Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8212 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
4 open     Open Access  
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
ABCS Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACIMED     Open Access  
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Acta Bio Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Herediana     Open Access  
Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica     Open Access  
Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)     Open Access  
Acta Medica Bulgarica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Acta Medica International     Open Access  
Acta Medica Iranica     Open Access  
Acta medica Lituanica     Open Access  
Acta Medica Martiniana     Open Access  
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / Health Sciences Journal of Adıyaman University     Open Access  
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced NanoBiomed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Parkinson's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Airway     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJSP: Reviews & Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AkupunkturPraxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Qadisiah Medical Journal     Open Access  
Alerta : Revista Científica del Instituto Nacional de Salud     Open Access  
Alexandria Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Biomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Medicine Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal on Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American medical news     Free   (Followers: 3)
Amrita Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina     Open Access  
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analgesia & Resuscitation : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Anatomica Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anatomical Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomy Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Androgens : Clinical Research and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Angewandte Nuklearmedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Annales de Pathologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals of 3D Printed Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical and Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Case Reports     Open Access  
Annals of Medicine and Surgery Protocols     Open Access  
Annals of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Musculoskeletal Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of the College of Medicine, Mosul     Open Access  
Annals of the National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)     Open Access  
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the RussianAacademy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Annals of Vascular Surgery - Brief Reports and Innovations     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibodies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antibody Reports     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Anuradhapura Medical Journal     Open Access  
Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal     Open Access  
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access  
Archive of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Archive of Clinical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives Medical Review Journal / Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi     Open Access  
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Clinical Hypertension     Open Access  
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Organ Transplantation     Open Access  
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Archives of Renal Diseases and Management     Open Access  
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Ars Medica : Revista de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access  
ARS Medica Tomitana     Open Access  
Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Arterial Hypertension     Open Access  
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASA Monitor     Full-text available via subscription  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Population Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science     Open Access  
Asian Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASPIRATOR : Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Auris Nasus Larynx     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (AJUM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autopsy and Case Reports     Open Access  
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, The
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.909
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0192-415X - ISSN (Online) 1793-6853
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [120 journals]
  • The Traditional Usages, Chemical Components and Pharmacological Activities
           of Wolfiporia cocos: A Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lian Li, Zhi-Tian Zuo, Yuan-Zhong Wang
      Pages: 389 - 440
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 02, Page 389-440, 2022.
      As an endemic species,Wolfiporia cocos (F.A. Wolf) Ryvarden & Gilb. is widely distributed, such as in China, Korea, Japan, and North America, which have had a dual-purpose resource for medicines and food for over 2000 years. The applications of W. cocos were used to treat diseases including edema, insomnia, spleen deficiency, and vomiting. What’s more, there have been wide uses of such edible fungi as a function food or dietary supplement recently. Up until now, 166 kinds of chemical components have been isolated and identified from W. cocos including triterpenes, polysaccharides, sterols, diterpenes, and others. Modern pharmacological studies showed that the components hold a wide range of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and antidepressant activities. In addition, present results showed that the mechanisms of pharmacological activities were closely related to chemical structures, molecular signaling paths and the expression of relate proteins for polysaccharides and triterpenes. For further in-depth studies on this fungus based on the recent research status, this review provided some perspectives and systematic summaries of W. cocos in traditional uses, chemical components, pharmacological activities, separation and analysis technologies, and structure–activity relationships.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500161
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 02 (2022)
       
  • A Systemic Review for Ethnopharmacological Studies on Isatis indigotica
           Fortune: Bioactive Compounds and their Therapeutic Insights

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      Authors: Li Wen Wong, Calvin Bok Sun Goh, Joash Ban Lee Tan
      Pages: 161 - 207
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 161-207, 2022.
      Isatis indigotica Fortune is a biennial Chinese woad of the Cruciferae family. It is primarily cultivated in China, where it was a staple in indigo dye manufacture till the end of the 17th century. Today, I. indigotica is used primarily as a therapeutic herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The medicinal use of the plant is separated into its leaves (Da-Qing-Ye) and roots (Ban-Lan-Gen), whereas its aerial components can be processed into a dried bluish-spruce powder (Qing-Dai), following dehydration for long-term preservation. Over the past several decades, I. indigotica has been generally utilized for its heat-clearing effects and bodily detoxification in TCM, attributed to the presence of several classes of bioactive compounds, including organic acids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids, as well as lignans, anthraquinones, glucosides, glucosinolates, sphingolipids, tetrapyrroles, and polysaccharides. This paper aims to delineate I. indigotica from its closely-related species (Isatis tinctoria and Isatis glauca) while highlighting the ethnomedicinal uses of I. indigotica from the perspectives of modern and traditional medicine. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PMC, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases was done for articles on all aspects of the plant, emphasizing those analyzing the bioactivity of constituents of the plant. The various key bioactive compounds of I. indigotica that have been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-allergic properties, along with the protective effects against neuronal injury and bone fracture, will be discussed. Collectively, the review hopes to draw attention to the therapeutic potential of I. indigotica not only as a TCM, but also as a potential source of bioactive compounds for disease management and treatment.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500069
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2022)
       
  • Tanshinone IIA: New Perspective on the Anti-Tumor Mechanism of A
           Traditional Natural Medicine

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      Authors: Wenfeng Zhang, Cun Liu, Jie Li, Yiping Lu, Huayao Li, Jing Zhuang, Xin Ren, Mengmeng Wang, Changgang Sun
      Pages: 209 - 239
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 209-239, 2022.
      The search for natural and efficacious antineoplastic drugs, with minimal toxicity and side effects, is an important part of antitumor drug research and development. Tanshinone IIA is the most evaluated lipophilic active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Tanshinone IIA is a path-breaking traditional drug applied in cardiovascular treatment. It has also been found that tanshinone IIA plays an important role in the digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, as well as in other tumor diseases. Tanshinone IIA significantly inhibits the proliferation of several types of tumors, blocks the cell cycle, induces apoptosis and autophagic death, in addition to inhibiting cell migration and invasion. Among these, the regulation of tumor-cell apoptosis signaling pathways is the key breakthrough point in several modes of antitumor therapy. The PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway and the JNK pathway are the key pathways for tanshinone IIA to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In addition to glycolysis, reactive oxygen species and signal transduction all play an active role with the participation of tanshinone IIA. Endogenous apoptosis is considered the main mechanism of tumor apoptosis induced by tanshinone IIA. Multiple pathways and targets play a role in the process of endogenous apoptosis. Tanshinone IIA can protect chemotherapy drugs, which is mainly reflected in the protection of the side effects of chemotherapy drugs, such as neurotoxicity and inhibition of the hematopoietic system. Tanshinone IIA also has a certain regulatory effect on tumor angiogenesis, which is mainly manifested in the control of hypoxia. Our findings indicated that tanshinone IIA is an effective treatment agent in the cardiovascular field and plays a significant role in antitumor therapeutics. This paper reviews the pharmacological potential and inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on cancer. It is greatly anticipated that tanshinone IIA will be employed as an adjuvant in the treatment of various cancers.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500070
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2022)
       
  • Astragalus Total Saponins Ameliorate Peritoneal Fibrosis by Promoting
           Mitochondrial Synthesis and Inhibiting Apoptosis

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      Authors: Zheng-Hong Li, Rong Xu, Jun Shi, Man-Shu Yu, Yu Zhong, Wei-Ming He, Li-Ping Cao, Mei-Xiao Sheng
      Pages: 261 - 274
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 261-274, 2022.
      Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a disease caused by prolonged exposure of the peritoneum to high levels of dialysis fluid. Astragalus total saponins (ATS) is a phytochemical naturally occurring in Radix Astragali that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we constructed an in vivo model of PF using 4.25% glucose-containing administered intraperitoneally to rats and incubated peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) with 4.25% glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis fluid to construct an in vitro model of PF. Furthermore, siRNA of PGC-1[math] was used to inhibit the expression of PGC-1[math] to further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of ATS on PF. In both in vivo and in vitro models, ATS treatment showed a protective effect against PF, with ATS reducing the thickness of peritoneal tissues in PF rats, increasing the viability of PMCs, increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing apoptosis ratio. ATS treatment also reduced the expressions of peritoneal fibrosis markers (Smad2, p-Smad2 and [math]-SMA) and apoptosis markers (Caspase3, cleaved-Caspase3 and Bax) and restored the expressions of mitochondrial synthesis proteins (PGC-1[math], NRF1 and TFAM) in ATS-treated peritoneal tissues or PMCs. Furthermore, in the presence of PGC-1[math] inhibition, the protective effect of ATS on PF was blocked. In conclusion, ATS treatment may be an effective therapeutic agent to inhibit high glucose-induced in peritoneal fibrosis through PGC-1[math]-mediated apoptosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500094
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2022)
       
  • Salidroside Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Injury through AMPK
           Dependent and Independent Pathways to Maintain Mitochondrial Quality
           Control

