Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8212 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
F&S Science : Official journal of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Family Practice & Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Faridpur Medical College Journal     Open Access  
FEM : Revista de la Fundación Educación Médica     Open Access  
Finlay : Revista de Enfermedades no Transmisibles     Open Access  
Fisioterapia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Fisioterapia & Saúde Funcional     Open Access  
Flugmedizin · Tropenmedizin · Reisemedizin - FTR     Hybrid Journal  
FMC - Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Medica     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Folia Morphologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access  
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Foot & Ankle Specialist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Foot and Ankle Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Foot and Ankle Online Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Science International : Mind and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej     Hybrid Journal  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontières     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Network Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Tropical Diseases     Open Access  
Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fuss & Sprunggelenk     Hybrid Journal  
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Future Prescriber     Hybrid Journal  
Future Science OA     Open Access  
Gaceta Médica Boliviana     Open Access  
Gaceta Médica Espirituana     Open Access  
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Galician Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Galle Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gefäßmedizin Scan     Hybrid Journal  
Gender and the Genome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
General Reanimatology     Open Access  
Genes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Instability & Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Ghana Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gimbernat : Revista d’Història de la Medicina i de les Ciències de la Salut     Open Access  
Glia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access  
Global Journal of Cancer Therapy     Open Access  
Global Journal of Fertility and Research     Open Access  
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Global Journal of Medical and Clinical Case Reports     Open Access  
Global Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Perioperative Medicine     Open Access  
Global Journal of Rare Diseases     Open Access  
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Grande Medical Journal     Open Access  
Growth Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GSTF Journal of Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Hamdan Medical Journal     Open Access  
Hämostaseologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hämostaseologie     Open Access  
Hand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hand Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Hard Tissue     Open Access  
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Head and Neck Cancer Research     Open Access  
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access  
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access  
Health Matrix : The Journal of Law-Medicine     Open Access  
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access  
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences Review     Open Access  
Health Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Hearing, Balance and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hearts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HEC Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Heighpubs Otolaryngology and Rhinology     Open Access  
Heilberufe     Hybrid Journal  
HeilberufeSCIENCE     Hybrid Journal  
Heilpflanzen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Helicobacter     Hybrid Journal  
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hemoglobin     Hybrid Journal  
Hepatology, Medicine and Policy     Open Access  
HERALD of North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov     Open Access  
Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Herzschrittmachertherapie + Elektrophysiologie     Hybrid Journal  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Homoeopathic Links     Hybrid Journal  
Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Horizonte Medico     Open Access  
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Hospital Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Hua Hin Sook Jai Klai Kangwon Journal     Open Access  
Huisarts en wetenschap     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Human Factors in Healthcare     Open Access  
Human Fertility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald     Open Access  
Iatreia     Open Access  
Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IDCases     Open Access  
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IJID Regions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
IJU Case Reports     Open Access  
iLiver     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Im OP     Hybrid Journal  
Image Analysis & Stereology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IMAGING     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Imaging in Medicine     Open Access  
Imaging Journal of Clinical and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imam Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Ayurveda and lntegrative Medicine Klue     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Community and Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian Spine Journal     Open Access  
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Biomedical Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease     Open Access  
Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Info Diabetologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked     Open Access  
Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
InnovAiT     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Health Science     Open Access  
Innovare Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inside Precision Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Insights in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Integrative and Complementary Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Integrative Medicine Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intellectual Disability Australasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intelligence-Based Medicine     Open Access  
Intelligent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
intensiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Health Trends and Perspectives     Open Access  
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Academic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advance in Medical Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

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Frontiers in Tropical Diseases
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-7515
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Generation of Transgenic Mosquitoes Harboring a Replication-Restricted
           Virus

