HCl system and physisorption in the H2SO4 system, and the adsorptions obeyed Langmuir isotherm at low temperatures. Computational parameters showed that eugenol, being a representative of Alstonia boonei, possesses excellent adsorption properties and has the potential to compete with other established plant-based corrosion inhibitors. As opposed to pure compounds with distinctive corrosion effects, plant extracts are generally composed of a myriad of phytoconstituents that competitively promote or inhibit the corrosion process and their net effect is evident as inhibition efficiencies. This is, therefore, the main research limitation associated with the corrosion inhibition study of Alstonia boonei. Being very rich in antioxidant properties by its proven curative and preventive effects for diseases, the interest was stimulated towards the attractive results that abound from its corrosion protection of metals via its anti-oxidation route.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0080
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of thermal and physical properties of PMMA/PMVEMA-ES blends as
           organic coating

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      Authors: Shameer Hisham , Hairul Anuar Tajuddin , Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih , Nur Zarith Diana Diana Zakaria , Zul Hazrin Zainal Abidin , Norhana Abdul Halim
      Abstract: In this work, the blends of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA and poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid monoethyl ester), PMVEMA-ES are studied as organic coatings to evaluate the impact of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the physical and thermal characteristics of the prepared coatings. PMMA (Mw = 120,000 g mol-1) was chosen as our binder material. Due to the low adhesion property of PMMA on polar substrates, it was blended with PMVEMA-ES, which contains polar –COOH groups, to improve the adhesion and thermal properties of the coatings by forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds. A cross-hatch adhesion test was carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength of different ratios of PMMA/PMVEMA-ES blends as coatings. In addition, changes in the glass-transition temperature, Tg as the composition varies were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC. Then, glossiness and hiding power tests were also conducted to evaluate the physical properties of the prepared coatings. Upon a closer look at the DSC results, it was found that blends consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 87.5 wt. % PMMA were completely compatible due to the presence of only a single Tg in their thermograms. Other blend compositions showed two distinct Tgs, indicating partial compatibility. Furthermore, the addition of PMVEMA-ES caused the Tg of PMMA to shift to lower temperatures, a strong indication of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the two components. From the cross-hatch adhesion results, the addition of PMVEMA-ES improved the adhesion properties of PMMA coating, except for blends consisting of 62.5 and 75.0 wt. % PMMA possibly due to the partial incompatibility between the two components. These findings were further corroborated with the results of glossiness and hiding power measurements. The superior result was seen for the blend consisting of 12.5 wt. % PMMA with strong adhesion property, high glossiness, compatibility and high translucency. PMVEMA-ES can potentially be used as an adhesion promoter in PMMA-based coating formulations. This is the first report on the properties of PMMA/PMVEMA-ES blends as coatings.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Damage caused by black inks to the chemical properties of archaeological
           papyrus – analytical study

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      Authors: Bataa Sayed Mohamed Mazen , Badawi Mohamed Ismail , Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan , Mahmoud Ali
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the nature of archaeological papyrus damage and monitoring the mechanics of damage caused by black inks to the chemical properties of ancient papyrus. This study the papyrus surface with a digital microscopy “USB,” examination and analyzing by “Scanning Electron Microscope,” characterization of black ink used in writing the ancient papyrus using “Scanning Electron Microscopy” with (EDX). Detection of changes in the chemical bonds of ancient papyrus samples by “Fourier transform infrared” FTIR. The result confirmed that SEM examination showed the organization of the parenchyma cells that make up papyrus tissue. Characteristic waveform appears, it indicates the ancient Egyptian manufacturer’s use of the (Strips Method) in the process of manufacturing the archaeological papyrus. Also, the appearance of (Over Lapping) stacking of papyrus slides. EDX analysis showed that the black ink used to write the papyrus was (Carbon Ink). High oxygen content in the papyrus sample analysis indicates deterioration of the cellulose fibers. FTIR spectrum showed that Arabic gum is the bonding material for carbon ink particles, it also showed that archaeological papyrus suffers from hydrolysis due to exposure of papyrus fibers to high moisture content or direct water, resulting in smudge, bleeding and fading of carbon ink on the archaeological papyrus support. The study is archaeological papyrus with black ink scripts from the excavation of the Qasr I brim.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0088
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effects of different colorants on service performance for colored asphalt
           pavement in cold regions

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      Authors: Xinxin Fu , Yanjun Chen , Minggang Sun , Tengjiang Yu
      Abstract: The service performance for colored asphalt pavement is inevitably affected by the addition of different colorants, especially the challenge of low temperature environment in cold regions. Therefore, the purpose of study is to explore the effects of different colorants on the service performance for colored asphalt pavement and to provide a foundation for improving the applicability of colored asphalt pavement in cold regions. In the study, three kinds of colorants (iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow, iron oxide green) were used to compare the influence of different colorants amounts and different colorants kinds on the service performance for colored asphalt pavement in cold regions. According to the characteristics of low temperature in cold regions, the effects of different colorants on the low temperature performance for colored asphalt pavement were studied. The study shows that different colorants have different effects on the service performance of colored asphalt pavement. The high temperature performance increases with the increase of the colorants amount, but the low temperature performance is opposite. Additionally, the yellow colored asphalt pavement has more advantages of low temperature adaptation than the red and green colored asphalt pavement. The study results provide a certain theoretical foundation for the application of colored asphalt pavement in cold regions and have certain value and significance for the further development of colored asphalt pavement.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0097
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An investigation of the tensile characteristics of printed handsheets

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      Authors: Merve Engin , Sinan Sönmez , Mustafa Batuhan Kurt
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of fibre lengths and a given range of paper grammages on the fundamental properties of unprinted and printed papers by using mineral oil-based offset printing inks and also evaluate these results in terms of printing and tensile characteristics. A design research approach has been based on the production of various laboratory handmade papers and their printing process with mineral oil-based offset printing inks. The analysis of mechanical and structural tests results of the unprinted and the printed papers have been evaluated. This study is confirmed that the mineral oil-based offset printing inks can be easily applied to the surface of papers having different grammages and pulp contents. An increase was observed in the tensile index values of the papers with the printing process, and these increases were more evident (about 80%) particularly in low grammage papers having high short fibre content. The originality of this work is based on understanding and comparing the effects of grammage and the effect of pulp contents (having long and short fibre) on tensile characteristics of printed and unprinted handsheets.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2021-0111
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Preparation of metal organic framework hybridizing with poly(p-phenylene
           terephthalamide) fiber and adsorption properties for anionic dye

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      Authors: Yi Liu , Guangyao Qiu , Tao Li , Ang Yan , Yongfeng Liu , Rongjun Qu , Changmei Sun
      Abstract: To treat water pollution, especially the contamination resulted from organic dyes has aroused significant attention around the world, this study aims to prepare the metal organic framework (MOF) materials hybridizing with poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) by means of a facile refluxing method and to systematically investigate adsorption performance for anionic dye Congo red as target molecule from aqueous solution. The MOF materials hybridized by PPTA were fabricated by virtue of a facile refluxing method, characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and pore structure. The results showed that pseudo-second-order kinetic model could better describe the adsorption process for all the four materials, whereas Elovich model also fitted the process for the hybrid materials with PPTA. Adsorption isotherm analyses indicated that Langmuir isotherm could be used to describe the adsorption process. Introduction of appropriate amount of PPTA could enhance the adsorption affinity of the MOF materials for Congo red, and the maximum adsorption capacity could reach as high as 1,053.41 mg/g while that of the MOF material without PPTA was 666.67 mg/g, indicating introduction of PPTA could change the microenvironment of the MOF materials and increase the adsorption sites, leading to high adsorption efficiency. The microstructure of MOF hybridized materials in detail is the further and future investigation. This study will provide a method to prepare MOF materials with high efficiency to treat anionic dyes like Congo red from aqueous solution. Owing to the special characteristics of PPTA and similar to carbon tube, PPTA was introduced into MOF material to increased corresponding water stability. Because of aromatic ring and amide group on the surface of PPTA, the adsorption efficiency of the hybridized MOF material with appropriate amount of PPTA was greatly enhanced.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0092
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Novel insecticide waterborne coating based on isoxazole benzene
           sulfonamide derivatives as insecticide agents

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      Authors: M. M. Elsawy , Mohamed A. Awad , Nashwa M. Saleh , H. Abd El-Wahab
      Abstract: Paper aims to Preparation and evaluation of isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives and incorporated it with waterborne household paints to develop coating compositions as an insecticidal coating against Musca domestica adults. The synthesized compounds were prepared and confirmed by different analyzes, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectra. The prepared compound has been blended with waterborne household paint formulation, the physical and mechanical properties of the paint formulation has been studied. The efficiency of the isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives when incorporated with waterborne paint against Culex quinquefasciatus and Mosquito house fly adults, also have been examined. The obtained results of the paint formulations confirmed their best performance and providing good scrub resistance. Also, the finding promising results of the insecticide test of the paint formulation may be because of the biological activity of these compounds and containing sulfonamide, cyanide and free aromatic amine groups comparing with the standard recommended organophosphorus insecticide. The order activity increase with increasing the dose concentration of the isoxazole derivatives and the activity of chemical compounds itself is represented in terms of their medium lethal concentrations LC50 (LC90), which recorded 0.90(1.62), 0.89(1.61) and 0.86(1.56) g/ml for 5, 3 and 4 chemical compounds, respectively, after 72 h from treatment. These types of organic compounds are friendly environmentally and can be used as a biocide with different types of paint formulations. Insecticide waterborne household paints based on isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives as insecticide agents are novel.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-23
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2021-0089
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of mineralizer addition and temperature on synthesis of
           malayaitepink pigment

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      Authors: Romina Mehrabi , Hamid Reza Rezaie , Bijan Eftekhari Yekta
      Abstract: This study aims to the effect of NaF, Li2CO3 and H3BO3 minerals was investigated, and the best mineralizer was found to be H3BO3. Furthermore, the effect of temperature was investigated, and the synthesized samples were calcined at temperatures of 1100, 1200 and 1300 °C to select the optimum calcination temperature. This study was aimed at thoroughly investigating the effects of mineralizer addition and temperature on the synthesis of malayaite pink pigment based on raw materials of SnCl2-SiO2-Ca(OH)2-K2Cr2O7. To this end, the optimization of the synthesis parameters such as mineralizer addition and temperature was completely perused. The optimum temperature was 1300 °C, and the color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by colorimetric (CIE L*a*b* system) analysis, and these parameters were close to those of industrial pigments. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, the effect of mineralizer addition and temperature on the synthesis of malayaite pink pigment was investigated through the sol-gel method. Herein, different parameters were optimized to propose a novel pigment with a much better performance.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Waterborne nano-emulsions of polyvinyl acetate-polyurethane coatings
           containing different types of vinyl monomers: synthesis and
           characterization

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      Authors: Walid S. Abdel-Wakil , Tarek M. Salama , Elbadawy A. Kamoun , Farag Abd El Hai Ahmed , Wassem Hassan , Yaser A. El-Badry , Alaa Fahmy
      Abstract: This paper aims to synthesize new terpolymers by the emulsion polymerization technique composed of acrylamide-based polyurethane monomers (TPM and MPM) with different vinyl acetate copolymer systems, such as vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate (VAc/BA), vinyl acetate/ethylhexyl acrylate (VAc/2-EHA) and vinyl acetate/vinyl ester of versatic acid (VAc/VEOVA 10) systems. The performance of the prepared terpolymers as binders in emulsion coatings and textile industries was investigated and compared with the analogous commercial ones. New waterborne polyurethane-vinyl ester-vinyl acetate terpolymers with high solid content and nano-scale emulsions have been successfully synthesized in two steps. The polyurethane oligomers were prepared by the prepolymer method as the first step. The second step involved polymerization with different vinyl monomers. The synthesized terpolymers were characterized using FTIR, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, minimum film forming temperature and particle size analyzer methods. The synthesized emulsion terpolymers have shown small particle sizes averaged of 70 nm and a narrow distribution range, along with good mechanical, thermal and chemical stabilities. The surface coating layers of the terpolymers also have some important in terms of smoothness, clarity and binding ability in water-based coating for up to 4425 scrub cycles at 30 GU. Further, a high potential application textile printing was achieved at high solid content of 47–50%. The effects of different isocyanates and vinyl monomers on the properties of obtained emulsion coatings have been studied. The improvement consequences of the coating evaluation of the waterborne binders for emulsion paints have been described. The properties of polyester/cotton fabric print pigment printing of textiles appear to be most promising enhancements by using the prepared nanocomposites of PU-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl ester as waterborne binders. So that the prepared emulsions have the potential to replace solvent-based coatings as waterborne binders for both emulsion coating and textile printing applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of the condition of a Mamluk-illuminated paper manuscript at
           Al-Azhar Library, Egypt

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      Authors: Gomaa Abdel-Maksoud , Mostafa Abdel-Hamied , Ahmed A.M. Abdelhafez
      Abstract: This paper aims to present the components' characterization and condition assessment of an important deteriorated Mamluk-illuminated paper manuscript housed in Al-Azhar Library, Egypt. Different analytical techniques used in this study were the portable digital optical microscope, stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX (SEM.EDX), portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results obtained by different microscopes showed that the gilding in the surface of illuminated paper sheets was performed with gold leaves. Additionally, these microscopes revealed that the illuminated paper manuscript has different aspects of deterioration such as adhered dirt, staining, some micro-cracks, cracks and detachment of some parts in some illuminated areas. The results of elemental analysis by EDX, portable XRF and XRD analysis showed that the orange red pigment is red lead (Pb3O4), blue pigment is azurite (2CuCo3.Cu (OH)2), and the gold layer is has consisted of brass alloy (Cu-Zn) with a small amount of gold element (Au). The pH measurement stated that the historical paper in the acidity level. The ATR-FTIR analysis also revealed the oxidation of cellulose. Moreover, it was found from ATR-FTIR that Arabic gum was used as a binder for the pigments. This study presents the important results of analytical methods used for condition assessment and identification of the components of an important Mamluk-illuminated paper manuscript, where these results referred that the studied paper manuscript had different aspects of deterioration. The conservation steps either conservation treatment or preventive conservation are urgently needed in future studies.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of antimicrobial thiadiazol azo disperse dyes
           as colored materials in digital transfer printing ink for printing onto
           polyester fabric

