Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8677 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Natural Medicines
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.643
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-0293 - ISSN (Online) 1340-3443
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Cyclolinopeptide F, a cyclic peptide from flaxseed inhibited RANKL-induced
           osteoclastogenesis via downergulation of RANK expression
    • Abstract: Abstract Previously, we reported that cyclolinopeptides (CLs) extracted from flaxseed inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. However, mode of action involved in CLs-inhibited osteoclastogenesis has been yet unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the details of inhibitory activity of cyclolinopeptide-F (CL-F) in osteoclastogenesis, as a representative of CLs. CL-F dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (IC50 0.58 µM) without cytotoxic effects. The inhibition by CL-F was mainly observed in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation/differentiation phase from M-CSF responsive immature myeloid cells to monocyte/macrophage (M/Mϕ) lineage. Additionally, CL-F also slightly inhibited RANKL-induced differentiation phase from M/Mϕ to mature osteoclasts. Expression of RANKL receptor, RANK, in M-CSF-induced M/Mϕ, i.e. osteoclast progenitor cells, was decreased by CL-F treatment. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that CL-F inhibited c-fos gene expression, which is reported to be crucial for RANK expression in osteoclast progenitor cells induced with M-CSF from myeloid lineage cells. These results suggested that CL-F inhibits osteoclastogenesis via down regulation of c-fos expression, which leads to the down-regulation of RANK expression in M-CSF-induced osteoclast progenitors.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • A new 2 H -benzindazole compound from Alternaria alternata Shm-1, an
           endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh wild fruit of Phellinus
           igniarius
    • Abstract: Abstract Endophytic fungi have been shown in recent years to produce a series of bioactive secondary metabolites. Several endophytic fungi were isolated from the fresh wild body of Phellinus igniarius, and initially evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among which, Shm-1 extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Clavibacter michiganense and the fungus was identified to be Alternaria alternata Shm-1 through the comparison of morphological characteristics and the sequence of the rDNA ITS with those of other Alternaria species. A new 2H-benzindazole derivative, alterindazolin A (1), has been isolated from cultures of the endophyte Alternaria alternata Shm-1. Its structure was characterized as 1-benzyl-5-p-hydroxy-phenyloxygen-benz[e]indazole by spectroscopic data analysis including 1D NMR, 2D NMR and MS spectrum.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
       
  • Ecological, phylogenetical, and pharmacognostical characteristics of
           Aconitum kiyomiense endemic to Hida highlands, Takayama city, Gifu
           Prefecture, Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract Aconitum kiyomiense Kadota (Ranunculaceae) is endemic to Takayama city, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. We collected specimens from marshes and flood plains at altitudes ranging from 852 to 1085 m and from a new habitat consisting of a mesic meadow in the subalpine belt (1681 m). Glabrous pedicels and flowering sequence of inflorescence were used for identification, but intra-species variations in the pilus of pedicels (glabrous, pilose, and chimeric types) were observed. Although the flowering sequence has been reported as both indeterminate and determinate, all specimens in the present study were determinate. No intra-species variation was detected via partial nuclear internal transcribed space, and sequences did not match another 17 East Eurasian continent subgenus Aconitum species. The chloroplast trnL–trnF intergenic spacer region (trnL–trnF) showed three different haplotypes. The trnL–trnF dominant haplotype sequence was identical to that of A. kusnezoffii growing on the Eurasian continent, suggesting that A. kiyomiense is more primitive than other Japanese aconitum and a relic species of the Eurasian continent. We report the first detection of aconitine alkaloids in the tuberous roots, which exhibited aconitine alkaloid contents varying from 0.32 to 4.05 mg/g dry weight (mg/g) for aconitine, 0.02 to 4.12 mg/g for hypaconitine, undetectable to 0.05 mg/g for jesaconitine, and 0.42 to 3.76 mg/g for mesaconitine. The variation of aconitine alkaloid components and contents appeared to be random and did not vary with inflorescence phenotype, trnL–trnF haplotype, environmental habitat conditions, or the geographic region of the collection sites. Since most populations showed no genetic intra-variation, it will be necessary to maintain the continuity of habitats and designate areas for conservation of genetic diversity at the population level.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
       
  • Flavonoids isolated from the flowers of Pulsatilla flavescens and their
           anti-piroplasm activity
    • Abstract: Abstract Pulsatilla species are known as “Yargui”, and their flowers are traditionally used in Mongolia as a tonic and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. By chemical investigation of P. flavescens flowers, 21 flavonoids, including a new chalcone C-glucoside, chalconaringenin 2′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5′-β-d-glucopyranoside, and two new flavanone C-glucosides, (2R)- and (2S)-naringenin 8-β-d-glucopyranosyl-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated. The absolute configurations of the seven flavanone glucosides were elucidated by ECD spectra. For the isolated compounds, inhibitory activity against Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, which cause fatal diseases in horses, was estimated. Although most of the isolated chalcone and flavanone derivatives did not show any anti-piroplasm activity, all the isolated flavone and flavonol derivatives showed moderate effects against B. caballi and/or T. equi.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Mutagenetic and anti-allergic studies for evaluation of extracts of Coptis