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      Authors: Bin Wen, Keru Zhou, Caiyin Hu, Jiehui Chen, Kai Xu, Tao Liang, Benhong He, Ling Chen, Juan Chen
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Salidroside, an active ingredient in Rhodiola rosea, has potent protective activity against cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying its pharmacological actions are poorly understood. In this study, we employed a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and cellular oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) models to test the hypothesis that salidroside may restore mitochondrial quality control in neurons by modulating the relevant signaling. The results indicated that salidroside mitigated almost 40% the ischemia-induced brain infarct volumes in mice and the OGD-decreased viability of neurons to ameliorate the mitochondrial functions. Furthermore, salidroside treatment alleviated the OGD- or ischemia-induced imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in neurons by attenuating the AMPK activity. Moreover, salidroside alleviated 50% the OGD-promoted mitochondrial calcium fluorescence intensity and 5% mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) area by down-regulating GRP75 expression independent of the AMPK signaling. Finally, similar findings were achieved in primary mouse neurons. Collectively, these data indicate that salidroside effectively restores the mitochondria dynamics, facilitates mitochondrial biogenesis by attenuating the AMPK signaling, and maintains calcium homeostasis in neurons independent of the AMPK activity.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X2250046X
       
  • Gut Flora Mediates the Rapid Tolerance of Electroacupuncture on Ischemic
           Stroke by Activating Melatonin Receptor through Regulating
           Indole-3-Propionic Acid

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      Authors: Shan Li, Xiaoyong Zhao, Feihong Lin, Xuqing Ni, Xia Liu, Chang Kong, Xinyu Yao, Yunchang Mo, Qinxue Dai, Junlu Wang
      Pages: 1 - 28
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Electroacupuncture (EA) is commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. This study aimed to clarify the mechanisms of action of treatments of cerebral ischemic stroke from the perspective of gut microecology. We used a mouse model and cell cultures to investigate the effects of EA on the intestinal microflora in mice models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant activities of metabolites. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to validate the roles of gut microbiota. Metabolomic analysis was performed to characterize the metabolic profile differences between the mice in the EA + MCAO and MCAO groups. Gavaging with feces relieved brain damage in mice that received EA (EA mice) more than in mice that did not (non-EA [NEA] mice). The gut microbial composition and metabolic profiles of the EA and NEA mice were different. In particular, the microbiota from the mice in the EA or EA-FMT groups generated more indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) than the microbiota from the mice in the MCAO or NEA-FMT groups. We confirmed that IPA binds to specific melatonin receptors (MTRs) in target cells and exerts antioxidant effects by adding MTR inhibitors or knocking out the MTR1 gene in vivo and in the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion models of N2a cell experiments. EA can prevent ischemic stroke by improving the composition of intestinal microbiota in MCAO mice. Moreover, this study reveals a new mechanism of intestinal flora regulation of stroke that differs from inflammation/immunity, namely gut microbiota regulates stroke by affecting IPA levels.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500409
       
  • Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Patent Medicine Combined with
           Oseltamivir for the Treatment of Adult Influenza: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Xiaona Li, Bin Liu, Naifan Duan, Yibai Xiong, Yan Zhang, Chi Zhang, Cheng Lu, Li Li
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Influenza is a sudden and serious viral breathing and lung-related infectious disease that causes significant deadliness and death worldwide. Now, the international treatment is oseltamivir. Chinese patent medicine (CPM) as a kind of different therapy is used in the treatment of influenza in China. The aim of this study was to interpret the clinical efficacy and safety of CPM combined with oseltamivir in the treatment of adult influenza by reviewing all relevant randomized controlled trials, and to provide new ideas and methods for the treatment of influenza. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Database were searched from the date of beginning until 1 June 2021, for the references on treatment of influenza with CPM. According to standard information extraction tables, two people worked to find and aggregate information independently. Review Manager 5.2 was used to study data carefully and evaluate risk of bias. A total of nine trials of 906 patients were included. Based on the meta-analysis, compared to oseltamivir, CPM combined with oseltamivir had better effect in the time of defervescence [MD = –17.68, 95% CI (–25.93, –9.44), [math] < 0.0001], the time of symptom improvement [MD = –22.28, 95% CI (–26.77, –17.80), [math] < 0.00001], and the time of hospitalization [MD = –2.04, 95% CI (–3.45, –0.63), [math] = 0.005]. Related to safety [RR = 0.69, 95% CI (0.38, 1.23), [math] = 0.21], the experimental group had fewer adverse reactions than the control group, but there is no statistical significance. The findings show that CPM combined with oseltamivir in adult influenza has a better efficacy in shortening the time of defervescence and symptom improvement, reducing the time of hospitalization. However, publication bias is inevitable due to the low methodological quality check of the clinical research about diagnostic criteria, definition of adult influenza, and small number of articles, and further large sample sizes and multi-center clinical trials are needed to give better proof for its efficacy and safety.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500422
       
  • Polyphenols from Chinese Herbal Medicine: Molecular Mechanisms and
           Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Fibrosis

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      Authors: Lei Wang, Ting Zhu, Deqin Feng, Renshi Li, Chaofeng Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 32
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a highly confounding and fatal pathological process with finite treatment options. Multiple factors such as oxidative and immune/inflammation involve key pathological processes in chronic lung disease, and their intimate interactions mediate chronic lung damage, denudation of the alveolar epithelium, hyperproliferation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs), proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, and the permeability of microvessels. We reviewed the classic mechanism of PF and highlighted a few emerging mechanisms for studying complex networks in lung disease pathology. Polyphenols, as a multi-target drug, has excellent potential in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. We then reviewed recent advances in discovering phenolic compounds from fruits, tea, and medical herbs with the bioactivities of simultaneously regulating multiple factors (e.g., oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy, apoptosis, pyroptosis) for minimizing pulmonary fibrosis injury. These compounds include resveratrol, curcumin, salvianolic acid B, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gallic acid, corilagin. Each phenolic compound can exert its anti-PF effect through various mechanisms, and the signaling pathways involved in different phenolic compounds are not the same. This review summarized the available evidence on phenolic compounds’ effectiveness in pulmonary diseases and explored the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets of phenolic compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the properties of inhibition of ongoing fibrogenesis and resolution of existing fibrosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500434
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Endometriosis
           Associated Pain

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      Authors: Yuezhen Lin, Ruijie Hou, Tao Zhang, Jacqueline Pui Wah Chung, Chi Chiu Wang, Ruihua Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent condition that causes dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for endometriosis for many years in Asian populations. This is a retrospective study in a territory teaching hospital of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in Beijing, China to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness and safety of CHM for endometriosis associated pain (EAP) before and after CHM treatment. A total of 338 out of 1143 women confirmed with endometriosis by ultrasonogram or surgery within three months received a CHM decoction twice a day for at least 3 and up to 24 months. All data were collected by a Structured Medical Records of Endometriosis (SMRE) in every clinic visit covering the whole treatment period. Pain score, evaluated by Numeric Rating Scale, was significantly decreased from 3rd to 12th month in women with moderate or severe pain. Frequency and severity rating of menstrual symptoms, evaluated by Cox Menstrual Symptom Scale, were significantly decreased in women with any pain level. Psychological changes rated by Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were significantly lower in 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment, but those by Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) was significantly decreased in six months of treatment. There was no severe adverse event but only minor side-effects. In conclusion, our study showed that CHM relieved EAP and related symptoms with minimal side-effects after treatment. A large-scale randomized and placebo-controlled trial could be designed to confirm the efficacy and safety.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500446
       
  • Protective Effect of Ginsenosides from Stems and Leaves of Panax ginseng
           against Scopolamine-Induced Memory Damage via Multiple Molecular
           Mechanisms

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      Authors: Ying Wang, Jun-Jie Zhang, Jin-Gang Hou, Xin Li, Wei Liu, Jing-Tian Zhang, Si-Wen Zheng, Feng-Yan Su, Wei Li
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Although growing evidence has shown that ginsenosides from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (GSLS) exercise a protective impact on the central nervous system, in the model of memory damage induced by scopolamine, it is still rarely reported. Thus, the mechanism of action needs to be further explored. This study was to investigate the effect of GSLS on scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory damage and the underlying mechanism. Male ICR mice were treated with SCOP (3 mg/kg) for 7 days, with or without GSLS (75 and 150 mg/kg) treatment for 14 days. After GSLS treatment, the memory damage induced by SCOP was significantly ameliorated as shown by the improvement of cholinergic function (AChE and ChAT), brain tissue hippocampus morphology (H&E staining), and oxidative stress (MDA, GSH, and NO). Meanwhile, immunohistochemical assay suggested that GSLS increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Tyrosine Kinase receptor B (TrkB). Further mechanism research indicated that GSLS inhibited the Tau hyperphosphorylation and cell apoptosis by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibited neuroinflammation by regulating the NF-[math]B pathway, thereby exerting a cognitive impairment improvement effect. This work suggested that GSLS could protect against SCOP-induced memory defects possibly through inhibiting oxidative stress, inhibiting neuroinflammation and cell apoptosis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500458
       