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      Authors: Ali A. Ali , Maha Mohammed Elsawy , Salem S. Salem , Ahmed A. El-Henawy , Hamada Abd El-Wahab
      Abstract: Paper aims to preparation of new acid disperse dyes based on thiadiazol derivatives and evaluation of their use as antimicrobial colorants in digital transfer-printing ink formulations for printing onto polyester fabric substrates. New disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) were prepared and evaluated by different analysis then formulated as colored materials in the ink formulations. The viscosity, dynamic surface tension and particle size distribution of the prepared inks were measured. The printed polyester fabric substrates were tested using a variety of tests, including light fastness, washing, alkali perspiration and Crock fastness, as well as depth of penetration. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out at the Becke3-Lee-Yang-parr (B3LYP) level using the 6–311** basis set, and the biological activity of the prepared disperse dyes was investigated. The obtained results of the physical of the prepared ink revealed that thiadiazol disperse ink is a promising ink formulation for polyester printing and agrees with the quality of the printed polyester fabric. The optimization geometry for molecular structures agreed with the analysis of these compounds. The HOMO/LUMO and energy gap of the studied system were discussed. The molecular docking analysis showed strong interaction with DNA Gyrase and demonstrated to us the high ability of these inks to act as antimicrobial agents. The prepared inks containing the prepared thiadiazol disperse dye were high-performance and suitable for this type of printing technique, according to the results. The prepared inks resist the growth of microorganisms and thus increase the ink's storage stability. The prepared disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) can be a promising colorant in different applications, like some types of paint formulations and as a colorant in printing of different fabric substrates.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Formulation and characterization of pigmented inkjet inks containing
           aminopropyl/vinyl/silsesquioxane for jet printing onto polyester fabrics

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      Authors: Osama A. Hakeim , Samah A. Rashed , Hanan Diab
      Abstract: The present research aims to manage the formulations of pigment-based inks containing aminopropyl/vinyl/silsesquioxane (APSV) as a pigment binding agent for inkjet printing of polyester as a commercial trial for the printing of polyester as a single-step process. The proposed formulations incorporated APSV by using the mini-emulsion technique at a low relieving temperature under the thermal initiation or UV radiation of vinyl-terminated groups in APSV. In this study, the storage stability of inks with regard to physical properties was broadly examined. Moreover, the color performance, including colorimetric data, color fixation and fastness properties of printed fabrics was evaluated. The results indicated that the inks containing APSV were formulated and were stable in terms of particle size, dispersion stability, surface tension and viscosity over a period of one month and for four freeze/thaw cycles. APSV successfully fixed the pigment-based inkjet inks on polyester fabric and could achieve a significantly higher color performance and degree of fixation than the formulated inks without APSV. It could also fulfill all the physical properties of ink prerequisites over storing and eliminating all challenges in improving the performance and utilization of inkjet printing. APSV can also be used as a pigment binding agent to formulate inks for inkjet printing of polyester fabrics as the authors’ past examination for inkjet printing of polyester fabrics post-treated with APSV. This study eliminates the noteworthy challenges in formulating the pigment-based inks for textile applications by incorporation of a binder while keeping up the necessary viscosity profile for a specific print head. This study addressed all the issues arising from the complex nature and very challenging requirements of inkjet inks.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0079
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of pyrene-based materials with third-order nonlinearity optical
           property by click chemistry modification

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      Authors: Shuchen Tian , Hui Cao , Zhou Yang , Yuzhen Zhao , Wanli He , Hong Gao
      Abstract: Currently, conjugated nonlinear optical (NLO) materials suffer from the drawbacks of complex manufacturing process and high cost. To further study the NLO materials with cost-effective, it is necessary to prepare new NLO materials with satisfactory performance. Pyrene derivatives with good third-order NLO properties were synthesized by combining pyrene compounds with TCNE, TCNQ, F4-TCNQ and other molecular systems by clicking chemical method. The pyrene derivatives were characterized by ultraviolet spectrum and Z-scan. The charge-transfer of the D-p-A structures plays a key role in the absorption peak shifts. And the third-order nonlinear absorption of the products revealed good third-order NLO susceptibilities. The synthesis technology of pyrene derivatives is not mature enough and is in the preliminary exploration stage. So, the authors produced a relatively small number of samples and did not conduct a very comprehensive test. This novel pyrene derivative is suggestive and can promote the exploration and development of the third-order nonlinear materials. Four new pyrene derivatives were synthesized by selecting new molecular systems. Because of its good chemical properties and stable properties, it can be a reference for the development of third-order nonlinear materials in the future.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Optimisation of the process of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from
           jackfruit wood by immersion without heating

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      Authors: Ainur Rosyida , Suranto Suranto , Mohammad Masykuri , Margono Margono
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the recipe for and standard methods of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from jackfruit wood extract. The dyeing of the fabric was performed by immersion it without heating for a short time to obtain the best results. The dyeing experiment using cotton fabric with jackfruit wood extract was conducted by immersion at room temperature. The independent variables studied were the mordant method, type of mordant, mordant concentration, salt concentration and dyeing pH. The dependent variables were colour strength and colour fastness to washing and rubbing. The orthogonal array L16 (45) was used in the study to obtain the optimal values for each parameter of the response variables. The multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) method was used to optimise the five response variables with different quality characteristics so that the best parameters could be obtained based on the highest MRSN ratio value. The best parameters were obtained at an MRSN value of 4.5254 under A3B3C1D2E4 conditions, namely, the dyeing process with post mordant, aluminium nitrate type mordant, mordant concentration of 10 g/L, salt concentration of 15 g/L and dyeing a pH: of 10. Under these conditions, the value of K/S was obtained at 1.893, colour fastness to washing (GS: 4) and (SS: 4–5), dry rubbing (SS: 5) and wet rubbing (SS: 4–5). Obtaining a standard recipe and method for dyeing cotton cloth with jackfruit wood extract by immersion without heating is expected to lead to the development of natural dyes, and especially their application on an industrial scale. This standard and method can be used as technical guidelines by industry. The use of aluminum nitrate as a mordant will help achieve optimal dyeing results. The use of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) mordant, which has the potential to produce high colour strength, and papaya fruit sap, which has the capacity to increase colour fastness, still need to be developed to improve the results of natural dyes. The standard recipe and dyeing method will be able to improve the results of the dyeing of cotton fabrics with natural dyes. Short immersion dyeing without heating and the optimal results obtained are the main attractions for their use by the textile/batik industry, as the process is easier and a lower cost. The results of dyeing with dark colours and good colour fastness mean the textile products are of the higher quality demanded by consumers, thereby increasing sales. This will encourage the use of and increase the need for natural dyes by industry, consequently reducing the use of synthetic dyes. The use of natural dyes, chemical mordant from aluminum salts, and natural mordant from papaya fruit sap in the dyeing process in the textile/batik industry in Indonesia will produce eco-textile and eco-batik products that are environmentally friendly and of high quality. This in turn will increase consumer interest and sales, meaning that the income and economy of workers in the textile industry/crafts sector will also increase. In addition, the use of natural dyes with the selection of a safe mordant (not containing heavy metals) will reduce the use of synthetic dyes, which pollute and damage the aquatic environment. This study found a standard recipe and method of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from jackfruit wood extracted by immersion without heating for a short time to obtain the best results. In addition, the discovery was of PAC, a new mordant which is effective in the use of natural dyes can give high colour strength to cotton fabric. In addition to the discovery of a new mordant, PAC, which has the potential to produce high colour strength, papaya fruit sap also has the capacity to increase colour fastness with the use of natural dyes from the flavonoid group.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0034
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Medium optimization and downstream process design for the augmented yield
           of -Carotene using fungi

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      Authors: Umesh Luthra , Prabhakar Babu , Remya R.R. , Angeline Julius , Yogesh Patel , Ramesh Jajula Veera , Ilma Majeed
      Abstract: β-Carotene is the most appropriate and significant precursor of vitamin A. Synthetic carotene supplements have been known to pose a threat to human health, making natural sources such as the indefensible choice for the production and extraction of carotene. This study considers Blakeslea trispora, a filamentous fungus, as a source of production of carotenoids by fermentation and wet and dry mycelium were used to analyse and obtain better extraction results. In this study, natural oils such as soy oil and cottonseed oil were incorporated into fermentation media to increase the production of carotene. For the optimization process, Plackett–Burman and one-factor-at-a-time (OVAT) models were identified as being of great value. OVAT was carried out for corn starch because it plays a major role in the production of carotene and the corn starch at 30 g/L concentration has shown the maximum activity of 3.48 mg/gm. After optimizing process variables, submerged fermentation was eventually carried out under highly controlled media conditions. The resulting product was quantified using UV spectroscopy and extraction of carotene has been observed in the presence of various solvents. Among a range of solvents used, the methylene Di chloride produced-carotene at 86% recovery at a significantly lower temperature of 35°C.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Fabrication of temperature-regulating functional fabric based on
           n-octadecane/SWCNTs composite phase change material

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      Authors: Wei Zhang , Jiali Weng , Shang Hao , Yuan Xie , Yonggui Li
      Abstract: Fabrics with photothermal conversion functions were developed based on the introduction of shape stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs). Acidified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as support material to prepare CPCMs with n-octadecane to improve the thermal conductivity and shape stability. The CPCMs were finished onto the surface of cotton fabric through the coating and screen-printing method. The chemical properties of CPCMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The shape stability and thermal conductivity were also evaluated. In addition, the photothermal conversion and temperature-regulating performance of the finished fabrics were analyzed. When the addition amount of acidified SWCNTs are 14% to the mass of n-octadecane, the best shape stability of CPCMs is obtained. DSC analysis shows that the latent heat energy storage of CPCMs is as high as 183.1 J/g. The thermal conductivity is increased by 84.4% compared with that of n-octadecane. The temperature-regulating fabrics coated with CPCMs have good photothermal conversion properties. CPCMs with high latent heat properties are applied to the fabric surface through screen printing technology, which not only gives the fabric the photothermal conversion performance but also reflects the design of personalized patterns. CPCMs and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are mixed to make printing paste and printed cotton fabric with temperature-regulating functional is developed. SWCNTs and n-octadecane are composited to prepare CPCMs with excellent thermal properties, which can be mixed with PDMS to make printing paste without adding other pastes. The fabric is screen-printed to obtain a personalized pattern and can be given a thermoregulatory function.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • New coating formulation based on synthesized benzodiazepine derivatives as
           double function additives for industrial application

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      Authors: Nashwa Mostafa Saleh , Maha Mohammed Elsawy , Hamada Abd El-Wahab , Salem Salah Salem , Nour El-Din Abd El-Sattar
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a new protective coating formulation for industrial use, using benzodiazepine derivatives as double function additives. Benzodiazepine’s derivatives of types (3–5) were prepared and confirmed by infrared, Mass, 1H-Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR spectra. The synthesized compound was physically incorporated in the alkyd paint formulation by pebble mill grinding until all particulates are smaller than 20 ums. The prepared coatings were applied by air spray on steel panels. The physical, mechanical characteristics, corrosion resistance and antimicrobial test of the prepared coatings were studied to evaluate the prepared compounds drawbacks. The results of the mechanical and physical properties of the paint formulation revealed that the paint formulation incorporating benzodiazepines derivatives 3–5 performed best and improved corrosion-resistance and antibacterial activity tests. In alkyd paint, heterocyclic compounds are the most used antibacterial additives. Other functionalities of these compounds, such as corrosion inhibitors, might be studied to see if they are suited for these applications. Because of the activity of various benzodiazepine derivatives, which may be attributable to the presence of some function groups such as sulfonamide aromatic amino NH2 group, and elements such as Sulphur, Nitrogen, Chlorine, in its chemical structure. As a result, paint compositions including these compounds as additives can be used as dual-purpose paint and for a variety of industrial applications. The research demonstrates how a low-cost paint composition based on synthesized benzodiazepine derivatives 3–5 may be used as a dual-function paint for industrial use.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0061
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of concentration and silica surface modification on the
           poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) properties

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Zrinka Buhin Šturlić , Mirela Leskovac , Krunoslav Žižek , Sanja Lučić Blagojević
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to prepare stabile emulsions with 0–15% of colloidal silica and high monomer/water ratio and to investigate the influence of silica addition and surface modification on the polyacrylate properties. Improving the properties of the composite can be achieved by optimizing the compatibility between the phases of the composite system with improving the interactions at the matrix/filler interface. Therefore, the silica surface was modified with nonionic emulsifier octylphenol ethoxylate, cationic initiator 2,2'-azobis-(amidinopropane dihydrochloride) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and polyacrylate/silica nanocomposites were prepared via in situ emulsion polymerization. Particle size distribution, rheological properties of the emulsions and morphology, thermal properties and mechanical properties of the film prepared from the emulsions were investigated. Polyacrylate/silica systems with unmodified silica, silica modified with nonionic emulsifier and cationic initiator have micrometer, while pure PA matrix and systems with silica modified with silane have nanometer particle sizes. Addition and surface modification of the filler increased emulsion viscosity. Agglomeration of silica particles in composites was reduced with silica surface modification. Silica filler improves thermal stability and tensile strength of polyacrylate. This paper provides broad spectrum of information depending on filler surface modification and latex preparation via in situ emulsion polymerization and properties with high amount of filler and monomer/water ratio with the aim that prepared latex is suitable for film formation and final application.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0006
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Phthalonitrile-etherified cardanol-phenol-formaldehyde resin: synthesis,
           characterization and properties