    • Authors: Naoaki Shinzawa, Chisako Kashima, Hiroka Aonuma, Kei Takahashi, Masayuki Shimojima, Shinya Fukumoto, Erisha Saiki, Daisuke S. Yamamoto, Shigeto Yoshida, Hiroyuki Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hirotaka Kanuka
      Abstract: Live microbe vaccines are designed to elicit strong cellular and antibody responses without developing the symptoms of the disease, and these are effective in preventing infectious diseases. A flying vaccinator (also known as a flying syringe) is a conceptual, genetically engineered hematophagous insect that is used to deliver vaccines such as an antigen from a parasite produced in mosquito saliva; bites from such insects may elicit antibody production by immunizing the host with an antigen through blood-feeding. In addition to a simple vaccine antigen, a flying vaccinator may potentially load a live attenuated microbe with an appropriate mechanism for sustaining its constitutive proliferation in the insect. In this study, a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) lacking the glycoprotein gene (VSV-G) was used to produce replication-restricted VSV (rrVSV) containing GFP. Transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, in which the salivary glands expressed a VSV-G gene driven by an aapp salivary gland-specific promoter, were generated and injected intraperitoneally with rrVSV. The injected rrVSV entered the cells of the salivary gland and stimulated endogenous production of progeny rrVSV particles, as seen in rrVSV-infected Drosophila melanogaster expressing VSV-G. These data suggested the possibility of developing a valuable tool for delivering genetically attenuated virus vaccines via mosquito saliva, although efficient replication-restricted virus production is required.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Serological Evidence of Arboviruses in Horses During West Nile Fever
           Monitoring Surveillance in Southeastern Brazil

    • Authors: Mylenna de Cássia Neves Guimarães, Maria Nazaré Oliveira Freitas, Alana Watanabe de Sousa, Marcos Antônio Correia Rodrigues da Cunha, Gilton Luiz Almada, Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano, Maria Guadalupe Dias Pestana Santos, Gilsa Aparecida Pimenta Rodrigues, Lívia Caricio Martins, Jannifer Oliveira Chiang, Livia Medeiros Neves Casseb
      Abstract: Many human arboviruses are also pathogenic for horses, and some of these have emerged recently. A descriptive cross-sectional observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and other arboviruses among 77 horses on the rural properties of the Espirito Santo state, Brazil. Serum samples were screened for arbovirus-reactive antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition technique and subsequently a plaque reduction neutralization test for the confirmation of exposure from sera was used to detect heterotypic immune reactions. Overall, the total antibodies against at least one arbovirus of Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera were detected in 39 (50.6%) animals. The antibodies to Phlebovirus were not detected in any sample. When the 24 WNV hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-positive samples were tested by the plaque-reduction neutralization test 90%, 9 (32.1%) were positive for WNV antibodies and 14 (50%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus. Our findings indicate that the region provides ideal conditions for the emergence of arboviruses, reinforcing the need for further surveillance of mosquito-transmitted diseases in domestic animals.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Treatment of Tuberculosis and the Drug Interactions Associated With HIV-TB
           Co-Infection Treatment

    • Authors: Navaneethapandian Pooranagangadevi, Chandrasekaran Padmapriyadarsini
      Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that is a major source of illness, one of the ten causes of mortality worldwide, and the largest cause of death from a single infectious agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV infection and TB are a fatal combination, with each speeding up the progression of the other. Barriers to integrated treatment as well as safety concerns on the co-management of HIV- TB co-infection do exist. Many HIV TB co-infected people require concomitant anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and anti-TB medication, which increases survival but also introduces certain management issues, such as drug interactions, combined drug toxicities, and TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome which has been reviewed here. In spite of considerable pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and antitubercular drugs, when the pharmacological characteristics of drugs are known and appropriate combination regimens, dosing, and timing of initiation are used, adequate clinical response of both infections can be achieved with an acceptable safety profile. To avoid undesirable drug interactions and side effects in patients, anti TB treatment and ART must be closely monitored. To reduce TB-related mortality among HIV-TB co-infected patients, ART and ATT (Anti Tuberculosis Treatment) outcomes must improve. Clinical practise should prioritise strategies to promote adherence, such as reducing treatment duration, monitoring and treating adverse events, and improving treatment success rates, to reduce the mortality risk of HIV-TB co-infection.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Tackling Drug Resistance and Other Causes of Treatment Failure in
           Leishmaniasis