  • Mechanisms of Danggui Buxue Tang on Hematopoiesis via Multiple Targets and
           Multiple Components: Metabonomics Combined with Database Mining Technology
           

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      Authors: Defu Tie, Zhaohui Fan, Dan Chen, Xiao Chen, Qizhu Chen, Jun Chen, Huaben Bo
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to explore the mechanism of action of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) with its multiple components and targets in the synergistic regulation of hematopoiesis. Mouse models of hematopoiesis were established using antibiotics. Metabolomics was used to detect body metabolites and enriched pathways. The active ingredients, targets, and pathways of DBT were analyzed using system pharmacology. The results of metabolomics and system pharmacology were integrated to identify the key pathways and targets. A total of 515 metabolites were identified using metabolomics. After the action of antibiotics, 49 metabolites were markedly changed: 23 were increased, 26 were decreased, and 11 were significantly reversed after DBT administration. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that these 11 metabolites were related to bile secretion, cofactor biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The results of the pharmacological analysis showed that 616 targets were related to DBT-induced anemia, which were mainly enriched in biological processes, such as bile secretion, biosynthesis of cofactors, and cholesterol metabolism. Combined with the results of metabolomics and system pharmacology, we found that bile acid metabolism and biotin synthesis were the key pathways for DBT. Forty-two targets of DBT were related to these two metabolic pathways. PPI analysis revealed that the top 10 targets were CYP3A4, ABCG2, and UGT1A8. Twenty-one components interacted with these 10 targets. In one case, a target corresponds to multiple components, and a component corresponds to multiple targets. DBT acts on multiple targets of ABCG2, UGT1A8, and CYP3A4 through multiple components, affecting the biosynthesis of cofactors and bile secretion pathways to regulate hematopoiesis.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500471
       
  • Protective Effects and Therapeutics of Ginsenosides for Improving
           Endothelial Dysfunction: From Therapeutic Potentials, Pharmaceutical
           Developments to Clinical Trials

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      Authors: Fang Yang, Ming-Yue Yang, Jing-Qing Le, Bang-Yue Luo, Meng-Die Yin, Chao-Li, Jia-Li Jiang, Yi-Fan Fang, Jing-Wei Shao
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The endothelium covers the internal lumen of the entire circulatory system and plays an important modulatory role in vascular homeostasis. Endothelium dysfunction, characterized by a vasoconstrictive, pro-inflammatory, and pro-coagulant state, usually manifests as a significant pathological process of vascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis (AS), stroke, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and cancer. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to seek promising therapeutic drugs or remedies to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction-induced vascular ailments and complications. Recently, much attention has been attached to ginsenosides, the most significant active components of ginseng, which have always been referred to as “all-healing” and widely used for its extensively medicinal value. Surprisingly, ginsenosides have diverse biological activity which might be related to inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis. In this review, a brief introduction about endothelial dysfunction and ginsenosides was demonstrated, and the emphasis was put on summarizing multi-faceted pharmacological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of ginsenosides on the endothelium, including vasorelaxation, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and angio-modulation. Beyond that, nanotechnology to improve efficacy and the existing clinical trials of ginsenosides were concluded. Hopefully, our work will give suggestions for promoting clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, e.g., hypertension, AS, diabetes, ischemic stroke, and cancer. This review provides a comprehensive base of knowledge for ginsenosides to prevention and treatment of vascular injury- related diseases with clinical significance.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500318
       
  • A Clinical Study on the Relationship Among Insomnia, Tongue Diagnosis, and
           Oral Microbiome

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      Authors: Seo-Hyun Park, Na Rae Shin, Meng Yang, Shambhunath Bose, Ojin Kwon, Dong-Hyun Nam, Jun-Hwan Lee, Eun-Ji Song, Young-Do Nam, Hojun Kim
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Currently, there is a lack of adequate methods to assess insomnia objectively. This study addresses the usefulness of tongue features and oral microbial profile as a potential diagnostic biomarker of insomnia. One hundred insomniac patients and 20 healthy control subjects were selected. Their demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the tongue diagnostic indices and oral microbial profile, were examined. Compared to the control group, insomniac patients showed a higher abnormal low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio. In tongue diagnosis, the indices related to lightness of tongue body and tongue coating were higher in the insomniac group vs. the control group. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of oral microbial population revealed that the relative abundances of Clostridia, Veillonella, Bacillus and Lachnospiraceae were significantly higher in the insomniac patients than the control group. Additionally, the tongue features of the insomniac group exhibited that the non-coating group had a poor sleep condition compared to the thick- coating group, although the difference was insignificant. On the other hand, the oral microbial communities of the insomniac patients revealed greater alpha and beta diversities in the non-coating group vs. the thick-coating group. The alpha and beta diversities were higher in orotype1 than orotype2. Collectively, this study highlighted that the lightness of tongue body and tongue coating as well as oral microbial profiles of SR1, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and Lachnospiraceae_unclassified could be considered potential biomarkers of insomnia.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X2250032X
       
  • Herbal Medicines for Constipation and Phytochemical Comparison of Active
           Components

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      Authors: Qinge Ma, Chong-Zhi Wang, Wamtinga R. Sawadogo, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Chun-Su Yuan
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Constipation is a very common medical condition worldwide, negatively affecting patients’ quality of life and healthcare system. Rhubarb, senna leaf, and aloe are three frequently used herbal medications for achieving regular bowel movement. Rhubarb is also a key ingredient in MaZiRenWan, a Chinese medicine formula used every so often for constipation in oriental countries. We reviewed and summarized the major chemical components from these three botanicals, including dianthrones, anthraquinone glycosides, free anthraquinones, and other polyphenols. The purgative actions of these constituents have been compared. Anthraquinone, especially its dianthrone compounds such as sennoside A and sennoside B, as natural stimulant laxatives, possesses significant effects to promote gastrointestinal motility and relieve functional constipation. Furthermore, the safety, reported side effects, and other benefits of anthraquinone compounds are presented. To date, many anti-constipation natural products are being used but their research is relatively limited, and thus, more investigations in this field are indeed needed.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X2250029X
       
  • Identifying Dose Components of Manual Acupuncture to Determine the
           Dose–Response Relationship of Acupuncture Treatment: A Systematic Review
           

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      Authors: Da-Eun Yoon, In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The dose–response relationship is a hallmark of pharmacological studies. However, this relationship has not been fully established in acupuncture research. This systematic review aims to provide the characteristics of the dose–response relationship in acupuncture research. We further summarized the differences in acupuncture effects according to dose components. Dose components of acupuncture were categorized into three groups: number of needles, stimulation intensity, and total number/frequency of treatments. The PubMed database was used to identify studies examining the effects of different doses of acupuncture from the establishment of the database to August 13, 2020. Dose components and responses were extracted from each study, and the results of low- and high-dose conditions were compared. Fourteen studies were included in this study. Of the included studies, 37.5% showed statistically significant enhanced responses to acupuncture treatment under high-dose conditions compared to low-dose conditions. Significant differences between high- and low-dose conditions were observed most frequently in studies that used various stimulation intensities (four out of six studies), followed in order by studies that used various numbers of needles (two out of seven studies), and those that used various numbers or frequencies of treatment (none of the three studies). Responses were categorized into symptom changes, physiological changes, experimentally induced pain/stimuli perception, and needling sensation. Stimulation intensity, which is considered one of the most important needling components, might indeed have a great impact on clinical responses to acupuncture.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500264
       
  • Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Alleviates Ischemic Stroke in Rats via
           HIF-1[math], BNIP3, and Notch1-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy

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      Authors: Yuliang Zhang, Yi Liu, Qian Cui, Zitong Fu, Haoyu Yu, Ao Liu, Jingjing Liu, Xiude Qin, Shaoqin Ge, Guowei Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Stroke has become a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The cellular recycling pathway autophagy has been implicated in ischemia-induced neuronal changes, but whether autophagy plays a beneficial or detrimental role is controversial. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA), a popular herbal medicine, is an extract of Carthamus tinctorius and is used to treat ischemic stroke (IS) in China. HSYA has been shown to prevent cardiovascular and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal models. However, the specific active ingredients and molecular mechanisms of HSYA in IS remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of HSYA treatment on autophagy in a rat model of IS. IS was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rats were treated once daily for 3 days with saline, HYSA, or the neuroprotective agent Edaravone. Neurobehavioral testing was performed on days 1, 2, and 3 post-surgery. Brains were removed on day 3 post-surgery for histological evaluation of infarct area, morphology, and for qRT-PCR and western blot analysis of the expression of the autophagy factor LC3 and the signaling molecules HIF-1[math], BNIP3, and Notch1. Molecular docking studies were performed in silico to predict potential interactions between HSYA and LC3, HIF-1[math], BNIP3, and Notch1 proteins. The result showed that HSYA treatment markedly alleviated IS-induced neurobehavioral deficits and reduced brain infarct area and tissue damage. HSYA also significantly reduced hippocampal expression levels of LC3, HIF-1[math], BNIP3, and Notch1. The beneficial effect of HSYA was generally superior to that of Edaravone. Molecular modeling suggested that HSYA may bind strongly to HIF-1[math], BNIP3, and Notch1 but weakly to LC3. In conclusion, HSYA inhibits post-IS autophagy induction in the brain, possibly by suppressing HIF-1[math], BNIP3 and Notch1. HSYA may have utility as a post-IS neuroprotective agent.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500331
       
