Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8212 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access  
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta Medica Iranica     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced NanoBiomed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Airway     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AkupunkturPraxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
Amrita Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Androgens : Clinical Research and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Angewandte Nuklearmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals of 3D Printed Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical and Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access  
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access  
Annals of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access  
Annals of the National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Annals of Vascular Surgery - Brief Reports and Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access  
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access  
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access  
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASA Monitor     Full-text available via subscription  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Population Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access  
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Anatomical Science International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Ethical perspectives on the Japanese guidelines for cadaver surgical
           training (CST)

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      Abstract: Abstract Cadaver surgical training (CST), which aims to maintain patient safety, provided anatomists with new duties and increased their workload. In Japan, with development of relevant guidelines, CST programs have been implemented and promoted mainly by surgical societies. This paper examines ethics of and anatomists’ attitude toward the Japanese CST guidelines. The guidelines were well established to ensure that ethical issues such as financial exploitation and commercialism involved in procurement of cadavers for training do not emerge, as these can create the dilemma of how to allocate cadavers for undergraduate education and postgraduate surgical training, given the increase in demand for cadavers. Fair allocation must accommodate and respect the donor’s advance will. Also, the guidelines must offer more detailed commentary on informed consent, particularly with regard to disclosure of information to donor candidates. The guidelines should explain better the legality of CST, the roles of anatomists, and surgeon preparedness.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Updates on cadaver surgical training in Japan: a systematic facility at
           Chiba University

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      Abstract: Abstract Cadaver surgical training (CST), which ensures medical safety by improving the skills of surgeons, is popular overseas. However, training involves ethical issues given the use of cadavers. In 2012, the Japan Surgical Society and the Japanese Association of Anatomists compiled and opened the “Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine (Guideline 2012)” to the public. This has allowed Japan to conduct CST or research under the regulations of Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Body Donation Act. However, its dissemination has been sluggish. The Clinical Anatomy Lab (CAL), established in 2010 at Chiba University, is a facility for conducting CST and research. In the 11 years since its inception, 250 programs have been implemented. Orthopedics had the most implemented in the clinical field, with 120 (48%), followed by emergency and critical care medicine with 27 (10.8%), and neurological surgery with 27 (10. 8%). Based on the purpose of the training, the most common objective for the programs (approximately 83%) was education. Further, the highest number of programs was recorded in 2018 (34) and participants in 2017 (631). The implementation of CST requires more than just guiding surgeons to a dissection practice room. There are several methods of preserving cadavers to make them suitable for CST. For various surgical simulations, an operating table is more suitable than a dissection table. The current paper provides information on how to implement CST in universities that have so far only worked on anatomy education for medical students.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • The potential anti-osteoporotic effect of exercise—induced increased
           preptin level in ovariectomized rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Osteoporosis increases bone fragility and fractures. Preptin hormone is regulated by moderate exercise training and increases bone formation. Therefore, this study was conducted to see how estradiol administration and moderate exercise training affected osteoporotic changes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. To achieve this aim, 36 healthy adult female Wistar albino rats were randomized into Sham, OVX, ovariectomized estradiol-treated (OVX + E) (OVX + E rats were treated using subcutaneous estradiol benzoate 2.5 μg/kg body weight/day), ovariectomized practicing moderate exercise training, ovariectomized estradiol-treated and practiced a moderate exercise training, and ovariectomized alendronate-treated (OVX + Alen) (OVX + Alen rats were treated orally with alendronate 3 mg/kg body weight/week) groups. Alendronate was used as a standard anti-osteoporotic drug. Moderate exercise training, including therapy with estradiol and alendronate for OVX rats began on the fourth week and lasted for six weeks. Results showed that OVX rats had estrogen and preptin deficiency in serum. These deficiencies were associated with a significant increase in bone resorption biomarkers (urinary deoxypyridinoline and hydroxyproline), and bone formation biomarkers (serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase). Also, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6) were increased, while bone osteopontin (OPN) expression was decreased. Subsequently, the osteoporotic alterations were verified based on histopathological changes. From the results, estradiol therapy and moderate exercise training significantly improved these findings to the same extent as that of the standard alendronate treatment. Therefore, through their anti-inflammatory properties, increasing bone OPN expression, and regulating serum preptin; estradiol therapy and moderate exercise training can reduce osteoporotic alterations in OVX rats. Thus, combined estradiol therapy and moderate exercise training could be a promising potential therapeutic protocol to reduce postmenopausal osteoporosis. Also, targeting serum preptin and bone osteopontin regulation could have a critical role in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Training on skin flap elevation in hand surgery using cadavers embalmed by
           the saturated salt solution method: effectiveness and usefulness

