Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8677 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.356
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1609-0985 - ISSN (Online) 2199-4757
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • The Impact of the Finite Element Method on Medical Device Design
    • PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Verification of Electroporation Models Using the Potato Tuber as In Vitro
    • Abstract: Abstract Electrochemotherapy (ECT) and Irreversible Electroporation are recent non-thermal techniques employed for the treatment of tumors. These therapies are based on the opening of pores in the cell membrane during application of sufficiently high electric fields. Over the past two decades, clinical trials have validated these therapies in humans. Moreover, ECT has been successfully applied in several species in veterinary clinics. As the therapy depends on the electric field distribution, numerical models and in vitro experiments have an important role in better understanding electric field distribution in biological tissues, especially in anatomically and physiologically complex structures. The potato tuber has emerged as an option for testing the effectiveness of the new electrodes. Potatoes present advantages for several reasons: they are compatible with the 3Rs’ concept for animal testing; they are simple to handle; and their electroporated areas become dark after 6–12 h. In this work, we simulated four numerical models from the literature and compared them to in vitro experiments. Our aim was to determine the model that best describes the observable affected area. This is an important point because the models were developed to properly describe tissue variation in electrical conductivity during electroporation, not to determine how electroporation is manifested macroscopically in potato tissue. The area measured with the Miklavčič–Ivorra–Suárez model was in closest agreement to the experiments; however, none of the models exactly represent our in vitro results.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Visio-Vestibular Interaction in Humans: Changes in the Vestibular Response
           Following Visual Stimuli of Different Colors
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper addresses the question of whether visual stimuli of different colors can evoke a measurable vestibular response. A recently developed technique of measuring the vestibular response, called electrovestibulography (EVestG), was used in this study to assess the responsiveness of the efferent vestibular system. Visual stimuli of different colors (blue, green and red lights) along with white and black background were displayed to the participants through a virtual reality (VR) headset. Initially, the effect of each color was investigated; for each color, the corresponding red, green, or blue (RGB) value was set to 255 and the two others set to zero. Additionally, for the blue light, the impact of the intensity under well-lit (photopic) and low (close to mesopic vision range) intensity levels was separately examined. The results of this study indicate that not only does the vestibular system respond to light of different colors, but it also shows a sensitivity to the intensity of blue light. For blue light, the vestibular response changed in proportion to the intensity level, showing larger responses at higher intensities.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Physiological and Biomechanical Responses in Male Schoolgoing Children
           Using Frameless and Internal Frame Backpacks
    • Abstract: Abstract Backpacks are commonly used by many, the carriage of backpacks, especially by schoolgoing children, has been reported to cause development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Students’ susceptibility to MSD not only relies on backpack weight, but it also depends on the backpack design, backpack location, frequency and duration of use and manner of its carriage. The goal of this study was to determine the suitability of the internal frame (IF) design for school children’s backpacks by analyzing key physiological and biomechanical responses and comparing these responses with the response parameters obtained for a frameless backpack. Twenty male schoolgoing participants of similar weight, age, and height were selected for this study. Additionally, two different types of backpacks were used, one without a frame and one containing an IF. The frame of the IF was comprised of two aluminum staves bent in the shape of the spine a flat surface supporting the bottom of the backpack. The results obtained from both backpacks were statistically evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA. Double-limb support time and L4/L5 compression force were significantly lower in the case of the backpack containing an IF and energy expenditure was also lower for IF backpack at 25% load condition. The repeated and prolonged experience of schoolgoing children carrying heavy backpacks can hamper their growth. Backpacks with a support system help to curb their ill effects.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Determining Breathing Sound Features Representative of Obstructive Sleep
           Apnea During Wakefulness with Least Sensitivity to Other Risk Factors