  • Effects of Capsaicin on the Hypoglycemic Regulation of Metformin and Gut
           Microbiota Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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      Authors: Zhi-Qiang Kang, Jing-Lei Hu, Man-Yun Chen, Yu Mao, Li-Fang Xie, Nian Yang, Tao Liu, Wei Zhang, Wei-Hua Huang
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Dietary capsaicin (CAP), the main irritant component in pepper, can reduce the incidence of diabetes, while metformin (MET) is a first-line oral hypoglycemic drug. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAP on the hypoglycemic effect of MET is pertinent to gut microbiota. The glucose and insulin tolerance of diabetic rats were monitored. The glycolipid metabolism was analyzed by detecting blood biochemical parameters. Liver pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining. The inflammatory cytokines and intestinal tight junction proteins were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to analyze gut microbiota profiles. The results showed that CAP and MET co-treatment could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose, improve glucose tolerance, lessen liver injury and inflammatory infiltration, down-regulate inflammatory cytokines and up-regulate intestinal tight junction proteins in diabetic rats by comparing it with MET monotherapy. Moreover, CAP and MET co-treatment altered gut microbiota profiles by regulating microbials’ abundances such as Akkermansia. In conclusion, CAP showed the significant hypoglycemic effect of MET and remodulated gut microbiota profiles in diabetic rats.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500355
       
  • Therapeutic Effect and Mechanism of Acupuncture in Autoimmune Diseases

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      Authors: Jing Wang, Fangyi Zhu, Wei Huang, Zhengyi Chen, Ping Zhao, Yanting Lei, Yumei Liu, Xijun Liu, Bo Sun, Hulun Li
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are conditions arising from abnormal immune reactions to autoantigens, which can be defined as the loss of immune tolerance to autoantigens, causing the production of autoantibodies and subsequent inflammation and tissue injury. The etiology of AIDs remains elusive, which may involve both genetic and environmental factors, such as diet, drugs, and infections. Despite rapid progress in the treatment of autoimmune diseases over the past few decades, there is still no approach that can cure AIDs. As an alternative approach, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) such as acupuncture has been used in an attempt to treat AIDs including multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the results have proven to be quite promising, despite the fact that its mechanism is still not fully understood. In this review, the present knowledge regarding mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of AIDs has been summarized, and deeper insights will be provided in order to better understand how acupuncture may regulate immune responses during AIDs.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500252
       
  • Integrative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota and Metabolome in Obese Mice
           with Electroacupuncture by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and HPLC–MS-based
           Metabolic Profiling

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      Authors: Yuan-Cheng Si, Chen-Chen Ren, Er-Wei Zhang, Zhao-Xia Kang, Xi-Ya Mo, Qing-Qing Li, Bo Chen
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Acupuncture has been used to treat numerous diseases such as obesity in China for thousands of years. Several mechanisms of acupuncture on obesity have been surveyed based on metabolomics, but the effects of acupuncture on the alterations in the gut flora are still unclear. In this study, an integrated approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS) metabolic profiling was conducted to investigate the effects of acupuncture on high-fat-diet-induced obesity through the regulation of the relative abundances of gut microbiota and their relationships with biomarker candidates. A total of 10 significantly altered bacterial genera and 11 metabolites were recognized, which recovered to normal levels after electroacupuncture treatment. The relative abundances of the bacterial families Muribaculaceae,Lachnospiraceae,Desulfovibrionaceae,Helicobacteraceae, Prevotellaceae,Ruminococcaceae,Rikenellaceae,Deferribacteraceae,Bacteroidaceae andTannerellaceaewere remarkedly changed among the three groups. Potential biomarkers, including LysoPC(0:0/16:0) ([math]1),PC(0:0/18:0) ([math]2),Cholic acid([math]3),LysoPC(16:0) ([math]4), 3[math],6[math],7[math]-Trihydroxy-5[math]-cholanoic acid([math]5), 5beta-Cyprinolsulfate([math]6),PC(18:0/0:0) ([math]7), 1-Nitro-5-hydroxy-6-glutathionyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalene([math]8),Glycocholic acid([math]9),[math]-Arginine([math]10) andGulonic acid([math]11), were involved in several metabolic pathways, such as the glycerophospholipid metabolism and primary bile acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, there was a strong correlation between the perturbed gut flora in Bilophila and Bifidobacterium and the altered intestinal metabolite of 3[math],6[math],7[math]-Trihydroxy-5[math]-cholanoic acid and Cholanoic acid and [math]-Arginine. This finding suggested that the effects of electroacupuncture might change the proportions of Bilophila and Bifidobacterium by regulating the constituents of the functional metabolite of 3[math],6[math],7[math]-Trihydroxy-5[math]-cholanoic acid and Cholanoic acid and [math]-Arginine. These results indicated that the effects of electroacupuncture focused on custom metabolic pathways as well as depend on the changes in the gut microbiota in obesity. These findings suggest that the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and HPLC–MS-based metabolomics approach can be applied to comprehensively assess the effects of traditional Chinese medicines.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500276
       
  • Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control,
           Industrial Application, Pharmacokinetics and Network Pharmacology of
           Pogostemon cablin: A Comprehensive Review

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      Authors: Fangfang Xu, Wanna Cai, Ting Ma, Huimei Zeng, Xiaolan Kuang, Weiying Chen, Bo Liu
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Pogostemonis Herba (PH) is the dried aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth, which is mainly distributed and used in Asian countries. PH is an aromatic damp-resolving drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is usually used for the treatment of vomiting, chest tension, tiredness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache. In this review, the summary of chemical constituents in the aerial parts, biological activities, history of uses, quality control methods, industrial applications, pharmacokinetics and network pharmacology are reported. By collating the chemical constituents of various parts of PH, a total of 174 components were identified, including 66 terpenes, 6 pyrones, 40 flavonoids, 21 phenylpropanoids, 9 steroids, 4 polysaccharides and 28 others. Pharmacological research has found that PH possesses multi-pharmacological activities, including regulating the gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, and anti-inflammation, which provide more scientific interpretation for the clinical usage of PH. In addition, the shortcomings of the current research on PH and the recommendation of future studies on PH are analyzed. We hope this review can provide some insight for further research and applications of PH in future.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500288
       
  • The Changing Global Landscape in the Development of Artemisinin-Based
           Treatments: A Clinical Trial Perspective

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      Authors: Xiang-Jun Kong, Kun-Meng Liu, Hua-Li Zuo, Hsien-Da Huang, Yuan-Jia Hu
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs), due to their potent antimalarial activities, are widely used as frontline antimalarials across the world. Although the large-scale deployment of ARTs has significantly contributed to a substantial decline in malaria deaths, the global malaria burden is still high. New antimalarial treatments need to be developed to manage the growing artemisinin resistance. Understanding the status of ART development is crucial for developing strategies for new alternatives and identifying opportunities to develop ART-based treatments. This study sampled ART clinical trials from the past two decades to gain an overview of the global ART-development landscape. A total of 768 trials were collected to analyze the disease focuses, activity trends, development status, geographic distribution, and combination treatment profiles of ART trials. The findings highlighted the constant focus of ARTs on malaria, the evolving combination research focus, the distinctions between ART development preferences across global regions, the urgent demands for treatments for artemisinin-resistant malaria, and the unavoidable need to consider ART combinations in the development of new antimalarials.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500306
       
  • Cordyceps Improves Obesity and its Related Inflammation via Modulation of
           Enterococcus cecorum Abundance and Bile Acid Metabolism

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      Authors: Guo-Dong Wu, An Pan, Xu Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Cai, Qi Wang, Feng-Qing Huang, Raphael N. Alolga, Jing Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Qun Liu
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator of inherent inflammation that underlies the pathogenesis of obesity. Cordyceps comprises the larval body and the stroma of Cordyceps sinensis (BerK.) Sacc. parasiting on Hepialidae larvae of moths (H. pialusoberthur) with potent metabolic regulation functions. The underlying anti-obesity mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the water extract of Cordyceps attenuates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and its associated inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microbiomic analysis showed that Cordyceps reduced the amounts of Enterococcus cecorum, a bile-salt hydrolase-producing microbe to regulate the metabolism of bile acids in the gut. Importantly, E. cecorum transplantation or liver-specific knockdown of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid receptor, diminished the protective effect of Cordyceps against HFD-induced obesity. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms that underlie the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of Cordyceps and suggest that targeting intestinal E. cecorum or hepatic FXR are potential anti-obesity and anti-inflammation therapeutic avenues.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500343
       
