Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8677 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  

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Journal of the Ghana Science Association
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0855-3823
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [262 journals]
  • Evaluation of the Efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the Cowpea Beetle,
           Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on Stored Cowpea Grains
    • Authors: E A Osekre, J Abrahamani, D T Abudu
      Abstract: The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have ne-cessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a Control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dos-ages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Phosphorus Uptake and Partitioning in Maize as Affected by Tillage on
           Dystric Cambisol and Ferric Acrisol in Ghana
    • Authors: V Logah, V Atobrah, B Essel, A Bosomtwe, A Acquah
      Abstract: Phosphorus deficiency is a major problem confronting crop production in tropical soils. In sub–saharan Africa, the deficiency of the nutrient has caused decline in crop yield over the years. Rele-vant information on phosphorus uptake and partitioning in plants, its use efficiency and the impli-cations on crop yield on different soil types under different management systems will enhance sus-tainability of cropping systems and the environment. Field experiments were conducted at the An-womaso Agricultural Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi located within the semi- deciduous forest zone and Crops Re-search Experimental Station, Ejura within the Forest- Savannah Transition zone of Ghana. The soils of the experimental sites at Anwomaso and Ejura were respectively Ferric Acrisol and Dystric Cambisol. The study aimed at evaluating phosphorus partitioning in maize plants following phos-phorus application under two tillage systems on the two soil types. The field experiments at both locations were split - plots arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot factor consisted of two tillage systems namely, conventional tillage (CT) and no – tillage (NT) systems whereas the sub-plot factor consisted of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer: 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 per ha. Phosphorus uptake and partitioning and, use efficiency (PUE)in different parts of maize (ear, shoot and leaves) were determined at physiological maturity (R6). Phosphorus partitioned into the various plant parts showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the four levels of phosphorus applied on both soil types. Higher phosphorus concentrations were found in the ears than in the shoots and leaves at physiological maturity. Tillage x phospho-rus interactions influenced phosphorus partitioning in the ears and the leaves on the Dystric Cam-bisol but not on the Ferric Acrisol. PUE in the plant parts were significantly higher under applica-tion of 60 kg/ha P2O5than applications of 30 and 90 kg/ha P2O5 on both soils. Though the PUE of maize components on both soils were low, relatively higher values were recorded on the Dystric Cambisol than on the Ferric Acrisol. The study indicated that application of 60 kg/ha P2O5 under conventional tillage can lead to higher phosphorus partitioning into the ears at physiological maturity resulting in higher maize grain yield on Ferric Acrisol and Dystric Cambisol in Ghana in the short term.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant
           Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in
           Atwima Nwabiagya District, Ghana.
    • Authors: A K Edusei, J Bentum, B Nkum
      Abstract: The desire to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 has stimulated several investiga-tions related to pregnancy and birth outcome. Gestational weight gain and haemoglobin levels of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Nkawie Government Hospital were assessed to ascertain their appropriateness, and effect on the birth weight of the newborns. The study was ob-servational and prospective; involving 150 singleton pregnant women aged 15-49 years, in their second trimester, with risk-free pregnancy selected through systematic random sampling. Struc-tured questionnaire and records from maternal health clinics on body weight changes and haemo-globin levels were used for the assessment. Birth weights of babies born to the women were ob-tained from the hospital records. The study period was from July to October, 2012. Mean weight gains during second and third trimesters were 2.2± 2.1kg and 2.9± 2.2kg, respectively, with 91.2% and 95.3%, respectively unable to gain the recommended weight. Mean haemoglobin levels at first, second and third trimesters were 10.4± 1.8g/dl; 6.1± 1.6g/dl; and 9.9± 1g/dl, respectively. Mean birth weight was 2.9± 0.5kg. The respective correlation coefficients and p-values between weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and birth weight which were 0.01 (p = 0.69) and 0.02 (p = 0.36) indicating a weak positive correlation. Birth weight is positively corre-lated with gestational haemoglobin levels at first and third trimester and infant birth weight with a correlation coefficient of 0.10 (p= 0.008) and 0.13 (p= 0.004), respectively. In this study, weight gain during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with birth weight. However, birth weight was associated with maternal haemoglobin levels in the first and third tri-mesters of pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Effect of HIV-1 and Antiretroviral Therapy on Semen Quality