    • Authors: Gert-Jan Wijnant, Franck Dumetz, Laura Dirkx, Dimitri Bulté, Bart Cuypers, Katrien Van Bocxlaer, Sarah Hendrickx
      Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a tropical infectious disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite. The disease is transmitted by female sand flies and, depending on the infecting parasite species, causes either cutaneous (stigmatizing skin lesions), mucocutaneous (destruction of mucous membranes of nose, mouth and throat) or visceral disease (a potentially fatal infection of liver, spleen and bone marrow). Although more than 1 million new cases occur annually, chemotherapeutic options are limited and their efficacy is jeopardized by increasing treatment failure rates and growing drug resistance. To delay the emergence of resistance to existing and new drugs, elucidating the currently unknown causes of variable drug efficacy (related to parasite susceptibility, host immunity and drug pharmacokinetics) and improved use of genotypic and phenotypic tools to define, measure and monitor resistance in the field are critical. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of drug action and resistance in Leishmania, ongoing challenges (including setbacks related to the COVID-19 pandemic) and provides an overview of possible strategies to tackle this public health challenge.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Collection Time, Location, and Mosquito Species Have Distinct Impacts on
           the Mosquito Microbiota

    • Authors: Daniel W. Pérez-Ramos, Martina M. Ramos, Kyle C. Payne, Bryan V. Giordano, Eric P. Caragata
      Abstract: The mosquito microbiota affects many aspects of mosquito biology including development and reproduction. It also strongly impacts interactions between the mosquito host and pathogens that cause important disease in humans, such as dengue and malaria. Critically, the mosquito microbiota is highly diverse and can vary in composition in response to multiple environmental variables, but these effects are not always consistent. Understanding how the environment shapes mosquito microbial diversity is a critical step in elucidating the ubiquity of key host-microbe-pathogen interactions in nature. To that end, we examined the role of time of collection, collection location and host species on mosquito microbial diversity by repeating collections at two-month intervals on a trapping grid spanning three distinct biomes. We then used 16S rRNA sequencing to compare the microbiomes of Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes from those collections. We saw that mosquito diversity was strongly affected by both time and collection location. We also observed that microbial richness and diversity increased from March to May, and that An. crucians and Cx. nigripalpus had greater microbial diversity than Ae. taeniorhynchus. However, we also observed that collection location had no impact on microbial diversity except for significantly lower bacterial richness observed in mosquitoes collected from the mangrove wetlands. Our results highlight that collection time, collection location, and mosquito species each affect aspects of mosquito microbial diversity, but their importance is context dependent. We also demonstrate that these variables have differing impacts on mosquito diversity and mosquito microbial diversity. Our findings suggest that the environment likely plays an important but variable role in influencing the composition of the mosquito microbiota.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mitogenome Analyses Reveal Limited Introduction of Anopheles coluzzii Into
           the Central African Islands of São Tomé and Príncipe