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      Authors: Dayong Zhang , Xiaohui Liu , Xuefeng Bai , Gang Wang , Liping Rong , Ying Zhao , Xin Li , Jinhua Zhu , Changhong Mi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the heat resistance and heat-resistant oxygen aging of 4-nitrophthalonitrile-etherified cardanol-phenol-formaldehyde (PPCF) to further use and develop the resin as the matrix resin of high-temperature resistant adhesives and coatings. PPCF resin was synthesized by 4-nitrophthalonitrile and cardanol-phenol-formaldehyde (PCF). The structures of PPCF and PCF were investigated by Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, the heat resistance and processability of PPCF and PCF resins were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and rheological studies. The results reveal that PPCF forms a cross-linked network at a lower temperature. PPCF resin has excellent resistance under thermal aging in an air atmosphere and that it still had a certain residual weight after aging at 500°C for 2 h, whereas the PCF resin is completely decomposed. 4-Nitrophthalonitrile was introduced into PCF resin, and XRD and SEM were used to investigate the high temperature residual carbon rate and heat-resistant oxygen aging properties of PPCF and PCF resins.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2021-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effects of coating colours on base papers

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      Authors: Merve Engin , Sinan Sönmez , Öznur Özden
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of coating colours and their contents on the fundamental properties of base papers and also evaluate these results in terms of mechanical and wood-free papers. A design research approach has been based on the application of various coating colours and analysis of mechanical and optical tests results of the coated mechanical and wood-free base papers. This study is confirmed that the coating colours can be easily applied to the surface of the papers. The experimental data have revealed that significant improvements exist in the values of tear resistance (strength), brightness and opacity of the mechanical base papers, especially by the application of the coating colours including kaolin pigment. The results show that mechanical papers can also be used in areas with high brightness expectations by applying coating colour. The originality of this work is based on understanding and comparing the effects of applying similar coating formulations on mechanical and wood-free base papers.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0064
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Characterization and evaluation of novel sustainable polymers derived from
           renewable rosin

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      Authors: Amal A. Soliman , Noha A. Alian , Maha Mohammed Elsawy , Nihal O. Shaker
      Abstract: This study aims to prepare low-cost biomaterials from renewable natural resources (rosin). Preparation of different biomaterials, ethylene glycol maleic rosin (EGMR), glycerol maleic rosin, pentaerythritol maleic rosin and sorbitol maleic rosin (SMR) esters, then evaluated by stability studies, moisture absorption, swelling index parameters, thermogravimetric analysis and skin irritation studies. The prepared rosin derivatives had excellent moisture safety, according to the results. From EGMR to SMR, the swelling indices increase. These rosin biomaterials were used in coating, especially in the field of pharmaceutical coating, and good results were obtained in this study. As these biomaterials rosin derivatives have excellent moisture resistance, they are recommended for use as coating materials for moisture-sensitive drugs. There has recently been a lot of interest in researching the effects of rosin derivatives in various drug delivery systems.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2020-0098
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Multi-layer polymer beam reinforced by graphene platelets on low velocity
           impact response

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      Authors: Mohammed Salih Hassan , Haideer Taleb Shomran , Abbas Allawi Abbas , Bashar Dheyaa Hussein Al-Kasob , Manar Hamid Jasim , Mehdi Ranjbar
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of graphene platelets (GPLs) on the low-speed contact between a mass and surface of a multi-layer polymer beam. This problem is primarily organized by first-order shear deformation beam theory and nonlinear Hertz rule. GPLs are distributed along the beam thickness direction. The Halpin–Tsai micromechanics model is applied for computing the effective Young’s modulus of the GPLs/polymer composites. In the formulation process, the principle of conservation of energy is first used and the histories of results are extracted using the separation of variables and Runge–Kutta method. In comparing the responses with the available data, a good agreement is observed. The effects of the weight fraction and distribution pattern on the impact response of polymer beam reinforced with GPLs are studied. Results show that contact force is increased, contact time and beam recess are decreased with increasing of weight fraction of GPLs. Also, among the different distribution patterns, the contact force depended on value of GPLs at the point of contact. The effects of GPLs addition on the multi-layer polymer beam has a novelty in impact problems.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0030
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Removal of Congo red from aqueous solution in single and binary mixture
           systems using Argan nutshell wood

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      Authors: Mohammed El Khomri , Noureddine El Messaoudi , Abdellah Dbik , Safae Bentahar , Abdellah Lacherai , Zahra Goodarzvand Chegini , Amal Bouich
      Abstract: Argan nutshell wood (ANW) has been used in this study as an agricultural solid waste to remove Congo red (CR) from an aqueous solution in single and mixture binary in the presence of methylene blue (MB) or crystal violet (CV). The ANW was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscope analysis. The effect of ANW dose (8–40 gL−1), contact time (0–180 min), pH of the solution (4–11) and CR dye concentration (100–500 mgL−1) on CR adsorption was studied in batch mode and evaluated by kinetic and isotherm models in a single system. In the binary system, the CR removal was studied from a CR + MB and CR + CV mixture with different percentages of dyes, ranging from 0% to 100%. The pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir models could best describe the CR sorption onto ANW in a single system. In addition, in the case of the binary system, there is the appearance of a synergistic phenomenon between the CR and the other cationic dyes and the CR adsorption capacity increased until 12.24 mg g-1 and 12.06 mg g-1 in the presence of the MB and CV in the mixture, respectively. This study demonstrated that ANW prepared can be suggested as an excellent potential adsorbent to remove dyes from wastewaters from single and mixture systems. This study is original.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2021-0045
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinking acrylic emulsion
           with different fluorocarbon chain lengths

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      Authors: Wanting Zhao , Tantan Shao , Xiaolong Chen , Shusen Cao , Lijun Chen
      Abstract: Fluorine materials have received the keen attention of many researchers because of their water repellency and low surface free energy. The purpose of this paper is to prepare self-crosslinking fluorocarbon polyacrylate latexes containing different fluorocarbon chain lengths by semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization technology. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) and fluorine-containing monomers were used as main monomers. The fluorine-containing monomers included hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA), dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) and trifluorooctyl methacrylate (TFMA). Potassium persulfate (KPS) was used as thermal decomposition initiator, non-ionic surfactant alkyl alcohol polyoxyethylene (25) ether (DNS-2500) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as mixed emulsifier. Through optimizing the reaction conditions, the uniform and stable latex is gained. The polymer of structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and contact angle (CA) were tested on latex films. The particle size and distribution range of emulsion were tested with nano particle size analyzer. After comprehensively comparing the latexes and films prepared by HFMA, DFMA and TFMA, the performance of DFMA monomer modified is better. The self-crosslinking acrylic emulsion is prepared via semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization, which methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) and fluorine-containing monomers were used as main monomers. The fluorine-containing monomers were composed of hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA), dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) and trifluorooctyl methacrylate (TFMA). Potassium persulfate (KPS) was used as thermal decomposition initiator, non-ionic surfactant alkyl alcohol polyoxyethylene (25) ether (DNS-2500) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as mixed emulsifier. There are two main innovations. One is that the self-crosslinking acrylic emulsion is prepared successfully. The other is that the effects of monomers containing different fluorocarbon chain lengths on polyacrylate, such as monomer conversion rate, coagulation rate, mechanical stability, chemical stability, emulsion particle size and storage stability, are studied in detail.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Impact of some mineral-based nanoparticles versus carbon nanoallotropes on
           properties of liquid crystal hydroxypropyl cellulose nanocomposite films

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      Authors: Altaf H. Basta , Vivian F. Lotfy , Aya M. Salem
      Abstract: This study aims to motivate the application of some low-cost minerals in synthesizing nanoparticles as effective additives on the performance of liquid crystal (LC) hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) nanocomposite film, in comparison with carbon nanoallotrope. Metallic nanoparticles of vanadium oxide, montmorillonite (MMT) and bentonite were synthesized and characterized by different techniques (Transmission electron microscopy [TEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Fourier transform infrared [FTIR]). While the XRD, FTIR, non-isothermal analysis thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscope and polarizing microscope were techniques used to evaluate the key role of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of HPC-nanocomposite film. The formation of nanoparticles was evidenced from TEM. The XRD and FTIR measurements of nanocomposite films revealed that incorporating the mineral nanoparticles led to enhance the HPCs crystallinity from 14% to 45%, without chemical change of HPC structure. It is interesting to note that these minerals provide higher improvement in crystallinity than carbon nanomaterials (28%). Moreover, the MMT provided film with superior thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure HPC and HPC containing carbon nanoparticles, where it increased the Ea from 583.6 kJ/mol to 669.3 kJ/mol, tensile strength from 2.25 MPa to 2.8 MPa, Young’s modulus from 119 MPa to 124 MPa. As well as it had a synergistic effect on the LC formation and the birefringence texture of the nanocomposites (chiral nematic). Hydroxylpropyl cellulose-nanocomposite films were prepared by dissolving the HPC powder in water to prepare 50% concentration, (free or with incorporating 5% synthesized nanoparticles). To obtain films with uniform thickness, the prepared solutions were evenly spread on a glass plate via an applicator, by adjusting the thickness to 0.2 mm, then air dried. These minerals provide higher improvement in crystallinity than carbon nanomaterials (28%), moreover, the MMT and bentonite provided films with superior thermal stability than pure HPC and HPC containing carbon nanoparticles. The mineral nanoparticles (especially MMT nanoclays) had a synergistic effect on LC formation and the birefringence texture of the nanocomposites (chiral nematic). This study presents the route to enhance the utilization of claystone available in El-Fayoum Province as the precursor for nanoparticles and production high performance LC nanocomposites. This study presents the route for the valorization of low-cost mineral-based nanoparticles in enhancing the properties of HPC-film (crystallinity, thermal stability, mechanical strength), in comparison with carbon-based nanoparticles. Moreover, these nanoparticles provided more ordered mesophases and, consequently, good synergetic effect on LCs formation and the birefringence texture of the HPC-films.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2021-0081
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Utility of copper (lignin/silica/fatty acids) complex derived from rice
           straw as antioxidant/hardening and fluid resistant agent in
           nitrile-butadiene rubber composites (PART IV)

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      Authors: Hoda Sabry Othman , Salwa H. El-Sabbagh , Galal A. Nawwar
      Abstract: In continuation to the previous work on copper (lignin/silica/fatty acids) (Cu-LSF) complex as a natural antioxidant/electrical conductivity agent for nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), this study aims to perform further investigations for NBR vulcanizates loaded with different concentrations of Cu-LSF complex, including swelling behavior and hardness properties, as well as evaluating their thermal stability via thermogravimetric analysis. The behavior of Cu-LSF complex in NBR matrix was compared with that of the standard commercial antioxidants (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline/N-isopropyl-N′-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine [TMQ/IPPD]). Results revealed that Cu-LSF complex can act as an effective reinforcing and hardening agent, with exhibiting fluid resistance, even when compared with the commercial antioxidants. In comparison with the previous studies on its Zn and Ca analogues and their behavior in different rubber matrixes, Cu-LSF complex showed higher values of hardness and less susceptibility for swelling, respectively. Moreover, Cu-LSF antioxidant activity becomes in accordance with the previous work. The new Cu-LSF complex could be used as a green alternative to the commercial antioxidants (TMQ/IPPD) with introducing further advantages to the rubber matrix, such as hardening, fluid resistance and thermal stability.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0048
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Printability of bio-composite sheets made from paper mill and cardboard
           mill waste sludge

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      Authors: Hüseyin Yüce , Garip Genç , Sinan Sönmez , Öznur Özden , Ahmet Akgül , Burcu Nilgün Çetiner
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal the usability of waste paper sludge on the production of composite materials and the printability of their surfaces were investigated. First, composite plates were produced by using dried and milled waste sludge together with polyester resin and epoxy. Screen printing using water, solvent and UV-based inks were carried out. It was determined that UV and solvent-based inks in both resin groups were permanently attached to the surface of composite plates produced using paper mill waste sludge, while it was found that the adhesion was not achieved sufficiently in cardboard factory waste sludge. The unique aspect of this study is obtained the composite plates from paper mill and cardboard mill waste sludge and improved the printability of them.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of mordanting method on the absorption behavior of natural dyes

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      Authors: Ali Shams Nateri , Ehsan Dehnavi
      Abstract: This work aims to study the effect of mordanting method as pre-mordanting (on-chrome), meta-mordanting (meta-chrome) and post-mordanting (after-chrome) on wool dyeing with madder natural dye without tannin and pomegranates peel, as a natural dye contains tannin. The woolen yarn was dyed with madder and pomegranate peel natural dyes by three methods as pre-mordant, meta-mordant and pos-mordant. The color parameters and reflectance spectra of dyed samples were analyzed by using derivative spectroscopy and the principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The obtained results indicate that the color difference between the samples dyed with madder by pre-mordanting, and the samples dyed by other methods is more than the color difference between the samples dyed by meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. However, the color difference between samples dyed with pomegranate peel by pre-mordanting and meta-mordanting methods is less compared to other pairs. Also, analysis of reflectance spectra and color depth (K/S) values indicate that the color depth of dyed sample with madder by pre-mordanting method is more than other dyeing methods. But, the color depth of sample dyed with pomegranate peel by post-mordanting method is less compared to other methods. The analysis of first-, second-, third- and fourth-order derivatives of reflectance spectra and the study of the first, second, third and fourth PCs of reflectance spectra indicate that the reflectance of dyed samples with madder and pomegranates peel depends on the mordanting method. Evaluation of the effect of mordanting method on color and reflectance of wool dyed with madder and pomegranates peel natural dyes using derivative spectroscopy and the PCA techniques
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Novel study of using chitosan in gamma dose monitoring applications