           Rhizome produced by an artificial hydroponic system
    • Abstract: Abstract As a part of the investigation of the safety and efficacy of the cultivated Coptis japonica rhizome extracts using an artificial hydroponic cultivation system, the mutagenetic and anti-allergic activities were evaluated. Some extracts of commercial crude drugs of Coptis sp. were also evaluated for the comparison. None of the extracts showed a significant mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 by the Ames tests, but all the extracts showed in S. typhimurium TA98. The extracts of the hydroponically cultivated rhizomes showed anti-allergic activities against contact hypersensitivity as well as those of commercial crude drugs of Coptis sp. These results suggested the potential of the hydroponically cultivated rhizomes as one of the alternative sources for the medicinal usage.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Inhibition of melanin production by anthracenone dimer glycosides isolated
           from Cassia auriculata seeds
    • Abstract: Abstract The methanol extract of Cassia auriculata seeds was found to inhibit melanogenesis in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells under conditions of theophylline stimulation. Two new phlegmacin-type anthracenone dimer glycosides, auriculataosides A and B, were isolated from the active methanol fraction, and their inhibitory effects were observed in the concentration range of 0.03 to 0.3 μM. Inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 protein expression was observed, suggesting that the inhibition of these factors is part of the mechanism of action underlying melanogenesis inhibition.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • New vasorelaxant indole alkaloids, taberniacins A and B, from
           Tabernaemontana divaricata
    • Abstract: Abstract Taberniacins A (1) and B (2), new indole alkaloids, were isolated from the stems of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae). Structure elucidation of 1 and 2 was based on spectroscopic methods and total synthesis. Each alkaloid showed vasorelaxant activity against phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of naturally occurring retinoid X receptor
           agonists isolated from Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. via retinoid X
           receptor/liver X receptor heterodimers
    • Abstract: Retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands have a wide range of beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently accumulated evidence suggests that early neuroinflammation may be a therapeutic target for AD treatment. We therefore investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the prenylated flavanoids SPF1 and SPF2, which were previously isolated from root of Sophora tonkinensis and identified as potent ligands for RXR, and potential mechanisms involved. SPF1 and SPF2 efficiently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β messenger RNA (mRNA) and IL-6 mRNA levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated and tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, whereas SPF3—which has a structure similar to SPF1 and SPF2 but no RXR ligand activity—did not exhibit such effects. Intriguingly, the liver X receptor (LXR) ligand T0901317 reduced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, and these effects were potentiated by SPF1. With regard to the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects, SPF1 induced significant amounts of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) mRNA and protein, and this effect was potentiated by T0901317. SPF1 also reduced translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) into nuclei. The production of proinflammatory cytokines was significantly inhibited by SPF1, and this effect was primarily exerted via RXR/LXR heterodimers. The effects of SPF1 may partly depend on the induction of ATF3, which may bind to the p65 subunit of NF-κB, resulting in reduced translocation of NF-κB into nuclei and reduced NF-κB transcription. Although inflammatory effects mediated by RXR/LXR heterodimers have not been thoroughly investigated, the above-described results shed light on the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect via RXR/LXR heterodimer. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Andrographolide impairs alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced cholestatic
           liver injury in vivo
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate if andrographolide impairs cholestatic liver injury. All rats were randomly divided into six groups—(1) control (n = 6), (2) control + 200 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), (3) alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-control (n = 6), (4) ANIT + 50 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), (5) ANIT + 100 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6), and (6) ANIT + 200 mg/kg andrographolide (n = 6). We gavaged 50 mg/kg ANIT to mimic cholestatic liver injury in rats. Seven days after treatment, all the rats were killed. Serum biochemistry and hepatic histopathological assays were performed to evaluate liver injury. We observed that 200 mg/kg andrographolide significantly decreased the level of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, total bilirubin, and total bile acid in the blood. It also markedly decreased hepatic interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. Furthermore, 200 mg/kg andrographolide significantly decreased malondialdehyde but increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, 200 mg/kg andrographolide effectively increased the accumulation of sirtuin 1 and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2. It also attenuated the level of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B and cyclooxygenase-2. These data suggest that andrographolide may impair cholestatic liver injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Endophyte composition and Cinchona alkaloid production abilities of