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      Abstract: Abstract Thiel embalmed and fresh-frozen cadavers have been mainly used for hand surgery training. We held a training seminar on skin flap elevation using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of such training and to validate the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers for hand surgery training. Participants were trained in elevation procedures for the oblique triangular, reverse digital artery, reverse radial forearm, and reverse dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. Forty-eight surgeons participated in three seminars (one held in 2017, 2018, and 2019 each). A self-assessment of the participants’ confidence levels for their surgical skills was performed before and immediately after the seminar, and the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers was determined in terms of visual perception, tactility, comparison with real-world surgical settings, and usefulness. The confidence level for all skills increased immediately after the seminar. The surgeons reported that the visual perception and tactility of the saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers were comparable to those of a living body, and the cadavers were rated higher with respect to their usefulness. Hand surgery seminars using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method are considered useful for training in skin flap techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Formalin-free soft embalming of human cadavers using
           N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone: perspectives for cadaver surgical training and
           medical device development

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      Abstract: Abstract The traditional apprenticeship approach to surgical skill education for young surgeons has drastically changed to more systematic surgical training using cadavers. Cadavers fixed with formalin are not suitable for surgical training because of their associated health hazards and overhardening. Recently, we established a formalin-free soft preservation method for human cadavers using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Since 2012, 61 cadavers have been embalmed with pyrrolidone in our institution. Tissues of pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers are soft and pliable, and their bodies can be preserved for as long as 37 months without any signs of corruption. In this review, we introduce our recent attempts to apply pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers in surgical and medical procedure training, including endotracheal intubation, motion physiology of the vocal folds, laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic skull base surgery, and development of novel medical devices. Future research perspectives on pyrrolidone embalming are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Depletion of Ift88 in thymic epithelial cells affects thymic synapse and
           T-cell differentiation in aged mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Primary cilia are ubiquitous hair-like organelles, usually projecting from the cell surface. They are essential for the organogenesis and homeostasis of various physiological functions, and their dysfunction leads to a plethora of human diseases. However, there are few reports on the role of primary cilia in the immune system; therefore, we focused on their role in the thymus that nurtures immature lymphocytes to full-fledged T cells. We detected primary cilia on the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) expressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor in the basal body, and established a line of an intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) knockout mice lacking primary cilia in TECs (Ift88-TEC null mutant) to clarify their precise role in thymic organogenesis and T-cell differentiation. The Ift88-TEC null mutant mice showed stunted cilia or lack of cilia in TECs. The intercellular contact between T cells and the “thymic synapse” of medullary TECs was slightly disorganized in Ift88-TEC null mutants. Notably, the CD4- and CD8-single positive thymocyte subsets increased significantly. The absence or disorganization of thymic cilia downregulated the TGF-β signaling cascade, increasing the number of single positive thymocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the physiological role of primary cilia and Ift88 in regulating the differentiation of the thymus and T cells.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Usage of cadavers in surgical training and research in Japan over the past
           decade

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      Abstract: Abstract The “Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine” drafted by the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) and the Japanese Association of Anatomists in 2012 helped dispel legal concerns over cadaver surgical training (CST) and the usage of donated human bodies for research and development (R&D) in the country. Subsequently, in the fiscal year 2018, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare increased the funding for CST, prompting its wider implementation. This study analyzed data obtained in 2012–2021 through the reporting system of the JSS-CST Promotion Committee to map the usage of cadavers for clinical purposes, specifically education and R&D, in Japan. We found that the number of medical universities using cadavers for CST and R&D programs was just 5 in 2012, and it reached 38 for the decade. Thus, about half of Japan’s medical universities implemented such programs over the period. Meanwhile, the total number of programs was 1,173. In the clinical field, the highest number of programs were implemented in orthopedics (27%), followed by surgery (21%), and neurosurgery (12%). Based on the purpose, the most common objective of the programs (approximately 70%) was acquiring advanced surgical techniques. Further, the highest number of programs and participants were recorded in 2019 (295 programs, 6,537 participants). Thus, the guidelines helped expand cadaver usage for clinical purposes in Japan. To further promote the clinical usage of cadavers in medical and dental universities throughout Japan, sharing know-how on operating cadaver laboratories and building understanding among the general public is recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Reappraisal of the types of hypoglossal canal: endocranial approach