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      Authors: Mohamad Bekhit , Essam Fahim , Asmaa Sobhy
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to fall light on the possibility of using the biopolymer chitosan in gamma dose monitoring. The chitosan films were irradiated to gamma rays in the range starting from 10 to 120 kGy at a dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h using 60Co gamma source. The ultra violet and visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry were used to examine the optical properties of chitosan film. Also, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used to detect and trace any change in structural bands that may take place upon irradiation. Increase in optical density of the chitosan film was recorded at 298 nm that correlated with increasing in the absorbed doses. Change in color of the film from pale yellow to denser yellow was detected upon increasing the absorbed doses. The close investigation for UV/Vis and FTIR analysis nominates the chitosan film to be used as a label-dosimeter in the range of 10–120 kGy depending on chitosan concentrations. The chitosan film has an excellent stability in different environmental conditions with ±3.7% uncertainty in measurements (2σ, approximately equal to a 95% confidence level). Chitosan film may be used as a medium and high-dose monitor with an acceptable overall uncertainty in routine radiation processing The useful dose range from 10 to 80 kGy was detected for different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1, 1.5 Wt%) that correlated with increasing the absorbed dose, which is assigned to the linear parts in the target response curves. For the dose range 10–120 kGy, the film may be used as label dosimeter with detected color change from pale yellow to dense yellow.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0047
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of novel Yellow-Green fluorescent
           polymerizable dye and its copolymer with application of highly selective
           sensor for cations iron

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      Authors: Hanieh Shaki
      Abstract: In this work, A new 4–(2-aminoethylene) amino-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,8-naphthalimide with intense green fluorescent was synthesized. This low molecular weight compound was immobilized by forming a covalent-bond with an acrylonitrile polymer containing carboxylic acid groups. The new prepared dye and self-coloured polymer were characterized by analytical techniques. The synthesized compounds were characterized by TLC, DSC, FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, GPC, UV–visible and Fluorometery. The photophysical characteristics of the dye and polymer containing naphthalimide moiety in the side chain, were measured both in the absence and in the presence of Ag+, Cd+2, Co+2, Cr+3, Cu+2, Fe+3, Hg+2, Ni+2, Pb+2 and Zn+2 cations. The results showed that the characterization of the synthesized dye and its polymer verified their structural correctness. It is shown that dye and polymer are photo-induced electron transfer (PET) fluorescent sensors which exhibit fluorescence quenching in the presence of metal ions. Among the various metal ions, both dye and polymer are more sensitive to Fe+3 cations. This study is original. A 4–(2-aminoethylene) amino-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,8-naphthalimide and its self-coloured polymer were synthesized for the first time, successfully.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effects of using recycled paper in inkjet printing system on colour
           difference

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      Authors: Ufuk Yılmaz , Ahmet Tutus , Sinan Sönmez
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the colour changes affecting inkjet prints after the recycling of papers. For recycling, papers prepared with the INGEDE 11p standard are recycled four times. Pulping, storage, flotation, beating and bleaching processes are applied for each recycling, respectively. Inkjet prints are made on the obtained test papers, and colour measurements are made using an X-Rite eXact spectrophotometer according to the ISO 13655:2017 standard. These processes are applied again to the papers which are recycled four times, and the results are analyzed. In addition, the values of ΔE00 ′, ΔL′, ΔH ′ and ΔC′ are calculated according to ISO 11664-6:2014 standard by making some calculations according to obtained the L′a′b′ values. It is determined that the ΔE00 value increases after each recycling in cyan magenta and yellow colour, whereas it decreases in black. The highest ΔE00 value is calculated after the fourth recycling stage is yellow with a value of 8.33. The lowest ΔE00 value detected is black with a value of 0.76 after the fourth recycling stage. This paper observes that the colour with the most variation in hue angle among recycling repetitions is black and the colour with the highest hue angle value is yellow. It is seen that repeating recycling causes increase in the chromatic values of the prints. After the fourth recycling stage, colour changes have reached an important point and can cause important printing problems. In this case, the customer’s approval must be obtained to continue printing. This case is valid for ΔE00 values. Colour differences for print contrast, trapping and print chroma values are either not very important or are positive for quality.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Removal of reactive orange 16 with nZVI-activated carbon/Ni: optimization
           by Box-Behnken design and performance prediction using artificial neural
           networks

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      Authors: Maryam Sadat Seyedi , Mahmoud Reza Sohrabi , Fereshteh Motiee , Saeid Mortazavinik
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze nano zero-valent iron (nZVI)-activated carbon/Nickel (nZVI-AC/Ni) by a novel method. The synthesized adsorbent was used to degrade reactive orange 16 (RO 16) azo dye. The optimum conditions for the highest removal of RO 16 dye were determined. Characterization of nZVI-AC/Ni was done by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The nZVI-AC/Ni were used for the removal of dye RO 16 and the parameters affecting were discussed such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and concentration of dye. To investigate the variables and interaction between them, an analysis of variance test was performed. The characterization results show that the synthesis of nZVI-AC/Ni caused no aggregation of nanoparticles. The maximum dye removal efficiency of 99.45% occurred at pH 4, the adsorbent dosage = 0.1 gL-1 and the dye concentration of 10 mgL-1. Among various algorithms of feed-forward backpropagation neural network, Levenberg–Marquardt with mean square error (MSE) = 9.86 × 10–22 in layer = 5 and the number of neurons = 9 was selected as the best algorithm. On the other hand, the MSE of the radial basis function model was 0.2159 indicating the good ability of the model to predict the percentage of dye removal. There are two main innovations. One is that the novel nZVI-AC/Ni was prepared successfully. The other is that the optimized conditions were obtained for the removal of RO 16 dye from an aqueous solution. Furthermore, to the best of the knowledge, no study has ever investigated the removal of RO 16 by nZVI-AC/Ni produced.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Essential oils as multifunctional additives in biodegradable linear low
           density polyethylene/starch blends

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      Authors: Emad S. Shafik , Azza A. Ward , Adel Farid Younan
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a biodegradable linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/starch blends with improved mechanical and flow characteristics and evaluate the probability of using essential oils such as Moringa oleifira and castor oils as green plasticizers and compatibilizers to avoid using harmful chemicals. Corn starch was blended with LLDPE through the melt blending technique. The corn starch content was varied from 5 to 40 phr in LLDPE. To enhance poor mechanical characteristic of the LLDPE/starch, essential oils such as M. oleifira and castor oils were incorporated into the composites with different concentrations starting from 1 to 7 phr. The essential oils’ effect on mechanical, flow character, thermal stability and electrical properties of the LLDPE/starch was also investigated. The morphology of LLDPE/starch containing essential oils was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that increasing the corn starch content had an adverse effect on mechanical and flow characteristics of the composites, whereas incorporation of essential oils had increased the flow and mechanical characteristics of the composites. Also, dielectric measurements revealed that permittivity and dielectric loss increased by increasing oil content. Moreover, the values of the blends containing castor oil are higher compared to that containing M. oleifira. The SEM micrographs illustrated that the presence of essential oils in LLDPE/starch enhanced the distribution and the homogeneity of the composites, and the particle size of starch granules became smaller in LLDPE matrix. This study aims to introduce green plasticizer and compatibilizer to avoid using harmful chemicals in packaging industry.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2020-0119
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on concrete substrate

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      Authors: Pingping Hou , Zhaohui Zhan , Shuai Qi , Yingjie Ma , Bo Li , Dewen Sun , Qianping Ran
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare a chemically stable superhydrophobic coating with remarkable mechanical properties and concrete protective properties. One synthetic step was adopted to prepare superhydrophobic coating. The process and product were analyzed and confirmed by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), water contact angle (WCA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanical properties were confirmed by tensile test. The concrete protective properties were confirmed by solution immersion test and rapid chloride migration coefficient test. MSiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were chosen to enhance the hydrophobicity of fluorosilicone coatings. With a 4:1 mass ratio of fluorosilicone resin and MSiO2 NPs, the coatings show superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 156° and a SA of 3.1°. In addition, the tensile mechanical property was improved, and the chloride ion diffusion coefficient was decreased significantly after the addition of MSiO2 NPs. This new fluorosilicone coating hybrid by MSiO2 NPs could be applied as a concrete protective layer with properties of self-cleaning, antifouling, etc. Introduction of MSiO2 NPs hybrid to prepare fluorosilicone coating with superhydrophobicity on concrete surface has not been systematically studied previously.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0010
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Tribological performance of self-lubricated polyamide6/boric oxide
           composites after water conditioning

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      Authors: Kawaljit Singh Randhawa , Ashwin Patel
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the tribological performance, i.e. abrasion resistance, friction coefficient and wear rates, of self-lubricated water conditioned polyamide6/boric oxide composites. Polyamide6 and polyamide6/boric oxide self-lubricated composites were immersed in water for 15 days to analyze the effect of water conditioning on friction, wear and abrasion resistance. Tribological testing on pin-on-disc tribometer and abrasion resistance testing on TABER abrader were performed to see the friction coefficient and wear rates of materials. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations were performed to analyze the wear tracks. Tribological testing results revealed the loss in abrasive resistance, but there was an improvement in frictional coefficient and wear rates with steel after water absorption. The SEM images clearly show less depth of wear tracks in water-conditioned materials than dry ones. Water conditioning was found supportive in the formation of smooth lubricating transfer film on steel disc during the tribological testing. The tribological behaviour of polymer composites is different in dry and in high humidity or water conditions. Experiments were performed to investigate B2O3 solid lubricant filler effectiveness on tribological behaviour of water-conditioned polyamide composites. Bonding between polyamide6 and water molecules plus the formation of orthoboric acid was found advantageous in decreasing the friction coefficient and wear rates of composites.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0049
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • High toughness, thermal resistance and excellent dielectric properties
           phenolic epoxy vinyl ester resin modified by hyperbranched polyimide

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      Authors: Feng Gao , Xiaorui Zhang , Ling Weng , Yujun Cheng , Jiahao Shi
      Abstract: Phenolic epoxy vinyl ester resin (PEVER) is an advanced resin matrix, which has excellent heat resistance, electrical insulation. However, the brittleness and poor toughness of its curing product limited its application, so this paper aims to modify the PEVER with hyperbranched polyimide (HBPI), so as to enhance the toughness, heat resistance and dielectric properties of PEVER. Hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer was used as the central reactant. Methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride was used as the branching unit, stannous octoate was used as the catalyst and hydroquinone was prepared as the inhibitor. Then, the hyperbranched structure of HBPI was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and 13C-NMR. Next, PEVER was mixed with different contents of HBPI, and then the authors tested its curing product. It is found that with the addition of HBPI, the free volume of the system was increased and the content of polar groups was decreased in each unit space, so the dielectric constant (ε) and the dielectric loss (tanδ) were decreased. In addition, PEVER could be well toughened by HBPI and the thermal stability of PEVER was improved. HBPI has excellent heat resistance. The addition of hyperbranched polymer increases the free volume of the system so it can slow down the transfer of stress and its nearly circular structure can absorb the impact energy from all directions. Moreover, an appropriate amount of free volume can decrease the dielectric constant of PEVER by reducing the content of polar groups.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Development of two dosimetry systems based on basic violet dye for
           possible use as radiation dosimeters

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      Authors: Nehad Magdy , Sameh Gafar
      Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to study a comparison between two dosimetry systems, both of them based on basic violet dye (BV). The first system depends on (BV) (incorporating polyvinyl alcohol) as a thin-film dosimeter. The second system also relies on (BV) as a solution dosimeter, which is more sensitive to gamma rays. The two prepared film/solutions have a considerable signal that decreases upon irradiation and the strength of the signal decreases with increasing radiation dose. The gamma ray absorbed dose for these dosimeters was found to be up to 35 kGy for films and 1 kGy for the liquid phase. All dosimetric characteristics as radiation chemical yield, additive substance, dose-response function, radiation sensitivity, also before and after-irradiation stability under various conditions were considered. It is expected the vital role of gamma radiation on this dye in its two forms or two media. This reveals their wide applications in the field of gamma irradiation processing. These two dosimetry systems which depend upon the same dye are safe to handle, inexpensive, available raw materials and can be applied in various dosimetry applications as mentioned above.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2020-0118
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Performance of anode materials in electrochemical treatment system for
           indigo dyeing wastewater