    • Authors: Robert E. Ditter, Melina Campos, João Pinto, Anthony J. Cornel, Herodes Rompão, Gregory C. Lanzaro
      Abstract: Islands possess physical characteristics that make them uniquely well-suited for initial field trials of new genetic-based technologies applied to African malaria vectors. This has led to efforts to characterize the degree of isolation of island mosquito populations. São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) is a country composed of two small islands in the Gulf of Guinea (Central Africa) where Anopheles coluzzii is the primary malaria vector. Several studies have shown a relatively high degree of genetic isolation between A. coluzzii populations in STP and the mainland compared with pairs of mainland populations separated by equivalent distances. Here, we analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes of individual A. coluzzii specimens from STP and neighboring mainland countries. The objectives are to describe the history of A. coluzzii establishment in STP, specifically to address several questions germane to their suitability as sites for a field trial release of genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs). These questions include: (i) What are the origins of A. coluzzii populations in STP'; (ii) How many introductions occurred'; (iii) When was A. coluzzii introduced into STP' and (iv) Is there ongoing, contemporary gene flow into STP from mainland populations' Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks were constructed from sequences of 345 A. coluzzii from STP, and 107 individuals from 10 countries on or near the west coast of Africa. Analysis of these data suggest that there have been two introductions of A. coluzzii onto the island of São Tomé that occurred roughly 500 years ago and that these originated from mainland West Africa. It appears that A. coluzzii has never been introduced into Príncipe Island directly from mainland Africa, but there have been at least four introductions originating from São Tomé. Our findings provide further support for the notion that contemporary populations of A. coluzzii on São Tomé and Príncipe are genetically isolated from mainland populations of this mosquito species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Putative Degradation of Non-Stored Sperm in the Female Reproductive Tract
           of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    • Authors: Juliana Agudelo, Miguel Toro, Luis Felipe Ramírez-Sánchez, Luisa M. Barrientos, Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Frank W. Avila
      Abstract: In insect vectors of disease, male and female molecules that mediate reproductive processes are promising targets to suppress fertility of these populations. One process, the storage of sperm in the female reproductive tract, is essential for optimal fertility in all organisms examined to date. In the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, female sperm storage has not been fully characterized, a requirement to identify sex-specific molecules that mediate this process. Aedes aegypti males deposit the ejaculate into the bursa of the female reproductive tract, and sperm enter the spermathecae—the long-term storage sites—quickly after insemination. However, the proportion of sperm received during mating that are stored in the spermathecae is unclear, and the fate of non-stored sperm unknown. We quantified sperm storage in two Ae. aegypti strains, mated in all combinations, and in two contexts (mass mated and when mating was observed) at 1-, 3- and 5-days post-mating. Sperm quantity in the spermathecae was similar at all timepoints; most females stored ~400 sperm on average. Sperm that did not enter the spermathecae remained in the bursa, where they declined in number and became more fragile to mechanical manipulation at each timepoint. Further, sperm viability in the bursa fell from 91.6% shortly after mating to 12.2% 24 h later. One day after insemination, ~50% of sperm detected in the female reproductive tract was stored in the spermathecae. When we quantified sperm storage in females mated to males that transferred reduced ejaculate quantities (but still able to induce optimal fertility in their mates), sperm detected in the spermathecae similarly declined; females stored ~50% of the sperm received even as sperm quantities transferred at mating declined. Our results suggest that sperm storage in Ae. aegypti females is influenced by ejaculate volume, and that sperm that do not enter the spermathecae remain in the bursa, where they appear to degrade. The consistent presence of sperm in the bursa, even when males transferred low sperm quantities, suggests that the putative degradation of bursa sperm may play a role in Ae. aegypti female fertility, potentially identifying a novel process in this important vector species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Sand Flies and Their Interactions With Leishmania and Other
           Pathogens

    • Authors: Yara Maria Traub-Csekö, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão, Erich Loza Telleria
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Chagas Disease Expands Its Epidemiological Frontiers From Rural to Urban
           Areas

    • Authors: Belkisyole Alarcón de Noya, Zoraida Díaz-Bello, Raiza Ruiz-Guevara, Oscar Noya
      Abstract: The infection with the hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi originates from America where the wildlife cycle remains to alternate between mammals and hematophagous triatomines. Transmission through contamination of the bite site by vector feces containing highly infectious forms of parasite or direct ingestion of T. cruzi-infected triatomines appear to be the dominant transmission mechanisms. Man joins the transmission when he enters this wild environment or takes the leaves of palms carrying vectors to build houses. Rural Chagas disease develops associated with populations of low economic resources, with infection and reinfection of vector bites since childhood, and the consequent evolution toward chronic cases in adults, when there is little therapeutic benefit to infected people. The progressive migration of people from rural to urban areas and the adaptation of vectors to the peripheries of cities due to displacement caused by deforestation or urbanization that has favored the presence of enzootic cycles with Panstrongylus geniculatus as the most widely distributed species and mammals (synanthropic and domestic) allow vector transmission by ingestion of food contaminated with excrements containing infectious trypomastigotes as the dominant transmission mechanism in the urban environment. Human-to-human transmissions through vertical mother–child infection, transfusions, organ transplants, and the possibility of sexual transmission, transform the epidemiology and the clinical evolution of Chagas disease in the urban environment. Vectors of American trypanosomiasis are no longer restricted to the endemic area, but its presence has been demonstrated in nonendemic areas of the United States, Asia, and other latitudes. The worldwide plague of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) threatens the possibility of expansion of transmission since they are vectors susceptible to infection, transmission to mammals, trans-stadial penetration, and not being affected by T. cruzi infection at least experimentally. These factors, added to the presence of an unknown number of migrating Latin American asymptomatic carriers together with the presence of triatomines in other continents, have initiated the globalization of a pathology originating in the American continent. Only with an integrative approach, based on new and better tolerated and efficient drugs, vaccines and residual action insecticides, all of them included in an epidemiological surveillance program.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • Seasonal Dynamics and Predilection Sites of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)
           Feeding on Cows in the Western Parts of the Djurdjura, Algeria