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to classify the endocranial variations inside the Hypoglossal Canal (HC) and evaluate the elements of the HC region in terms of sizes, diameters, and distances to the nearby surgical landmarks. The present study was done on 18 adult human fixed cadaver heads bilaterally. The internal opening of HC was examined for the presence of dural or osseos septations in the canal and was classified into five types (Type 1–5). The dimensions of hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) and the distance of intracranial openings of HC from the jugular foramen and jugular tubercle were measured. The prevalence of endocranial HC types were determined on both sides as follows: type 1 (23.53% left, 6.25% right), type 2 (37.5% right, 5.88% left), type 3 (52.94% left, 25% right), type 4 (18.75% right, 17.65% left), type 5 (12.5% right). Understanding the endocranial HC types is crucial for neurosurgeons in the differential diagnosis of various intracranial pathologies for the posterior cranial fossa approach. Knowing the anatomical relationships between the adjacent structures and symmetrical organization of the HC according to the types is crucial in determining surgical strategies and preserving adjacent structures.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • An anomalous muscle clinging around the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle

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      Abstract: Abstract Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles belong to a group of muscles called infrahyoid muscles. A few variations of these muscles and additional muscles in this area have been reported. We report an anomalous muscle in this area. The anomalous muscle took its origin from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni and was inserted to the posterior surface of the clavicle. This muscle was 6 cm long and interestingly, it made a loop, which was clinging on to the inferior belly of omohyoid posteriorly, superiorly and anteriorly. The muscle was situated between the lower end of sternocleidomastoid and the carotid sheath. It was supplied by ansa cervicalis. Knowledge of this muscle could be useful in surgeries like removal of cervical rib, and cervical lymph node clearance. Hypertrophy of this muscle might compress the internal jugular vein.
      PubDate: 2022-03-27
       
  • Anatomical characteristics of two cases of aberrant right subclavian
           artery

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      Abstract: Abstract An aberrant right subclavian artery is a branching variation of the aortic arch. We encountered two female cadavers with an aberrant right subclavian artery during routine student dissection at our school. In both cases, the right subclavian artery was not a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk but originated directly from the distal part of the aortic arch as the last branch and ran between the esophagus and vertebral column, traveling to the upper limb. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve was absent, but a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve branching from the vagus and traveling directly toward the larynx was observed. In the first case, the right and left common carotid arteries originated solely from the aortic arch as the first and second branches, respectively, whereas the right and left common carotid arteries formed a bicarotid trunk at their origin in the second case. A Kommerell diverticulum was present at the base of the aberrant right subclavian artery in the second case, but not in the first case. We analyzed the anatomical differences between the two cases and discussed the developmental aspects and potential clinical risks.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
       
  • The risk of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease infection in cadaveric
           surgical training

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      Abstract: Abstract The usefulness of cadaver surgical training in the clinical field is already well known. In Japan, the number of universities introducing cadaver surgical training is increasing. In addition to formalin fixation, various fixation methods are used, such as the Thiel method, saturated salt solution method, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone method, and fresh-frozen cadavers. Although protection against infections during fixation and cadaver surgical training has been implemented in most universities, it is currently inadequate. Furthermore, the possibility of undiagnosed infectious diseases in donors cannot be excluded. Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, are relatively rare, but they are fatal, with no effective treatment. The abnormal prion protein that causes prion diseases is resistant to formaldehyde and cannot be inactivated by all methods of cadaver fixation presently in use. Recently developed real-time quaking-induced conversion has been reported to be a useful screening method for prion infection. In addition, this article aims to raise awareness of prion diseases in cadaver surgical training by reviewing the current understanding of prion diseases in cadavers and their screening methods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
       
  • Relationship between the lumbosacral plexus deviation and 12th rib length
           in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