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      Authors: Wei Zhang , Mengdi Zhang , Zhijie Huangfu , Jiming Yao , Yuan Xie
      Abstract: This study aims to explore suitable anode materials used in the electrochemical system for indigo dyeing wastewater, to achieve optimal treatment performances. The single factor experiment was used to explore the optimum process parameters for electrochemical decolorization of indigo dyeing wastewater by changing the applied voltage, electrolysis time and electrolyte concentration. At the voltage of 9 V, the morphology of flocs with different electrolytic times was observed and the effect of electrolyte concentration on decolorization rate in two electrolyte systems was also investigated. Further analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, anode weight loss and sediment quantity after electrochemical treatment of indigo dyeing wastewater were carried out. Comprehensive considering the decolorization degree and COD removal rate of the wastewater, the aluminum electrode showed the best treatment effect among several common anode materials. With aluminum electrode as an anode, under conditions of applied voltage of 9 V, electrolysis time of 40 min and sodium sulfate concentration of 6 g/L, the decolorization percentage obtained was of 94.59% and the COD removal rate reached at 84.53%. In the electrochemical treatment of indigo dyeing wastewater, the aluminum electrode was found as an ideal anode material, which provided a reference for the choice of anodes. The electrodes used in this study were homogenous material and the composite material anode needed to be further researched. It provided an effective and practical anode material choice for electrochemical degradation of indigo dyeing wastewater. Combined with the influence of applied voltage, electrolysis time and electrolyte concentration and anode materials on decolorization degree and COD removal rate of indigo dyeing wastewater, providing a better electrochemical treatment system for dyehouse effluent.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Synthesis and comparative solvatochromic studies of novel Mono azo
           ureido/thioureido benzimidazole dyes

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      Authors: Mohamed Ezzat Khalifa , Adil Abdullah Gobouri , Mohamed Hesham Hesham Mahmoud , Abdulraheem Safar Almalki , Fahad Mustafa Kabli
      Abstract: This paper aims to synthesize new benzimidazole dyes aiming to study the solvent effects on their absorption in Ultraviolet-visible spectra. Ureido/thioureido hydrazonamide benzimidazoles (U/THB) are prepared by condensation of N-aryl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbohydrazonoyl bromides with ureido and/ or thioureido reagents. The target products are fully characterized for structural elucidation by means of their spectral and elemental methods. Solvatochromic behavior of U/THB dyes has been studied in different polar protic solvents at room temperature. The absorption spectra distinguish two main bands at (350 nm–442 nm) and (308 nm–382 nm) referring to n-π* and π- π* transitions of the azo groups. Dimethyl formamide induces an extremely bathochromic transition comparing to the other protic solvents. The observed bathochromic shifts indicate strong interaction with solvents in the excited state. Most dyes show one absorbance in all solvents used, so they may exist in a single tautomeric form (hydrazo form). In the present paper, the synthesis of U/THB dyes was achieved by a simple and convenient pathway. In addition, the variations in substituents attached to the chromophoric moiety could also be studied. The new U/THB dyes are accountable for providing good knowledge about their solvation and spectral properties of an order acceptable for industrial utilization. Synthesis of these new benzimidazole derivatives and study of their solvation and spectral properties provides good knowledge, which is very useful in many industrial applications (e.g. dye-sensitized solar cell, etc.). The synthesized mono azo U/THB dyes are novel members in the benzimidazole family, where no details regarding the synthesis of such dyes are reported before in the literature. They are superior in terms of preparation, multiple applications and spectral properties.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Discussion on the Hill Formula

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      Authors: Junling Wu , Libo Feng , Long Lin
      Abstract: The purpose of this study reported in this paper was to find the correct Mt/M8 and Dt/a2 data lists of Hill Formula. This paper enumerates several kinds of Hill formula data lists presented in different literatures, and the authors hope to draw the correct conclusion. The eight different forms collected in the research project were compared. The mathematician was asked to give a suggestion from a professional point of view and to arrive at a conclusion. In all eight cases, the third, the eighth and seventh cases are consistent and are considered reasonable and correct. First-hand information was not used because of unavailability of the earliest published version of the Hill formula. It is helpful to the correct application of Hill formula and the calculation of diffusion coefficient. It is also valuable to the study of dyeing kinetics. The research helps to reduce and avoid the confusion in the application of Hill formula in dyeing kinetics research.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of halloysite nanotubes on corrosion protection properties of the
           self-curing epoxy resin coatings

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      Authors: Gongwen Tang , Tingting Ren , Yi Wang , Zhishan Yan , Linrong Ma , Xiangyu Hou , Xin Huang
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the nano tube fillers on the corrosion protection properties of the self-curing epoxy (SEP) coatings. The self-curing epoxy (SEP) resin was synthesized via a reaction between diisopropoxy-bis ethylacetoacetato titanate and the epoxy resin. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was surface modified by grafting (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane to obtain modified HNTs (mHNTs). The HNTs and mHNTs are used as nano tube fillers for the SEP coating. The thermal stability of the coatings was assessed via thermo-gravimetric analysis. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to analyze the surfaces and cross sections of the coatings. The anticorrosive efficiencies of the coatings were investigated by electrochemical measurements and a neutral salt spray test. The results demonstrated that the additions of HNTs and mHNTs have little effect on the thermal degradation temperature of the SEP coating. However, the addition of the nanotubes reduced the corrosion resistance of the SEP coating. The SEP coating itself showed excellent corrosion resistance without any reinforcement particles and is hence promising for application in the heavy-duty anticorrosion field of heat exchangers.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Desorption of crystal violet from alkali-treated agricultural material
           waste: an experimental study, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic
           modeling

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      Authors: Noureddine El Messaoudi , Mohammed El Khomri , Zahra Goodarzvand Chegini , Abdellah Dbik , Safae Bentahar , Munawar Iqbal , Amane Jada , Abdellah Lacherai
      Abstract: This paper aims to focus on studying the batch desorption of adsorbed crystal violet (CV) from date stones (Phoenix dactylifera), untreated (UDS) and treated using NaOH (TDS). The process variables such as different desorbing agents, volume and concentration of the desorbing agent, contact time, dye concentration before adsorption and temperature affecting CV desorption from CV-loaded untreated date stones (CV@UDS) and treated adsorbent (CV@TDS) were optimized. The UDS and TDS were regenerated using 0.6 m HCl as eluent. The HCl solution was an excellent eluent for the CV desorption from CV@UDS (96.45%) and CV@TDS (98.11%). The second-order model and the Langmuir model well exemplified experimental data with maximum desorption capacities were 63.29 mg g−1 for the CV@UDS and 243.90 mg g−1 for the CV@TDS. The calculated thermodynamic showed that the CV desorption was spontaneous, endothermic and physical. Good regeneration and reusability of UDS and TDS for the CV removal for four consecutive adsorption–desorption cycles. This study provided a good example of reusing UDS and TDS with NaOH for fast removal of a toxic organic pollutant, CV from the wastewaters. The use of UDS and TDS with NaOH for the first time for desorption study and their reusability to removing CV from their aqueous solutions.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Printability of paper and paperboard surface treatment with gum rosin and
           derivatives

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      Authors: Ahsen Ezel Bildik Dal , Yağmur Biricik , Sinan Sönmez
      Abstract: This study aims to provide control of liquids, especially against water-based ink on the paper and paperboard surface with natural substances, in also practical and greenway. The paper surface was treated with natural rosin and its derivatives to obtain a hydrophobic effect and to improve printing properties. The oleoresin samples collected from Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus pinaster Aiton trees in the controlled area and turpentine content removed was by hydrodistillation. The gum rosin (GR), fortified 10% with maleic anhydride (MGR) and esterified with 10% pentaerythritol (PMGR) samples solved in a simply alcohol and sprayed the base paper surface directly with a spray gun. Base paper samples were paperboard, bleached paper and test liner paper. Then, flexo printing was applied and printability properties were measured. The treatment weights of these paper samples were 1.8 ± 0.5, 1.3 ± 0.5 and 0.7 ± 0.2 g/m2, respectively, compared to the base paper. Greater Cobb60 results were obtained from modified rosin samples than unmodified gum rosin-sized paperboards and the PMGR surface treatment reduces Cobb60 values by 20% and MGR treatment reduces 15% comparing to the base sheet. Then, the printing procedure was applied to the surface of the treated materials using a flexo printing system. As a result of the treatment better print density, chroma and print lightness value consumed a less hydrophobic agent and controlling water-based flexo ink on the base paper surface. The unique aspect of this work was improving the hydrophobicity of the paper surfaces was achieved by spraying with natural rosin and derivatives.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An effective polymer nanocomposite based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and
           SiO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles for super protection of damaged ancient Egyptian
           wall paintings

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      Authors: Hussein Marey Mahmoud
      Abstract: This contribution aims to introduce an effective low cost polymer-nanocomposite for possible application to achieve a super protection for highly damaged ancient Egyptian wall paintings. SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Then, the polymer-nanocomposite was prepared by simple mixing and dispersing the nanoparticles into the tetraethoxysilane polymer solution, with the aid of an ultrasonic dismembrator. The application of the polymer-nanocomposite and other polymeric nanodispersions, on laboratory models, was performed by the brushing technique. Next, the materials stability was evaluated by means of digital optical microscope, colorimetry, FE-scanning electron microscope, measuring the static contact angle and water absorption rates. The results were promising in creating a superhydrophobicity and the static contact angle ('S) measured for the polymer-nanocomposite reached 135o. An average of three measurements of the water absorption rate after polymer-nanocomposite treatment was 0.66 g/m2 s, compared to 2.60 g/m2 s for the control model (untreated). Further, an average of color difference ('E*) for the treated surface was 2.78, and after the accelerated thermal aging was 3.6. Observing the surface morphology, the polymer-nanocomposite enhanced the roughness of the treated surface and showed a high resistance to laboratory salt weathering. Preparation of a polymer-nanocomposite by adding SiO2 and Al2O3 NPs to tetraethoxysilane polymer has been proposed. As a promising conservation material, the produced polymer-nanocomposite helped to form an efficient protective film. This paper attains to develop an economic polymer-nanocomposite to maintain a high protection to damaged ancient Egyptian wall paintings and similar objects.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Electrically heated wearable textiles produced by conventional pigmented
           inks containing carbon black

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      Authors: Muhammad Ali , Saira Faisal , Shenela Naqvi , Khadija Abdul Wahab , Rida Afreen , Long Lin
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the utility of carbon black containing coating formulations that are conventionally used for pigment printing of textiles in fabricating electrically heated fabrics. Specifically, electrical and thermal characterisation of the coating system was carried out to establish the feasibility of the system for use in the manufacturing of flexible heating elements on textile substrates. The coating formulations were applied via a simple padding technique followed by stitching the electrodes using a conductive yarn. The heating elements of different sizes thus produced showed Ohmic behaviour as a resistor and attained a targeted temperature difference of up to 40°C within the applied voltage range. A prototype heater was also produced, and thermography results showed uniform heating and cooling of the heater that was incorporated into a jacket. The proposed method is envisaged to be very practical for the realisation of completely textile-based heating elements of different shapes and sizes. Furthermore, the proposed manufacturing method can be used to convert conventional ready-made articles of clothing into heated textiles for various applications.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2021-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Enhancing the mechanical properties of bismaleimide resin with
           montmorillonite modified by two intercalators (amino-terminated
           polyoxypropylene and octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

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      Authors: Yufei Chen , Hui Zhao , Yulong Liu , Hongyue CHU
      Abstract: Bismaleimide (BMI) is a kind of thermosetting resin and its application is usually limited by low toughness. In this paper, two kinds of reinforcement intercalator amino-terminated polyoxypropylene (POP) and octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTAC) were designed and synthesized to toughen BMI resin and the toughening effect was compared and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to toughen BMI resin and analyze the toughening effect of two reinforcements intercalator amino-terminated polyoxypropylene (POP) and octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTAC). Sodium-based montmorillonite (Na-MMT) was modified by POP and OTAC, and the ion-exchange reaction obtained organic montmorillonite (POP-MMT and OTAC-MMT). The polymer matrix (MBAE) was synthesized, in which 4,4’-diamino diphenyl methane BMI was used as the monomer and 3,3’-diallyl bisphenol A and bisphenol A diallyl ether were used as active diluents. And then, POP-MMT/MBAE and OTAC-MMT/MBAE composites were prepared using MBAE as matrix and POP-MMT or OTAC-MMT as reinforcement. The Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the filler and microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite were characterized to the better reinforcement. POP-MMT and OTAC-MMT enhanced BMI-cured products’ toughness by generating microcracks in the polymer to absorb more fracture energy. Meanwhile, POP-MMT and OTAC-MMT were the main stress components and the enhancement of the interface interaction was beneficial to transfer the external force from the matrix to the reinforcement and improved the mechanical properties of the composite. Furthermore, with the intercalation rate increasing, the compatibility of the two phases was increased and the performance of MBAE was also elevated. BMI is generally used as aerospace structural materials, functional materials, impregnating paint and other fields. However, high crosslinking density leads to moulding material’s brittleness and limits a wider range of applications. Therefore, it has become an urgent priority to explore and improve the mechanical properties of BMI resin. POP and OTAC have successfully intercalated Na-MMT layers to get POP-MMT and OTAC-MMT, and the interplanar crystal spacing and the intercalation rate were calculated, respectively. The results were corresponding with the SEM images of POP-MMT and OTAC-MMT. After that, the morphology of composites illustrated the compatibility was related to the intercalation rate. According to the mechanism of modified MMT toughening epoxy resin, when they were dispersed uniformly in the matrix, the composite’s mechanical properties had been significantly improved. Additionally, OTAC-MMT with a higher intercalation rate had better compatibility and interfacial force with the matrix, so that the mechanical properties of OTAC-MMT/MBAE were the best.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Cu(II)/sodium borohydride-based electrocatalytic system for reduction and
           dyeing of indigo