    • Abstract: Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep disorders. OSA is also considered associated with some anthropometric risk factors such as sex, body mass index, age, etc. The anthropometric characteristics are used to screen for OSA during wakefulness when there is no time for a sleep study. However, in general they provide a poor specificity (~ 20%). Our proposed alternative screening OSA using tracheal breathing sound analysis during wakefulness has shown significantly higher specificity with a reasonable sensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthropometric characteristics on the breathing sounds and how they may affect the accuracy to detect OSA during wakefulness. Tracheal breathing sounds of 114 individuals [66 with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 and 48 with AHI > 15] were recorded during wakefulness in supine position. Spectra and bi-spectra of the signals of mild and severe OSA groups were analyzed to extract the most discriminative Tracheal breathing sounds features between the two groups. Then, the plausible effects of anthropometric characteristics on the breathing sounds were investigated. Results showed that different risk factors do affect the breathing sounds independent of OSA severity. In addition, our results suggest it is possible to find the best features with high sensitivity to OSA severity and least sensitivity to the confounding variables. A description of those features is provided in this paper. In conclusion, reducing the effects of the risk factors on the breathing sound features would result in a more reliable OSA screening tool.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Evaluation of Coherence Between ECG and PPG Derived Parameters on Heart
           Rate Variability and Respiration in Healthy Volunteers With/Without
           Controlled Breathing
    • Abstract: Introduction Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used as a surrogate of electrocardiograms (ECG) for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis or respiratory rate monitoring. PPG is a more convenient way to measure HRV than ECG at rest, since respiration could be a confounding factor in HRV evaluation. However, it remains unclear whether or not controlled breathing affects breath-volume and breathing rate when HRV and pulse rate variability (PRV) are measured in different situations. Consciously controlled breathing was performed to alter the autonomic nervous states of subjects caused by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The aim of this study was to investigate the coherence between parameters derived from ECG and PPG on healthy subjects with/without controlled breathing. Method With 30 healthy volunteers, we measured their respiratory frequency and recorded their ECG and PPG signals during spontaneous breathing and controlled breathing, including natural paced breathing, rapid and deep breathing, slow and deep breathing, rapid and shallow breathing, and slow and shallow breathing. Results Obvious coherence was observed between pulse rate and heart rate in both spontaneous breathing and controlled breathing tasks. However, a comparison of PRV and HRV indices demonstrated significant differences during controlled breathing. The results based on time domain and nonlinear method analysis showed that the frequency-dependent changes have more of an impact. The results also indicated that breathing corresponded well in ECG-derived parameters comparing with PPG-derived ones. Conclusion We concluded that PPG-based devices cannot be applied as a precision screening tool to detect HRV, particularly during the cardiopulmonary analysis for the controlled breathing maneuver.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Adaptive Filtering for Epileptic Event Detection in the EEG
    • Abstract: Purpose The development of online seizure detection techniques as well as prediction methods are very critical. Patient quality of life could improve significantly if the beginning of a seizure could be predicted or detected early. Methods This paper proposes a method to automatically detect epileptic seizures based on adaptive filters and signal averaging. The process was applied to 425 h of epileptic EEG records from CHB-MIT EEG database. The developed algorithm does not require any training since it is simple and involves low processing time. Therefore, it can be implemented in real time as well as offline. Results Three thresholds were evaluated and calculated as 10, 20 and 30 times the median value of ST(n). The threshold of 20 showed the best relation between SEN and SPE. In this case, these indexes reached average values, across all the patients, of 90.3% and 73.7% respectively. Conclusions The proposed method has several strengths, for example: that no training is required due to the automatic adaptation to the threshold to each new EEG record. The algorithm could be implemented in real time. It is simple owing to its low processing time which makes it suitable for the analysis of long-term records and a large number of channels. The system could be implemented on electronic devices for warning purposes (of the seizure onset). It employs methods to process signals that were not used with epileptic seizure detection in EEG, such as in the case of adaptive predictive filters.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Evaluation of Different Modulation Transfer Function Measurement Based on
           Different Edge Spread Function Calculations