           Cinchona ledgeriana cultivated in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract New eight endophytic filamentous fungi were isolated from the young stems of Cinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) cultivated in Japan. They were classified into four genera based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), including the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region. Of the eight fungi isolated, there were five genera Cladosporium, one Meira sp., one Diaporthe sp. and one Penicillium sp. Genus of Cladosporium and Meira were first isolated fungi from Cinchona plant. In a previous study, we applied the same process to the same plant cultivated in Indonesia. The endophyte compositions for the two cultivation regions were found to differ at the genera level. The ability of Cinchona endophytes cultivated in Japan to produce Cinchona alkaloids was also assessed. We found that three isolates have producing ability of Cinchona alkaloids. However, the amount produced was very small compared to that produced by the endophytes of Indonesian Cinchona ledgeriana. In addition, the total content amount of Cinchona alkaloids, especially quinine, produced by the extract of Cinchona cultivated in Japan was much smaller than that from Indonesia. These finding indicate that endophyte composition has an influence on the Cinchona alkaloid content amount in the Cinchona ledgeriana host.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Effects of crushed Schisandra Fruit on the content of lignans in Kampo
           decoction
    • Abstract: Abstract Arboreous fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baillon, Schisandra Fruit (SF), is a crude drug used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine. The marker compounds of SF for quality control are lignans, such as schizandrin (Sz) and gomisin A (GmA). Kampo formulation containing SF is usually prepared as decoctions in the dosage form of whole crude drug (W), as its size is small enough to measure using a spoon. However, in some traditional books, it has been described that SF must be used in the dosage form of crushed or cut pieces (Cr). In this study, we evaluated the transferring ratio of lignans from SF to the decoction, and the stability and taste of the decoctions of shoseiryuto (SST) and ninjin’yoeito (NYT) using each dosage form, i.e., Cr and W, of SF. The transferring ratio of Sz and GmA was significantly higher in the decoction prepared with the Cr form than that prepared using the W form in both SST and NYT. The concentration of Sz and GmA in the decoctions was stable when maintained at 4 °C for 35 days. The taste of SST decoction prepared using the Cr form was more acidic, harsher, and bitterer than SST decoction prepared using the W form, and the taste of NYT decoction prepared using the Cr form was harsher than NYT decoction prepared using the W form. In conclusion, when SF is used in Kampo prescription, crushing the fruits and seeds can increase its effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Sakuranetin downregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by
           affecting interleukin-1 receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β
    • Abstract: Abstract Pruni Cortex is a herbal drug from the bark of the Japanese flowering cherries, Prunus jamasakura or Prunus verecunda, and is included in the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formula Jumihaidokuto, which is administered orally to patients suffering from inflammatory skin diseases. The flavanones contained in Pruni Cortex (e.g., sakuranetin and naringenin) have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-microbial activities. Although the effects of Pruni Cortex on skin disease have been well studied, reports regarding its pharmacological effects on the liver are limited. In this study, we extracted the bark of Prunus jamasakura and purified it to isolate the pharmacologically active constituents by monitoring nitric oxide (NO) production in rat hepatocytes that were treated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β. Sakuranetin and (−)-naringenin, which were present in an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the bark extract, significantly inhibited NO induction and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. These two flavanones decreased the expression of type 1 IL-1 receptor gene and phosphorylation of Akt, also known as protein kinase B, which is regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, sakuranetin decreased the phosphorylation of the activator isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), which synergistically activates the transcription of the iNOS gene with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Therefore, sakuranetin inhibited the co-activating activity of C/EBPβ with NF-κB, leading to the suppression of iNOS gene expression in hepatocytes. Taken together, sakuranetin in Pruni Cortex downregulated the iNOS gene by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signal transduction and the phosphorylation of C/EBPβ. These results imply that sakuranetin may be primarily responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of Pruni Cortex in the liver.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 11 flavonoid derivatives with a
           single marker in persimmon leaf extraction and evaluation of their
           myocardium protection activity