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      Authors: Xiaoyan Li , Zhihui Zhang , Jiming Yao , MengQian Wang , Na Yang
      Abstract: To improve the problems as the heavy burden of sewage treatment and environmental pollution caused by the traditional sodium hydrosulfite reduction dyeing of indigo, this study aims to carry out the direct electrochemical reduction dyeing for indigo with the eco-friendly Cu(II)/sodium borohydride reduction system under normal temperature and pressure conditions. The electrochemical behavior of Cu(II)/sodium borohydride reduction system was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. And, the dyeing performance of the Cu(II)/sodium borohydride reduction system was developed by optimizing the concentration of copper sulfate in the anode electrolyte, applied voltage and reduction time via single-factor and orthogonal integrated analysis. The dyeing performance of the Cu(II)/sodium borohydride reduction system is superior to that of the traditional reduction dyeing with sodium hydrosulfite. In the case of the optimized condition, the soaping fastness and dry/wet rubbing fastness of the dyed fabric in the two reduction dyeing processes were basically comparable, the K/S value of electrocatalytic reduction of indigo by Cu(II)/NaBH4 is 11.81, which is higher than that obtained by traditional sodium hydrosulfite reduction dyeing of indigo. The innovative electrocatalytic reduction system applied herein uses sodium borohydride as the hydrogen source combined with Cu(II) complex as the catalyst, which can serve as a medium for electron transfer and active the dye molecule to make it easier to be reduced. The electrochemical dyeing strategy presented here provides a new idea to improve the reduction dyeing performance of indigo by sodium borohydride.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Influence of moisture/water absorption on mechanical and thermal
           properties of polyamide6/boric oxide composites

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      Authors: Kawaljit Singh Randhawa , Ashwin Patel
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the mechanical and thermal behavior, i.e. tensile strength, hardness, impact strength and glass transition temperatures of water-treated polyamide6/boric oxide (PA) composites. The PA6 and PA6/boric oxide composites were exposed to an open environment and immersed in water for 15 days to analyze the effect of environmental humidity and frequent water immersion conditions on the composite’s mechanical and thermal properties. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, hardness and impact strength of materials were measured to identify the mechanical properties. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterizations were used to see the effect of humidity/water absorption on microstructure, crystallinity and glass transition temperatures. The testing results revealed the loss in strength, elastic modulus and hardness, while the impact resistance was improved after exposure of materials to humidity/water. SEM images clearly show the formation of voids and XRD graphs revealed the loss in crystallinity after water immersion. The DSC plots of water immersed materials revealed the loss of glass transition temperatures up to 15°C. The mechanical and thermal behavior of PA composites varies according to the surrounding atmosphere. Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of water treatment on the PA6/B2O3 composite’s mechanical and thermal properties. Water treatment resulted in the bonding between PA and water molecules, which generated voids in the materials. These voids generations are found the main reason for the low strength and hardness of water-treated materials.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of silicone based softener on fabric handle properties made by
           ring, rotor and MVS yarns

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      Authors: Wardah Anam , Khurram Shehzad Akhtar , Faheem Ahmad , Abher Rasheed , Abher Rasheed , Muhammad Mohsin , Farooq Azam , Tehseen Ullah , Sheraz Ahmad
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to produce yarns from three different spinning techniques, i.e.Murata Vortex Spinning (MVS) ring spinning and rotor spinning. Those yarns were then used to produce fabrics. Then, the effect of silicone softener on tactile comfort of fabric was investigated. Three different yarns, i.e. Ring, Rotor and MVS yarns, were used to make fabrics using CCI sample loom which were then subjected to post treatments like desizing, scouring and bleaching. After the completion of the dyeing process, silicone-based softener was used to improve the hand feel of fabrics. The structures of three yarns were evaluated using Scanning electron microscopy. The fabrics were evaluated against compression, bending and surface properties using Kawabata evaluation system. The fabric made of MVS yarn depicted more geometrical roughness, coefficient of friction and bending rigidity but less compressibility as compared to fabrics made with other yarns. It was observed that softener concentration has a direct relationship with thickness and bending rigidity of the fabric, and inverse relationship with coefficient of friction and geometrical roughness of the fabric. MVS yarn has some superior properties over rotor and ring spun yarn like high production rates, high resistance to pilling, clear appearance and stability against deformation but has disadvantage that it has less compressibility. Therefore, softener is applied on the fabric, to address this issue, so that it could also be used for apparels application.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-03-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Prediction of nanosilver and dye content on silk fabric using a
           scanner-based artificial intelligence technique

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      Authors: Ali Shams Nateri , Elham Hasanlou , Abbas Hajipour
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate using scanner-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and polynomial regression methods for prediction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dye concentrations on AgNP-treated silk fabrics. For estimation of the dye and AgNPs concentration using image processing, the silk fabrics were scanned under the condition of 200 pixels per inch. The red green blue (RGB) values of scanned images were obtained after applying the median filter. Then, the relationship between scanner RGB values and dye and AgNPs concentrations were obtained by using artificial intelligence methods such as ANFIS and ANNs. The best result was achieved by the ANFIS system for calculation concentration of dye with 0.07% error and concentration of AgNPs with 0.008 (gr/l) error. The obtained results indicate that the performance of the ANFIS system method is better than the other methods. Using a scanner-based artificial intelligence technique for prediction of nanosilver and dye content on silk fabric.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparative study of multifunctional properties of synthesised ZnO and MgO
           NPs for textiles applications

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      Authors: Saira Faisal , Shenela Naqvi , Muhammad Ali , Long Lin
      Abstract: Among various metal oxide nano particles, MgO NPs and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in particular are gaining increasing attention due to their multifunctional characteristics, low cost and compatibility with textile materials. Each type of nanoparticle excels over others in certain properties. As such, it is often crucial to carry out comparative studies of NPs to identify the one showing higher efficiency/output for particular applications of textile products. In the investigation reported in this paper, ZnO NPs and MgO NPs were synthesised via sol-gel technique and characterised. For comparative analysis, the synthesised NPs were evaluated for multiple properties using standard procedures before and after being applied on cotton fabrics by a dip-pad-dry-cure method. XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnO and MgO NPs. Homogeneous formation of desired NPs and their dense and uniform deposition on the cotton fibre surface were observed using SEM. ZnO NPs and MgO NPs coatings on cotton were observed to significantly enhance self-cleaning/stain removal properties achieving Grade 5 and Grade 4 categories, respectively. In terms of ultraviolet (UV) protection, ZnO or MgO NP coated fabrics showed UPF values of greater than 50, i.e. excellent in blocking UV rays. MgO NPs exhibited 20% cleaning efficiency in treating reactive dye wastewater against ZnO NPs which were 4% efficient in the same treatment, so MgO was more suitable for such type of treatments at low cost. Both NPs were able to impart multifunctionality to cotton fabrics as per requirement of the end products. However, ZnO NPs were better for stain removal from the fabrics while MgO NPs were appropriate for UV blocking. It was therefore clear that multifunctional textile products could be developed by employing a single type of cost effective and efficient nano particles.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Novel environment friendly olive pomace-cyclohexanone formaldehyde
           composite resin

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      Authors: Selda Sert , Nilgün Kızılcan
      Abstract: Cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with olive pomace (OP) in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The purpose of this study is to produce eco-friendly OP modified cyclohexanone composite resins (OPCFCR) with a one-step method that has higher condensation reaction temperature than CFR. The water absorption properties, gloss value and cross-cut adhesion properties of the product were investigated. Cyclohexanone, formalin (37% aqueous solution) and tannin were mixed and 20% aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the resin. OP has environmentally friendly bio-based lignin, cellulose and phenolic compounds and the OP structure has been incorporated into the structure of the CFR resin during the in situ modification, such as resole resin and polysaccharide. The weights of pomace were used as 5% and 10% of the weight of cyclohexanone in cyclohexanone-formaldehyde composite resins, respectively. There is an improvement in the properties of the OPCFCR produced from an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Gulf of Edremit region of Balikesir. The OPCFCRs were soluble in common organic solvents. The product OPCFCR has a dark red-brown color. The reaction mixture must be stirred continuously. Subsequently, 37% formalin was added dropwise in total while refluxing. The amount of aqueous NaOH solution is limited as the formed resin may become insoluble in common organic solvents. At the end of the reaction, a water-insoluble resin is obtained. This study provides the application of ketonic resins. The OPCFCR containing phenolic groups may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating. These resins may be used for the preparation of adhesive. OP, with a large amount of catechol groups, was considered for reducing the formaldehyde emission level on the adhesive system. OPCFCR has been synthesized in the presence of a base catalyst. Environmental and ecological concerns have increased the attention paid by chemical industry to renewable raw materials.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in sodium chloride solution by apricot
           waste extract obtained from different solvent systems

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      Authors: Viktoria Vorobyova , Margarita Skiba
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate influence of extraction solvent on the efficacy of apricot pomace extract (APE) as a sustainable corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in sodium chloride solution. The chemical profiles of the extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content and antioxidant properties of the extracts were determined. Besides, gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and atomic force microscopy were used to study the corrosion inhibition. The effect of immersion period on inhibition efficiency was evaluated. The reaction mechanism of the inhibitor was also discussed. Corrosion inhibition decreasing is in the following order: solution of 2-propanol/ethanol apricot pomace (E/PAPE) extract> ethanol (EAPE)> 2-propanol (PAPE). The gravimetric, polarization measurements and surface analysis revealed that the growth of inhibitory properties is prolonged, and corrosion rate reduction after 40–48 h of exposure was studied. APEs play an important role in the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in sodium chloride solution. Moreover, its application is potentially possible in industries. The results contribute to the integrated valorization of food waste. The different compositions of the conversion/oxidation products of organic substances in solution were studied. The formation of polymerized flavanol-aldehyde adducts and oxidized quinone compounds or tautomers structures because of extract transformation in water causes main corrosion reduction in 40–48 h.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-04-2020-0040
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Separation, kinetics of purification of syringin by macroporous resin from
           Lindl. leaves and the evaluation of bioactivities

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      Authors: Meimei Zhao , Dalong Li , Yaqin Xu , Xueying Bu , Chen Shen , Libo Wang , Yu Yang , Jingwen Bai
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the adsorption kinetics of syringin from Syringa oblata Lindl. leaves on macroporous resin and develop an efficient, simple and recyclable technology for the separation and purification of syringin. Static adsorption and desorption properties of six resins were tested to select a suitable resin for the purification of syringin. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to estimate the adsorption behavior of syringin on AB-8 resin. Breakthrough point and eluent volume were determined by dynamic adsorption and desorption tests. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was applied to identify the syringin in the purified product [syringin product (SP)]. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of SP in vitro were evaluated by free radical scavenging ability and biofilm formation inhibitory tests. AB-8 exhibited the most suitable adsorption and desorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm parameters indicated favorable adsorption between AB-8 and syringin. The optimal results were as follows: for adsorption, the sample concentration was 1.85 mg/mL, the sample volume was 3.5 bed volume (BV), the flow rate was 0.5 mL/min; for desorption, the ethanol concentration was 70%, the elution volume was 2.5 BV, the elution velocity was 1.0 mL/min. SP with 80.28% syringin displayed the potent antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of Streptococcus suis. To the best of authors’ knowledge, there are no reports on purifying syringin from Syringa oblata Lindl. leaves using macroporous resins. This paper may also provide a theoretical reference for the purification of other phenylpropanoid glucosides.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2020-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes for high resistance to
           alkaline treatments and peroxide bleaching

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      Authors: Jiaxue Yu , Jinglin Tang , Xiaoyan Wang , Jinmei Du , Changhai Xu , Shansheng Zhang
      Abstract: This paper aims to synthesize benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes which can be applied not only for dyeing and alkaline reduction of polyester fabric in one bath, but also for dyeing and peroxide bleaching of cotton/polyester blend fabric in one bath. The synthesized benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy (MS) and UV–visible spectrophotometry. The performance on resistance to alkaline treatment and peroxide bleaching was tested by measuring the color strength of polyester fabric dyed with the synthesized benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. Increasing the electron-withdrawing ability of the substituents in the diazo component and the electron-donating ability of the substituents in the coupling component resulted in a significant bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption wavelength. Except that the disperse dyes synthesized from the coupling components containing the hydroxyethyl group were unstable in alkaline solution, all others exhibited high resistance to alkaline treatment and peroxide bleaching. The synthesized benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes provide the opportunities to combine dyeing and alkaline reduction of polyester fabric into one bath, and combine dyeing and peroxide bleaching of cotton/polyester blend fabric into one bath. The synthesized benzothiazole-azo disperse dyes help to establish short processes of polyester and polyester/cotton blend fabrics so as to reduce energy consumption and raise production efficiency.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2020-0113
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Using biopolymers to strengthen the historical printed paper: mechanical
           and optical characters

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      Authors: Wafika Noshy , Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan , Nada Mohammed
      Abstract: This study aims to restore the lost mechanical properties of the prints with carrageenan, methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (Tylose) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel). The effect of these materials on the properties of the printed paper (modern and historical samples) has been evaluated under the influence of accelerated aging using pH measurement, the mechanical properties (tensile and elongation), FTIR and color changes. The three consolidates reduced the acidity of treated samples significantly, but after ageing, it was observed that the pH of aged treated samples decreased slightly as compared to the untreated samples. The results of the mechanical properties showed the superiority of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel) in improving the tensile and elongation forces of the samples compared to carrageenan and methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose even during the accelerated aging. Consolidation materials succeeded in reducing ΔE of the paper samples under accelerated aging, especially carrageenan. The IR spectra confirmed that no dramatic difference was observed in topically function vibrations of samples after treatment beside that the O-H stretching band intensity increased observably after treatment with the three consolidates, after ageing the treatment, and it protected the treated paper from oxidation processes as the infrared spectrum analysis showed a decrease in intensities of carbonyl and carboxyl groups as compared to aged untreated samples. The research provides new biopolymers in strengthening the historical printed paper, where printed papers lack studies related to their conservation. This makes the current study a promising step for treating historical printed paper.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-01-2021-0008
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The development of a tannin-based after-treatment for cotton fabric dyed
           with sulphur dyes