  • Ameliorative Effects of Malonyl Ginsenoside from Panax ginseng on
           Glucose-Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Resistance via IRS1/PI3K/Akt and AMPK
           Signaling Pathways in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

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      Authors: Dong-Sheng Wang, Jia-Mei Wang, Fu-Rui Zhang, Feng-Jie Lei, Xin Wen, Jia Song, Guang-Zhi Sun, Zhi Liu
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Our previous study has revealed that malonyl-ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG-MGR) play a crucial role in the treatment of T2DM. However, its potential mechanism was still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic mechanisms of action of PG-MGR in high fat diet-fed (HFD) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and determined the main constituents of PG-MGR responsible for its anti-diabetic effects. Our results showed that 16 malonyl ginsenosides were identified in PG-MGR by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. PG-MGR treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and improved insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. Simultaneously, PG-MGR treatment improved liver injury by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) expression. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein expression levels of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, p-AMPK/AMPK, p-ACC/ACC and GLUT4 in liver and skeletal muscle were significantly up-regulated after PG-MGR treatment, and the protein expression levels of p-IRS-1/IRS-1, Fas and SREBP-1c were significantly reduced. These findings revealed that PG-MGR has the potential to improve glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin resistance by activating the IRS-1/PI3K/AKT and AMPK signal pathways.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500367
       
  • Exploring the Potential Pharmacological Mechanism of Hesperidin and
           Glucosyl Hesperidin against COVID-19 Based on Bioinformatics Analyses and
           Antiviral Assays

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      Authors: Yun Huang, Wei Zhou, Jing Sun, Guoliang Ou, Nan-Shan Zhong, Zhigang Liu
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The development of anti-COVID-19 drugs has become the top priority since the outbreak of the epidemic, and Traditional Chinese medicine plays an important role in reducing mortality. Here, hesperidin and its glycosylation product, glucosyl hesperidin were selected to determine their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 due to their structural specificity as reported. To be specific, their binding ability with ACE2, M, S, RBD and N proteins were verified with both in silico and wet lab methods, i.e., molecular docking and binding affinity tests, including biolayer interferometry assay (BLI) and isothermal titration calorimetry assay (ITC). Moreover, systematic pharmacological analysis was conducted to reveal their pharmacological mechanism in treating COVID-19. Finally, their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was determined in vitro in a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratory. The results demonstrated their outstanding binding affinity with ACE2, M, S and RBD proteins, while showed barely unobserved binding with N protein, indicating their key roles in influencing the invasion and early replication phase of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, both hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin were shown to have a great impact on immune, inflammation and virus infection induced by COVID-19 according to the systematic pharmacological analysis. Moreover, the IC50s of hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin against SARS-CoV-2 were further determined (51.5 [math]M and 5.5 mM, respectively) with cell-based in vitro assay, suggesting their great anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. All in all, present research was the first to verify the binding ability of hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin with SARS-CoV-2 proteins with both in silico and wet-lab methods and proposed the possibility of applying hesperidin and glucosyl hesperidin to treat COVID-19.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500148
       
  • Advances in Anti-Osteoporosis Polysaccharides Derived from Medicinal Herbs
           and Other Edible Substances

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      Authors: Zefeng Zhao, Meng Nian, Hong Lv, Jiangxin Yue, Haifa Qiao, Xiaohang Yang, Xiaohui Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease, and treatment is required for the prevention of low bone mass, deterioration of microstructural bone tissue, and fragility fractures. Osteoporosis therapy includes calcium, vitamin D, and drugs with antiresorptive or anabolic action on the bone. Therapy for osteoporosis does not include taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but pain associated with osteoporotic fractures can be treated by taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Recently, polysaccharides extracted from medicinal herbs and edible substances (PsMHES) have attracted attention on account of their safety and promising anti-osteoporosis effects, whereas a systematic review about their potential in anti-osteoporosis is vacant to date. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress of PsMHES with anti-osteoporosis activities, looking to introduce the advances in the various pharmacological mechanisms and targets involved in the anti-osteoporosis effects, extraction methods, main mechanism involved in Wnt/[math]-catenin pathways and RANKL (Receptor Activator for NF[math]B ligand or TNFSF25) pathways, and Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) analysis of PsMHES. Typical herbs likeAchyranthes bidentate and Morinda officinalis used for the treatment of osteoporosis are introduced; their traditional uses in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are discussed in this paper as well. This review will help to the recognition of the value of PsMHES in anti-osteoporosis and provide guidance for the research and development of new anti-osteoporosis agents in clinic.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500173
       
  • Effectiveness of Integrative Chinese–Western Medicine for Chronic Kidney
           Disease and Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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      Authors: Kam Wa Chan, Tak Yee Chow, Kam Yan Yu, Yibin Feng, Lixing Lao, Zhaoxiang Bian, Vivian Taam Wong, Sydney Chi-Wai Tang
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are pandemic, requiring more therapeutic options. This retrospective cohort evaluated the effectiveness, safety profile and prescription pattern of a pilot integrative medicine service program in Hong Kong. Data from 38 patients with diabetes and CKD enrolled to receive 48-week individualized add-on Chinese medicine (CM) were retrieved from the electronically linked hospital database. A 1:1 cohort was generated with patients from the same source and matched by propensity score. The primary outcomes are the change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) analyzed by analysis of covariance and mixed regression model adjusted for baseline eGFR, age, gender, duration of diabetes history, history of hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, and the use of insulin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker. The rate of adverse events and the change of key biochemical parameters were analyzed. After a median of 51 weeks, patients who received add-on CM had stabilized eGFR (difference in treatment period: 0.74 ml/min/1.73m2, 95% CI: –1.01 to 2.50) and UACR (proportional difference in treatment period: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.34). Add-on CM was associated with significantly preserved eGFR (Inter-group difference: 3.19 ml/min/1.73m2, 95%CI: 0.32 to 6.06, [math] 0.030) compared to standard care. The intergroup ratio of UACR was comparable (0.70, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.08, [math] 0.104). The result is robust in sensitivity analysis with different statistical methods, and there was no interaction with CKD stage and UACR. The rate of serious adverse events (8.1% vs. 18.9%, [math] 0.174), moderate to severe hyperkalemia (8.1% vs. 2.7%, [math] 0.304) and hypoglycemia (13.5% vs. 5.4%, [math] 0.223), and the levels of key biochemical parameters were comparable between groups. The top seven most used CMs contained two classical formulations, namely Liu-wei-di-huang-wan and Si-jun-zi-tang. Individualized add-on CM was associated with significant kidney function preservation and was well tolerated. Further randomized controlled trials using CM prescriptions based on Liu-wei-di-huang-wan and Si-jun-zi-tang are warranted.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X2250015X
       
  • A Systematic Review on Polysaccharides from Dendrobium Genus: Recent
           Advances in the Preparation, Structural Characterization, Bioactive
           Molecular Mechanisms, and Applications

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      Authors: Xiao Li, Xiuhuan Wang, Yu Wang, Xiaoyun Liu, Xueyang Ren, Ying Dong, Jiamu Ma, Ruolan Song, Jing Wei, Axiang Yu, Qiqi Fan, Jianling Yao, Dongjie Shan, Yanfei Zhang, Shengli Wei, Gaimei She
      Pages: 1 - 39
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Dendrobium polysaccharides (DPSs) have aroused people’s increasing attention in recent years as a result of their outstanding edible and medicinal values and non-toxic property. This review systematically summarized recent progress in the different preparation techniques, structural characteristics, modification, various pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms, structure–activity relationships, and current industrial applications in the medicinal, food, and cosmetics fields of DPSs. Additionally, some recommendations for future investigations were provided. A variety of methods were applied for the extraction and purification of DPSs. They possessed primary structures (e.g., glucomannan, rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin, heteroxylan, and galactoglucan) and conformational structures (e.g., random coil, rod, globular, and a slight triple-helical). And different molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions, linkage types, and modifications could largely affect DPSs’ bioactivities (e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, gastrointestinal protective, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities). It was worth mentioning that DPSs were significant pharmaceutical remedies and therapeutic supplements especially due to their strong immunity enhancement abilities. We hope that this review will lay a solid foundation for further development and applications of Dendrobium polysaccharides.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500185
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicine for COVID-19: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Hanting Wu, Rongchen Dai, Xiaqiu Wu, Qiushuang Li, Hanti Lu, Junchao Yang, Wei Mao, Peijie Hei, Juan Liang, Conghua Ji
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment with a focus on the benefits of symptomatic relief and time-related indexes. Seven electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, Wanfang Data, and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry) were systematically searched from their beginning to April 2021. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing patients using Western therapy (WT) alone and those using additional Chinese medicine (WT [math] CM) were included. Primary outcomes included overall efficacy, lung recovery, and time to viral assay conversion. Secondary outcomes included time and rate of individual symptom recovery, laboratory indicators, and adverse events. Overall, 15 RCTs, including 1469 participants, were included in this review. WT [math] CM significantly improved overall efficacy (risk ratio, RR [math] 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.30; [math] [math] 0.01) and lung recovery (RR [math] 1.30; 95% CI:1.19 to 1.42; [math] [math] 0.01) and shortened the time to viral assay conversion (weighted mean differences, WMD [math]1.38; 95% CI: −1.98 to −0.78; [math] [math] 0.01) and duration of chest distress (WMD [math] 2.41; 95% CI: −2.99 to −1.83; [math] [math] 0.01) compared to WT alone. There was no difference in safety between the WT [math] CM and WT groups (RR [math] 0.94; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.39; [math] 0.76). In conclusion, the synthesized evidence from 15 RCTs showed that additional Chinese medication may improve treatment efficacy, relieve symptoms, promote lung recovery, and reduce the inflammatory response against COVID-19, while not increasing the risk of adverse events compared with conventional Western medication alone.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500136
       