    • Authors: Amina Bedouhene, Rabah Kelanemer, Bachir Medrouh, Tahar Kernif, Fairouz Saidi, Ghania Tail, Hocine Ziam
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the phenology and predilection sites of ticks infesting cattle in the western region of Djurdjura (North Algeria) from November 2018 and October 2020. Nineteen cattle farms located in thirteen localities within four provinces were visited monthly for two years. Among the 289 examined cattle, 64.36 ± 2.81% (n=189) were infested by ticks. Of the 10,243 collected ticks, the most abundant tick species was Rhipicephalus bursa (31.57 ± 0.46%), followed by R. annulatus (31.26 ± 0.45%), Hyalomma marginatum (10.67 ± 0.30%), H. lusitanicum (7.02 ± 0.25%), H. excavatum (5.52±%0.22), H. scupense (4.27 ± 0.19%) and H. impeltatum (3.32 ± 0.17%). Ticks of the Hyalomma species were present throughout the year but in a limited number during the winter. H. scupense and H. impletatum showed similar activity from March to October and peaked in April and July, respectively (P
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Trans-Generational Symbiont Transmission Reduced at High Temperatures in a
           West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    • Authors: Amanda G. Tokash-Peters, Jaimy D. Jabon, Megan E. Fung, Jessica A. Peters, Sergio G. Lopez, Douglas C. Woodhams
      Abstract: The influence of environmental factors on the efficacy of the endosymbiont Wolbachia used in mosquito and pathogen control are poorly characterized and may be critical for disease control. We studied the vector mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Say) to determine the effect of temperature on the composition of the relative abundance of Wolbachia spp. and the microbiome, as well as key immune genes of interest in the Toll and IMD pathways. 16S barcode sequencing was used to determine the microbiome composition and qPCR was used to determine the relative abundance of Wolbachia spp. based on the highly utilized marker Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene. We found no effect of temperature within a single generation on the relative abundance of Wolbachia or immune gene expression, nor on the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiome. However, there was a significant difference in the abundance of Wolbachia between generations at high temperatures (≥ 28°C), but not at lower temperatures (≤ 23°C). These results support the idea that Wolbachia are reduced at higher temperatures between generations, which has an influence on the establishment of pathogens including West Nile Virus (WNV). Modulation of the Toll or IMD mosquito immune pathways was not indicated. Wolbachia endosymbiosis and trans-generation transmission appears especially sensitive to high temperatures, which may have implications for Wolbachia-based vector control strategies under climate change scenarios.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Arbovirus Surveillance in Field-Collected Mosquitoes From
           Pernambuco-Brazil, During the Triple Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya Outbreak
           of 2015-2017

    • Authors: Larissa Krokovsky, Marcelo H. S. Paiva, Duschinka R. D. Guedes, Rosângela M. R. Barbosa, André L. S. de Oliveira, Daniela B. Anastácio, Claudenice Ramos Pontes, Constância F. J. Ayres
      Abstract: The (re) emergence of arboviruses around the world is a public health concern once severe outbreaks are usually associated with these infections. The co-circulation of Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in the past few years has caused a unique epidemic situation in Brazil. The northeast region of the country was the most affected by clinical complications from such arboviruses’ infections, including neurological disorders caused by ZIKV. In this particular region, Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV, with Culex quinquefasciatus also considered as a potential vector of ZIKV. Therefore, virological surveillance in mosquitoes contributes to understanding the epidemiological profile of these diseases. Here, we report the circulation of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV in Aedes spp. and Cx. quinquefasciatus female mosquitoes collected in areas with a high arbovirus circulation in humans in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, during the triple-epidemics of 2015-17. All the field-caught mosquitoes were sent to the laboratory for arbovirus screening after RNA extraction and RT-PCR/RT-qPCR. A total of 6,227 females were evaluated and, as a result, DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV were identified in Ae. aegypti, Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito pools. In addition, DENV and ZIKV were isolated in C6/36 cells. In conclusion, it is important to highlight that arbovirus surveillance performed in mosquitoes from DENV-ZIKV-CHIKV hotspots areas can serve as an early-warning system to target vector control actions more efficiently in each studied area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • One Health Surveillance for Rabies: A Case Study of Integrated Bite Case
           Management in Albay Province, Philippines