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      Authors: Quratulain Mohtashim , Muriel Rigout , Sheraz Hussain Siddique Hussain Yousfani
      Abstract: Sulphur dyes provide an inexpensive medium to dye cellulosic fibres with heavy shade depths. They offer moderate to good fastness to light and wet treatments. However, owing to the environmental hazard produced by the use of sodium sulphide, the practical implication of these dyes is steadily decreasing. Moreover, these dyes are prone to oxidation causing pronounced fading on exposure to laundering. This paper aims to present the green processing of sulphur dyes by using a biodegradable reducing agent in place of sodium sulphide to dye cotton fabrics. The study also proposes after-treatments with tannin to improve the fastness properties of the dyeings. In this study, dyeings were produced on cotton fabric with a range of C.I. Leuco Sulphur dyes, which were reduced with sodium sulphide and glucose. Sulphur dyeings were after-treated with an environment-friendly tannin-based product (Bayprotect CL (BP)); subsequently, the after-treated samples were evaluated for colour strength, wash, light and rubbing fastness. A novel after-treatment method was developed, which substantially improved the wash fastness of C.I. Leuco Sulphur Black 1 dyeing to ISO 105 C06/C09 washing. However, the degree of this improvement varied for the other sulphur dyes used. The surface morphology and the possible mechanisms for the improved fastness properties were also discussed. The effect of after-treatment was significant for improving the wash fastness of sulphur black dyeings in particular, while the effect on other colours was minor. Significant improvements were observed for light and wet rub fastness for most of the dyeings, which signifies the importance of tannins as a finishing agent. It is observed that the tannin-based product, BP, is found to provide the photoprotective effect by improving the lightfastness of the dyeings. Future research may involve the exploration of various tannins as a finishing agent to sulphur dyeings. This novel finishing technique is found significant for improving the wash fastness of sulphur black 1 dyeings for both the reducing systems. Improvements were also observed for light and wet rub fastnesses for most of the dyeings.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-02-2021-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparative analysis of anti-reflection coatings on solar PV cells through
           TiO and SiO nanoparticles

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      Authors: Rajkamal Sivakumar , Prabhakaran Gopalakrishnan , Mohamed Sikkander Abdul Razak
      Abstract: Photon absorbance and reflectance are the most important parameters for the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Bandgap energy plays a vital role in photon absorption. That is, the photons with energy greater than band gap energy are absorbed. Also, the refractive index of semiconductors is responsible for photon reflection, as the surface with the highest refractive index will reflect more photons than a surface with have a low refractive index. The purpose of this paper is to improvise the absorbance and reduce the reflectance of photons on the front surface of solar cells. Photon reflection is results in reduction in electron-hole pair generation due to the high refractive index of semiconductive materials. To overcome this problem, an Anti-reflection (AR) coating of TiO2 and SiO2 is undertaken on solar cells through the Sol-spin coating method. Finally, the effectiveness of the Anti-Reflection coating is scrutinized through UV Vis-Spectroscopy, which provides details regarding reflectance, absorbance and bandgap energy characteristics. UV–visible spectroscopy was used to measure the responses from the samples. The samples responded to the ultraviolet and visible range of electromagnetic radiation perfectly. UV spectroscopy was done before and after the antireflection coating of TiO2 and SiO2 over the solar cell to find their corresponding extreme reflectance and absorbance values. The effects of TiO2 and SiO2 were evaluated from the results. In this research work, the authors have done anti-reflection coating over solar cells with nanoparticles derived from sol-gel process. Absorbance of photons observed through diffuse reflection method.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-08-2020-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Halochromic optical nose for assessment of spoilage of packed seer fish
           (II): leaching resistance, correlation between halochromism and volatile
           amines

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      Authors: Kesavan Devarayan , Padmavathi P. , Kopperundevi Sivakami Nagaraju
      Abstract: Development of thin film sensors with pH function for noninvasive real-time monitoring of spoilage of packed seafood such as fish, crab and shrimp are described in this study. It is also the purpose of this study to enhance the leaching resistance of the sensors by using a suitable strategy and to quantitatively correlate the sensor’s halochromism with the total volatile amine. To prepare halochromic sensors with better leaching resistance, biocompatible materials such as starch, agar, polyvinyl alcohol and cellulose acetate along with a halochromic dye were used to prepare the thin film sensors. These thin films were evaluated for monitoring the spoilage of packed seafood at room temperature, 4°C and −2°C up to 30 days. The halochromic sensors were characterized using UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. CIELab analyses of the halochromism of the thin film sensors revealed that the color changes exhibited by the sensors in response to the spoilage of seafood are visually distinguishable. Further, the halochromic response of the thin films was directly proportional to the amount of total volatile base nitrogen that evolved from the packed seafood. Excellent leaching resistance was observed for the developed thin film sensors. The halochromic property of the sensors is reversible and thus the sensors are recyclable. Besides, the thin film sensors exhibited significant biodegradability. This study provides insights for use of different biocompatible polymers for obtaining enhanced leaching resistance in halochromic sensors. Further, the color changes exhibited by the sensors are in line with the total volatile amines evolved from the packed seafood. These results highlight the importance of the developed halochromic thin film sensors for real-time monitoring of the spoilage of packed seafood.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2020-0115
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Review: development of inkjet printing colorants in ceramics

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      Authors: Amruta Joglekar-Athavale , Ganapti S. Shankarling
      Abstract: The review glances upon the colorants used for printing on ceramic substrates by ink jet technology and techniques, chemistry involved during the selection of the colorants. The ink jet technology is an easy and a convenient technique, specially designed colorants are used for such applications with tailor made properties and features. New developments in technology and chemistry of colorants to achieve successes in application studies of ceramic substrates. N/A. This review glances upon the history, development and practical approach of the current techniques with available dyes and pigments and the techniques involved during the synthesis and application. The review paper provides information about the development of the inkjet technique on ceramics and available colorants with methods.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2020-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Development and characterisation of multifunctional composite coatings
           using bio-based additives

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      Authors: Gerard Ong , Ammar Shafaamri , Iling Aema Wonnie Ma , Ramesh Kasi , Ramesh Subramaniam
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop the bio-composite organic coatings by adding the bio-based additives that are extracted from banana peels and henna leaves as the organic corrosion inhibitors. Bioactive constituents with inhibition properties are extracted from banana peels and henna leaves by using ethanol to form the ethanolic extract. The inhibiting efficiency of these bioactive constituents on mild steel corrosion in 3.5% sodium hydroxide (NaCl) solution is investigated. The investigation is performed using electrochemical impedance studies for 30 days. The optical and adhesive properties of the bio-composite coating systems have also been studied. The best protection is obtained as the loading ratio of the banana peels ethanolic extract (BPEE) and henna leaves ethanolic extract (HLEE) are 10 Wt.% and 30 Wt.%, respectively. Overall, the results obtained show that the BPEE and HLEE not only enhance the optical properties but also can serve as an effective inhibitor for corrosion without affecting the adhesiveness of the neat acrylic properties. Banana peels and henna leaves consist of bioactive constituents that have anti-corrosion properties which could inhibit corrosion.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2020-0049
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Green natural dye from Buddleja officinalis and its ultrasonic dyeing on
           cotton fabric

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      Authors: Guizhen Ke , Ziying Zhao , Chen Shuhui , Jianqiang Li
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore a new eco-friendly green textile dyeing. Natural plant Buddleja officinalis is traditionally used as yellow pigment addition in rice. It is worth developing its application and dyeing performance in cotton fabric. Buddleja officinalis dried flower was extracted with ethanol aqueous. The extraction conditions including ethanol concentration, material to liquor ratio, extract time and temperature were optimized. Then cotton fabrics were dyed with Buddleja officinalis extraction under conventional and ultrasonic conditions. The effects of dyeing time, bath ratio, pH value of dyeing bath, dyeing temperature and mordants on K/S values were studied and the resulting color strength obtained by conventional and ultrasonic dyeing were compared. The ultraviolet (UV) transmittance of Buddleja officinalis dyed cotton fabric was also evaluated. The color strength of the fabric dyed with Buddleja officinalis under ultrasonic conditions was higher than that under conventional conditions. Alum, Fe and Cu as simultaneous mordants improved the K/S value of the dyed cotton fabrics. Both washing fastness and rubbing fastness were fairly good in all Buddleja officinalis dyed cotton fabrics, washing fastness = 3–4 and rubbing fastness = 4. What’s more, the dyed cotton fabrics showed lower transmittance values as compared to undyed cotton fabrics and indicated potential UV protection capability. Buddleja officinalis can be a new natural dye source for the ultrasonic dyeing of cotton fabric. It is for the first time that Buddleja officinalis is used as a natural dye in cotton fabric dyeing with less water and the dyeing using ultrasound has been found to have an obvious improvement in the color strength and color-fastness.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2020-0110
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Design synthesis and performance of anti-collapse drilling polymer mud
           with higher stability

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      Authors: Chun-Mei Kai , Feng-Jun Zhang , Cong-Liang Cheng , Qian-Bao Chen
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different factors on mud performance, find the best conditions and synthesize a new type of anti-collapse drilling polymer mud with higher stability. The anti-collapse mechanism of drilling polymer mud was also suggested. Exploring the influence of different molecular weight thickeners, filtrate reducers, soda ash addition and film-forming components on the mud performance, so as to obtain the best ratio of anti-collapse drilling polymer mud. The results show that the use of vegetable glue, sulfonate copolymer and vegetable fiber powder can synthesize a high-viscosity, high-stability, collapse-resistant mud. When the mass ratio of vegetable fiber powder: vegetable glue: sulfonate copolymer is 40:1:2, the mud viscosity is 21.2 s, the fluid loss in 30 min is only 12.5 mL, and the mud film thickness is 1.5 mm, which is one ideal anti-collapse polymer mud. Compared with ordinary polymer mud and bentonite mud, this anti-collapse polymer mud not only uses vegetable glue instead of traditional tackifiers but also effectively uses vegetable fiber powder produced from waste wood, which is environmentally friendly and highly stable specialty. It can effectively improve the safety and quality of construction during drilling in water-sensitive geology.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2020-0111
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Synthesis and evaluation of epoxy resin modified by hyperbranched
           polyester of caprylic acid and hexanoic acid

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      Authors: Jiahao Shi , Ling Weng , Xiaoming Wang , Xue Sun , Shuqiang Du , Feng Gao , Xiaorui Zhang
      Abstract: Epoxy resin (EP) is a kind of thermosetting resin, and its application is usually limited by poor toughness. In this case, a type of new flexible chain blocking hyperbranched polyester (HBP) was designed and synthesized. The purpose of this study is to enhance the toughness and dielectric properties of EP. P-toluene sulfonic acid was used as the catalyst, with dimethy propionic acid as the branch unit and pentaerythritol as the core in the experiment. Then, n-hexanoic acid and n-caprylic acid were, respectively, put to gain HBP with a n-hexanoic acid and n-caprylic acid capped structure. The microstructure, mechanical properties, insulation properties and dielectric properties of the composite were characterized for the purpose of finding the appropriate proportion of HBP. HBP enhanced the toughness of epoxy-cured products by interpenetrating polymer network structure between the flexible chain of HBP and the EP molecular chain. Meanwhile, HBP reduced the ε and tgδ of the epoxy anhydride-cured product by reducing the number of polar groups per unit volume of the EP through free volumes. Yet EP is a kind of thermosetting resin, which is widely used in coating, aerospace, electronics, polymer composites and military fields, but it is usually limited by poor toughness. In a word, it is an urgent priority to develop new EP with better toughness and mechanical properties. At present, HBP has been applied as a new kind of toughening strategy and as a modifier for EP. According to the toughening mechanism of HBP modified EP, the free volume of HBP creates a space for the EP molecule to move around when loaded. Moreover, the free volume could cause the dielectric constant of EP to diminish by reducing the content of polarizable groups. Meanwhile, the addition of HBP with flexible chains grafted to the EP could develop an interpenetrating network structure, thus further enhancing the toughness of EP
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2020-0114
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Study on vibrational spectroscopy, molecular property, UV-VIS, HOMO-LUMO
           energies and MEP analysis of
           N-[2-(4-Bromo-benzoyl)-benzofuran-3-yl]-acrylamide monomer by DFT method

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      Authors: Esra Barim , Feride Akman
      Abstract: This study aimed the synthesis and theoretical/experimental characterization of novel benzofuran-based acrylamide monomer. Novel N-substituted acrylamide monomer, i.e. N-[2–(4-Bromo-benzoyl)-benzofuran-3-yl]-acrylamide (BBFA), was synthesized by reacting (3-Amino-benzofuran-2-yl)-(4-bromophenyl) methanone with acryloylchloride at 0–5oC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometer were used to elucidate the chemical structure of BBFA. Computational studies were performed using the DFT (B3LYP) method on the basis of 6-31 + G (d, p) using Gaussian 09 W and Gauss View 5.0 package in addition to the VEDA program, gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Molecular geometry and vibration assignments of the BBFA monomer were calculated. The molecular structure of the monomer was examined. Both longest and shortest bonds were determined in the structure. The nucleophilic and electrophilic regions of the monomer were determined. The theoretical spectroscopic data of the monomer were compared with the experimental data; both were consistent with each other. The chemical reactivity of the monomer was also determined. The synthesized BBFA monomer can be evaluated in many areas; from medicine to industry (such as textiles) owing to the presence of various active functional groups. Indeed, acrylamide copolymers are remarkable materials for polymer science and industry. The data produced in this study is original and adds to the scientific community.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2020-0051
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A copper-(lignin/silica/fatty acids) complex as an antioxidant/electrical
           conductivity agent for rubber composites (Part iii)