  • Notoginsenoside R1, An Active Compound from Panax notoginseng, Inhibits
           Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Liver Fibrosis via MAPK Signaling
           Pathway

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      Authors: Xu Gong, Linlin Shan, Sisi Cao, Kaitao Li, Yanli Wu, Qing Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Activation of the hepatic stellate cell is implicated in pathological vascularization during development of liver fibrosis. MAPK signaling is involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cell. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Notoginsenoside R1 is an effective saponin isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen and exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic roles in various diseases. However, the role of Notoginsenoside R1 in liver fibrosis has not been investigated yet. First, a rat model with liver fibrosis was established through oral gavage administration with carbon tetrachloride. Data from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome stainings showed that carbon tetrachloride induced severe hepatic damages, including inflammatory cell infiltration, lipid droplets deposition in hepatocytes and liver centrilobular necrosis. Meanwhile, the rats were also intraperitoneal injected with different concentrations of Notoginsenoside R1. Results demonstrated that Notoginsenoside R1 treatment suppressed the pathological changes in the livers with enhanced levels of ALB and TP, and reduced levels of ALP, AST and ALT. Second, Notoginsenoside R1 also significantly attenuated carbon tetrachloride-induced decrease in PPAR-[math] and increase in Coll-a1, [math]-SMA and TIMP1 in liver tissues ([math][math] 0.001). Third, the decrease in GSH, SOD and GST and increase in MDA, IL-1[math], IL-6 and TNF-[math] induced by carbon tetrachloride were markedly restored by Notoginsenoside R1 ([math][math] 0.001). Lastly, Notoginsenoside R1 counteracted with the promotive effects of carbon tetrachloride on levels of proteins involved in MAPK signaling, including phosphorylated p65 (p-p65), p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38. In conclusion, Notoginsenoside R1 suppressed the activation of hepatic stellate cells and exerted anti- oxidant and anti-inflammatory to attenuate carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis through inactivation of NF-[math]B and MAPK signaling.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500197
       
  • Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma Attenuates DSS-Induced Colitis by Regulating
           Intestinal Flora and Metabolites

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      Authors: Linghang Qu, Chunlian Liu, Chang Ke, Xin Zhan, Lanqing Li, Haiying Xu, Kang Xu, Yanju Liu
      Pages: 1 - 28
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. is a herb widely used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as gastric ulcer, spleen deficiency, and diarrhea. In China, people fry raw A. lancea (SCZ) together with wheat bran to make bran-fried A. lancea (FCZ). Ancient Chinese texts have documented that FCZ can enhance the function of regulating the intestines and stomach. Nevertheless, the effect and mechanism of SCZ and FCZ on ulcerative colitis (UC) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of SCZ and FCZ and their mechanisms on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. The chemical constituents of SCZ and FCZ were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) with six reference compounds. The effects of SCZ and FCZ were investigated based on their effects on weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length shortening, goblet cell loss, and pathological changes using the colons from a mouse model of DSS-induced UC. The effects of SCZ and FCZ on levels of the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-[math], interleukin-6, interleukin-1[math], mucoprotein (MUC2), tight protein (ZO-1, occludin), and the activation of macrophages were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF). 16s RNA sequencing technology was used to detect the composition of the intestinal flora in each group. Nontargeted metabonomics was used to detect the serum metabolite levels of mice in each group. Pearson analysis was used to determine the correlation between the intestinal flora, metabolites, and pathological indices. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the genes of different metabolite-related enzymes. A pseudogerm free (PGF) mouse model was used to verify whether the effect of SCZ and FCZ in UC depends on the regulation of intestinal flora. SCZ and FCZ could inhibit weight loss and decrease the DAI score, colon length shortening, goblet cell loss, and the extent of pathological changes in the colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, SCZ and FCZ inhibited the decrease in MUC2, ZO-1, occludin, production of pro-inflammatory factors, and activation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in colonic tissue. The effect of FCZ was better than that of SCZ. SCZ and FCZ not only inhibited the abundance of harmful bacteria and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria, but also regulated the metabolism of disease-related metabolites such as amino acid and cholesterol metabolism. Both preparations inhibited the gene expression (Slc6A7, PRODH, Sdsl, HMGCR, SREBP-2) of different metabolite-related enzymes. In the PGF mouse model, the above effects were not observed. Rhizoma Atractylodes was effective in alleviating DSS-induced UC in mice, and FCZ was found to be superior to SCZ. The mechanism of action of FCZ and SCZ is mainly related to the regulation of intestinal flora and their associated metabolites.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500203
       
  • Regulating the Imbalance of Gut Microbiota by Smilax china L. Polyphenols
           to Alleviate Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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      Authors: Meng Xu, Hui Xue, Gaoxiang Qiao, Mingfu Liao, Li Kong, Qingfeng Zhang, Lezhen Lin, Licong Yang, Guodong Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Smilax chinaL. is used not only as a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients with various pharmacological properties, but also as food in certain parts of China. However, it is by far still unclear whether Smilax china L. polyphenols (SCP), as important bioactive constituents in Smilax china L., have effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study investigated the impact of SCP on the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD and gut microbiota in mice. SCP treatments ameliorated typical symptoms of IBD as what was reflected through suppressing body weight loss, colonic shortening, intestinal barrier damage, and increasing intestinal disease activity index. SCP treatments simultaneously decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, as well as promoted the release of anti-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, SCP ameliorated the ecological imbalance of gut microbiota and regulated the key bacteria associated with IBD (including Akkermansiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Acidaminococcaceae, Muribaculaceae, and Anaeroplasmataceae). In general, SCP may improve DSS-induced IBD in mice by regulating inflammatory factors, inhibiting oxidative stress, reducing intestinal tissue damage, and regulating the ecological imbalance of intestinal microbiota. Thus, SCP might serve as a potential therapeutic agent against the inflammation-driven diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500215
       
  • Anticancer Effects of Taraxacum via Cell Cycle Arrest, Necrosis,
           Apoptosis, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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      Authors: Chien-Jung Lin, Shu-Ting Liu, Rong-Chi Yang, Li-Hsiang Wang, Chen-Chen Tsai, Teng-Wei Chen, Shih-Ming Huang
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Dandelion (Taraxacum species) is a wild plant with over 2500 species. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, sesquiterpenes, and sugars have been detected in the organs of Taraxacum, and for centuries it has been used in traditional medicine for the relief and treatment of various diseases. However, details of its working mechanism remain unclear. Bioactive compounds in herbal extracts generally have low yields, which makes their isolation and purification intensive in terms of time and cost. Here, to assess their versatility and safety, we applied aqueous extracts of two species of Taraxacum, T. mongolicum and T. formosanum, including extracts of both fresh and dried T. formosanum, to compare their potential antitumor effects on HeLa human cervical cancer cells, three liver cancer cell lines, and one normal liver cell line. After being treated with a lower dose of Taraxacum, the upregulation of subG1 and S populations, as well as increased levels of p-eIF2[math]-to-eIF2[math] ratio, were observed in HeLa cells, whereas the downregulation of S population and the absence of mRNA expressions were detected in HeLa cells when being treated with a higher dose of Taraxacum. These results indicated that Taraxacumcould induce apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress while suppressing proliferation, transcription, colony formation, migration, and invasion. What’s more, we also found that the effects of fresh T. formosanum were much stronger than that of T. mongolicumin HeLa cells. Based on these results, we suggest that T. formosanum may contain specific compound(s) that are potentially useful for cancer therapy. However, much work remains to identify these effective compounds for the future application of Taraxacumto cancer therapy.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500227
       
  • Proapoptotic Effect of Icariin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells via the
           NF-[math]B/PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway: A Network Pharmacology-Directed
           Experimental Investigation