    • Abstract: Purpose As the X-ray imaging market keeps expanding and digital X-ray detector technology has become more important, the International Electro Technical Commission has developed an IEC 62220-1 standard for the device to cope with medical imaging report requirements. This paper specifies the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) calculation method. However, during the practical operation, we found that if the multiple pre-sampling edge spread functions (ESFs) were averaged directly, the MTF value would be underestimated. This work develops a novel method for calculating the MTF. Methods We compared three different edge spread function (ESF) calculation methods. For method 1, the ESF is obtained by taking only the central line. For method 2, the ESFs are averaged directly. For method 3, the novel method proposed in this study, the ESFs would be shifted before they are averaged. The MTF is then obtained through calculating three different ESFs. Results We used a phantom experiment to verify the correctness of the code and confirm the results from the three methods under ideal conditions. We measured the detector response through a homemade laboratory testing platform. The results showed that, method 3 effectively eliminated MTF underestimation. The difference was not significant when the frequency was less than 1.5 lp/mm, however when it was greater than 1.5 lp/mm, the difference was larger. Conclusions This finding suggests that to eliminate the results caused by noise without any signal processing, and to generate a smoother MTF, our proposed method can give much reliable results.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • An Ultrasound-Guided Robotic HIFU Ablation System with Respiration Induced
           Displacement and Time Delay Compensation
    • Abstract: Introduction In recent years, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has commonly been applied in non-invasive tumor therapy, such as to treat uterine fibroids or prostate tumors. However, respiration may cause tumor displacement, such as liver tumor displacement, which may lead to errors in localization or inadequate thermal effects on the tumor. Therefore, a compensating mechanism for target localization is important. Methods This paper introduces an ultrasound imaging-assisted robotic HIFU ablation system with a displacement compensatory mechanism. According to the correlation between the measured displacements of the heaving chest and the target tumor, a respiration simulation device was designed, which used a tumor phantom and a cam-driving mechanism to simulate displacements of the tumor and of the heaving chest. Then, a polynomial function of the tumor position relative to the position of the heaving chest was generated. After the coordinate frames of the robotic arm, optical tracker and tumor phantom had been registered, the robotic arm was able to guide the HIFU probe to track and ablate the target tumor automatically and synchronously by inputting the displacement values of the heaving chest. Results The average positioning error in the single-point tracking experiment was 1.72 ± 1.26 mm, while the ablation temperature was stabilized at 80 °C. Furthermore, the average positioning error in the cross-section ablation experiment was 3.04 ± 1.24 mm.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Acoustic Field of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer with the Focus/Foci
    • Abstract: Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming popular in the treatment of solid tumors because of its non-invasiveness with few complications. The acoustic field is of importance in evaluating the safe focus shifting distance and determining the treatment plan. Methods The propagation of finite-amplitude acoustic wave from a 331-element HIFU phased-array with focus steering along and transverse to the transducer axis and 4-foci shifting on the focal plane was simulated using the angular spectrum approach (ASA) with a marching second-order operator-splitting scheme. In addition, the acoustic field produced by a truncated asymmetric transesophageal HIFU annular array was also simulated, and the effects of driving frequency and the number of concentric rings were investigated. Results Because of the nonlinear effects, the peak negative pressure is lower than that of peak positive pressure at the main lobe but has a larger beam size. However, the peak positive and negative pressures at the grating lobe are quite similar. The effects of the focus shifting distances on the main and grating lobe (both acoustic pressure and − 6 dB beam size) were evaluated. With the focus shifting axially away from the transducer surface, the main lobe has decreased acoustic pressure by ~ 1.9 fold and increased beam size by ~ 4.5 fold while the grating lobe has the increased acoustic pressure by ~ 1.8 fold. The focus shifting laterally leads to the reduced pressure at the main lobe by ~ 1.4 fold but the slight decrease at the grating lobe by ~ 1.1 fold. In comparison, the shifting of multi-foci has similar influences on the main lobe but increases the pressure at the grating lobe. Driving frequency of annular array is found to have greater influences on the peak pressure and beam size. Conclusion Our algorithm can simulate the acoustic field of phased-array in arbitrary shape and optimize the transducer design, and the focus shifting distance and strategy should be selected appropriately for the safe HIFU exposure.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
  • Automatic Diabetes Detection from Histological Images of Rats Phrenic
           Nerve Using Two-Dimensional Sample Entropy