    • Abstract: Abstract An improved, reliable and comprehensive method for assessing the quality of the ethyl acetate extract from persimmon leaves (EAPL) and its commercial preparation, Naoxinqing (Brain and Heart Clear capsules), has been developed and validated. Based on HPLC–DAD-ESI-Q-TOF–MS analysis, myricetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (1), myricetin-3-O-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-galactoside) (5), quercetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-glucoside) (6), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-galactoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (8), kaempferol-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-galactoside) (9), kaempferol-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-β-d-glucoside) (10), quercetin (11) and kaempferol (12) were identified from 15 batch samples. A HPLC fingerprint analytical method was established. All compounds, with the exception of compound 2, were simultaneously quantified by the single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) method, using kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside as the internal standard. The rate of analysis was found to be faster with the SSDMC method than with current acid hydrolysis method (Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 edition) and the results were more intuitive and reliable. Three-dimensional principal component analysis revealed that there were similar characteristics in persimmon leaf from same district. Analysis of the myocardial cell protection activity of 11 monomeric compounds showed that compounds 12, 11 and 10 were the main active ingredients that produce pharmacologic functions in EAPL. Among these compounds, the bioactive constituent of myricetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside was determined for the first time in Diospyros khaki. Thus, we have established an effective assessment method that can be applied to the comprehensive quality evaluation of EAPL extract and Naoxinqing capsule.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Cyclic sulfur-containing compounds from Allium fistulosum
           ‘Kujou’
    • Abstract: Abstract Sulfur-containing compounds, allicin and ajoene, etc., were isolated from Allium species. In a recent study, some sulfur-containing cyclic compounds were isolated from A. sativum, A. cepa, and A. fistulosum. Four new compounds with multiple rings with methyl disulfide or propyl disulfide at the side chain of the 7-position, kujounins A3 (1), B1 (2), B2 (3) and B3 (4), and two new thiolane type compounds with methoxy and methyl sulfoxide moiety at the 2- and 5-positions, and allium sulfoxides A2 (5) and A3 (6), were isolated from the acetone extract of the fresh white parts of Allium fistulosum ‘Kujou’ with three known compounds, kujounin A1 (7) and A2 (8), and allium sulfoxide A1 (9). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence. The kujounins had a rare molecular skeleton, which was tetrahydro-2H-difuro[3,2-b:2′,3′-c]furan-5(5aH)-one.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Gastroprotective effect of araloside A on ethanol- and aspirin-induced
           gastric ulcer in mice: involvement of H + /K + -ATPase and
           mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the gastroprotective activity and possible mechanism of involvement of araloside A (ARA) against ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. The experimental mice were randomly divided into control, model, omeprazole (20 mg/kg, orally) and ARA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally). Gastric ulcer in mice was induced by intragastric administration of 80% ethanol (10 mL/kg) containing 15 mg/mL aspirin 4 h after drug administration on day 7. The results indicated that ARA could significantly raise gastric juice volume and acidity; ameliorate gastric mucosal blood flow, gastric binding mucus volume, ulcer index and ulcer inhibition rate; suppress H+/K+-ATPase activity, which was confirmed by computer-aided docking simulations; inhibit the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm; inhibit caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities and down-regulate mRNA expression levels; down-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 and protein expression of cleaved poly(ADP ribose) polymerase-1; and up-regulate Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions and down-regulate Bax mRNA and protein expressions, thus elevating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological observations further provided supportive evidence for the aforementioned results. The results demonstrated that ARA exerted beneficial gastroprotective effects on alcohol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, which was related to suppressing H+/K+-ATPase activity as well as pro-apoptotic protein expression, and promoting anti-apoptotic protein expression, thus alleviating gastric mucosal injury and cell death.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Identification of potential genes involved in triterpenoid saponins
           biosynthesis in Gleditsia sinensis by transcriptome and metabolome
           analyses
    • Abstract: Abstract Gleditsia sinensis is widely used as a medicinal plant in Asia, especially in China. Triterpenes, alkaloids, and sterols were isolated from Gleditsia species. Among them, triterpenoid saponins are very important metabolites owing to their various pharmacological activities. However, the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway has not been well characterized. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for 14.3 Gbps of clean reads sequenced from nine tissues of G. sinensis. The results showed that 81,511 unique transcripts (unitranscripts) (47,855 unigenes) were constructed, of which 31,717 unigenes were annotated with Gene Ontology and EC numbers by Blast2GO against the NCBI-nr protein database. We also analyzed the metabolite contents in the same nine tissues by LS–MS/MS, and saponins including gleditsioside I were found in fruit at higher levels. Many of the genes with tissue-specific expression in fruit are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and many of those have UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) activity. We constructed a saponin biosynthesis pathway and identified two key enzyme families in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucosyltransferase, that are encoded by 37 unigenes and 77 unigenes, respectively. CYP72A, CYP716A, and CYP88D, which are known as key enzymes for saponin biosynthesis, were also identified among the P450s. Our results provide insight into the secondary metabolite biosynthesis and serve as important resources for future research and cultivation of G. sinensis.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Rhamnan sulfate extracted from Monostroma nitidum attenuates blood