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      Abstract: Abstract The relationship between the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) origin and the 12th rib length was recently determined in humans; cranial and caudal deviations of the plexus origin are related to shortening and elongation of the 12th rib, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether such anatomical correlations are also observed in non-human mammals. To address this issue, in the present study, we evaluated the LSP origin and the 12th rib length in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). In typical cases, the femoral and obturator nerves were derived from both the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves, and the lumbosacral trunk was from the 5th to 7th lumbar nerves. Some of the LSPs exhibited a caudal deviation of their origins; the femoral and obturator nerves were also derived from the 6th lumbar nerve, in addition to the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves; the lumbosacral trunk lost the 5th lumbar nerve origin and arose from the 6th and 7th lumbar nerves. Individuals with the caudal deviation of LSP origin exhibited significant elongation of the 12th ribs, in comparison with individuals with the typical plexus. The present findings indicate that the caudal deviation of LSP origin was correlated to the 12th rib elongation in Japanese macaques, similar to humans. As a future studies, we need to clarify which mammalian groups exhibit such correlation between the deviation of the LSP origin and the lowest rib length, and further to provide evolutionary implications of this correlation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection in cadaver surgical training
           from the combined perspectives of urologists, gastroenterologists and
           gynecologists improves overall knowledge and technique: initial experience
           of multidisciplinary cadaver surgical training at a single institution in
           Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Surgeons in Japan have recently become more familiar with cadaver surgical training (CST). Extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) considering the vesicohypogastric fascia and ureterohypogastric nerve fascia is gradually being performed not only in urology, but also in gynecology and gastroenterology. We performed CST using a 76-year-old female cadaver who was fixed by the Thiel method, with the aim of confirming the differences in the extent of PLND performed by certified laparoscopic specialists in urology, gastroenterology and gynecology. Even in the common surgeries, there are still several areas where anatomical structures are poorly understood. In recent years, with the spread of robotic surgery, the techniques related to PLND in these three departments have gradually become similar. Through this CST program, we were able to understand the differences in procedures and the extent of PLND in these three departments. By continuing these CSTs, we hope that a standardized PLND procedure will be performed not only within the same department, but also between different departments, and that high-quality PLND will be safely performed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
       
  • Considering respect for the donated body: lessons from the scandal in
           France

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      Abstract: Abstract Cadaver surgical training (CST) has been developing in Japan in the past 10 years. To perform ethically adequate CST program, sincere respect for the donated body is required. To understand this better, we reviewed the recent scandal at a body donation center in Paris, France. This scandal revealed the disrespectful treatment of donated bodies happening for several years. Therefore, legal regulation over the body donation center has been reinforced. We believe that serious action against disrespectful handling of donated bodies is warranted in Japan.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
       
  • Efficacy of urea solution reperfusion to a formalin-embalmed cadaver for
           surgical skills training

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      Abstract: Abstract Formaldehyde has been traditionally used for embalming human cadavers for gross anatomy education and surgical skills training. However, exposure to formaldehyde negatively affects human health. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of reperfusing urea solution to a formalin-embalmed cadaver for surgical skills training and then investigate the cadaver’s tissue elasticity alteration after being soaked into the urea solution. Twelve surgeons evaluated the similarity of tissue characteristics between the cadaver (embalmed by formalin solution and reperfused by urea solution) and a living human body. Furthermore, the tissue formaldehyde content and mechanical properties of the formalin-fixated femoral skin and artery specimens with or without soaking into urea solution were measured. Results showed that the tactile assessment, skin incision, vessel ligation and suture, and decollement were better and more useful in the cadaver reperfused by urea solution than in the cadaver merely fixated by formalin solution. In the urea-reperfused cadaver, the volatilized, or tissue formaldehyde levels declined. The stiffness and Young’s modulus of the femoral skin and artery were also lower in the specimen than in the mere formalin-fixated specimen. In conclusion, reperfusion of urea solution to the formalin-fixated cadaver makes anatomical education and surgical skills training more efficient with fewer requirements for cadaver management.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
       
  • The morphometric study of the moderator band in Thais

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      Abstract: Abstract A moderator band, also known as the septomarginal trabecula, is a group of muscle bundles located in the ventricle of almost all human hearts. The morphology of the moderator band has various forms and several studies have focused mostly on its structure. Thus, in the present study, we sought to study the morphology and morphometry of the moderator band and tried to rearrange the criteria based on the previous studies to classify the moderator band in Thais. The study investigated 67 formalin-fixed human hearts of both sexes obtained from Thai donors aged 24–101 years with mean age at death 69.92 years. The moderator band was evident in 66 of the 67 specimens (98.51%). The moderator band had the mean or median of overall length, thickness, distance to the base of the tricuspid valve, distance to the base of the pulmonary valve, distance to the apex of the right ventricle, the angle at the septal connection, and angle of the papillary, which were 18.9 ± 6.4 mm, 3.17 (2.04–4.55) mm, 33.0 ± 7.97 mm, 38.8 ± 9.62 mm, 56.4 ± 8.09 mm, 50 (30–105)°, 73.9 ± 30.1°, respectively. The mean distance originating point from the supraventricular crest to the anterior papillary muscle was 0.396 ± 0.07 of the distance from the base of the tricuspid valve to the apex of the right ventricle. Our present classification found that crest-like and thick moderator band with complex secondary branching at high origin (type IVc), and low origin (type IVd) were the most common subtypes. This study provided both anatomical and clinical information that should be useful in cardiac surgery, radiology, and cardiac electrophysiological interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-021-00641-8
       