    • Authors: Kristyna Rysava, Jason Espineda, Eva Angela V. Silo, Sarah Carino, Ariane Mae Aringo, Rona P. Bernales, Florencio F. Adonay, Michael J. Tildesley, Katie Hampson
      Abstract: Canine rabies is a significant public health concern and economic burden in the Philippines. Animal Bite Treatment Centers (ABTCs) that provide post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to bite patients have been established across the country, but the incidence of bite patient presentations has grown unsustainably, whilst rabies transmission in domestic dogs has not been controlled. Moreover, weak surveillance leads to low case detection and late outbreak responses. Here we investigated the potential for Integrated Bite Case Management (IBCM) to improve rabies detection in Albay province. Using information obtained from animal bite histories combined with phone follow-ups and field investigations, we demonstrated that IBCM resulted in a fourfold increase in case detection over 13 months of study compared to the prior period. Bite patient incidence across Albay was very high (>600/100,000 persons/year) with PEP administered mostly indiscriminately. Clinic attendance reflected availability of PEP and proximity to ABTCs rather than rabies incidence (
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Utility of Plasma Microbial Cell-Free DNA Decay Kinetics After Aortic
           Valve Replacement for Bartonella Endocarditis: Case Report|Background|Case
           Presentation|Conclusions

    • Authors: Dipesh Solanky, Asim A. Ahmed, Joshua Fierer, Eugene Golts, Meghan Jones, Sanjay R. Mehta
      Abstract: BackgroundDetection and sequencing of circulating microbial cell-free DNA (mcfDNA) in plasma is an increasingly popular tool for diagnosing many infectious diseases, but could also be used to monitor the progress of infection. However, the decay of this microbial cell-free DNA in blood following treatment has not been previously characterized.Case PresentationA 53 year-old male was diagnosed with Bartonella quintana bioprosthetic aortic valve endocarditis by sequencing of the mcfDNA in the blood (Karius, Redwood City, CA). We then monitored the kinetics of decay of mcfDNA after parenteral antibiotics and valve resection in this individual. We measured plasma mcfDNA (Karius) in serial samples obtained in the operating room to calculate mcfDNA half-life after valve resection. After four weeks of parenteral antibiotics, Bartonella mcfDNA signal decreased by 78%. The signal subsequently rose during operative manipulation of the infected valve but dropped 81-fold over four hours following valve resection. The half-life of mcfDNA between the time shortly following resection of the infected valve and 24 to 48 hours post-operatively was between 35 and 115 minutes. The trend in mcfDNA signal was characterized by rapid and then slower phases of decay within 24 hours, and little change between 24 and 48 hours.ConclusionsThis study is one of the first to characterize decay kinetics of mcfDNA and highlights the potential of monitoring mcfDNA in addressing major challenges in infective endocarditis management, including monitoring the response to therapy, and as an early screen for recurrence.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Female Genital Schistosomiasis Lesions Explored Using Circulating Anodic
           Antigen as an Indicator for Live Schistosoma Worms|Background|Materials
           and Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Takalani Girly Nemungadi, Elisabeth Kleppa, Govert J. van Dam, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige, Pavitra Pillay, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Birgitte J. Vennervald, Patricia Ndhlovu, Myra Taylor, Saloshni Naidoo, Eyrun F. Kjetland
      Abstract: BackgroundIn areas where reinfection with schistosomiasis is rampant, it is not known if the lesions of Female Genital Schistosomaisis are a consequence of live worms, or caused by dead ova. Live schistosome worms regurgitate Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA). We sought to explore the association between the different lesions of FGS (grainy sandy patches, homogenous yellow patches, rubbery papules and abnormal blood vessels) and the presence of live worms as indicated by S. haematobium-derived CAA in blood.Materials and MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, rural high schools were randomly selected from Ilembe, uThungulu and Ugu Districts on the East Coast of South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Serum samples for CAA analysis were collected from 246 female learners aged 16 - 23 years. Uncorrected chi-square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the null hypothesis.ResultsCAA was positive in 82/246 (33%) of the participants. Sandy patches were found in 123 (50%) of the study population. Grainy sandy patches were significantly associated with CAA even after controlling for age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 4.2, 95% CI 2.3 - 7.9, p < 0.001). Likewise, abnormal blood vessels were associated with CAA (AOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-4.5, p = 0.001) whereas homogenous yellow patches were not associated with CAA (p = 0.57). Rubbery papules were not found in this study population.ConclusionGrainy sandy patches and abnormal blood vessels are found more commonly in women who harbour live Schistosoma haematobium worms whilst homogenous yellow patches may indicate chronic tissue damage due to dead ova.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Update on the Dispersal of Aedes albopictus in Mexico: 1988–2021