           coagulation and inflammation of vascular endothelial cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Rhamnan sulfate (RS) is a polysaccharide with a rhamnose backbone isolated from Monostroma nitidum. Like heparin, it exerts anticoagulant activity in the presence of antithrombin. Endothelial cells facilitate the crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we compared the effect of RS with that of heparin on blood coagulation and vascular endothelial cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory factors, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We found that RS significantly enhances inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa in the presence of antithrombin as well as heparin, and that RS inhibits tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release from the endothelial cells treated with or without lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α, or thrombin. Heparin did not show any effects on endothelial cell inflammation. Our findings suggest that RS, like heparin, is an antithrombin-dependent anticoagulant and, unlike heparin, is a potent anti-inflammatory agent acting on vascular endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
       
  • B-ring-homo-tonghaosu, isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium capitulum,
           acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist
    • Abstract: Abstract The capitula of Chrysanthemum morifolium and C. indicum are used to prepare Chrysanthemi Flos in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine. In our previous study, we reported on the agonistic effect of methanol extract of C. indicum capitulum on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. We further isolated (E)-tonghaosu from C. indicum capitulum as one of the active ingredients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the PPAR-γ agonistic activity of a methanol extract of C. morifolium capitulum (MCM) in which (E)-tonghaosu could not be detected. MCM exhibited PPAR-γ agonistic activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and at a dose of 100 µg/ml, it showed similar activity to pioglitazone (30 µM), a standard PPAR-γ agonist. Through activity-guided fractionation, we isolated two geometric isomers, (E)- (1) and (Z)-B-ring-homo-tonghaosu (2), as the active ingredients of MCM. Both compounds exerted concentration-dependent PPAR-γ agonistic effects, and 1 had higher activity than 2. At 1.4 µM, 1 had similar activity to pioglitazone (30 µM), which was achieved by 2 at a concentration of 140 µM. Thus, 1 has the potential to become a lead compound for the drug discovery of PPAR-γ agonists. We compared the activities and the contents of (E)-, (Z)-tonghaosu, 1, and 2 among 13 commercial samples of Chrysanthemi Flos, including those derived from both C. morifolium and C. indicum. Their PPAR-γ agonistic activities were not related to the contents of these compounds. 1 and 2 were detected in the samples derived from both species but (E)- and (Z)-tonghaosu were not detected in the samples derived from C. morifolium; hence (E)- and (Z)-tonghaosu can serve as marker compounds to identify the capitula of C. indicum in Chrysanthemi Flos samples.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
       
  • Two new quassinoids and other constituents from Picrasma javanica wood,
           and their biological activities
    • Abstract: Abstract Picrasma javanica Blume (Simaroubaceae) is a medium-sized tree that is distributed widely in tropical Asia. In our previous study, we isolated quassinoids from P. javanica bark collected in Myanmar, and reported their antiproliferative activities. In our ongoing research for the discovery of bioactive compounds from Myanmar medicinal plants, two new quassinoids, (16R)-methoxyjavanicin B (1) and (16S)-methoxyjavanicin B (2), along with seven known compounds (3–9), were isolated during the phytochemical investigation of the CHCl3 soluble portion of the MeOH extract of P. javanica wood. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, and CD). A cytotoxicity assay revealed that compound 8 showed moderate activities against all tested cancer cell lines, the human lung (A549), breast (MCF7), and cervical (HeLa), and the normal fibroblast cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 48.6 to 65.9 μM. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay demonstrated that 1 and 2 had the highest activities (MIC value of 1.6 μM each), followed by 5 and 3 (MIC values of 3.1 and 6.3 μM, respectively) against the Gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
       
  • New otonecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Petasites japonicus
    • Abstract: Abstract One new otonecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid secopetasitenine (1), along with petasitenine (fukinotoxine, 2), neopetasitenine (3), and senkirkine (4), was isolated from the whole plant of Petasites japonicus. The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical conversion from the known alkaloid petasitenine (2).
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
       
 
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