  • The craniovertebral junction, between osseous variants and abnormalities:
           insight from a paleo-osteological study

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      Abstract: Abstract The bony components of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) have been investigated in 172 skeletons, dug up from several archaeological sites, to define the frequency of developmental dysmorphisms, and to acquire qualitative and quantitative data about their morphology. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. Twenty-five individuals (14.5%) exhibited at least one dysmorphism, which ranged from a condition of simple variant to a true malformation. Four individuals presented two or more anomalies at the same time (2.3% of the whole sample, 16% of the affected individuals). The most frequently observed abnormalities were: (i) the presence of a complete bony bridge in the atlas, forming a canal surrounding the vertebral artery (arcuate foramen, supertransverse foramen, and the simultaneous occurrence of arcuate foramen and supertransverse foramen); (ii) the presence of basilar processes. Basilar processes displayed a great variety in shape and dimension. They also differed with respect to their relationship with atlas and axis. The less frequently detected anomalies were: (i) complete absence of the posterior arch of C1, (ii) fusion of C2 and C3, and (iii) irregular segmentation of C2. A broad array of structural defects has been described at the CVJ. They may occur either isolated or as part of complex multisystem syndromes. Although harmless in many cases, they can notwithstanding cause severe, even life-threatening complications. When unrecognized, they may generate trouble during surgery. Hence, accurate knowledge of CVJ arrangement, including its multifarious variations, is a critical issue for radiologists, clinicians, surgeons, and chiropractors.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-021-00642-7
       
  • Clinical anatomy of the musculoskeletal system in the hip region

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      Abstract: Abstract Although the hip joint is regarded as inherently stable, hip pain and injuries caused by traumatic/non-traumatic hip instability are relatively common in active individuals. A comprehensive understanding of hip anatomy may provide better insight into the relationships between hip stability and clinical problems. In this review, we present our recent findings on the hip morphological characteristics, especially focusing on the intramuscular tendon of the gluteus medius tendon and its insertion sites, hip capsular attachment on the anterosuperior region of the acetabular margin, and composition of the iliofemoral ligament. We further discussed the hip stabilization mechanism based on these findings. The characteristics of the gluteus medius tendon suggest that even a single muscle has multiple functional subunits within the muscle. In addition, the characteristics of the hip capsular attachment suggest that the width of the capsular attachment is wider than previously reported, and its wide area shows adaptive morphology to mechanical stress, such as bony impression and distribution of the fibrocartilage. The composition of the iliofemoral ligament and its relation to periarticular structures suggest that some ligaments should be defined based on the pericapsular structures, such as the joint capsule, tendon, and aponeurosis, and also have the ability to dynamically coordinate joint stability. These anatomical perspectives provide a better understanding of the hip stabilization mechanism, and a biomechanical study or an in vivo imaging study, considering these perspectives, is expected in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-021-00638-3
       
  • Segmental composition of the porcine iliopsoas muscle and influence of the
           body size and posture on the composition of the iliopsoas muscle

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      Abstract: Abstract The iliopsoas muscle (IPM) of the pig consists of the iliacus muscle (IM) and the psoas major muscle (PMM). Due to the differences in posture and size between animal species, the musculoskeletal system is subjected to different functional demands, which affects the morphological characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to determine the muscle fiber type composition in pigs IPM, as pigs are large quadrupeds that differ in body size and posture from humans and small mammals, and to determine the influence of body size and posture on the composition of IPM. Muscle samples were collected from the Pietrain Landrace pigs, a sample from IM and a samples at four segments of the PMM. Samples were analyzed with monoclonal antibodies specific for different isoforms of the myosin heavy chain. The percentages and cross-sectional area (CSA) of type I, IIA, and IIX/IIB muscle fibers were calculated. Our studies revealed that in pigs IPM, type IIX/IIB muscle fibers were predominant with the largest CSA. A decrease in the proportion of type IIX/IIB muscle fibers, an increase in type I and IIA muscle fibers, and a decrease in the CSA of all muscle fiber types from the cranial to the caudal part of the PMM were observed. The pig IPM has primarily a dynamic function. The function of the PMM in the cranio-caudal direction changes from a dynamic to a static role. Body size and posture influence the composition of the IPM.
      PubDate: 2022-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-021-00644-5
       
  • Transforming anatomy education: then and now

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      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-021-00645-4
       
 
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