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      Authors: Hoda Sabry Othman , Maher A. El-Hashash , S.H. El-Sabbagh , A.A. Ward , Galal A.M. Nawwar
      Abstract: Calcium and Zinc lignates were proven to be good antioxidants for rubber composites. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the copper lignate antioxidant activity along with evaluating its electrical conductivity in rubber composites. The antioxidant activity of the Cu-LSF complex was compared with that of standard commercial antioxidant additives as a green alternative. The rheological characteristics, thermal aging and mechanical and electrical properties were evaluated for the NBR vulcanizates containing the different antioxidants in the presence or absence of coupling agents. Results revealed that the Cu-LSF complex (5 phr) can function as a compatibilizing, antioxidant and electrical conductivity agent. The new copper complex prepared from paper-pulping black liquor of wastes could be used as a green antioxidant and electrical conductivity agent in rubber composites.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2020-0112
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The effect of ink formulation on colorimetric properties of inkjet
           printing considering the impact of substrates

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      Authors: Darya Ewaznezhad Fard , Saeideh Gorji Kandi , Marziyeh Khatibzadeh
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in the performance of ink formulations caused by the addition of compounds that improve the ink’s physical properties to achieve an optimum formulation for inkjet printing, because of the importance and simplicity of this method. Ink samples were formulated using Acid Red 14 as ink colorant, different percentages of polymeric compounds including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) as viscosity modifier compounds and surfactant as the surface tension enhancer. Formulated samples were adjusted in terms of fluid physical properties e.g. viscosity, density and surface tension, and the effect of used compounds on the improvement of both physical and colorimetric properties such as viscosity, surface tension, colorimetric coordinates and lightfastness has been evaluated to achieve the optimum printing inks to be printed on three different substrates. The experimental observations showed that CMC was the most compatible compound as the viscosity modifier as its viscosity value was in the printable range of 2–22 cP. Moreover, a flow-curve test was applied to the ink samples and their Newtonian behavior was approved. Based on the spectrophotometric test results of printed samples, the samples containing PVA provided acceptable lightfastness in comparison to other ink samples on every used substrate. An optimum relation between colorimetric coordinates of the printed samples and ink formulation could be considered and achieved.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2020-0103
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of BiWO/g-CN photocatalyst and high degradation of Rhodamine B
           under visible light irradiation

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      Authors: Wenjie Wang , Mengran Zhang , Binxia Zhao , Linxue Liu , Ruixuan Han , Nan Wang
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to improve the degradation efficiency of Rhodamine B (RhB) by new photocatalytic materials. Binary Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 photocatalytic material was synthesized by the one-step hydrothermal reaction. The construction of Z-scheme heterojunction led to the rapid separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, which would degrade RhB into small molecular substances to achieve the purpose of degradation. It was found that Bi2WO6/25%g-C3N4 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, which was about 1.44 and 1.34 times higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and g-C3N4, respectively. According to the trapping experiments, the superoxide radical (·O2−) was the major active species of the RhB decomposition in Bi2WO6/g-C3N4 catalysts. The successful synthesis of Z-scheme Bi2WO6/g-C3N4 provides new ideas and references for the design of catalysts with high photocatalytic activity, which should have wide applications in the future.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2020-0097
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of novel electrospun
           polyurethane composite with enhanced blood compatibility

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani , Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
      Abstract: This study aims to fabricate an electrospun scaffold by combining radish (Ra) and cerium oxide (CeO2) into a polyurethane (PU) matrix through electrospinning and investigate its feasibility for cardiac applications. Physicochemical properties were analysed through various characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared transforms analysis (FTIR), contact angle measurements, thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mechanical testing. Further, blood compatibility assessments were carried out through activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) and hemolysis assay to evaluate the anticoagulant nature. PU/Ra and PU/Ra/CeO2 exhibited a smaller fibre diameter than PU. Ra and CeO2 were intercalated in the polyurethane matrix which was evidenced in the infrared analysis by hydrogen bond formation. PU/Ra composite exhibited hydrophilic nature whereas PU/Ra/CeO2 composite turned hydrophobic. Surface measurements depicted the lowered surface roughness for the PU/Ra and PU/Ra/CeO2 compared to the pristine PU. PU/Ra and PU/Ra/CeO2 displayed enhanced degradation rates and improved mechanical strength than the pristine PU. The blood compatibility assay showed that the PU/Ra and PU/Ra/CeO2 had delayed blood coagulation times and rendered less toxicity against red blood cells (RBC’s) than PU. This is the first report on the use of radish/cerium oxide in cardiac applications. The developed composite (PU/Ra and PU/Ra/CeO2) with enhanced mechanical and anticoagulant nature will serve as an indisputable candidate for cardiac tissue regeneration.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2020-0072
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Bioremediation of cardboard recycling industry effluents using mixed
           fungal culture

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      Authors: Zeinab Hosseini , Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian , Mahin Ghafourzade , Abbasali Jafari Nodoushan
      Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central province of Iran, using mixed fungal culture. First, the effluent samples from the cardboard recycling industry were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium to isolate native fungal colonies. The grown colonies were then identified using morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to choose the dominant fungi for bioremediations. The mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium digitatum were finally used for bioremediation experiments of the cardboard recycling industry. A suspension containing 1 × 106 CFU/ml of fungal spores was prepared from each fungus, separately and their homogenous mixture. Sewage samples were prepared and sterilized and used at 25%, 50% and 90% dilutions and pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 for bioremediation tests using mixed fungal spores. Following that, 10 ml of the mixed fungal spores were inoculated into the samples for decolorization and COD removal and incubated for 10 days at 30°C. The amount of COD removal and decolorization were measured before incubation and after 3, 6 and 10 days of inoculation. In this research, the color was measured by American Dye Manufacturer Institute and COD by the closed reflux method. The results of the present study were analyzed using SPSS 21 statistical software and one-way ANOVA tests at p-value < 0.05. The results of this research showed that the mean decolorization by mixed fungal culture over 10 days at pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 were 44.40%, 45.00% and 36.84%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 71.59%, 73.54% and 16.55%, respectively. Moreover, the mean decolorization at dilutions of 25%, 50% and 90% were 45.00%, 31.93% and 30.53%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 73.54%, 62.38% and 34.93%, respectively. Therefore, the maximal COD removal and decolorization efficiency was obtained at dilution of 25% and pH 7. Given that limited studies have been conducted on bioremediation of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry using fungal species, this research could provide useful information on the physicochemical properties of the effluent in this industry.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-05-2020-0047
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • pH neutralization of textile industry wastewater for effective recycling

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      Authors: Manickam Ramesh Kumar , Ramalingam Malathy , Sundararajan Paramasivam , Ill-Min Chung , Seung-Hyun Kim , Prabakaran Mayakrishnan
      Abstract: The textile industry is one of the largest and most important industrial sectors in India. Because the textile industry consumes large quantities of water and produces highly polluted water discharge, its environmental impact is high. Water is expensive to use, treat and dispose of. Therefore, water conservation and reuse are critical necessity for the textile industry because decreasing water and wastewater treatment and recycling costs can be beneficial. This research neutralized the pH during dyeing industry wastewater treatment. The system should be robust to erroneous sensor measurements. A pH meter was developed and used to monitor the pH of wastewater hourly before and after HCl treatment. HCl was used to neutralize the pH of wastewater from 9 to 7.5. The amount of HCl was optimized depending on the wastewater. Three wastewater treatment methods were used, namely, HCl, wash water and reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. The HCl treatment was the most effective for decreasing the pH; the wash water treatment was the most effective for decreasing the total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) total hardness and chemical oxygen demand; and the RO treatment was the most effective for decreasing the biochemical oxygen demand, TDS, TSS, total hardness and Cl− concentration. The pH should be monitored during the textile dyeing because the addition of color to textile fabrics is the most effective at neutral pH. This study evaluated several parameters of wastewater, including pH, color, TSS and TDS. The fabricated digital pH meter provided superior results than conventional measuring devices. The goal was to maintain a neutral pH during dyeing and recycle wastewater to improve environmental sustainability. The newly developed digital pH meter was less expensive and more precise than traditional pH meters. Before reusing and recycling, wastewater underwent ultrafiltration and RO treatment.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-10-2020-0106
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hyperbranched additive into a high solid acrylate coating for automotive
           application: impact on performance and emission of volatile organic
           content

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      Authors: Botros Meglaa , Magda Tawfik , Fatma Morsy , Samya Elsherbiny , Hisham Essawy
      Abstract: Automotive coating materials are very important items for this industry. However, their performance is limited by the use of excessive amounts of solvents in their formulations, whereas the emission of volatile organic solvents is against the widely ascending principle of green chemistry. Thus, this study aims to overcome this global problem to save the environment without affecting the properties and performance of the coating. High solid content paint formulation for automotive applications has been designed with low amount of volatile organic solvents with the aid of a functionalized hyperbranched modifier. It was found that the presence of a hyperbranched additive allows a high solid content to be designed and facilitate the processing, which indicates its liability to compensate the role played by excessive solvents amounts. In addition, the mechanical properties and physical characteristics of the modified coatings showed outstanding performance and preservation of clarity in comparison with the commercial counterparts. A high solid content coating with facile processing and improved performance leads to cheaper price beside the positive impact on the environment considering the limited emission of volatile organic contents. Limitation of the used volatile organic compounds in any industry helps to save the health of humans and keep the environment unaffected. The use of functionalized hyperbranched additive to automotive coatings is a very promising additive for automotive coatings with optimized characteristics.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-11-2020-0117
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Microwave-assisted synthesis of disazothiazolone dyes as antibacterial
           agents and their application in polyester printing

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      Authors: Ebtsam Abdelmowla Ahmed , Galal Elgemeie , Kawther Abd-Elzaher Ahmed
      Abstract: This study aims to represent a successful simple method for the synthesis of some novel dyes based on thiazole derivatives and their applications in textile printing. 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethyl)thiazol-4(5H)-one compound is prepared by convention heating and microwave technique then used as a coupling agent, which reacts with different diazonium Salt to form diazo dyes. The synthesized diazo dyes are confirmed via spectral data (IR,1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectra). The dyes are used to print polyester fabric. The obtained results clarified that the prints have good color strength, brilliant color and highly durable antibacterial activity. The authors designed efficient synthesis for some novel thiazolone dyes. The novel procedure features short-reaction time, very good yields and a simple workup. The authors studied the antibacterial activity and their application in printing polyester fabrics.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2020-0080
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Polyurethane resin derived from polyol of palm olein and recycled
           poly(ethylene terephthalate)

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      Authors: Abbas Ahmad Adamu , Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih , Seng Neon Gan
      Abstract: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface protection on metal surfaces. Alkyd was prepared from palm olein, glycerol and phthalic anhydride. PET underwent simultaneous glycolysis and transesterification reactions with the alkyd. Varying the amount of PET has led to polyols with different viscosities. Polyurethane resins were produced by reacting the polyols with toluene diisocyanate. The resins were coated on mild steel panels and cured. Performances of the cured films were tested. The polyurethanes (PU) resin cured to a harder film with better thermal stability. Films showed excellent adhesion properties, while higher content of PET exhibited higher pencil hardness, better water, salt, acid and alkali resistance. Other vegetable oils could also be used. The alkyd structure could be changed by formulation to have different functionality and the ability to incorporate higher amount of PET waste. Rate of glycolysis of PET could be increased by higher amount of ethylene glycol. This method has managed to use waste PET in producing new polyol and PU resins. The cured films exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties, as well as excellent adhesion and thermal stability. The non-biodegradable PET has created environmental pollution problems connected to littering and illegal landfilling. It has become necessary to pay greater attention to recycling PET bottles for obtaining valuable products. This approach is different from the earlier reports, where PET was recycled to recover the raw materials.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-06-2020-0056
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Biocolorant “prodigiosin” interferes with the growth of biofouling
           bacteria: an in vitro and in silico approach

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      Authors: Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi , Bita Archangi , Hosein Zolgharnein , Isaac Zamani
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to identify Serratia marcescens to extract and purify prodigiosin pigment to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the pigment. Samples were collected from shrimp aquaculture ponds. Species identification was conducted using morphological, biochemical and molecular tests. Pigment extraction and purification were carried out using column chromatography. The antibacterial effect of crude and purified prodigiosin pigment was evaluated on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as biofouling bacteria. In addition, the interaction between prodigiosin and proteins involved in biofilm formation was evaluated using molecular docking. The results of prodigiosin extraction with solvents showed the highest percentage of pigment presence with methanol solvent in the second day of culture. The chemical structure of pure prodigiosin obtained from the column chromatography was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Both crude and purified pigments exhibited antibacterial effects against selected bacterial strains. The antibacterial effect of the purified pigment was higher, and the highest antibacterial effect was observed on B. subtilis. Prodigiosin docking was carried out with all target proteins, and the docked energy in all of them was at an acceptable level. Prodigiosin extracted from S. marcescens can be used as a bioactive compound to design and manufacture of anti-biofouling and anti-biofilm formation products to use extensively for industrial applications as a natural color in marine industries, food industry, cosmetics and textile productions.
      Citation: Pigment & Resin Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/PRT-07-2020-0079
      Issue No: Vol. 51 , No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Pigment & Resin Technology

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