    • Abstract: Abstract In microscopy, morphological characteristic of the axon are the most common features assessed in histological images of nerves. Although morphometric indexes are widely used to describe histological data, the calculation of those indexes is a highly time-consuming task that demands great manual effort from the specialist. Recently, two-dimensional sample entropy (SampEn2D) was proposed to quantify the degree of irregularity present in an image, based on the spatial patterns of pixels. Here, we propose the use of SampEn2D as a suitable metric for classifying diabetic status of rats from histological images of the phrenic nerve. Microscopy images of three different Wistar rats groups (untreated diabetic (N = 24), insulin-treated diabetic (N = 9), and non-diabetic control (N = 11)) were analysed. The results show that for the optimal SampEn2D parameters (m = 1, r = 0.1), control rats have significantly (p < 0.01) lower entropy (3.76 ± 0.26) as compared to both insulin-treated (5.09 ± 0.20) and untreated (5.30 ± 0.13) diabetic animals. Performance of SampEn2D for image classification between untreated and control groups was assessed by ROC analysis and area under the ROC curves (AUROC = 0.96). SampEn2D reaches a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 82% when a threshold of SampEn2D = 4.73 is taken to separate the two assessed groups. In conclusion, SampEn2D method arises as a useful tool in the screening of diabetic rats. The method may be useful to pre-select animals for further morphometric evaluation, reducing the burden of manual processing.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Contactless Technique for Measuring Blood-Pressure Variability from One
           Region in Video Plethysmography
    • Abstract: Abstract Sudden changes in blood pressure are frequently caused by daily events such as exercise, stressful work, and moving between different temperature environments. Sometimes, an abrupt change in blood pressure can endanger human lives. To mitigate such a risk, several studies have previously proposed contactless methods for monitoring changes in blood pressure; however, the number of studies on this issue is insufficient. In previous methods, changes in blood pressure were estimated using the propagation time of the pulse waves obtained from two different skin areas on the basis of an analysis of images from video recordings, which is called a video plethysmogram. However, the relative positional relationship of the two skin areas had to be maintained during the measurement, making the approach restrictive. To solve this problem, in the present study, we propose a new method using the video plethysmogram obtained from only one skin area. In particular, the degree of distortion in the video plethysmogram is calculated as a new index to estimate the blood pressure. On the basis of the results of our experiments with 20 healthy human subjects, we ascertain that the proposed index obtained from the palm area is correlated with the blood-pressure variability as well as the previous approach.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • RFID Medical Equipment Tracking System Based on a Location-Based Service
    • Abstract: Introduction Healthcare is the fastest-growing service sector. Given the critical impact this industry has on human well-being, there is a continuing need to improve the quality of medical services. An RFID system is used to implement an indoor positioning system which tracks medical equipment in medical centers or other healthcare facilities. Objectives Develop a front-end platform application system for medical personnel uses. Methods In RFID systems, data collected by and stored in remotely distributed tags are transmitted to readers, providing identification or positioning functions through non-contract bi-directional communication. Results The front-end platform application system for medical personnel uses was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio 2012, the Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is developed in C#, and the interface is developed using XAML. This effectively separates interface development and its background logic, allowing UI designers and app developers to better cooperate and reduce maintenance and updating costs. SQLite is used for database development to ensure cross-platform and multiple language support. XAMPP is used for the Web Server. Conclusion PEPD RFID provides medical staff with location and inventory information for medical devices and materials, helping staff to find such items quickly and accurately and thus enhancing patient care and hospital service quality. The proposed system allows medical staff to immediately locate and inventory specific medical equipment, thus improving work performance, service quality and inventory control.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Spectral and Higher Order Statistical Characteristics of Expiratory
           Tracheal Breathing Sounds During Wakefulness and Sleep in People with
           Different Levels of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Authors: Farahnaz Hajipour; Zahra Moussavi