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      Authors: Jingjing Gao, Yanjin Fu, Linliang Song, Mengsha Long, Yiyao Zhang, Jiajia Qin, Haiquan Liu
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Based on network pharmacology tools and public bioinformatics databases, the pharmacodynamic target and key mechanism of icariin (ICA) in the treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) were identified and experimentally verified. Our previous research showed that TNF, MMP9, STAT3, PIK3CA, ERBB2, MTOR, IL2, PTGS2, KDR and F2 are important targets of ICA in the treatment of OC. TNF, as a hub gene in tumor tissues, was associated with poor prognosis. ICA acted on OC mainly through the biological functions of various kinases, and the pathway with the highest accuracy ([math]-value) was PI3K. Meanwhile, we observed a close upstream and downstream relationship between NF-[math]B and the Pl3K-AKT pathway. This study further verified the mechanism of ICA in promoting apoptosis of SKOV3 cells through the NF-[math]B signaling pathway and the tandem relationship between NF-[math]B and the Pl3K-AKT pathway. The assay results demonstrated that ICA can promote the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells as indicated by the proapoptotic markers Bax, Bcl-xl and Caspase-3 and the key factors of the NF-[math]B signaling pathway (NF-[math]Bp65, p-NF-[math]Bp65, p-I[math]B[math] and I[math]B[math]. ICA can block the classical NF-[math]B pathway by inhibiting I[math]B[math] phosphorylation and consequently blocking the activation of the NF-[math]B pathway in SKOV3 cells. ICA can also promote apoptosis by blocking the activation of the NF-[math]B pathway in SKOV3 cells via inhibition of NF-[math]Bp65 nuclear translocation. After using a PI3K pathway inhibitor, we further discovered that ICA may reduce AKT signal transduction by inhibiting the level of Akt phosphorylation, resulting in a loss of PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of the NF-[math]B pathway.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500239
       
  • Osthole Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Hypoxic Colon Cancer Cells via
           EIF2[math] Phosphorylation-mediated Apoptosis and Regulation of
           HIF-1[math]

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      Authors: Kui-Yuan Peng, Tz-Chong Chou
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Hypoxic microenvironment and dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) system are considered important factors that promote cancer progression. Although osthole extracted from Cnidium monnieri(Fructus Cnidii) has been confirmed to exhibit an anticancer activity in various cancers, the effects of osthole in hypoxic colon cancer cells have not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether osthole has an inhibitory effect on hypoxic colon cancer HCT116 cells and further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with osthole significantly attenuated the cell viability, proliferation, and migration in hypoxic HCT116 cells. Osthole also activated UPR signaling such as phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (EIF2[math]/ATF4/CHOP/DR5 cascade accompanied by upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, the tubule-like formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A, and the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1[math] (HIF-1[math] in hypoxic HCT116 cells were markedly suppressed by osthole. However, suppressing EIF2[math] phosphorylation with salubrinal or ISRIB markedly reversed the effects of osthole on the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins and HIF-1[math]. Co-treatment of hypoxic HCT116 cells with osthole greatly increased the sensitivity to cisplatin and the expressions of phospho-EIF2[math] and cleaved caspase 3. Collectively, the inhibitory effect of osthole in hypoxic HCT116 cells may be associated with EIF2[math] phosphorylation-mediated apoptosis and translational repression of HIF-1[math]. Taken together, osthole may be a potential agent in the treatment of colon cancer.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500240
       
  • Chinese Medicine for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A GRADE-Assessed
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Jianbo Guo, Zongshi Qin, Ngai Chung Lau, Tung Leong Fong, Wei Meng, Zhang-Jin Zhang, Yi Luo, Vivian Chi-Woon Taam Wong, Yibin Feng, Haiyong Chen
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 1-31, 2022.
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused enormous public health and socioeconomic burden globally. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine (CM) against COVID-19. Eleven databases were searched on April 30, 2021, and 52 studies were included. The RoB 2.0, ROBINS-I, and GRADE tools were employed to assess the risks and evidence grades. The findings with moderate certainty in GRADE showed that compared with routine treatment (RT), Lianhua Qingwen granules (LHQW) adjunctive to RT showed significantly improved efficacy rate (relative risk (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.09, 1.31]), febrile score (standard mean difference (SMD) = −1.21, 95% CI: [−1.43, −0.99]), and computerized tomography (CT) lung images (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: [1.10, 1.38]); Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD) plus RT significantly shortened the length of hospital stay (SMD = −1.83, 95% CI: [−2.18, −1.48]); Feiyan Yihao formula (FYYH) plus RT significantly improved the clinical efficacy rate (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: [1, 1.15]), febrile time (SMD = −0.02, 95% CI: [−0.23, 0.19]), and time to negative PCR test for COVID-19 (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI: [−0.94, −0.51]). Adjunctive effects of CM with lower certainty of evidence were found, including the improvements of symptoms, laboratory findings, and mortality. No or mild adverse events were observed in most of the studies. In conclusion, the current evidence indicates that CM formulae, particularly LHQW, QFPD, and FYYH, have adjunctive effects on the standard treatment of COVID-19.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-02T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X2250001X
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Effect and Mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction in the Management of
           Pulmonary Fibrosis and COVID-19

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      Authors: Yu Wu, Lili Xu, Gang Cao, Lingtian Min, Tingting Dong
      Pages: 33 - 51
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 33-51, 2022.
      Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD) has been repeatedly recommended for the clinical treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in multiple provinces throughout China. A possible complication of COVID-19 lung involvement is pulmonary fibrosis, which causes chronic breathing difficulties and affects the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, there is an important question regarding whether QFPD can alleviate the process of pulmonary fibrosis and its potential mechanisms. To explore this issue, this study demonstrated the anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity and mode of action of QFPD in vivo and in vitro pulmonary fibrosis models and network pharmacology. The results showed that QFPD effectively ameliorated the bleomycin-induced inflammation and collagen deposition in mice and significantly improved the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In addition, QFPD inhibited bleomycin-induced M2 polarization of macrophages in pulmonary tissues. An in-depth study of the mechanism of QFPD in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis based on network pharmacology and molecular simulation revealed that SRC was the main target of QFPD and sitosterol (a key compound in QFPD). QFPD and sitosterol regulate the EMT process and M2 polarization of macrophages by inhibiting the activation of SRC, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis in mice. COVID-19 infection might produce severe fibrosis, and antifibrotic therapy with QFPD may be valuable in preventing severe neocoronavirus disease in patients with IPF, which could be a key factor explaining the role of QFPD in the treatment of COVID-19.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500021
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • The Pharmacological Rationales and Molecular Mechanisms of Ganoderma
           lucidum Polysaccharides for the Therapeutic Applications of Multiple
           Diseases