    • Authors: Aldo I. Ortega-Morales, Cresencio Pérez-Rentería, José Ordóñez-Álvarez, Juan Adrián Salazar, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Fabián Correa-Morales, Herón Huerta-Jiménez
      Abstract: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is one of the most important mosquito species in public health due to the variety of disease-causing viruses that this species can transmit. In Mexico, Ae. albopictus was reported for the first time in 1990 in the state of Tamaulipas, bordering to the state of Texas (USA). Since then, Ae. albopictus has been reported in 15 Mexican states. Currently, this species is present in all tropical and subtropical regions of the country and its presence is common in the states of the Gulf of Mexico and Chiapas. In the present study, the presence of Ae. albopictus is reported in six additional states: Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca, and Querétaro. The rapid dispersal of Ae. albopictus in Mexico represents a risk to public health, and the surveillance of this species in regions where it has not yet been reported is essential as part of Mexican entomological surveillance programs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • NDO-BSA, LID-1, and NDO-LID Antibody Responses for Infection and RLEP by
           Quantitative PCR as a Confirmatory Test for Early Leprosy Diagnosis

    • Authors: Angélica Rita Gobbo, Raquel Carvalho Bouth, Tania Mara Pires Moraes, Pablo Pinto, Patricia Fagundes da Costa, Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Ândrea Kely Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Guilherme Augusto de Barros Conde, Malcolm S. Duthie, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
      Abstract: Diagnostic tests for leprosy are limited, especially to identify early leprosy cases. We performed active case findings of leprosy to validate three potential antigen candidates and one molecular target. Cases were diagnosed by characteristic skin lesions, nerve enlargement, or skin sensation loss. Serum samples obtained from all subjects were tested by ELISA to assess antibody titers to three Mycobacterium leprae specific antigens: NDO-BSA, LID-1, and NDO-LID. Most of the field cases on Mosqueiro Island, northern Brazil, also collected slit skin smear for qPCR. Active case finding diagnosed 105 new cases of leprosy out of 894 subjects (11.7%), revealing a high prevalence of M. leprae in the region. With the use of amplification of the M. leprae-specific RLEP by qPCR, 68/79 (86.07%) of these cases were positive, confirming leprosy in subjects diagnosed in the field. Patients diagnosed at the leprosy reference center showed much higher antibody titers to all three antigens, while titers of patients from the field were significantly lower. Our results support previous findings that active surveillance by experienced leprologists can diagnose additional cases based on clinical findings, that many would not be identified using ELISA assay with the available biomarkers, and that RLEP qPCR may be used to confirm the majority of the field cases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mapping Spatial Variation and Impact of the National MDA Program on
           Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Ghana: An Initial Study