      Abstract: Abstract We investigated plausible changes in spectral and higher order statistical properties of tracheal respiratory sounds from wakefulness to sleep in relation to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data consisted of expiratory sounds of 30 participants suspected of OSA during wakefulness and sleep, both recorded in supine position. Participants were divided into two groups of mild and severe OSA (15 in each group) based on their apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) per hour. Three different frequency-based features of their power spectra in addition to Kurtosis and Katz fractal dimension (KFD) were estimated from each normalized expiratory sound; they were compared within and between the groups. During wakefulness, the sounds average power at low-frequency components in severe group was lesser than that of the mild group. However, during sleep, the average power of high-frequency components in severe subjects was more than that of the mild group. The kurtosis value of both mild and severe OSA groups increased significantly from wakefulness to sleep using both mouth and nasal breathing sounds during wakefulness. The KFD increased significantly from wakefulness to sleep for both mild and severe OSA group using only nasal breathing sounds during wakefulness. These changes are indicative that the upper airway of severe OSA show more compliance and thickness compare to that of the mild OSA during both wakefulness and sleep and represent an increased stiffness during sleep. This implies a regional narrowing which cause both more compliance and stiffness simultaneously in different regions of the upper airway.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0409-7
  • EVestG Recordings are Vestibuloacoustic Signals
    • Authors: Brian Blakley; Abdelbaset Suleiman; Grant Rutherford; Zahra Moussavi; Brian Lithgow
      Abstract: Abstract A field potential can be defined as the ‘synchronous’ firing of many of vestibuloacoustic nerve fibres. Electrovestibulography has been considered as a method to record and detect vestibuloacoustic signals originating mainly from the vestibular system. A clear picture of the likely acoustic, vestibular or vestibuloacoustic origin and the physiologic basis of these field potentials is lacking. Recordings were conducted on anesthetized Guinea Pigs [ketamine (60 mg/kg) and xylazine (6 mg/kg)] to determine the origin of these minute spontaneous field potentials detected, recorded and averaged during Electrovestibulography recordings. Recordings were made with (1) normal hearing and balance (vestibular function), (2) following cisplatin deafening then (3) following both cisplatin deafening and gentamicin vestibular ablation. The detected minute spontaneous field potentials were determined to be both acoustic and vestibular in origin i.e., vestibuloacoustic. Based on the spontaneous activity of acoustic and vestibular nerve fibers arguments are presented that these field potentials are predominantly vestibular.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0398-6
  • Development, Implementation and Validation of an Automatic Centerline
           Extraction Algorithm for Complex 3D Objects
    • Authors: Sohail Younas; Chase R. Figley
      Abstract: Abstract Although centerlines (aka ‘skeletons’ or ‘medial axes’) are among the most efficient ways to represent items in digital images, and obtaining these from 2D shapes is relatively straight forward, extracting centerlines from 3D objects has remained a challenge—particularly if they are not smooth or uniform. Therefore, we have developed a novel 3D centerline extraction method for discrete binary objects using a ‘divide and conquer’ approach, in which any 3D object is sliced into a series of 2D images (in the X, Y and Z directions), a geometric (Voronoi) algorithm is applied to each planar image to extract the 2D centerlines, and the information is recombined (using an intersection technique) to obtain the centerline of the original 3D object. Validation of this approach was performed using a ground truth benchmark, standard 3D database objects, and more complex anatomical structures (segmented from medical imaging data). The algorithm consistently performed well for objects of moderate complexity, but occasionally left discontinuities in the extracted 3D skeletons of the most complex objects. Therefore, in order to deal with such cases, an optional 3D interpolation step—based on Delaunay triangles and a spherical search to establish the nearest neighboring points in 3D space—was developed to allow continuous centerlines to be extracted from even the most complex anatomical structures tested. As a result, we anticipate that this approach could have wide-ranging applications, including data reduction for large microscopy and other 3D imaging datasets, automatic quantification of medical imaging data along anatomical structures, and others.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0402-1
  • Using EVestG Assessments for Detection of Symptomology Consequent to a
           Lateral-Impact Concussion
    • Authors: Abdelbaset Suleiman; Brian Lithgow; Behzad Mansouri; Zahra Moussavi
      Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to investigate plausible differences in vestibular response due to lateral-impact concussion using electrovestibulography (EVestG). EVestG signals are recorded non-invasively from the external ear in response to vestibular stimuli; the EVestG signal consists of peripheral vestibulo-acoustic signals and the brainstem’s response. In this study we investigated the relationship between characteristic features of the extracted field potentials (FPs) of EVestG signals in participants with lateral-impact concussion in comparison with those of healthy controls. Twelve lateral-impact concussed participants (5 right and 6 left lateral-impact) and 12 age-and-gender-matched healthy controls were tested by EVestG. Characteristic features were extracted from the FPs during side tilt, and a leave-one-out linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification was applied to the extracted features. The results show a clear asymmetry on the impacted side between the left and right FPs after lateral-impact compared to those from healthy controls. The LDA classification resulted in a sensitivity of 67%, specificity of 92 and 79% overall accuracy for separating lateral-impact concussed participants from controls. EVestG appears to have diagnostic potential in diagnosing lateral-impact concussion.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0405-y