    • Authors: E A Ntim, K Bedu-Addo
      Abstract: Some studies have suggested that HIV infection may have a negative impact on fertility of infected males. Inconsistent results have characterised reports on the effect of HIV infection on semen quality. HAART has been reported to improve health by reducing blood viral loads, the incidence of opportunistic infections and improving immune system relatively. Investigating the effect of HIV-1 infection and HAART on semen quality was the priority of the study. Semen analysis and blood CD4+determination were carried out on25 subjects each of asymptomatic, moderately symp-tomatic, short duration of HAART treated(<1), longer duration of HAART treated (≥1) of HIV-infected men and HIV-negative control men and the data compared. The results showed that all the critical semen parameters (sperm motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm mor-phology, sperm vitality, semen volume and pH) were impaired in the HIV-1 infected groups. How-ever, sperm motility improved with longer duration of HAART treatment than shorter duration. The study concluded that semen parameters evaluated in HIV-1 infected men revealed several im-pairments. Immune status largely correlated with semen parameters. Longer duration of treatment of HIV-1 infected men with HAART relatively improved some of the semen parameters.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of
           Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana
    • Authors: P Twumasi, E Moses, G Ohene-Mensah
      Abstract: Botryodiplodia theobromae is a virulent plant pathogen commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. The fungus has wide range of plant hosts and known to cause yield losses up to 80% espe-cially on cash and food crop farms. This study aimed at establishing genetic diversity of B. theo-bromae collected from four common food and cash crops grown in Ghana. A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four geographical regions of Ghana. The isolates were developed into pure single-spore cultures on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Single-spore cultures of the 25 B. theobromae isolates from the four crops were grown in V8 juice medium at 28°C on a rotary shaker for 48 hrs. Mycelia were harvested at 48 hrs of growth, washed with sterile distilled water, grounded in liquid nitrogen and the genomic DNA iso-lated. PCR products from SSR and RAPD primers were resolved on 2.5% agarose gel and the DNA bands from the 25 isolates clustered on dendrogram into 5 distinct groups of varied genetic simi-larities using NTSYS software. The study showed only two banana isolates, B(Kt) and B(Ef), shar-ing highest genetic similarity above 80%. An isolate from yam, Y(Zu), shared no genetic similarity (0%) with any of the remaining 24 fungal isolates from the four regions in Ghana. The remaining 22 isolates measured genetic similarity between 20 and 75%. The results suggest high genetic vari-ability among the B. theobromae isolates on the crops studied.Keywords: Banana; Botryodiplodia theobromae; cocoa; genetic variability; mango; phylogeny; plant pathogen; potato dextrose agar (PDA); RAPD; SSR and yam.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa oleifera,
           Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cymbopogon citratus
    • Authors: I Oduro, P Twumasi, M A Tandoh, G Ankar-Brewoo, N E De-Heer
      Abstract: The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with potential for processing into herb tea, research in product de-velopment of herb teas is limited. The objectives of the study were to conduct acceptance tests on herb tea prepared from formulations of three indigenous herbs: Moringa oleifera, Hibiscus sab-dariffa and Cymbopogon citratus. Fifty (50) untrained panelists conducted acceptance tests on infusions from nine formulations and one control. Herb tea brewed from product code- 532, composed of 50% Moringa, 30% roselle and 20% lemon grass, was the most preferred in colour, fla-vour, astringency and overall sensory properties while the control made up of 100% Moringa brewed the least preferred herb tea in most of the sensory attributes
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Comparative Study on Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection among
           Adolescents in the Kumasi Metropolis Using Dipstick, Culture and PCR
           Methods
    • Authors: P Twumasi, P Darko, K Nsiah
      Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with clinical conditions such as hypertension, anaemia, kidney failure and even death. Diagnosis and early detection of UTI are critical measures in the management of the disease. The classical microbiological culture method is hindered by long diagnostic time and characteristic features of certain microbes becoming viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC). Direct PCR is a more sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting pathogens in clini-cal samples. This work aimed at developing a simplified PCR assay for detection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, an index microorganism for UTI and the results compared to two common diagnostic markers – i.e., dipstick and microbiological culture methods. The cross-sectional study involved collection of urine samples from 195 adolescents, aged between 13 and 18 years. DNA segments were amplified using specific primers targeting papC gene for fimbriae formation and the bacteriocin usp gene of the uropathogenic E. coli. Comparing the three diagnostic tools, the PCR produced the highest sensitivity of 71%, and the nitrite-based dipstick method recording the least sensitivity of 3%. Leukocyte esterase-based dipstick recorded the highest specificity of 76% as against 24% specificity by the PCR method. In addition, leukocyte esterase detection dipstick pro-duced the highest values for both positive and negative predictive values of 52% and 76%, respec-tively. From the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, PCR showed an area of 0.7231± 0.0262 (age in years X number of positives) over culture method with P value 0.0001, compared to 0.7205± 0.02623 (age in years X number of positives) of culture method over the dipstick method (p< 0.0001). Although the PCR diagnostic method for UTI uropathogenic indicator (E. coli) was found to be superior method as compared to culture and dipstick methods, it should be made a complementary UTI diagnostic tool due to the low specificity.Keywords: Dipstick; Escherichia coli; PCR; papC gene; urinary tract infection (UTI); usp gene.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Prospecting for Groundwater in the Bawku West District of the Upper East
           Region of Ghana Using the Electromagnetic and Vertical Electrical Sounding
           Methods
    • Authors: c Adu Kyere, R M Noye, A Menyeh
      Abstract: An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the Geonics EM 34-3 equipment to obtain traversing data for the horizontal dipole (HD) and vertical dipole (VD) modes at station intervals of 10 m for a 20 m coil separation. The EM survey provided subsurface information relating to positions of high electrical conductivity anomalies which presumably pointed to locations for groundwater structures. As a follow up, the VES was carried out with respect to the anomalous positions, using the dipole-dipole configuration with the McOhm-EL resistivity meter. The VES enabled the estimation of the depth of the weathered layer to the bed rock. The results of the VES data were interpreted quantitatively by modeling using IX1D V.3 software. The study identified prospective sites for drilling of bore-holes to provide potable water for the communities. Results for the VES suggested that the aquifer zones in the area under study are mainly deeply weathered and fractured. The lithology for some of the recommended drilled points correlated well with the results obtained from the EM and VES investigations. The aquifer depth was found to be between 10 and 40 m with an average value of 21.5 m. The depth of the basement rock from the surface was 21.4 m. The estimated yield of the boreholes drilled within the area was between 10 and 500 litres/min with an average value of 136.8 lit/min. the success rate was found to be about 95%. The integrated use of EM and VES surveys has been found to be very successful in locating groundwater resources for the rural communities with the area studied.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Electricity Generation by Single- and Double Chamber Membrane-Less
           Microbial Fuel Cells (MLMFCS)
    • Authors: R Y Tamakloe, K Singh
      Abstract: Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of microbes capable of producing electri-cal current. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy. Application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) may represent a completely new approach in production of sustainable clean energy. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are not yet commercialized but they show great promise as a method of power production. The power produced by these cells is currently limited, primarily due to high internal (ohmic) resistance. There are two main components of the fuel cell; cathode and anode compartments along with a cation specific membrane. In the anode compartment, microorganism oxidizes substrates which generate electrons and protons. Electrons are then transferred to the cathode compartment via an external electric circuit. Protons are transferred to the cathode com-partment through the cation specific membrane like Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which is very expensive. In this study, a successful attempt has been made to fabricate single and double chamber Membrane-Less-Microbial-Fuel-Cells (MLMFCs) which are capable to give COD reduc-tion greater than 93 percent, with maximum power production 6 W/m2.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2014)
       
 
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