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      Authors: Hua Luo, Dechao Tan, Bo Peng, Siyuan Zhang, Chi Teng Vong, Zizhao Yang, Yitao Wang, Zhibin Lin
      Pages: 53 - 90
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 53-90, 2022.
      As a versatile Chinese herb, Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst (G. lucidum) has been applied to treat multiple diseases in clinics and improve the quality of life of patients. Among all of its extracts, the main bioactive components are G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs), which possess many therapeutic effects, such as antitumor, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects and neuroprotection activities. This review briefly summarized the recent studies of the pharmacological rationales of GLPs and their underlying molecular signaling transmission mechanisms in treating diseases. Until now, the clear mechanisms of GLPs for treating diseases have not been reported. In this review, we used the keywords of “Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides” and “tumor” to search in PubMed (years of 1992–2020), then screened and obtained 160 targets of antitumor activities in the literatures. The network pharmacology and mechanism framework were employed in this study as powerful approaches to systematically analyze the complicated potential antitumor mechanisms and targets of GLPs in cancer. We then found that there are 69 targets and 21 network pathways in “Pathways in cancer”. Besides, we summarized the effects of GLPs and the models and methods used in the research of GLPs. In conclusion, GLPs have been studied extensively, but more in-depth research is still needed to determine the exact mechanisms and pathways. Therefore, this review might provide new insights into the vital targets and pathways for researchers to study the pharmacological mechanisms of GLPs for the treatment of diseases.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-28T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500033
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Machine Learning Approaches in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Haiyang Chen, Yu He
      Pages: 91 - 131
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 91-131, 2022.
      Machine learning (ML), as a branch of artificial intelligence, acquires the potential and meaningful rules from the mass of data via diverse algorithms. Owing to all research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) belonging to the digitalization of clinical records or experimental works, a massive and complex amount of data has become an inextricable part of the related studies. It is thus not surprising that ML approaches, as novel and efficient tools to mine the useful knowledge from data, have created inroads in a diversity of scopes of TCM over the past decade of years. However, by browsing lots of literature, we find that not all of the ML approaches perform well in the same field. Upon further consideration, we infer that the specificity may inhere between the ML approaches and their applied fields. This systematic review focuses its attention on the four categories of ML approaches and their eight application scopes in TCM. According to the function, ML approaches are classified into four categories, including classification, regression, clustering, and dimensionality reduction, and into 14 models as follows in more detail: support vector machine, least square-support vector machine, logistic regression, partial least squares regression, k-means clustering, hierarchical cluster analysis, artificial neural network, back propagation neural network, convolutional neural network, decision tree, random forest, principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The eight common applied fields are divided into two parts: one for TCM, such as the diagnosis of diseases, the determination of syndromes, and the analysis of prescription, and the other for the related researches of Chinese herbal medicine, such as the quality control, the identification of geographic origins, the pharmacodynamic material basis, the medicinal properties, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, this paper discusses the function and feature difference among ML approaches when they are applied to the corresponding fields via comparing their principles. The specificity of each approach to its applied fields has also been affirmed, whereby laying a foundation for subsequent studies applying ML approaches to TCM.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-02T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500045
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Shengmai Preparation Combined with Western Medicine
           for Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Yujuan Li, Dan Li, Xiao Jin, Shengjie Yang, Ran Zhao, Min Wu
      Pages: 133 - 159
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 133-159, 2022.
      The efficacy and safety of Shengmai preparation combined with Western medicine (SMP–WM) to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) were reviewed. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials of SMP–WM treatment for CHD were retrieved from seven databases and other trial sources between their inception and April 10, 2021. The risk of bias domains was accessed by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool, and the data were statistically analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0 software. The majority of included studies had a low or unclear risk of overall bias. Total mortality was not reduced (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.13–1.19, [math] = 0.10), but the cardiovascular events (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22–0.54, [math] < 0.01), weekly frequency (SMD = −2.38, 95% CI: −2.89 – −1.88, [math] < 0.01), and duration (SMD = −3.24, 95% CI: −3.76 – −2.71, [math] < 0.01) of angina pectoris attacks were significantly decreased by SMP–WM. The SMP–WM combination exerted antiplatelet activity by reducing platelet adhesion (SMD = −0.97, 95% CI: −1.49 – −0.45, [math] = 0.0003) and the platelet reactivity index (SMD = −1.75, 95% CI: −2.04 – −1.46, [math] < 0.01). SMP–WM could protect endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (SMD = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.54–2.02, [math] < 0.01) and decreasing endothelin (SMD = −1.26, 95% CI: −1.85 – −0.66, [math] < 0.01). The combination also improved hemorheology by reducing whole blood viscosity (SMD = −1.59, 95% CI: −2.32 – −0.85, [math] < 0.01), plasma viscosity (SMD = −0.65, 95% CI: −0.86 – −0.45, [math] < 0.01), and fibrinogen (SMD = −4.21, 95% CI: −4.58 – −3.83, [math] < 0.01). The SMP–WM combination favorably impacts cardiovascular events, angina symptoms, endothelial function, platelet aggregation, and blood viscosity, with comparable safety to that of routine Western medicine. Further investigation is required to enhance the strength of the evidence.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500057
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Effects of Crocin on CCL2/CCR2 Inflammatory Pathway in
           Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Rats

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      Authors: Yanling Sheng, Xiaowei Gong, Jing Zhao, Yan Liu, Yadong Yuan
      Pages: 241 - 259
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 241-259, 2022.
      Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a malignant cardiopulmonary disease, in which pulmonary arterial remodeling is regarded as the prominent pathological feature. So far, the mechanism of PAH is still unclear, so its treatment remains a challenge. However, inflammation plays an important part in the occurrence and progression of PAH. It is well known that crocin has anti-inflammatory properties, so we investigated whether crocin could be a potential drug for the treatment of PAH rat models. Rats injected subcutaneously with monocrotaline (MCT) were treated with crocin via a gastric tube daily for four weeks. The results showed that crocin treatment significantly reduced the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) in the PAH rat models. Moreover, crocin treatment reduced the proliferation of pulmonary arteriole smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). In addition, crocin treatment not only relieved inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen fiber hyperplasia in the lung and right ventricle, but also decreased the expression of the CCL2/CCR2 inflammatory pathway in the lung of PAH rat models. Furthermore, crocin treatment reduced the inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress responses. In summary, crocin may play a protective role in MCT-induced PAH rats by alleviating inflammatory response, improving pulmonary arterial remodeling, and preventing PAH. Therefore, crocin as a new treatment for PAH may be quite worthy of consideration.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-02T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500082
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Curcumin Inhibits T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation in Mice with
           Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis

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      Authors: Hai-Yan Wang, Wei Ge, Su-Qing Liu, Jian Long, Qing-Qing Jiang, Wen Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zuo, Duan-Yong Liu, Hai-Mei Zhao, You-Bao Zhong
      Pages: 275 - 293
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 275-293, 2022.
      Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) regulate the differentiation of germinal center B cells and maintain humoral immunity. Notably, imbalances in Tfh differentiation often lead to the development of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Curcumin, a natural product derived from Curcuma longa, is effective in relieving IBD in humans and animals, and its mechanisms of immune regulation need further elaboration. In this study, dextran sodium sulfate induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c mice, and curcumin was administered simultaneously for 7 days. Curcumin effectively upregulated the change rate of mouse weight, colonic length, down-regulated colonic weight, index of colonic weight, colonic damage score and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TGF-[math]1 in colonic tissues of colitis mice. Importantly, curcumin regulated the differentiation balance of Tfh and their subpopulation in colitis mice; the percentages of Tfh (CD4[math]CXCR5[math]BCL-6[math], CD4[math]CXCR5[math]PD-1[math], CD4[math]CXCR5[math]PD-L1[math], CD4[math]CXCR5[math]ICOS[math], Tfh17 and Tem-Tfh were downregulated significantly, while CD4[math]CXCR5[math]Blimp-1[math], Tfh1, Tfh10, Tfh21, Tfr, Tcm-Tfh and Tem-GC Tfh were upregulated. In addition, curcumin inhibited the expression of Tfh-related transcription factors BCL-6, p-STAT3, Foxp1, Roquin-1, Roquin-2 and SAP, and significantly upregulated the protein levels of Blimp-1 and STAT3 in colon tissue. In conclusion, curcumin may be effective in alleviating dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by regulating Tfh differentiation.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500100
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • Falcarindiol Stimulates Apoptotic and Autophagic Cell Death to Attenuate
           Cell Proliferation, Cell Division, and Metastasis through the
           PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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      Authors: Kyung-Ran Park, Hyun Hee Leem, Yoon-Ju Kwon, Il Keun Kwon, Jin Tae Hong, Hyung-Mun Yun
      Pages: 295 - 311
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 295-311, 2022.
      Human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) have high cancer mortality and a 5-year survival rate lower than that of most other carcinomas. New therapeutic strategies are required for the treatment and prevention against OSCCs. An approach to cancer therapy using plant-derived natural compounds has been actively in progress as a trend. Falcarindiol (FALC), or its isolated form Ostericum koreanum Kitagawa (O. koreanum), is present in many food and dietary plants, especially in carrots, and this compound has a variety of beneficial effects. However, biological activity of FALC has not been reported in OSCCs yet. This study aimed to demonstrate the antitumor effects of FALC against OSCCs, YD-10B cells. In this study, FALC was selected as a result of screening for compounds isolated from various natural products in YD-10B cells. FALC suppressed cell growth, and FALC-induced apoptotic cell death was mainly accompanied by the dephosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K. The apoptotic cell death was also associated with autophagy as evidenced by the expression of Beclin-1, the conversion of LC3-II, and the formation of autophagosome. FALC-induced autophagy was accompanied by MAPKs including ERK1/2 and p38. Furthermore, FALC caused the antimetastatic effects by inhibiting the migration and invasion of YD-10B cells. Taken together, the findings suggest the potential value of FALC as a novel candidate for therapeutic strategy against OSCCs.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500112
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
  • 18[math]-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Inhibits TGF-[math]-Induced
           Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis of Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma by Targeting STAT3

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      Authors: Mo Jie, Zhao-Qi Zhang, Ning Deng, Qiu-Meng Liu, Chao Wang, Qian-Yun Ge, Peng-Chen Du, Sha-Sha Song, Xue-Wu Zhang, Long-Xin, Hui-Fang Liang, Liang Chu, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen, Jin Chen, Han-Hua Dong, Bi-Xiang Zhang
      Pages: 313 - 332
      Abstract: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 01, Page 313-332, 2022.
      18[math]-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma. We previously demonstrated that GA inhibited tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the effect of GA on transforming growth factor-[math] (TGF-[math]-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis were still unclear. In this study, in vitro transwell assays and immunofluorescence (IF) demonstrated that GA inhibited TGF-[math]-induced migration, invasion and EMT of HCC cells. However, it had little effect on the inhibition of proliferation by TGF-[math]. Moreover, we confirmed that GA suppressed the metastasis of HCC cells in vivousing an ectopic lung metastasis model. Furthermore, we found that GA inhibited TGF-[math]-induced EMT mainly by reducing the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which played an essential role in TGF-[math]-induced EMT and cell mobility. Mechanistically, GA inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 by increasing the expression of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2). Therefore, we concluded that GA inhibited TGF-[math]-induced EMT and metastasis via the SHP1&SHP2/STAT3/Snail pathway. Our data provide an attractive therapeutic target for future multimodal management of HCC.
      Citation: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-12-28T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X22500124
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 01 (2021)
       
 
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