    • Authors: Efiba Vidda Senkyire Kwarteng, Frank Badu Osei, Samuel Ato Andam-Akorful, Alexander Kwarteng, Da-Costa Boakye Mensah Asare, Jonathan Arthur Quaye-Ballard, Alfred Allan Duker
      Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a public health menace, especially in developing countries. A periodic review of mass drug administration (MDA) performance is critical to monitoring elimination progress. However, investigating the spatial pattern of LF with respect to MDA intervention is yet to be documented. This is essential to appreciating the transmission dynamics across LF-endemic communities and how it is spatially impacted by MDA programs. The aim of this study was to map and explore the spatial variation and hotspots of LF infection among endemic communities and evaluate the impact of the MDA intervention program on its spatial pattern in Ghana. Relative risks, clustering and clusters, prevalence odds ratios, and their confidence intervals were studied with community-level LF data prior to intervention and post intervention periods. The overall risk of LF infection was 0.12% and 0.02% before and after MDA, respectively, suggesting reduced transmission. Using empirical Bayesian smoothing to map the relative risk, a substantial variation in the spatial distribution of the relative risk of LF among endemic communities was observed. Most of the excess prevalence communities were unexpectedly visible even after years of MDA. The Empirical Bayesian Moran’s Index for global clustering showed a reduction in clustering of LF prevalence after MDA with IM = 0.455 and 0.119 for before and after MDA, respectively. Furthermore, examining risks associated with ecological zones, it was observed that the Guinea Savannah and the Transition Zone were the most vulnerable zones for LF infection with prevalence odds ratios 18.70- and 13.20-fold higher than in the reference Moist evergreen zone, respectively. We observed a drastic reduction in risk in the Wet evergreen zone after MDA, while the Guinea Savannah sustained high levels of risk even after MDA. These findings should prompt public health officials to adopt stratified cluster sampling in LF-endemic regions to monitor the rate and density of microfilaria.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Influence of CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 Genotypes on Recurrence of
           Plasmodium vivax|Background|Methods|Findings|Conclusion

    • Authors: Jaiana L. M. Cardoso, Yanka E. A. R. Salazar, Anne C. G. Almeida, Laila R. A. Barbosa, Emanuelle L. Silva, Maria Gabriela Almeida Rodrigues, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Vanderson S. Sampaio, André M. Siqueira, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Wuelton M. Monteiro, Gisely C. Melo
      Abstract: BackgroundThe influence of the CYPs (cytochrome P-450) in the success of antimalarial therapy remains uncertain. In this study, the association of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 polymorphisms and predicted phenotypes with malaria recurrence was investigated.MethodsAfter diagnosis of vivax malaria, individuals treated at a reference center in Manaus were followed up for 180 days. Patients were separated into two groups: a recurrence group and a non-recurrence group. Genotyping of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was performed using a TaqMan™ assay and real-time PCR.FindingsThe frequencies of decreased-function and normal-function alleles and phenotypes for all CYPs were similar between the groups, except for the CYP2D6*2xN allele (p=0.047) and the CYP2D6 gUM phenotype (p=0.057), which were more frequent in individuals without recurrence. Despite this, the CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 genotypes had no association with an increased risk of recurrence. CYPs polymorphisms also had no influence in parasite clearance, neither in the time nor the number of recurrence episodes. MAINConclusionThis prospective cohort study demonstrated that CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 polymorphisms have no influence on malaria recurrence. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that the CYP2D6 predicted ultrarapid phenotype was less susceptible to recurrence, and that patients with the CYP2D6 gUM phenotype are less susceptible to primaquine failure. Additional investigation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics are needed before implementing CYP analysis to better orientate individualized radical treatment of vivax malaria in reference centers that treat patients with multiple recurrences.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Antenna Base Plays a Crucial Role in Mosquito Courtship Behavior

    • Authors: Tim Ziemer, Fabian Wetjen, Alexander Herbst
      Abstract: Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases like malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. For mosquito control it is crucial to understand their hearing system, as mosquitoes’ courting behavior is mostly auditory. Many nonlinear characteristics of the mosquito hearing organ have been observed through behavioral studies and neural measurements. These enable mosquitoes to detect and synchronize to other mosquitoes. Many hypotheses concerning the role of the flagellum and the fibrillae of the antenna in mosquito hearing have been made, and neural processes have been considered as the origin of the nonlinearities. In this study we introduce a geometric model based on the morphology of the mosquito antenna base. The model produces many of the observed nonlinear characteristics, providing evidence that the base of the antenna plays a crucial role in mosquito hearing. Even without neural processing, the antenna response to sound produces behaviorally relevant cues that can inform about the presence, location, and sex of other mosquitoes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T00:00:00Z
       
 
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