  • Agent Based Modelling and West Nile Virus: A Survey
    • Authors: Hamid Reza Nasrinpour; Marcia R. Friesen; Robert D. McLeod
      Abstract: Abstract West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne disease heavily influenced by Avian species as amplifying hosts. In many other mosquito-borne diseases humans act as amplifying host. This, in general, makes the modelling effort of WNV fundamentally differs from other mosquito-borne diseases. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a fairly recent approach for studying complex systems such as WNV transmission. Intrinsically, ABMs can capture heterogeneous properties of a system by designing the rules of behaviour at an individual-level. In the WNV epidemiology, these individuals (i.e. agents) are various species of mosquitoes, birds and mammals (including humans). In this paper, we survey the literature of some traditional mathematical models of WNV, a number of agent-based models of mosquito behaviours and mosquito-borne diseases, as well as ABM within the WNV epidemiology. While there is a relatively large number of studies of both ABMs and WNV models on their own, very few WNV–ABM exist.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0396-8
  • Evaluation of the Tibiofemoral Contact Characteristics of a Customized
           Surface-Guided Knee Implant
    • Authors: Shabnam Pejhan; Ida Khosravipour; Trevor Gascoyne; Eric Bohm; Jan-Mels Brandt; Yunhua Luo; Urs Wyss
      Abstract: Abstract A surface-guided total knee replacement (TKR) aims to achieve close to normal kinematics through specially shaped tibiofemoral articulating surfaces. The resulting geometry of the TKR components affects the tibiofemoral contact mechanics. Therefore, evaluation of the contact characteristics of the implant is critical, as the tibiofemoral contact stress influences the short-term and long-term performance and durability of the implants. In this study, the contact behavior at the tibiofemoral articulating interface for a customized surface-guided TKR was studied. The contact area and mean contact stress at specific flexion angles were measured mechanically by pressure sensitive films to validate the outcomes from finite element analysis (FEA) under similar load conditions. Two activities of daily living were studied; lunging and squatting. As expected, FEA predicted larger contact areas at various flexion angles due to the limited sensitivity range of the pressure sensitive films. During lunging and squatting, the contact area increased as the flexion angle reached 90°, and decreased as the knee was flexed to higher angles. The mean contact pressure was less than 10 MPa at 120 degrees of flexion under squatting load. The outcomes revealed that a high range of motion can be achieved, while the mean contact pressure remains below the material limits of the tibial polyethylene insert.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0399-5
  • Why is it Crucial to Use Personalized Occlusion Pressures in Blood Flow
           Restriction (BFR) Rehabilitation'
    • Authors: James A. McEwen; Johnny G. Owens; Jeswin Jeyasurya
      Abstract: Abstract An increasing amount of evidence has been shown to support the use of blood flow restriction (BFR) in combination with low-load resistance exercise to enhance morphological and strength responses. The BFR technique involves applying a tourniquet cuff to a limb and pressurizing it with a tourniquet instrument to restrict, but not fully occlude, arterial blood flow into the limb during rehabilitative exercise. A review of BFR rehabilitation literature shows that inconsistencies exist in methodology, equipment and in levels of restriction pressure used. Current non-personalized methodologies of setting BFR pressure may occlude rather than restrict blood flow, increasing the risk of injury during rehabilitation. Furthermore, these non-personalized methods of setting pressure do not provide a consistent stimulus within and across patients, reducing the efficacy of the BFR rehabilitation and inhibiting the meaningful comparison of a full range of BFR studies. A restriction pressure level set for each individual patient, based on a percentage of limb occlusion pressure (LOP) measured at rest, and applied using a surgical-grade tourniquet cuff, enables those individual patients to receive a safe and consistent BFR stimulus compared to other methods of setting the restriction pressure level. In view of the above, it is crucial to use surgical-grade tourniquet technology with automatic LOP measurement capability, adapted to incorporate and deliver optimal protocols, for safe and effective application of BFR to consistently achieve optimal patient outcomes in rehabilitation.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40846-018-0397-7
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Heriot-Watt University
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